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Perth
Perth
(/ˈpɜːrθ/ ( listen)) is the capital and largest city of the Australian state of Western Australia. It is the fourth-most populous city in Australia, with a population of 2,022,044 living in Greater Perth.[1] Perth
Perth
is part of the South West Land Division of Western Australia, with the majority of the metropolitan area located on the Swan Coastal Plain, a narrow strip between the Indian Ocean and the Darling Scarp. The first areas settled were on the Swan River at Guildford, with the city's central business district and port (Fremantle) both later founded downriver. Perth
Perth
was founded by Captain James Stirling in 1829 as the administrative centre of the Swan River Colony. It gained city status (currently vested in the smaller City of Perth) in 1856, and was promoted to the status of a Lord Mayorality in 1929.[8] The city is named after Perth, Scotland, due to the influence of Sir George Murray, then Member of Parliament for Perthshire and Secretary of State for War and the Colonies. The city's population increased substantially as a result of the Western Australian gold rushes
Western Australian gold rushes
in the late 19th century. During Australia's involvement in World War II, Fremantle
Fremantle
served as a base for submarines operating in the Pacific Theatre, and a US Navy Catalina flying boat fleet was based at Matilda Bay.[9] An influx of immigrants after the war, predominantly from Britain, Greece, Italy
Italy
and Yugoslavia, led to rapid population growth. This was followed by a surge in economic activity flowing from several mining booms in the late 20th and early 21st centuries that saw Perth become the regional headquarters for a number of large mining operations located around the state. As part of Perth's role as the capital of Western Australia, the state's Parliament and Supreme Court are located within the city, as is Government House, the residence of the Governor of Western Australia. Perth
Perth
came seventh in the Economist Intelligence Unit's August 2016 list of the world's most liveable cities,[10] and was classified by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network
Globalization and World Cities Research Network
in 2010 as a Beta world city.[11] Perth
Perth
is divided into 30 local government areas and 250 suburbs, stretching from Two Rocks in the north to Singleton in the south, and east inland to The Lakes. Outside of the main CBD, important urban centres within Perth
Perth
include Fremantle
Fremantle
and Joondalup. Most of those were originally established as separate settlements and retained a distinct identity after being subsumed into the wider metropolitan area. Mandurah, Western Australia's second-largest city, has in recent years formed a conurbation with Perth
Perth
along the coast, though for most purposes it is still considered a separate city.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Early European sightings 1.2 Swan River Colony
Swan River Colony
early years (1830-1850) 1.3 Later 19th century 1.4 Federation and beyond

2 Geography

2.1 Central business district 2.2 Geology and landforms 2.3 Climate 2.4 Isolation

3 Demographics

3.1 Ethnic groups 3.2 Religion

4 Governance 5 Economy 6 Education

6.1 Primary and secondary 6.2 Tertiary

7 Media 8 Culture

8.1 Arts and entertainment

8.1.1 Annual events 8.1.2 Artistic mediums 8.1.3 Famous people

8.2 Tourism and recreation 8.3 Sport

9 Infrastructure

9.1 Health 9.2 Transport 9.3 Utilities

9.3.1 Energy 9.3.2 Water

10 See also 11 References 12 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of Perth, Western Australia

The area of Perth
Perth
contains the Whadjuk
Whadjuk
people, who are one of several groups in south-western Western Australia
Western Australia
which make up the Noongar people.

Indigenous Australians
Indigenous Australians
have inhabited the Perth
Perth
area for at least 38,000 years, as evidenced by archaeological remains at Upper Swan. The Noongar
Noongar
people occupied the southwest corner of Western Australia and lived as hunter-gatherers. The wetlands on the Swan Coastal Plain were particularly important to them, both spiritually (featuring in local mythology) and as a source of food.[12] The Noongar
Noongar
people know the area where Perth
Perth
now stands as Boorloo. Boorloo formed part of the territory of the Mooro, a Noongar
Noongar
clan, which at the time of British settlement had Yellagonga as their leader. The Mooro was one of several Noongar
Noongar
Indigenous clans based around the Swan River known collectively as the Whadjuk. The Whadjuk themselves were one of a larger group of fourteen tribes that formed the south-west socio-linguistic block known as the Noongar
Noongar
(meaning "the people" in their language), also sometimes called the Bibbulmun.[13] On 19 September 2006, the Federal Court of Australia brought down a judgment recognising Noongar
Noongar
native title over the Perth metropolitan area
Perth metropolitan area
in the case of Bennell v State of Western Australia
Australia
[2006] FCA 1243.[14] The judgment was overturned on appeal.[15] Early European sightings[edit] The first documented sighting of the region was made by the Dutch Captain Willem de Vlamingh
Willem de Vlamingh
and his crew on 10 January 1697.[16] Subsequent sightings between this date and 1829 were made by other Europeans, but as in the case of the sighting and observations made by Vlamingh, the area was considered to be inhospitable and unsuitable for the agriculture that would be needed to sustain a settlement.[17] Swan River Colony
Swan River Colony
early years (1830-1850)[edit] Main article: Swan River Colony

The Foundation of Perth 1829
The Foundation of Perth 1829
by George Pitt Morison
George Pitt Morison
is a historically accurate reconstruction of the official ceremony by which Perth
Perth
was founded.

Although the Colony of New South Wales
Colony of New South Wales
had established a convict-supported settlement at King George's Sound
King George's Sound
(later Albany) on the south coast of Western Australia
Western Australia
in 1826 in response to rumours that the area would be annexed by France, Perth
Perth
was the first full-scale settlement by Europeans in the western third of the continent. The British colony would be officially designated Western Australia
Australia
in 1832 but was known informally for many years as the Swan River Colony after the area's major watercourse.[18] On 4 June 1829, newly arriving British colonists had their first view of the mainland, and Western Australia's founding has since been recognised by a public holiday on the first Monday in June each year. Captain James Stirling, aboard Parmelia, said that Perth
Perth
was "as beautiful as anything of this kind I had ever witnessed". On 12 August that year, Helen Dance, wife of the captain of the second ship, Sulphur, cut down a tree to mark the founding of the town. It is clear that Stirling had already selected the name Perth
Perth
for the capital well before the town was proclaimed, as his proclamation of the colony, read in Fremantle
Fremantle
on 18 June 1829, ended "given under my hand and Seal at Perth
Perth
this 18th Day of June 1829. James Stirling Lieutenant Governor".[19] The only contemporary information on the source of the name comes from Fremantle's diary entry for 12 August, which records that they "named the town Perth
Perth
according to the wishes of Sir George Murray".[20] Murray was born in Perth, Scotland, and was in 1829 Secretary of State for the Colonies
Secretary of State for the Colonies
and Member for Perthshire in the British House of Commons. The town was named after the Scottish Perth,[21] in Murray's honour.[22][23][24] Beginning in 1831, hostile encounters between the British settlers and the Noongar people – both large-scale land users, with conflicting land value systems – increased considerably as the colony grew. The hostile encounters between the two groups of people resulted in a number of events, including the execution of the Whadjuk
Whadjuk
elder Midgegooroo, the death of his son Yagan
Yagan
in 1833, and the Pinjarra massacre in 1834. The racial relations between the Noongar
Noongar
people and the Europeans were strained due to these happenings. Because of the large amount of building in and around Boorloo, the local Whadjuk Noongar
Noongar
people were slowly dispossessed of their country. They were forced to camp around prescribed areas, including the swamps and lakes north of the settlement area including Third Swamp, known to them as Boodjamooling. Boodjamooling continued to be a main campsite for the remaining Noongar
Noongar
people in the Perth
Perth
region and was also used by travellers, itinerants, and homeless people. By the gold-rush days of the 1890s, they were joined by miners who were en route to the goldfields.[25] Later 19th century[edit]

Western Australian population growth between 1880 and 1897.[26]

In 1850, Western Australia
Western Australia
was opened to convicts at the request of farming and business people looking for cheap labour.[27] Queen Victoria announced the city status of Perth
Perth
in 1856.[28] Despite this proclamation, Perth
Perth
was still a quiet town, described in 1870 by a Melbourne
Melbourne
journalist as:

