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The Cronquist system
Cronquist system
is a taxonomic classification system of flowering plants. It was developed by Arthur Cronquist in a series of monographs and texts, including The Evolution and Classification of Flowering Plants (1968; 2nd edition, 1988) and An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants (1981) (see Bibliography). Cronquist's system places flowering plants into two broad classes, Magnoliopsida
Magnoliopsida
(dicotyledons) and Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Within these classes, related orders are grouped into subclasses. While the scheme was widely used, in either the original form or in adapted versions, many botanists now use the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants, first developed in 1998. The system as laid out in Cronquist's An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants (1981) counts 64 orders and 321 families in class Magnoliopsida
Magnoliopsida
and 19 orders and 65 families in class Liliopsida.

Contents

1 The Evolution and Classification of Flowering Plants 1968 (monocots) 2 An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants 1981

2.1 Class Magnoliopsida
Magnoliopsida
(dicotyledons) 2.2 Class Liliopsida (monocotyledons)

3 Bibliography

3.1 Work by Cronquist

The Evolution and Classification of Flowering Plants 1968 (monocots)[edit] Class Liliatae (Monocotyledoneae)

Subclass Alismatidae 4 orders

Order Alismatales ... Order Triuridales

Subclass Commelinidae 8 orders

Order Commelinales ... Order Zingiberales

Subclass Arecidae 4 orders

Order Arecales ... Order Arales

Subclass Liliidae 2 orders

Order Liliales

Family Philydraceae Family Pontederiaceae Family Liliaceae Family Iridaceae Family Agavaceae Family Xanthorrhoeaceae Family Velloziaceae Family Haemodoraceae Family Taccaceae Family Cyanastraceae Family Stemonaceae Family Smilacaceae Family Dioscoreaceae

Order Orchidales

An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants 1981[edit] Class Magnoliopsida
Magnoliopsida
(dicotyledons)[edit]

Cronquist system
Cronquist system
diagram

Subclass Magnoliidae (mostly basal dicots)

Order Magnoliales

Winteraceae Degeneriaceae Himantandraceae Eupomatiaceae Austrobaileyaceae Magnoliaceae
Magnoliaceae
(magnolia family) Lactoridaceae Annonaceae Myristicaceae Canellaceae

Order Laurales

Amborellaceae Trimeniaceae Monimiaceae Gomortegaceae Calycanthaceae Idiospermaceae Lauraceae
Lauraceae
(laurel family) Hernandiaceae

Order Piperales

Chloranthaceae Saururaceae Piperaceae
Piperaceae
(pepper family)

Order Aristolochiales

Aristolochiaceae

Order Illiciales

Illiciaceae Schisandraceae

Order Nymphaeales

Nelumbonaceae Nymphaeaceae Barclayaceae Cabombaceae Ceratophyllaceae

Order Ranunculales

Ranunculaceae Circaeasteraceae Berberidaceae Sargentodoxaceae Lardizabalaceae Menispermaceae Coriariaceae Sabiaceae

Order Papaverales

Papaveraceae Fumariaceae

Subclass Hamamelidae [sic: correctly Hamamelididae]

Order Trochodendrales

Tetracentraceae Trochodendraceae

Order Hamamelidales

Cercidiphyllaceae Eupteleaceae Platanaceae Hamamelidaceae Myrothamnaceae

Order Daphniphyllales

Daphniphyllaceae

Order Didymelales

Didymelaceae

Order Eucommiales

Eucommiaceae

Order Urticales

Barbeyaceae Ulmaceae Cannabaceae Moraceae Cecropiaceae Urticaceae

Order Leitneriales

Leitneriaceae

Order Juglandales

Rhoipteleaceae Juglandaceae

Order Myricales

Myricaceae

Order Fagales

Balanopaceae Ticodendraceae Fagaceae Nothofagaceae Betulaceae

Order Casuarinales

Casuarinaceae

Subclass Caryophyllidae

Order Caryophyllales

Phytolaccaceae Achatocarpaceae Nyctaginaceae Aizoaceae Didiereaceae Cactaceae
Cactaceae
(cactus family) Chenopodiaceae Amaranthaceae Portulacaceae Basellaceae Molluginaceae Caryophyllaceae

