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The CRONQUIST SYSTEM is a taxonomic classification system of flowering plants . It was developed by Arthur Cronquist in a series of monographs and texts, including The Evolution and Classification of Flowering Plants (1968; 2nd edition, 1988) and An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants (1981) (see Bibliography ).

Cronquist's system places flowering plants into two broad classes, MAGNOLIOPSIDA (dicotyledons ) and LILIOPSIDA (monocotyledons ). Within these classes, related orders are grouped into subclasses. While the scheme was widely used, in either the original form or in adapted versions, many botanists now use the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants, first developed in 1998. The system as laid out in Cronquist's An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants (1981) counts 64 orders and 321 families in class Magnoliopsida and 19 orders and 65 families in class Liliopsida.

CONTENTS

* 1 The Evolution and Classification of Flowering Plants 1968 (monocots)

* 2 An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants 1981

* 2.1 Class Magnoliopsida (dicotyledons) * 2.2 Class Liliopsida (monocotyledons)

* 3 Bibliography

* 3.1 Work by Cronquist

THE EVOLUTION AND CLASSIFICATION OF FLOWERING PLANTS 1968 (MONOCOTS)

Class Liliatae (Monocotyledoneae)

* Subclass Alismatidae 4 orders

* Order Alismatales * ... * Order Triuridales

* Subclass Commelinidae 8 orders

* Order Commelinales * ... * Order Zingiberales

* Subclass Arecidae 4 orders

* Order Arecales * ... * Order Arales

* Subclass Liliidae 2 orders

* Order Liliales

* Family Philydraceae * Family Pontederiaceae * Family Liliaceae
Liliaceae
* Family Iridaceae
Iridaceae
* Family Agavaceae * Family Xanthorrhoeaceae * Family Velloziaceae * Family Haemodoraceae * Family Taccaceae * Family Cyanastraceae * Family Stemonaceae * Family Smilacaceae * Family Dioscoreaceae

* Order Orchidales

AN INTEGRATED SYSTEM OF CLASSIFICATION OF FLOWERING PLANTS 1981

CLASS MAGNOLIOPSIDA (DICOTYLEDONS)

Cronquist system
Cronquist system
diagram

* Subclass Magnoliidae (mostly basal dicots)

* Order Magnoliales

* Winteraceae * Degeneriaceae * Himantandraceae * Eupomatiaceae * Austrobaileyaceae * Magnoliaceae (magnolia family) * Lactoridaceae * Annonaceae * Myristicaceae * Canellaceae

* Order Laurales

* Amborellaceae * Trimeniaceae * Monimiaceae * Gomortegaceae * Calycanthaceae * Idiospermaceae * Lauraceae (laurel family) * Hernandiaceae

* Order Piperales

* Chloranthaceae
Chloranthaceae
* Saururaceae * Piperaceae (pepper family)

* Order Aristolochiales

* Aristolochiaceae
Aristolochiaceae

* Order Illiciales

* Illiciaceae * Schisandraceae

* Order Nymphaeales
Nymphaeales

* Nelumbonaceae * Nymphaeaceae * Barclayaceae * Cabombaceae * Ceratophyllaceae

* Order Ranunculales

* Ranunculaceae * Circaeasteraceae * Berberidaceae * Sargentodoxaceae * Lardizabalaceae * Menispermaceae * Coriariaceae * Sabiaceae

* Order Papaverales

* Papaveraceae
Papaveraceae
* Fumariaceae

* Subclass Hamamelidae

* Order Trochodendrales

* Tetracentraceae * Trochodendraceae

* Order Hamamelidales

* Cercidiphyllaceae * Eupteleaceae * Platanaceae * Hamamelidaceae * Myrothamnaceae

* Order Daphniphyllales

* Daphniphyllaceae

* Order Didymelales

* Didymelaceae

* Order Eucommiales

* Eucommiaceae

* Order Urticales

* Barbeyaceae * Ulmaceae * Cannabaceae
Cannabaceae
* Moraceae * Cecropiaceae * Urticaceae
Urticaceae

* Order Leitneriales

* Leitneriaceae

* Order Juglandales

* Rhoipteleaceae * Juglandaceae

* Order Myricales

* Myricaceae

* Order Fagales
Fagales

* Balanopaceae * Ticodendraceae * Fagaceae
Fagaceae
* Nothofagaceae * Betulaceae

* Order Casuarinales

* Casuarinaceae

* Subclass Caryophyllidae

* Order Caryophyllales

* Phytolaccaceae * Achatocarpaceae * Nyctaginaceae * Aizoaceae * Didiereaceae * Cactaceae
Cactaceae
(cactus family) * Chenopodiaceae * Amaranthaceae
Amaranthaceae
* Portulacaceae * Basellaceae * Molluginaceae * Caryophyllaceae
Caryophyllaceae