"...a quiet little town of some 3000 inhabitants spread out in straggling allotments down to the water's edge, intermingled with gardens and shrubberies and half rural in its aspect ... The main streets are macadamised, but the outlying ones and most of the footpaths retain their native state from the loose sand — the all pervading element of Western Australia — productive of intense glare or much dust in the summer and dissolving into slush during the rainy season."[29]

With the discovery of gold at Kalgoorlie
Kalgoorlie
and Coolgardie, by 1893 all of Western Australia
Western Australia
was in a mining boom,[30] and experienced massive population growth, tripling in one decade from 8,447 in 1891 to 27,553 in 1901.[31] Federation and beyond[edit]

Perth
Perth
looking across the Perth train station
Perth train station
c. 1955

After a referendum in 1900,[32] Western Australia
Western Australia
joined the Federation of Australia
Australia
in 1901.[28] It was the last of the Australian colonies to agree to join the Federation, and did so only after the other colonies had offered several concessions, including the construction of a transcontinental railway line from Port Augusta in South Australia
Australia
to Kalgoorlie
Kalgoorlie
to link Perth
Perth
with the eastern states.[33]

A meeting of the Dominion League in support of the secession of Western Australia
Western Australia
in 1933

In 1933, Western Australia
Western Australia
voted in a referendum to leave the Australian Federation, with a majority of two to one in favour of secession. However, the state general election held at the same time as the referendum had voted out the incumbent "pro-independence" government, replacing it with a government that did not support the independence movement. Respecting the result of the referendum, the new government nonetheless petitioned the Imperial Parliament at Westminster. The House of Commons established a select committee to consider the issue but after 18 months of negotiations and lobbying, finally refused to consider the matter, declaring that it could not legally grant secession.[32][34] In 1962, Perth
Perth
received global media attention when city residents lit their house lights and streetlights as American astronaut John Glenn passed overhead while orbiting the earth on Friendship 7. This led to it being nicknamed the "City of Light".[35][36] The city repeated the act as Glenn passed overhead on the Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
in 1998.[37][38] Perth's development and relative prosperity, especially since the mid-1960s,[39] has resulted from its role as the main service centre for the state's resource industries, which extract gold, iron ore, nickel, alumina, diamonds, mineral sands, coal, oil, and natural gas.[40] Whilst most mineral and petroleum production takes place elsewhere in the state, the non-base services provide most of the employment and income to the people of Perth.[41] Geography[edit] Central business district[edit] Main article: Perth
Perth
(suburb) The central business district of Perth
Perth
is bounded by the Swan River to the south and east, with Kings Park on the western end, while the railway reserve formed a northern border. A state and federally funded project named Perth City Link
Perth City Link
sunk a section of the railway line, to link Northbridge and the CBD for the first time in 100 years. The Perth Arena
Perth Arena
is a building in the city link area that has received a number of architecture awards from various institutions such as the Design Institute of Australia, the Australian Institute of Architecture, and Colorbond.[42] St Georges Terrace
St Georges Terrace
is the prominent street of the area with 1.3 million m2 of office space in the CBD.[43] Hay Street and Murray Street have most of the retail and entertainment facilities. The tallest building in the city is Central Park, which is the eighth tallest building in Australia.[44] The CBD until 2012 was the centre of a mining-induced boom, with several commercial and residential projects being built, including Brookfield Place, a 244 m (801 ft) office building for Anglo-Australian mining company BHP
BHP
Billiton.[45]

Perth
Perth
skyline from Kings Park, 2012

Geology and landforms[edit] See also: List of islands of Perth, Western Australia Perth
Perth
is set on the Swan River, named for the native black swans by Willem de Vlamingh, captain of a Dutch expedition and namer of WA's Rottnest Island
Rottnest Island
who discovered the birds while exploring the area in 1697.[46] Traditionally, this water body had been known by Aboriginal inhabitants as Derbarl Yerrigan.[47] The city centre and most of the suburbs are located on the sandy and relatively flat Swan Coastal Plain, which lies between the Darling Scarp
Darling Scarp
and the Indian Ocean. The soils of this area are quite infertile. The metropolitan area extends along the coast to Two Rocks in the north and Singleton to the south,[48] a total distance of approximately 125 kilometres (78 mi).[49] From the coast in the west to Mundaring in the east is a total distance of approximately 50 km (31 mi). The Perth metropolitan area
Perth metropolitan area
covers 6,418 km2 (2,478 sq mi).[2]

Satellite image of Perth

Much of Perth
Perth
was built on the Perth
Perth
Wetlands, a series of freshwater wetlands running from Herdsman Lake
Herdsman Lake
in the west through to Claisebrook Cove in the east.[50] To the east, the city is bordered by a low escarpment called the Darling Scarp. Perth
Perth
is on generally flat, rolling land – largely due to the high amount of sandy soils and deep bedrock. The Perth metropolitan area
Perth metropolitan area
has two major river systems: the first is made up of the Swan and Canning Rivers; the second is that of the Serpentine and Murray Rivers, which discharge into the Peel Inlet
Peel Inlet
at Mandurah. Climate[edit]

Cottesloe Beach

Perth
Perth
receives moderate though highly seasonal, winter based rainfall. Summers are generally hot and dry, lasting from December to March, with February generally being the hottest month of the year. Winters are mild and wet, making Perth
Perth
a classic example of a hot-summer Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
( Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
Csa).[51][52] Perth
Perth
has an average of 8.8 hours of sunshine per day, which equates to around 3200 hours of annual sunshine, and 138.7 clear days annually, making it the sunniest capital city in Australia.[53]

Kangaroo Paw at Kings Park

Summers are dry but not completely devoid of rain, with sporadic rainfall in the form of short-lived thunderstorms, cold fronts and on occasions decaying tropical cyclones from Western Australia's north-west, which can bring heavy rain. Winters see significant rainfall as frontal systems move across the region, interspersed with clear and sunny days. The highest temperature recorded in Perth
Perth
was 46.2 °C (115.2 °F) on 23 February 1991, although Perth Airport recorded 46.7 °C (116.1 °F) on the same day.[53][54] On most summer afternoons a sea breeze, known locally as the " Fremantle
Fremantle
Doctor", blows from the southwest, providing relief from the hot north-easterly winds. Temperatures often fall below 30 °C (86 °F) a few hours after the arrival of the wind change.[55] In the summer, the 3 pm dewpoint averages at around 12 °C (54 °F).[53] Winters are wet but mild, with most of Perth's annual rainfall being between May and September. The lowest temperature recorded in Perth was −0.7 °C (30.7 °F) on 17 June 2006.[54] The lowest temperature within the Perth metropolitan area
Perth metropolitan area
was −3.4 °C (25.9 °F) on the same day at Jandakot Airport. However, temperatures at or below zero are very rare occurrences and it seldom gets cold enough for frost to form.[56] The rainfall pattern has changed in Perth
Perth
and southwest Western Australia
Australia
since the mid-1970s. A significant reduction in winter rainfall has been observed with a greater number of extreme rainfall events in the summer months,[57] such as the slow-moving storms on 8 February 1992 that brought 120.6 millimetres (4.75 in) of rain,[54][55] heavy rainfall associated with a tropical low on 10 February 2017, which brought 114.4 millimetres (4.50 in) of rain,[58] and the remnants of ex-Tropical Cyclone Joyce on 15 January 2018 with 96.2 millimetres (3.79 in).[59] Perth
Perth
was also impacted by a severe thunderstorm on 22 March 2010, which brought 40.2 mm (1.58 in) of rain and large hail and caused significant damage in the metropolitan area.[60] The average temperature of the sea ranges from 18.9 °C (66.0 °F) in October to 23.4 °C (74.1 °F) in March.[61]

Climate data for Perth, Western Australia

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 45.8 (114.4) 46.2 (115.2) 42.4 (108.3) 37.6 (99.7) 34.3 (93.7) 28.1 (82.6) 26.3 (79.3) 27.8 (82) 34.2 (93.6) 37.3 (99.1) 40.3 (104.5) 44.2 (111.6) 46.2 (115.2)