Order Polygonales

Polygonaceae

Order Plumbaginales

Plumbaginaceae

Subclass Dilleniidae

Order Dilleniales

Dilleniaceae Paeoniaceae

Order Theales

Ochnaceae Sphaerosepalaceae Sarcolaenaceae Dipterocarpaceae Caryocaraceae Theaceae
Theaceae
(tea family) Actinidiaceae Scytopetalaceae Pentaphylacaceae Tetrameristaceae Pellicieraceae Oncothecaceae Marcgraviaceae Quiinaceae Elatinaceae Paracryphiaceae Medusagynaceae Clusiaceae

Order Malvales

Elaeocarpaceae Tiliaceae Sterculiaceae Bombacaceae Malvaceae

Order Lecythidales

Lecythidaceae

Order Nepenthales

Sarraceniaceae Nepenthaceae Droseraceae

Order Violales

Flacourtiaceae Peridiscaceae Bixaceae Cistaceae Huaceae Lacistemataceae Scyphostegiaceae Stachyuraceae Violaceae
Violaceae
(violet family) Tamaricaceae
Tamaricaceae
(tamarind family) Frankeniaceae Dioncophyllaceae Ancistrocladaceae Turneraceae Malesherbiaceae Passifloraceae Achariaceae Caricaceae Fouquieriaceae Hoplestigmataceae Cucurbitaceae Datiscaceae Begoniaceae Loasaceae

Order Salicales

Salicaceae

Order Capparales

Tovariaceae Capparaceae Brassicaceae Moringaceae Resedaceae

Order Batales

Gyrostemonaceae Bataceae

Order Ericales

Cyrillaceae Clethraceae Grubbiaceae Empetraceae Epacridaceae Ericaceae Pyrolaceae Monotropaceae

Order Diapensiales

Diapensiaceae

Order Ebenales

Sapotaceae Ebenaceae Styracaceae Lissocarpaceae Symplocaceae

Order Primulales

Theophrastaceae Myrsinaceae Primulaceae

Subclass Rosidae

Order Rosales

Brunelliaceae Connaraceae Eucryphiaceae Cunoniaceae Davidsoniaceae Dialypetalanthaceae Pittosporaceae Byblidaceae Hydrangeaceae Columelliaceae Grossulariaceae Greyiaceae Bruniaceae Anisophylleaceae Alseuosmiaceae Crassulaceae Cephalotaceae Saxifragaceae Rosaceae
Rosaceae
(rose family) Neuradaceae Crossosomataceae Chrysobalanaceae Surianaceae Rhabdodendraceae

Order Fabales

Mimosaceae
Mimosaceae
(mimosa family) Caesalpiniaceae Fabaceae

Order Proteales

Elaeagnaceae Proteaceae

Order Podostemales

Podostemaceae

Order Haloragales

Haloragaceae Gunneraceae

Order Myrtales

Sonneratiaceae Lythraceae Penaeaceae Crypteroniaceae Thymelaeaceae Trapaceae Myrtaceae Punicaceae Onagraceae Oliniaceae Melastomataceae Combretaceae Alzateaceae Memecylaceae Rhyncocalycaceae

Order Rhizophorales

Rhizophoraceae

Order Cornales

Alangiaceae Nyssaceae Cornaceae Garryaceae

Order Santalales

Medusandraceae Dipentodontaceae Olacaceae Opiliaceae Santalaceae Misodendraceae Loranthaceae Viscaceae Eremolepidaceae Balanophoraceae

Order Rafflesiales

Hydnoraceae Mitrastemonaceae Rafflesiaceae

Order Celastrales

Geissolomataceae Celastraceae Hippocrateaceae Stackhousiaceae Salvadoraceae Aquifoliaceae Icacinaceae Aextoxicaceae Cardiopteridaceae Corynocarpaceae Dichapetalaceae Tepuianthaceae

Order Euphorbiales

Buxaceae Simmondsiaceae Pandaceae Euphorbiaceae

Order Rhamnales

Rhamnaceae Leeaceae Vitaceae

Order Linales

Erythroxylaceae Humiriaceae Ixonanthaceae Hugoniaceae Linaceae

Order Polygalales

Malpighiaceae Vochysiaceae Trigoniaceae Tremandraceae Polygalaceae Xanthophyllaceae Krameriaceae

Order Sapindales

Staphyleaceae Melianthaceae Bretschneideraceae Akaniaceae Sapindaceae Hippocastanaceae Aceraceae Burseraceae Anacardiaceae Julianiaceae Simaroubaceae Cneoraceae Meliaceae Rutaceae Zygophyllaceae