* Order Polygonales

* Polygonaceae

* Order Plumbaginales

* Plumbaginaceae

* Subclass Dilleniidae

* Order Dilleniales

* Dilleniaceae * Paeoniaceae

* Order Theales

* Ochnaceae * Sphaerosepalaceae * Sarcolaenaceae * Dipterocarpaceae * Caryocaraceae * Theaceae (tea family) * Actinidiaceae * Scytopetalaceae * Pentaphylacaceae * Tetrameristaceae * Pellicieraceae * Oncothecaceae * Marcgraviaceae * Quiinaceae * Elatinaceae * Paracryphiaceae * Medusagynaceae * Clusiaceae

* Order Malvales

* Elaeocarpaceae * Tiliaceae * Sterculiaceae * Bombacaceae * Malvaceae
Malvaceae

* Order Lecythidales

* Lecythidaceae

* Order Nepenthales

* Sarraceniaceae
Sarraceniaceae
* Nepenthaceae * Droseraceae

* Order Violales

* Flacourtiaceae * Peridiscaceae * Bixaceae * Cistaceae
Cistaceae
* Huaceae * Lacistemataceae * Scyphostegiaceae * Stachyuraceae
Stachyuraceae
* Violaceae (violet family) * Tamaricaceae
Tamaricaceae
(tamarind family) * Frankeniaceae * Dioncophyllaceae * Ancistrocladaceae * Turneraceae * Malesherbiaceae * Passifloraceae * Achariaceae * Caricaceae * Fouquieriaceae * Hoplestigmataceae * Cucurbitaceae * Datiscaceae * Begoniaceae * Loasaceae

* Order Salicales

* Salicaceae

* Order Capparales

* Tovariaceae * Capparaceae * Brassicaceae
Brassicaceae
* Moringaceae * Resedaceae
Resedaceae

* Order Batales

* Gyrostemonaceae * Bataceae

* Order Ericales

* Cyrillaceae * Clethraceae * Grubbiaceae * Empetraceae * Epacridaceae * Ericaceae
Ericaceae
* Pyrolaceae * Monotropaceae

* Order Diapensiales

* Diapensiaceae

* Order Ebenales

* Sapotaceae * Ebenaceae * Styracaceae * Lissocarpaceae * Symplocaceae

* Order Primulales

* Theophrastaceae * Myrsinaceae * Primulaceae

* Subclass Rosidae

* Order Rosales

* Brunelliaceae * Connaraceae * Eucryphiaceae * Cunoniaceae * Davidsoniaceae * Dialypetalanthaceae * Pittosporaceae
Pittosporaceae
* Byblidaceae * Hydrangeaceae * Columelliaceae * Grossulariaceae * Greyiaceae * Bruniaceae * Anisophylleaceae * Alseuosmiaceae * Crassulaceae * Cephalotaceae * Saxifragaceae * Rosaceae
Rosaceae
(rose family) * Neuradaceae * Crossosomataceae * Chrysobalanaceae * Surianaceae * Rhabdodendraceae

* Order Fabales

* Mimosaceae (mimosa family) * Caesalpiniaceae * Fabaceae
Fabaceae

* Order Proteales

* Elaeagnaceae * Proteaceae
Proteaceae

* Order Podostemales

* Podostemaceae

* Order Haloragales
Haloragales

* Haloragaceae * Gunneraceae

* Order Myrtales

* Sonneratiaceae * Lythraceae * Penaeaceae * Crypteroniaceae * Thymelaeaceae
Thymelaeaceae
* Trapaceae * Myrtaceae * Punicaceae * Onagraceae * Oliniaceae * Melastomataceae * Combretaceae * Alzateaceae * Memecylaceae * Rhyncocalycaceae

* Order Rhizophorales

* Rhizophoraceae

* Order Cornales

* Alangiaceae * Nyssaceae * Cornaceae
Cornaceae
* Garryaceae

* Order Santalales

* Medusandraceae * Dipentodontaceae * Olacaceae * Opiliaceae * Santalaceae * Misodendraceae * Loranthaceae * Viscaceae * Eremolepidaceae * Balanophoraceae

* Order Rafflesiales

* Hydnoraceae * Mitrastemonaceae * Rafflesiaceae

* Order Celastrales

* Geissolomataceae * Celastraceae * Hippocrateaceae * Stackhousiaceae * Salvadoraceae * Aquifoliaceae * Icacinaceae
Icacinaceae
* Aextoxicaceae * Cardiopteridaceae * Corynocarpaceae * Dichapetalaceae * Tepuianthaceae

* Order Euphorbiales

* Buxaceae * Simmondsiaceae * Pandaceae * Euphorbiaceae

* Order Rhamnales

* Rhamnaceae * Leeaceae * Vitaceae

* Order Linales

* Erythroxylaceae * Humiriaceae * Ixonanthaceae * Hugoniaceae * Linaceae

* Order Polygalales
Polygalales

* Malpighiaceae * Vochysiaceae * Trigoniaceae * Tremandraceae * Polygalaceae * Xanthophyllaceae
Xanthophyllaceae
* Krameriaceae