Average high °C (°F) 32.3 (90.1) 32.1 (89.8) 30.1 (86.2) 26.1 (79) 22.4 (72.3) 19.5 (67.1) 18.4 (65.1) 19.3 (66.7) 20.4 (68.7) 23.6 (74.5) 27.4 (81.3) 30 (86) 25.13 (77.23)

Average low °C (°F) 17.9 (64.2) 18 (64) 16.2 (61.2) 13.2 (55.8) 10.6 (51.1) 8.5 (47.3) 7.7 (45.9) 8 (46) 9.1 (48.4) 10.9 (51.6) 13.8 (56.8) 15.6 (60.1) 12.46 (54.37)

Record low °C (°F) 8.9 (48) 8.7 (47.7) 6.3 (43.3) 4.1 (39.4) 1.3 (34.3) −0.7 (30.7) 0.0 (32) 1.3 (34.3) 1.0 (33.8) 2.2 (36) 5.0 (41) 7.9 (46.2) −0.7 (30.7)

Average rainfall mm (inches) — 13.6 (0.535) 20.4 (0.803) 36.3 (1.429) 90.3 (3.555) 124.4 (4.898) 145.6 (5.732) 123.6 (4.866) 86.8 (3.417) 38.7 (1.524) 22.5 (0.886) 11.3 (0.445) 732.8 (28.85)

Average precipitation days 2.8 2.2 4.6 6.8 11.5 14.3 17.2 15.9 14.9 9.1 5.7 3.6 108.6

Average afternoon relative humidity (%) (at 1500) 39 38 39 46 50 56 57 54 53 46 44 41 46.9

Mean daily sunshine hours 11.5 11.0 9.6 8.3 6.9 5.9 6.1 7.2 7.7 9.6 10.6 11.5 8.8

Source: Bureau of Meteorology[62][63][64] Temperatures: 1993–2017; Extremes: 1897–2015; Rain data: 1993–2017

Climate data for Fremantle

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 42.4 (108.3) 41 (106) 39.4 (102.9) 35.8 (96.4) 28.3 (82.9) 26.3 (79.3) 25.5 (77.9) 26 (79) 26.8 (80.2) 36.3 (97.3) 39 (102) 40 (104) 42.4 (108.3)

Average high °C (°F) 27.3 (81.1) 27.9 (82.2) 26.4 (79.5) 23.6 (74.5) 20.3 (68.5) 18.1 (64.6) 17.1 (62.8) 17.3 (63.1) 18.5 (65.3) 20.1 (68.2) 23 (73) 25.4 (77.7) 22.1 (71.8)

Average low °C (°F) 17.8 (64) 18.1 (64.6) 17 (63) 14.9 (58.8) 12.7 (54.9) 11.1 (52) 10 (50) 10.2 (50.4) 11 (52) 12.3 (54.1) 14.5 (58.1) 16.5 (61.7) 13.8 (56.8)

Record low °C (°F) 11.7 (53.1) 10.2 (50.4) 7.4 (45.3) 5.1 (41.2) 5.1 (41.2) 4 (39) 3 (37) 3.1 (37.6) 2.2 (36) 5.1 (41.2) 6.7 (44.1) 9.4 (48.9) 2.2 (36)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 6.3 (0.248) 11.3 (0.445) 16.3 (0.642) 41.3 (1.626) 112.8 (4.441) 165.5 (6.516) 156.2 (6.15) 117.7 (4.634) 69.2 (2.724) 42.2 (1.661) 18.2 (0.717) 11.4 (0.449) 764.6 (30.102)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) 2.6 2.6 4.2 7.8 14.1 17.8 19.3 17.4 14.4 10.9 6.8 3.9 121.8

Average relative humidity (%) (at 1500) 57 55 57 59 62 64 66 63 62 62 59 60 61

Source: Bureau of Meteorology
Bureau of Meteorology
[65]

Climate data for Kalamunda

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 30.4 (86.7) 30.3 (86.5) 27.7 (81.9) 23.8 (74.8) 19.0 (66.2) 16.4 (61.5) 15.4 (59.7) 16.3 (61.3) 18.3 (64.9) 20.6 (69.1) 24.5 (76.1) 28.0 (82.4) 22.6 (72.7)

Average low °C (°F) 16.2 (61.2) 16.3 (61.3) 15.3 (59.5) 13.4 (56.1) 10.8 (51.4) 9.1 (48.4) 8.0 (46.4) 8.1 (46.6) 9.2 (48.6) 10.1 (50.2) 12.5 (54.5) 14.6 (58.3) 12.0 (53.6)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 11.9 (0.469) 17.6 (0.693) 22.7 (0.894) 55.7 (2.193) 144.3 (5.681) 216.2 (8.512) 213.8 (8.417) 165.9 (6.531) 102.1 (4.02) 70.5 (2.776) 28.6 (1.126) 19.6 (0.772) 1,065.9 (41.965)

Source: Bureau of Meteorology[66]

Climate data for Jandakot Airport

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 45.7 (114.3) 46.6 (115.9) 43.0 (109.4) 37.0 (98.6) 33.4 (92.1) 25.4 (77.7) 25.9 (78.6) 27.0 (80.6) 34.2 (93.6) 37.4 (99.3) 40.0 (104) 44.0 (111.2) 46.6 (115.9)

Average high °C (°F) 31.4 (88.5) 31.7 (89.1) 29.7 (85.5) 25.8 (78.4) 22.0 (71.6) 19.0 (66.2) 17.9 (64.2) 18.7 (65.7) 22.0 (71.6) 22.8 (73) 26.2 (79.2) 29.1 (84.4) 24.5 (76.1)

Average low °C (°F) 16.8 (62.2) 17.1 (62.8) 15.4 (59.7) 12.4 (54.3) 9.4 (48.9) 7.4 (45.3) 6.77 (44.19) 7.1 (44.8) 8.3 (46.9) 9.6 (49.3) 12.6 (54.7) 14.6 (58.3) 11.5 (52.7)

Record low °C (°F) 4.7 (40.5) 6.5 (43.7) 1.6 (34.9) 2.3 (36.1) −0.6 (30.9) −3.4 (25.9) −2.8 (27) −1.4 (29.5) −1.3 (29.7) −1.0 (30.2) 0.8 (33.4) 3.2 (37.8) −3.4 (25.9)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 18.7 (0.736) 13.6 (0.535) 20.4 (0.803) 36.3 (1.429) 90.3 (3.555) 124.4 (4.898) 145.6 (5.732) 123.6 (4.866) 86.8 (3.417) 38.7 (1.524) 22.5 (0.886) 11.3 (0.445) 72i.8 (28.826)

Source: Bureau of Meteorology[56]

Climate data for Perth

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average sea temperature °C (°F) 21.0 (69.8) 21.6 (70.9) 21.8 (71.2) 21.3 (70.3) 21.1 (70.0) 20.3 (68.5) 20.1 (68.2) 19.2 (66.6) 18.7 (65.7) 19.1 (66.4) 20.3 (68.5) 20.1 (68.2) 20.4 (68.7)

Mean daily daylight hours 14.0 13.0 12.0 11.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 14.0 12.0

Average ultraviolet index 11+ 11 9 6 4 3 3 4 6 8 10 11+ 7.2

Source #1: METOC (sea temperature),[67] ARPANSA (UV index)[68]

Source #2: Bureau of Meteorology
Bureau of Meteorology
(daylight hours)[69]

Isolation[edit] Perth
Perth
is one of the most isolated major cities in the world. The nearest city with a population of more than 100,000 is Adelaide, 2,130 km (1,324 mi) away. Only Honolulu
Honolulu
(population 374,660), 3,841 km (2,387 mi) from San Francisco, is more isolated. Perth
Perth
is geographically closer to both Dili, East Timor (2,785 km (1,731 mi)), and Jakarta, Indonesia
Indonesia
(3,002 km (1,865 mi)), than to Sydney
Sydney
(3,291 km (2,045 mi)), Brisbane
Brisbane
(3,604 km (2,239 mi)), or Canberra
Canberra
(3,106 km (1,930 mi)). Demographics[edit]