Order Geraniales

Oxalidaceae Geraniaceae Limnanthaceae Tropaeolaceae Balsaminaceae

Order Apiales

Araliaceae Apiaceae

Subclass Asteridae

Order Gentianales

Loganiaceae Retziaceae Gentianaceae Saccifoliaceae Apocynaceae Asclepiadaceae

Order Solanales

Duckeodendraceae Nolanaceae Solanaceae Convolvulaceae Cuscutaceae Menyanthaceae Polemoniaceae Hydrophyllaceae Retziaceae

Order Lamiales

Lennoaceae Boraginaceae Verbenaceae Lamiaceae

Order Callitrichales

Hippuridaceae Callitrichaceae Hydrostachyaceae

Order Plantaginales

Plantaginaceae

Order Scrophulariales

Buddlejaceae Oleaceae
Oleaceae
(olive family) Scrophulariaceae Globulariaceae Myoporaceae Orobanchaceae Gesneriaceae Acanthaceae Pedaliaceae Bignoniaceae Mendonciaceae Lentibulariaceae

Order Campanulales

Pentaphragmataceae Sphenocleaceae Campanulaceae Stylidiaceae Donatiaceae Brunoniaceae Goodeniaceae

Order Rubiales

Rubiaceae Theligonaceae

Order Dipsacales

Caprifoliaceae Adoxaceae Valerianaceae Dipsacaceae

Order Calycerales

Calyceraceae

Order Asterales

Asteraceae

Class Liliopsida (monocotyledons)[edit]

Subclass Alismatidae

Order Alismatales

Butomaceae Limnocharitaceae Alismataceae

Order Hydrocharitales

Hydrocharitaceae

Order Najadales

Aponogetonaceae Scheuchzeriaceae Juncaginaceae Potamogetonaceae Ruppiaceae Najadaceae Zannichelliaceae Posidoniaceae Cymodoceaceae Zosteraceae

Order Triuridales

Petrosaviaceae Triuridaceae

Subclass Arecidae

Order Arecales

Arecaceae
Arecaceae
(palm family)

Order Cyclanthales

Cyclanthaceae

Order Pandanales

Pandanaceae
Pandanaceae
(pandan family)

Order Arales

Acoraceae Araceae Lemnaceae

Subclass Commelinidae

Order Commelinales

Rapateaceae Xyridaceae Mayacaceae Commelinaceae

Order Eriocaulales

Eriocaulaceae

Order Restionales

Flagellariaceae Joinvilleaceae Restionaceae Centrolepidaceae

Order Juncales

Juncaceae Thurniaceae

Order Cyperales

Cyperaceae Poaceae
Poaceae
(Grass family)

Order Hydatellales

Hydatellaceae

Order Typhales

Sparganiaceae Typhaceae

Subclass Zingiberidae

Order Bromeliales

Bromeliaceae

Order Zingiberales

Strelitziaceae Heliconiaceae Musaceae Lowiaceae Zingiberaceae
Zingiberaceae
(Ginger family) Costaceae Cannaceae Marantaceae

Subclass Liliidae

Order Liliales

Philydraceae Pontederiaceae Haemodoraceae Cyanastraceae Liliaceae
Liliaceae
(Lily family) Iridaceae
Iridaceae
(Iris family) Velloziaceae Aloeaceae
Aloeaceae
(Aloe family) Agavaceae Xanthorrhoeaceae Hanguanaceae Taccaceae Stemonaceae Smilacaceae Dioscoreaceae

Order Orchidales

Geosiridaceae Burmanniaceae Corsiaceae Orchidaceae
Orchidaceae
(Orchid family)

Bibliography[edit]

Texas A and M University Bioinformatics Working Group : Cronquist System Reveal, James (4 October 1998). "Cronquist Family Names and Synonymy". Indices Nominum Supragenericorum Plantarum Project. University of Maryland: Norton-Brown Herbarium. Retrieved 3 January 2016.  Reveal, James (22 November 1998). "Lists of the Flowering Plant Taxa Accepted by Cronquist, Dahlgren, Reveal, Takhtajan
Takhtajan
& Thorne". Vascular Plant Family Nomenclature. University of Maryland: Norton-Brown Herbarium. Retrieved 3 January 2016. 