Historical populations

Perth
Perth
Statistical Division

Year Pop. ±%

1854 4,001 —    

1859 6,293 +57.3%

1870 8,220 +30.6%

1881 9,955 +21.1%

1891 16,694 +67.7%

1901 67,431 +303.9%

1911 116,181 +72.3%

1921 170,213 +46.5%

1933 230,340 +35.3%

1947 302,968 +31.5%

1954 395,049 +30.4%

1961 475,398 +20.3%

1966 559,298 +17.6%

1971 703,199 +25.7%

Source: ABS

Greater Perth Statistical Area

Year Pop. ±%

1971 744,600 —    

1976 845,700 +13.6%

1981 941,479 +11.3%

1986 1,075,959 +14.3%

1991 1,226,115 +14.0%

1996 1,344,378 +9.6%

2001 1,452,058 +8.0%

2006 1,590,007 +9.5%

2008 1,687,815 +6.2%

2010 1,785,076 +5.8%

Source: ABS[70] Note: Greater Perth includes the City of Mandurah
Mandurah
and part of the Shire of Murray, south of Perth.[48][71]

Perth
Perth
is Australia's fourth-most-populous city, having overtaken Adelaide's population in 1984.[72] In June 2016 there were an estimated 2,022,044[1] residents in the Greater Perth area, representing a population increase of approximately 1.0% from the 2015 estimated population of 2,002,114.[73][74] Ethnic groups[edit]

Overseas-born populations[75]

Country of birth Population (2006)

United Kingdom 168,483

New Zealand 33,751

Malaysia 28,939

Italy 18,701

South Africa 18,683

India 14,007

Singapore 11,199

Vietnam 10,081

Ireland 7,706

China 7,681

Germany 7,617

Netherlands 7,570

Indonesia 7,392

United States 5,524

One dot represents 100 persons born in: United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(dark blue), China
China
(red), Italy
Italy
(light green), Malaysia
Malaysia
(dark green), South Africa
South Africa
(brown), Singapore
Singapore
(purple) and Vietnam
Vietnam
(yellow), based on 2006 Census.

In 2006, the largest ancestry groups in the Perth
Perth
metropolitan areas were: English (534,555 or 28.6%), Australian (479,174 or 25.6%), Irish (115,384 or 6.2%), Scottish (113,846 or 6.1%), Italian (84,331 or 4.5%) and Chinese (53,390 or 2.9%). There were 26,486 Indigenous Australians in the city.[76] Perth's population is notable for the high proportion of British and Irish born residents. At the 2006 Census, 142,424 England-born Perth residents were counted,[77] narrowly behind Sydney
Sydney
(145,261),[78] despite the fact that Perth
Perth
had just 35% of the overall population of Sydney.

Russell Square, Northbridge - the favoured meeting place of the Italian community of "Little Italy"

The ethnic make-up of Perth
Perth
changed in the second part of the 20th century when significant numbers of continental European immigrants arrived in the city. Prior to this, Perth's population had been almost completely Anglo-Celtic in ethnic origin. As Fremantle
Fremantle
was the first landfall in Australia
Australia
for many migrant ships coming from Europe in the 1950s and 1960s, Perth
Perth
started to experience a diverse influx of people, including Italians, Greeks, Dutch, Germans, Croats. The Italian influence in the Perth
Perth
and Fremantle
Fremantle
area has been substantial, evident in places like the "Cappuccino strip" in Fremantle
Fremantle
featuring many Italian eateries and shops. In Fremantle, the traditional Italian blessing of the fleet festival is held every year at the start of the fishing season. In Northbridge every December is the San Nicola (Saint Nicholas) Festival, which involves a pageant followed by a concert, predominantly in Italian. Suburbs surrounding the Fremantle
Fremantle
area, such as Spearwood and Hamilton Hill, also contain high concentrations of Italians, Croatians and Portuguese. Perth
Perth
also has a small Jewish
Jewish
community – numbering 5,082 in 2006[75] – who have emigrated primarily from Eastern Europe and more recently from South Africa.

Chinatown entry on Roe Street

Another more recent wave of arrivals includes white minorities from Southern Africa. South African residents overtook those born in Italy as the fourth largest foreign group in 2001. By 2006, there were 18,825 South Africans residing in Perth, accounting for 1.3% of the city's population.[77] Many Afrikaners
Afrikaners
and Anglo-Africans emigrated to Perth
Perth
during the 1980s and 1990s, with the phrase "packing for Perth" becoming associated with South Africans who choose to emigrate abroad, sometimes regardless of the destination.[79] As a result, the city has been described as "the Australian capital of South Africans in exile".[80] The reason for Perth
Perth
being so popular among white South Africans has often been the location, the vast amount of land, and the slightly warmer climate compared to other large Australian cities – Perth
Perth
has a Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
reminiscent of Cape Town. Since the late 1970s, Southeast Asia has become an increasingly important source of migrants, with communities from Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Singapore, Hong Kong, Mainland China, and India all now well-established. There were 53,390 persons of Chinese descent in Perth
Perth
in 2006 – 2.9% of the city's population.[81] These are supported by the Australian Eurasian Association of Western Australia,[82] which also serves a community of Portuguese-Malacca Eurasian or Kristang immigrants.[83] The Indian community includes a substantial number of Parsees who emigrated from Bombay – Perth
Perth
being the closest Australian city to India – and the India-born population of the city at the time of the 2006 census was 14,094 or 0.8%.[81] Perth
Perth
is also home to the largest population of Anglo-Burmese
Anglo-Burmese
in the world; many settled here following the independence of Burma in 1948 with immigration taking off after 1962. The city is now the cultural hub for Anglo-Burmese
Anglo-Burmese
worldwide.[84] There is also a substantial Anglo-Indian population in Perth, who also settled in the city following the independence of India. Religion[edit]

St Mary's Cathedral, Perth

Protestants, predominantly Anglican, make up approximately 28% of the population.[85][86] Perth
Perth
is the seat of the Anglican
Anglican
Diocese of Perth[87] and of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Perth.[88] Roman Catholics make up about 23% of the population,[85] and Catholicism is the most common single denomination.[85] Perth
Perth
is also the home of the seat of the Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of the Southern Cross
Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of the Southern Cross
as the Church of St Ninian and St Chad in Perth
Perth
was named the principal church of the ordinariate.[89]

Perth
Perth
Mosque

Perth
Perth
is also home to 12,000 Latter-day Saints[90] and the Perth Australia
Australia
Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Buddhism
Buddhism
and Islam
Islam
each claim more than 20,000 adherents.[85] Perth has the third largest Jewish
Jewish
population in Australia,[91] numbering approximately 20,000,[85] with both Orthodox and Progressive synagogues and a Jewish
Jewish
Day School.[92] The Bahá'í
Bahá'í
community in Perth
Perth
numbers around 1,500.[85] Hinduism
Hinduism
has over 20,000 adherents in Perth;[85] the Diwali
Diwali
(festival of lights) celebration in 2009 attracted over 20,000 visitors. There are Hindu temples in Canning Vale, Anketell
Anketell
and a Swaminarayan temple north of the Swan River.[93] Hinduism
Hinduism
is the fastest growing religion in Australia.[94] Approximately one in five people from Perth
Perth
profess to have no religion, with 11% of people not specific as to their beliefs.[95] One hundred years ago this figure was one in 250 (0.4%).[95] Internationally this is not an isolated occurrence as other countries such as New Zealand
New Zealand
and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
are reporting similar increases.[95] Governance[edit]