Work by Cronquist[edit]

Cronquist, Arthur. (1957). Outline of a new system of families and orders of dicotyledons. Bull. Jard. Bot. Etat Brux. 27: 13–40. Cronquist, Arthur (October 1960). "The divisions and classes of plants". The Botanical Review. 26 (4): 425–482. doi:10.1007/BF02940572.  Cronquist, Arthur (September 1965). "The Status of the General System of Classification of Flowering Plants". Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 52 (3): 281–303. doi:10.2307/2394794.  Cronquist, Arthur; Takhtajan, Armen; Zimmermann, Walter (April 1966). "On the Higher Taxa of Embryobionta". Taxon. 15 (4): 129–134. doi:10.2307/1217531. JSTOR 1217531.  Cronquist, A (1981). An integrated system of classification of flowering plants. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231038805.  Cronquist, A (1988) [1968]. The evolution and classification of flowering plants (2nd ed.). Bronx, NY: New York Botanical Garden. 

Excerpt: Classification. 7 pp.

v t e

List of systems of plant taxonomy

Pre-Linnaean

John Ray
John Ray
system (1686–1704)

A discourse on the seeds of plants Methodus plantarum nova De Variis Plantarum Methodis Dissertatio Brevis Methodus plantarum emendata et aucta

Pre-Darwinian

Linnaean system (1735–51)

Systema Naturae Species Plantarum Genera Plantarum Philosophia Botanica

Adanson system (1763)

Familles naturelles des plantes

De Jussieu system (1789)

Genera Plantarum, secundum ordines naturales disposita juxta methodum in Horto Regio Parisiensi exaratam

De Candolle system (1819–24)

Théorie élémentaire de la botanique, ou exposition des principes de la classification naturelle et de l'art de décrire et d'etudier les végétaux Prodromus systemati naturalis regni vegetabilis sive enumeratio contracta ordinum, generum specierumque plantarum huc usque cognitarum, juxta methodi naturalis normas digesta

Berchtold and Presl system (1820–1823)

O Prirozenosti Rostlin

Agardh system (1825)

Classes Plantarum

Gray system (1821)

The Natural Arrangement of British Plants

Dumortier
Dumortier
system (1829)

Analyse des familles des plantes

Lindley system (1830–45)

An Introduction to the Natural System of Botany The Vegetable Kingdom

Don system (1834)

General History of Dichlamydious Plants.

Bentham & Hooker system (1862–83)

Genera plantarum ad exemplaria imprimis in herbariis kewensibus servata definita.

Baillon system (1867–94)

Histoire des plantes

Post- Darwinian
Darwinian
(Phyletic)

Nineteenth century

Eichler system (1875–1886)

Blüthendiagramme: construirt und erläutert Syllabus der Vorlesungen über Phanerogamenkunde

Engler system
Engler system
(1886–1924)

Führer durch den Königlich botanischen Garten der Universität zu Breslau Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien Das Pflanzenreich

van Tieghem system (1891)

Traité de botanique

Twentieth century

Dalla Torre & Harms system (1900–07)

Genera Siphonogamarum, ad systema Englerianum conscripta

Warming system (1912)

Haandbog i den systematiske botanik

Hallier system (1912)

L'origine et le système phylétique des angiospermes

Bessey system (1915)

The phylogenetic taxonomy of flowering plants

Wettstein system (1901–35)

Handbuch der systematischen Botanik

Lotsy system (1907–11)

Vorträge über botanische Stammesgeschichte, gehalten an der Reichsuniversität zu Leiden. Ein Lehrbuch der Pflanzensystematik.

Hutchinson system (1926–73)

The families of flowering plants, arranged according to a new system based on their probable phylogeny

Calestani system (1933)

Le origini e la classificazione delle Angiosperme

Kimura system (1956)

Système et phylogénie des monocotyledones

Emberger system (1960)

Traité de Botanique systématique

Melchior system (1964)

Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien

Takhtajan
Takhtajan
system (1966–97)

A system and phylogeny of the flowering plants Flowering plants: origin and dispersal Diversity and classification of flowering plants

Cronquist system
Cronquist system
(1968–81)

The evolution and classification of flowering plants An integrated system of classification of flowering plants

Goldberg system (1986–89

Classification, Evolution and Phylogeny of the Families of Dicotyledons

Dahlgren system (1975–85)

The families of the monocotyledons: structure, evolution, and taxonomy

Thorne system (1968–2000)

An updated phylogenetic classification of the flowering plants

Kubitzki system (1990–)

The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants

Reveal system (1999)

Reveal System of Angiosperm Classification

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group System (1998–2009)

An ordinal classification for the families of flowering plants (APG I) An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV Angiosperm Phylogeny Website

See also

Plantae at Wikispecies

Note: This is a selected list of the more influential systems. There are many other systems, for instance a review of earlier systems, published by Lindley in his 1853 edition, and Dahlgren (1982). Examples include the works of Scopoli, Bat

.