Parliament House

Government House, Western Australia

Supreme Court of Western Australia

Perth
Perth
houses the Parliament of Western Australia
Western Australia
and the Governor of Western Australia. As of the 2008 state election[update], 42 of the Legislative Assembly's 59 seats and 18 of the Legislative Council's 36 seats are based in Perth's metropolitan area. Perth
Perth
is represented by 9 full seats and significant parts of three others in the Federal House of Representatives, with the seats of Canning, Pearce and Brand including some areas outside the metropolitan area. The metropolitan area is divided into over 30 local government bodies, including the City of Perth
City of Perth
which administers Perth's central business district. The state's highest court, the Supreme Court, is located in Perth,[96] along with the District[97] and Family[98] Courts. The Magistrates' Court has six metropolitan locations.[99] The Federal Court of Australia
Australia
and the Federal Circuit Court of Australia
Australia
(previously the Federal Magistrates Court)[100][101] occupy the Commonwealth Law Courts building on Victoria Avenue,[102] which is also the location for annual Perth
Perth
sittings of Australia's High Court.[103] The administrative region of Perth
Perth
includes 30 local governments, with the outer extent being the City of Wanneroo
City of Wanneroo
and the City of Swan
City of Swan
to the north, the Shire of Mundaring, City of Kalamunda
Kalamunda
and the City of Armadale to the east, the Shire of Serpentine-Jarrahdale
Shire of Serpentine-Jarrahdale
to the southeast and the City of Rockingham
City of Rockingham
to the southwest, and including the islands of Rottnest Island
Rottnest Island
and Garden Island off the west coast;[104] this also correlates with the Metropolitan Region Scheme. Perth
Perth
can also be defined by its wider extent of Greater Perth.[105][106] Economy[edit] See also: Economy of Western Australia

Fremantle
Fremantle
Harbour

By virtue of its population and role as the administrative centre for business and government, Perth
Perth
dominates the Western Australian economy, despite the major mining, petroleum, and agricultural export industries being located elsewhere in the state.[107] Perth's function as the state's capital city, its economic base and population size have also created development opportunities for many other businesses oriented to local or more diversified markets. Perth's economy has been changing in favour of the service industries since the 1950s. Although one of the major sets of services it provides is related to the resources industry and, to a lesser extent, agriculture, most people in Perth
Perth
are not connected to either; they have jobs that provide services to other people in Perth.[108]

View of the Perth CBD
Perth CBD
from the north

As a result of Perth's relative geographical isolation, it has never had the necessary conditions to develop significant manufacturing industries other than those serving the immediate needs of its residents, mining, agriculture and some specialised areas, such as, in recent times, niche shipbuilding and maintenance. It was simply cheaper to import all the needed manufactured goods from either the eastern states or overseas. Industrial employment influenced the economic geography of Perth. After WWII, Perth
Perth
experienced suburban expansion aided by high levels of car ownership. Workforce decentralisation and transport improvements made it possible for the establishment of small-scale manufacturing in the suburbs. Many firms took advantage of relatively cheap land to build spacious, single-storey plants in suburban locations with plentiful parking, easy access and minimal traffic congestion. "The former close ties of manufacturing with near-central and/or rail-side locations were loosened."[107] Industrial estates such as Kwinana, Welshpool and Kewdale
Kewdale
were post-war additions contributing to the growth of manufacturing south of the river. The establishment of the Kwinana industrial area was supported by standardisation of the east-west rail gauge linking Perth with eastern Australia. Since the 1950s the area has been dominated by heavy industry, including an oil refinery, steel-rolling mill with a blast furnace, alumina refinery, power station and a nickel refinery. Another development, also linked with rail standardisation, was in 1968 when the Kewdale
Kewdale
Freight Terminal was developed adjacent to the Welshpool industrial area, replacing the former Perth
Perth
railway yards.[107] With significant population growth post-WWII,[109] employment growth occurred not in manufacturing but in retail and wholesale trade, business services, health, education, community and personal services and in public administration. Increasingly it was these services sectors, concentrated around the Perth
Perth
metropolitan area, that provided jobs.[107] Education[edit] See also: Education in Western Australia

Perth
Perth
Modern School, Perth's first public high school

Education is compulsory in Western Australia
Western Australia
between the ages of six and seventeen, corresponding to primary and secondary school.[110] Tertiary education is available through a number of universities and technical and further education (TAFE) colleges. Primary and secondary[edit] Students may attend either public schools, run by the state government's Department of Education, or private schools, usually associated with a religion. The Western Australian Certificate of Education (WACE) is the credential given to students who have completed Years 11 and 12 of their secondary schooling.[111] In 2012 the minimum requirements for students to receive their WACE changed[how?].[112] Tertiary[edit]

The University of Western Australia, located in Crawley

Perth
Perth
is home to four public universities: the University of Western Australia, Curtin University, Murdoch University, and Edith Cowan University. There is also one private university, the University of Notre Dame. The University of Western Australia, which was founded in 1911,[113] is renowned as one of Australia's leading research institutions.[114] The university's monumental neo-classical architecture, most of which is carved from white limestone, is a notable tourist destination in the city. It is the only university in the state to be a member of the Group of Eight, as well as the Sandstone universities. It is also the state's only university to have produced a Nobel Laureate[115] – Barry Marshall
Barry Marshall
who graduated with a Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery in 1975 and was awarded a joint Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in physiology or medicine in 2005, together with Robin Warren.

Curtin University
Curtin University
in Bentley

Curtin University
Curtin University
(previously known as Western Australian Institute of Technology (1966-1986) and Curtin University
Curtin University
of Technology (1986-2010) is Western Australia's largest university by student population. Murdoch University
Murdoch University
was founded in 1973 and incorporates Western Australia's only veterinary school. Edith Cowan University
Edith Cowan University
was established in 1991 from the existing Western Australian College of Advanced Education
College of Advanced Education
(WACAE) which itself was formed in the 1970s from the existing Teachers Colleges at Claremont, Churchlands, and Mount Lawley. It incorporates the Western Australian Academy of Performing Arts (WAAPA).

Edith Cowan University
Edith Cowan University
in Joondalup

The University of Notre Dame Australia
Australia
was established in 1990. Notre Dame was established as a Catholic university
Catholic university
with its lead campus in Fremantle
Fremantle
and a large campus in Sydney. Its campus is set in the west end of Fremantle, using historic port buildings built in the 1890s, giving Notre Dame a distinct European university atmosphere. Colleges of TAFE provide trade and vocational training, including certificate- and diploma-level courses. TAFE began as a system of technical colleges and schools under the Education Department, from which they were separated in the 1980s and ultimately formed into regional colleges. Two exist in the Perth
Perth
metropolitan area: North Metropolitan TAFE (formerly Central Institute of Technology
Central Institute of Technology
and West Coast Institute of Training); and South Metropolitan TAFE
South Metropolitan TAFE
(formerly Polytechnic West and Challenger Institute of Technology). Media[edit] Perth
Perth
is served by twenty-nine digital free-to-air television channels:

ABC Perth
Perth
studios in East Perth, home of 720 ABC Perth
720 ABC Perth
radio and ABC television in Western Australia

ABC ABC HD (ABC broadcast in HD) ABC2/KIDS ABC Me ABC News SBS SBS HD (SBS broadcast in HD) SBS Viceland HD
SBS Viceland HD
( SBS Viceland
SBS Viceland
broadcast in HD) SBS Viceland Food Network NITV Seven 7HD
7HD
(Seven broadcast in HD) 7Two 7mate 7flix Racing.com Nine 9HD
9HD
(Nine broadcast in HD) 9Gem 9Go! 9Life eXtra Ten Ten HD
Ten HD
(Ten broadcast in HD) One Eleven TVSN Spree TV West TV
West TV
(Perth's community TV station)

ABC, SBS, Seven, Nine and Ten were also broadcast in an analogue format until 16 April 2013, when the analogue transmission was switched off.[116] Community station Access 31
Access 31
closed in August 2008. In April 2010 a new community station, West TV, began transmission (in digital format only). Foxtel
Foxtel
provides a subscription-based satellite and cable television service. Perth
Perth
has its own local newsreaders on ABC (James McHale), Seven (Rick Ardon, Susannah Carr), Nine (Michael Thomson) and Ten (Narelda Jacobs).

Channel 9's Perth
Perth
Studio

Television shows produced in Perth
Perth
include local editions of the current affair program Today Tonight, and other types of programming such as The Force. An annual telethon has been broadcast since 1968 to raise funds for charities including Princess Margaret Hospital for Children. The 24-hour Perth
Perth
Telethon
Telethon
claims to be "the most successful fundraising event per capita in the world"[117] and raised more than A$20 million in 2013, with a combined total of over A$153 million since 1968.[118] The main newspapers for Perth
Perth
are The West Australian
The West Australian
and The Sunday Times. Localised free community papers cater for each local government area. There are also many advertising newspapers, such as The Quokka. The local business paper is Western Australian Business News. Radio stations are on AM, FM and DAB+ frequencies. ABC stations include ABC News (585AM), 720 ABC Perth, Radio National
Radio National
(810AM), Classic FM (97.7FM) and Triple J
Triple J
(99.3FM). The six local commercial stations are 92.9, Nova 93.7, Mix 94.5, 96fm, on FM and 882 6PR
6PR
and 1080 6IX on AM. DAB+ has mostly the same as both FM and AM plus national stations from the ABC/SBS, Radar Radio and Novanation, along with local stations My Perth
Perth
Digital, HotCountry Perth, and 98five Christian radio. Major community radio stations include RTRFM (92.1FM), Sonshine FM (98.5FM),[119] SportFM (91.3FM)[120] and Curtin FM (100.1FM).[121] Online news media covering the Perth
Perth
area include TheWest.com.au backed by The West Australian, Perth
Perth
Now from the newsroom of The Sunday Times, WAToday from Fairfax Media
Fairfax Media
and other outlets like TweetPerth[122] on social media. Culture[edit] Arts and entertainment[edit] See also: Music of Perth; List of musical acts from Western Australia; and People from Perth, Western Australia

Inside the State Theatre Centre of Western Australia

City of Perth
City of Perth
Library

The Perth Cultural Centre
Perth Cultural Centre
is the location of the city's major arts, cultural and educational institutions, including the Art Gallery of Western Australia, Western Australian Museum, State Library of Western Australia, State Records Office, and Perth
Perth
Institute of Contemporary Arts (PICA).[123] The State Theatre Centre of Western Australia
Western Australia
is also located there,[123] and is the home of the Black Swan State Theatre Company[124] and the Perth
Perth
Theatre Company.[125] Other performing arts companies based in Perth
Perth
include the West Australian Ballet, the West Australian Opera and the West Australian Symphony Orchestra, all of which present regular programmes.[126][127][128] The Western Australian Youth Orchestras provide young musicians with performance opportunities in orchestral and other musical ensembles.[129] Perth
Perth
is also home to the internationally regarded Western Australian Academy of Performing Arts at Edith Cowan University, from which many successful actors and broadcasters have launched their careers.[130][131] The city's main performance venues include the Riverside Theatre within the Perth
Perth
Convention Exhibition Centre,[132] the Perth
Perth
Concert Hall,[133] the historic His Majesty's Theatre,[134] the Regal Theatre
Regal Theatre
in Subiaco[135] and the Astor Theatre in Mount Lawley.[136] Perth Arena
Perth Arena
can be configured as an entertainment or sporting arena, and concerts are also hosted at other sporting venues, including Optus Stadium, HBF Stadium, and nib Stadium. Outdoor concert venues include Quarry Amphitheatre, Supreme Court Gardens, Kings Park and Russell Square.

Perth International Arts Festival
Perth International Arts Festival
2015

Annual events[edit] A number of annual events are held in Perth. The Perth
Perth
International Arts Festival is a large cultural festival that has been held annually since 1953, and has since been joined by the Winter Arts festival, Perth
Perth
Fringe Festival, and Perth
Perth
Writers Festival. Perth
Perth
also hosts annual music festivals including Listen Out, Origin and St Jerome's Laneway Festival. The Perth International Comedy Festival features a variety of local and international comedic talent, with performances held at the Astor Theatre and nearby venues in Mount Lawley, and regular night food markets throughout the summer months across Perth and its surrounding suburbs. Sculpture by the Sea
Sculpture by the Sea
showcases a range of local and international sculptors' creations along Cottesloe Beach. There is also a wide variety of public art and sculptures on display across the city, throughout the year. Artistic mediums[edit] Perth
Perth
has featured in a variety of artistic works in various mediums. An early novel, Moondyne, set in the Swan River Colony, was written by a former Fenian convict, John Boyle O'Reilly, and a A Faithful Picture, edited by Peter Cowan, gives a good idea of the early days of the colony. Songs that refer to the city include "I Love Perth" (1996) by Pavement, and "Perth" (2011) by Bon Iver, while a number of films feature Perth: Last Train to Freo, Two Fists, One Heart, Thunderstruck, Bran Nue Dae, Japanese Story
Japanese Story
and Nickel Queen. The industrial metal band Fear Factory
Fear Factory
recorded the video for their single "Cyberwaste" in South Fremantle. Famous people[edit]

Perth-born actor and director Heath Ledger

Because of Perth's relative isolation from other Australian cities, overseas performing artists often exclude it from their Australian tour schedules. This isolation, however, has developed a strong local music scene, and the development of local music groups such as The Dugites, Eurogliders, John Butler Trio, The Triffids, Eskimo Joe, The Sleepy Jackson, Pond, Tame Impala, Karnivool, Gyroscope, Jebediah, Little Birdy, The Panics, Birds of Tokyo, The Drones, Pendulum, Drapht and Troye Sivan. Celebrity musical performers from Perth
Perth
have included the late AC/DC
AC/DC
lead singer Bon Scott, who has been remembered with a statue in Fremantle, and veteran performer and artist Rolf Harris, given the nickname "The Boy From Bassendean". The largest performance area within the State Theatre Centre, the Heath Ledger
Heath Ledger
Theatre, is named in honour of Perth-born film actor Heath Ledger. Oscar nominated and Emmy
Emmy
winning international film actress Judy Davis
Judy Davis
was born and raised in Perth. Actor Isla Fisher
Isla Fisher
was raised in Perth
Perth
and Hugh Jackman studied at the Western Australian Academy of Performing Arts. 13 Reasons Why
13 Reasons Why
actress, Katherine Langford was born and raised in Perth. Lisa McCune
Lisa McCune
was also raised in Perth
Perth
and studied at the Western Australian Academy of Performing Arts. Melissa George
Melissa George
was born and raised in Perth. Tourism and recreation[edit] Main article: Tourism in Perth

Fremantle
Fremantle
is known for its well-preserved architectural heritage.

Tourism in Perth
Tourism in Perth
is an important part of the state's economy, with approximately 2.8 million domestic visitors and 0.7 million international visitors in the year ending March 2012.[137] Tourist attractions are generally focused around the city centre, Fremantle, the coast, and the Swan River. In addition to the Perth
Perth
Cultural Centre, there are a number of museums across the city. The Scitech Discovery Centre in West Perth
Perth
is an interactive science museum, with regularly changing exhibitions on a large range of science and technology based subjects. Scitech
Scitech
also conducts live science demonstration shows, and operates the adjacent Horizon planetarium. The Western Australian Maritime Museum
Western Australian Maritime Museum
in Fremantle
Fremantle
displays maritime objects from all eras. It houses Australia
Australia
II, the yacht that won the 1983 America's Cup, as well as a former Royal Australian Navy submarine. Also located in Fremantle
Fremantle
is the Army Museum of Western Australia, situated within a historic artillery barracks. The museum consists of several galleries which reflect the Army's involvement in Western Australia, and the military service of Western Australians.[138] The museum holds numerous items of significance, including three Victoria Crosses.[139] Aviation history is represented by the Aviation Heritage Museum in Bull Creek, with its significant collection of aircraft, including a Lancaster bomber and a Catalina of the type operated from the Swan River during WWII.[140] There are many heritage sites in Perth's CBD, Fremantle, and other parts of the metropolitan areas. Some of the oldest remaining buildings, dating back to the 1830s, include the Round House in Fremantle, the Old Mill in South Perth, and the Old Court House in the city centre. Registers of important buildings are maintained by the Heritage Council of Western Australia
Western Australia
and local governments. A late heritage building is the Perth
Perth
Mint.[141] Yagan
Yagan
Square connects Northbridge and the Perth CBD, with a 45-metre-high digital tower and the 9-metre statue "Wirin" designed by Noongar
Noongar
artist Tjyllyungoo. Elizabeth Quay
Elizabeth Quay
is also a notable attraction in Perth, featuring Swan Bells
Swan Bells
and a panoramic view of Swan River.

Elizabeth Quay, Perth

Retail shopping in the Perth CBD
Perth CBD
is focused around Murray Street and Hay Street. Both of these streets are pedestrian malls between William Street and Barrack Street. Forrest Place is another pedestrian mall, connecting the Murray Street mall to Wellington Street and the Perth railway station. A number of arcades run between Hay Street and Murray Street, including the Piccadilly Arcade, which housed the Piccadilly Cinema until it closed in late 2013. Other shopping precincts include Harbour Town in West Perth, featuring factory outlets for major brands, the historically significant Fremantle
Fremantle
Markets, which date back to 1897, and the Midland townsite on Great Eastern Highway, combining historic development around the Town Hall and Post Office buildings with the modern Midland Gate shopping centre further east. Joondalup's central business district is largely a shopping and retail area lined with townhouses and apartments, and also features Lakeside Joondalup
Joondalup
Shopping City. Joondalup
Joondalup
was granted the status of "tourism precinct" by the State Government in 2009, allowing for extended retail trading hours.

The "Wirin" sculpture at Perth's Yagan
Yagan
Square

The Swan Valley, with fertile soil, uncommon in the Perth
Perth
region, features numerous wineries such as the large complex at Houghtons, the state's biggest producer, Sandalfords and many smaller operators, including microbreweries and rum distilleries. The Swan Valley also contains specialised food producers, many restaurants and cafes, and roadside local-produce stalls that sell seasonal fruit throughout the year. Tourist Drive 203 is a circular route in the Swan Valley, passing by many attractions on West Swan Road
West Swan Road
and Great Northern Highway. Kings Park, located in central Perth
Perth
between the CBD and the University of Western Australia, is one of the world's largest inner-city parks,[142] at 400.6 hectares (990 acres).[143] There are many landmarks and attractions within Kings Park, including the State War Memorial Precinct on Mount Eliza, Western Australian Botanic Garden, and children's playgrounds. Other features include DNA Tower, a 15m high double helix staircase that resembles the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule,[144] and Jacob's Ladder, comprising 242 steps that lead down to Mounts Bay Road. Hyde Park is another inner-city park located 2 km (1.2 mi) north of the CBD. It was gazetted as a public park in 1897, created from 15 ha (37 acres) of a chain of wetlands known as Third Swamp.[145] Avon Valley, John Forrest and Yanchep national parks are areas of protected bushland at the northern and eastern edges of the metropolitan area. Within the city's northern suburbs is Whiteman Park, a 4,000-hectare (9,900-acre) bushland area, with bushwalking trails, bike paths, sports facilities, playgrounds, a vintage tramway, a light railway on a 6-kilometre (3.7 mi) track, motor and tractor museums, and Caversham Wildlife Park.

Hyde Park

Perth
Perth
Zoo, located in South Perth, houses a variety of Australian and exotic animals from around the globe. The zoo is home to highly successful breeding programs for orangutans and giraffes, and participates in captive breeding and reintroduction efforts for a number of Western Australian species, including the numbat, the dibbler, the chuditch, and the western swamp tortoise.[146] More wildlife can be observed at the Aquarium of Western Australia
Western Australia
in Hillarys, which is Australia's largest aquarium, specialising in marine animals that inhabit the 12,000-kilometre-long (7,500 mi) western coast of Australia. The northern Perth
Perth
section of the coastline is known as Sunset Coast; it includes numerous beaches and the Marmion Marine Park, a protected area inhabited by tropical fish, Australian sea lions and bottlenose dolphins, and traversed by humpback whales. Tourist Drive 204, also known as Sunset Coast
Sunset Coast
Tourist Drive, is a designated route from North Fremantle
Fremantle
to Iluka along coastal roads. Sport[edit] Main article: Sport in Western Australia

Perth
Perth
Stadium, the home stadium of Australian rules football
Australian rules football
and many other sports in Perth

The climate of Perth
Perth
allows for extensive outdoor sporting activity, and this is reflected in the wide variety of sports available to residents of the city. Perth
Perth
was host to the 1962 Commonwealth Games and the 1987 America's Cup
1987 America's Cup
defence (based at Fremantle). Australian rules football is the most popular spectator sport in Perth – nearly 23% of Western Australians attended a match at least once in 2009–2010.[147] The two Australian Football League
Australian Football League
teams located in Perth, the West Coast Eagles
West Coast Eagles
and the Fremantle
Fremantle
Football Club, have two of the largest fan bases in the country. The Eagles, the older club, is one of the most successful teams in the league, and one of the largest sporting clubs in Australia.The next level of football is the Western Australian Football League, comprising nine clubs each having a League, Reserves and Colts team. Each of these clubs has a junior football system for all genders, and ages from 7 up to 17. The next level of football is the Western Australian Amateur Football League, comprising 68 clubs servicing senior footballers within the metropolitan area. Other popular sports include cricket, basketball, association football (soccer), and rugby union.[148]

Active sports teams in Perth

Club League Sport Venue Established

Fremantle
Fremantle
Dockers Australian Football League/AFL Women's Australian rules Optus Stadium 1994

West Coast Eagles Australian Football League Australian rules Optus Stadium 1986

Perth
Perth
Wildcats National Basketball
Basketball
League Basketball Perth
Perth
Arena 1982

Perth
Perth
Lynx Women's National Basketball
Basketball
League Basketball Bendat Basketball
Basketball
Centre 1988

Perth
Perth
Glory FC A-League Association football nib Stadium 1996

Perth Glory FC
Perth Glory FC
W-League W-League Association football Ashfield Reserve 2008

Western Force Super Rugby Rugby union nib Stadium 2005

Perth
Perth
Spirit National Rugby Championship Rugby union UWA Sports Park 2007

Perth
Perth
Heat Australian Baseball
Baseball
League Baseball Barbagallo Ballpark 1989

West Coast Fever ANZ Championship Netball HBF Stadium Perth
Perth
Arena 1997

West Coast Pirates S.G. Ball Cup Rugby league nib Stadium 2012

Western Warriors Sheffield Shield Cricket WACA Ground 1893

Perth
Perth
Scorchers Big Bash League/Women's Big Bash League Cricket Optus Stadium 2011

Western Fury Women's National Cricket
Cricket
League Cricket WACA Ground 1996

Perth
Perth
Thunder Australian Ice Hockey
Ice Hockey
League Ice Hockey Perth
Perth
Ice Arena 2010

The exterior of Perth
Perth
Arena

Perth
Perth
has hosted numerous state and international sporting events. Ongoing international events include the Hopman Cup
Hopman Cup
during the first week of January at the Perth
Perth
Arena, and the Perth International
Perth International
golf tournament at Lake Karrinyup Country Club. In addition to these Perth has hosted the Rally Australia
Australia
of the World Rally Championships
World Rally Championships
from 1989 to 2006, international Rugby Union
Rugby Union
games, including qualifying matches for 2003 Rugby World Cup. The 1991 and 1998 FINA World Championships were held in Perth.[149] Four races (2006, 2007, 2008 and 2010) in the Red Bull Air Race World Championship
Red Bull Air Race World Championship
have been held on a stretch of the Swan River called Perth
Perth
Water, using Langley Park as a temporary air field.[150] Several motorsport facilities exist in Perth
Perth
including Perth
Perth
Motorplex, catering to drag racing and speedway, and Barbagallo Raceway
Barbagallo Raceway
for circuit racing and drifting, which hosts a V8 Supercars
V8 Supercars
round. Perth
Perth
also has two thoroughbred racing facilities: Ascot, home of the Railway Stakes and Perth
Perth
Cup; and Belmont Park. The WACA Ground
WACA Ground
opened in the 1890s and has hosted Test cricket
Test cricket
since 1970. The Western Australian Athletics Stadium
Western Australian Athletics Stadium
opened in 2009. Infrastructure[edit] Health[edit] See also: List of hospitals in Western Australia

Fiona Stanley Hospital

Perth
Perth
has ten large hospitals with emergency departments. As of 2013[update], Royal Perth Hospital
Royal Perth Hospital
in the city centre is the largest, with others spread around the metropolitan area: Armadale Kelmscott District Memorial Hospital, Joondalup
Joondalup
Health Campus, King Edward Memorial Hospital for Women in Subiaco, Rockingham General Hospital, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital
Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital
in Nedlands, St John of God Murdoch Hospital, Midland Health Campus in Midland, and Fiona Stanley Hospital in Murdoch. Princess Margaret Hospital for Children
Princess Margaret Hospital for Children
is the state's only specialist children's hospital, and Graylands Hospital
Graylands Hospital
is the only public stand-alone psychiatric teaching hospital. Most of these are public hospitals, with some operating under public-private partnerships. St John of God Murdoch Hospital
St John of God Murdoch Hospital
is privately owned and operated. New hospitals are under construction to replace ageing facilities. A new children's hospital, due to open in 2015, is being constructed next to Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, and will replace Princess Margaret Hospital.[151] Midland Health Campus, a public and a private hospital, is under construction in Midland. St John of God Health Care will build and operate the new hospitals under a public-private partnership with the state government. Midland Health Campus will open in late 2015, and replace the nearby Swan District Hospital.[152] A number of other public and private hospitals operate in Perth.[153] Transport[edit] Main article: Transport in Perth, Western Australia Further information: Transperth

The northern Mitchell Freeway
Mitchell Freeway
and southern Kwinana Freeway
Kwinana Freeway
link Perth and suburbs to Joondalup, Rockingham and Mandurah.

Perth
Perth
is served by Perth Airport
Perth Airport
in the city's east for regional, domestic and international flights and Jandakot Airport
Jandakot Airport
in the city's southern suburbs for general aviation and charter flights. Perth
Perth
has a road network with three freeways and nine metropolitan highways. The Northbridge tunnel, part of the Graham Farmer Freeway, is the only significant road tunnel in Perth. Perth
Perth
metropolitan public transport, including trains, buses and ferries, are provided by Transperth, with links to rural areas provided by Transwa. There are 70 railway stations and 15 bus stations in the metropolitan area.

Perth
Perth
Underground Train Station

Perth
Perth
provides zero-fare bus and train trips around the city centre (the "Free Transit Zone"), including four high-frequency CAT bus routes. The Indian Pacific
Indian Pacific
passenger rail service connects Perth
Perth
with Adelaide and Sydney
Sydney
once per week in each direction. The Prospector passenger rail service connects Perth
Perth
with Kalgoorlie
Kalgoorlie
via several Wheatbelt towns, while the Australind connects to Bunbury, and the AvonLink connects to Northam. Rail freight terminates at the Kewdale
Kewdale
Rail Terminal, 15 km (9 mi) south-east of the city centre. Perth's main container and passenger port is at Fremantle, 19 km (12 mi) south west at the mouth of the Swan River.[154] The Fremantle
Fremantle
Outer Harbour at Cockburn Sound
Cockburn Sound
is one of Australia’s major bulk cargo ports.[155] Utilities[edit] Energy[edit] Perth's electricity is predominantly generated, supplied, and retailed by three Western Australian Government corporations. Verve Energy operates coal and gas power generation stations, as well as wind farms and other power sources.[156] The physical network is maintained by Western Power,[157] while Synergy, the state's largest energy retailer, sells electricity to residential and business customers.[158] Alinta Energy, which was previously a government owned company, had a monopoly in the domestic gas market since the 1990s. However, in 2013 Kleenheat Gas began operating in the market, allowing consumers to choose their gas retailer.[159] Water[edit]

Mundaring Weir

The Water Corporation
Water Corporation
is the dominant supplier of water, as well as wastewater and drainage services, in Perth
Perth
and throughout the Western Australia. It is also owned by the state government.[160] Perth's water supply has traditionally relied on both groundwater and rain-fed dams. Reduced rainfall in the region over recent decades had greatly lowered inflow to reservoirs and affected groundwater levels. Coupled with the city's relatively high growth rate, this led to concerns that Perth
Perth
could run out of water in the near future.[161] The Western Australian Government responded by building desalination plants, and introducing mandatory household sprinkler restrictions. The Kwinana Desalination Plant
Kwinana Desalination Plant
was opened in 2006,[162][163] and Southern Seawater Desalination Plant
Southern Seawater Desalination Plant
at Binningup (on the coast between Mandurah
Mandurah
and Bunbury) began operating in 2011. A trial winter (1 June – 31 August) sprinkler ban was introduced in 2009 by the State Government, a move which the Government later announced would be made permanent.[164] See also[edit]

Perth
Perth
portal

List of Perth
Perth
suburbs Islands of Perth, Western Australia

References[edit]

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External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Perth.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Perth
Perth
(Australia).

Watch historical footage of Perth
Perth
and Western Australia
Western Australia
from the National Film and Sound Archive
National Film and Sound Archive
of Australia's collection. Historical photos of Perth
Perth
from the State Library of Western Australia Tourism Australia
Australia
Page

v t e

Landmarks of Perth

Buildings and structures

Perth
Perth
Town Hall Parliament House Barracks Arch Supreme Court of Western Australia Round House

Precincts

Perth
Perth
Cultural Centre Cathedral Square Chinatown Leederville Fremantle Maylands Mount Lawley Northbridge

Parks and open spaces

Kings Park Elizabeth Quay Yagan
Yagan
Square Supreme Court Gardens Stirling Gardens Queens Gardens Russell Square Hyde Park Gija Jumulu

Cultural institutions

Art Gallery of Western Australia Western Australian Museum State Theatre Centre of Western Australia State Library of Western Australia City of Perth
City of Perth
Library

Sport

Arena Joondalup Ascot Racecourse Barbagallo Raceway Belmont Park Racecourse Gloucester Park Lake Karrinyup Country Club Perth
Perth
Hockey Stadium Perth
Perth
Motorplex Perth Oval
Perth Oval
(nib Stadium) Perth
Perth
SpeedDome Perth Stadium
Perth Stadium
(Optus Stadium) Perth Superdrome
Perth Superdrome
(HBF Stadium) Subiaco Oval
Subiaco Oval
(Domain Stadium) WACA Ground Western Australian Athletics Stadium Western Australian Basketball
Basketball
Centre Royal Perth
Perth
Yacht Club

Transport

East Perth
Perth
Terminal Perth
Perth
Station Elizabeth Quay
Elizabeth Quay
Station Elizabeth Quay
Elizabeth Quay
Bus Station Perth
Perth
Busport

Entertainment

Crown Perth Perth
Perth
Concert Hall Perth
Perth
Arena

Beaches and islands

Cottesloe Beach Coogee Beach Rottnest Island

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Gascoyne Goldfields-Esperance Great Southern Kimberley Mid West Peel Pilbara South West Wheatbelt

Cities and towns

Perth Albany Broome Bunbury Busselton Esperance Geraldton Kalgoorlie-Boulder Karratha Mandurah Northam Port Hedland

Western Australia
Western Australia
portal

v t e

Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
host cities

1930: Hamilton 1934: London 1938: Sydney 1950: Auckland 1954: Vancouver

1958: Cardiff 1962: Perth 1966: Kingston 1970: Edinburgh 1974: Christchurch

1978: Edmonton 1982: Brisbane 1986: Edinburgh 1990: Auckland 1994: Victoria

1998: Kuala Lumpur 2002: Manchester 2006: Melbourne 2010: Delhi 2014: Glasgow

2018: Gold Coast 2022: Birmingham 2026: TBA

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 54146153027405250648 GND: 4232458-0 BNF:

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