* Order Sapindales

* Staphyleaceae * Melianthaceae
Melianthaceae
* Bretschneideraceae * Akaniaceae * Sapindaceae * Hippocastanaceae * Aceraceae * Burseraceae * Anacardiaceae * Julianiaceae * Simaroubaceae * Cneoraceae * Meliaceae * Rutaceae * Zygophyllaceae

* Order Geraniales

* Oxalidaceae * Geraniaceae
Geraniaceae
* Limnanthaceae * Tropaeolaceae * Balsaminaceae
Balsaminaceae

* Order Apiales
Apiales

* Araliaceae * Apiaceae
Apiaceae

* Subclass Asteridae

* Order Gentianales
Gentianales

* Loganiaceae * Retziaceae * Gentianaceae
Gentianaceae
* Saccifoliaceae * Apocynaceae
Apocynaceae
* Asclepiadaceae

* Order Solanales

* Duckeodendraceae * Nolanaceae * Solanaceae * Convolvulaceae * Cuscutaceae
Cuscutaceae
* Menyanthaceae * Polemoniaceae * Hydrophyllaceae * Retziaceae

* Order Lamiales

* Lennoaceae * Boraginaceae
Boraginaceae
* Verbenaceae * Lamiaceae

* Order Callitrichales

* Hippuridaceae * Callitrichaceae * Hydrostachyaceae

* Order Plantaginales

* Plantaginaceae

* Order Scrophulariales

* Buddlejaceae * Oleaceae (olive family) * Scrophulariaceae * Globulariaceae * Myoporaceae * Orobanchaceae * Gesneriaceae * Acanthaceae * Pedaliaceae * Bignoniaceae * Mendonciaceae * Lentibulariaceae

* Order Campanulales

* Pentaphragmataceae * Sphenocleaceae * Campanulaceae
Campanulaceae
* Stylidiaceae * Donatiaceae * Brunoniaceae * Goodeniaceae

* Order Rubiales

* Rubiaceae
Rubiaceae
* Theligonaceae

* Order Dipsacales
Dipsacales

* Caprifoliaceae
Caprifoliaceae
* Adoxaceae * Valerianaceae * Dipsacaceae

* Order Calycerales

* Calyceraceae

* Order Asterales

* Asteraceae
Asteraceae

CLASS LILIOPSIDA (MONOCOTYLEDONS)

* Subclass Alismatidae

* Order Alismatales

* Butomaceae * Limnocharitaceae * Alismataceae

* Order Hydrocharitales

* Hydrocharitaceae

* Order Najadales

* Aponogetonaceae * Scheuchzeriaceae * Juncaginaceae * Potamogetonaceae * Ruppiaceae * Najadaceae * Zannichelliaceae * Posidoniaceae * Cymodoceaceae * Zosteraceae

* Order Triuridales

* Petrosaviaceae * Triuridaceae

* Subclass Arecidae

* Order Arecales

* Arecaceae (palm family)

* Order Cyclanthales

* Cyclanthaceae

* Order Pandanales

* Pandanaceae (pandan family)

* Order Arales

* Acoraceae * Araceae * Lemnaceae

* Subclass Commelinidae

* Order Commelinales

* Rapateaceae * Xyridaceae * Mayacaceae * Commelinaceae

* Order Eriocaulales
Eriocaulales

* Eriocaulaceae

* Order Restionales

* Flagellariaceae * Joinvilleaceae * Restionaceae * Centrolepidaceae

* Order Juncales
Juncales

* Juncaceae * Thurniaceae

* Order Cyperales
Cyperales

* Cyperaceae * Poaceae (Grass family)

* Order Hydatellales

* Hydatellaceae

* Order Typhales

* Sparganiaceae * Typhaceae
Typhaceae

* Subclass Zingiberidae

* Order Bromeliales

* Bromeliaceae

* Order Zingiberales

* Strelitziaceae * Heliconiaceae
Heliconiaceae
* Musaceae * Lowiaceae * Zingiberaceae (Ginger family) * Costaceae * Cannaceae * Marantaceae

* Subclass Liliidae

* Order Liliales

* Philydraceae * Pontederiaceae * Haemodoraceae * Cyanastraceae * Liliaceae
Liliaceae
(Lily family) * Iridaceae
Iridaceae
(Iris family) * Velloziaceae * Aloeaceae (Aloe family) * Agavaceae * Xanthorrhoeaceae * Hanguanaceae * Taccaceae * Stemonaceae * Smilacaceae * Dioscoreaceae

* Order Orchidales

* Geosiridaceae * Burmanniaceae * Corsiaceae * Orchidaceae
Orchidaceae
(Orchid family)

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Texas A and M University Bioinformatics Working Group : Cronquist System * Reveal, James (4 October 1998). "Cronquist Family Names and Synonymy". Indices Nominum Supragenericorum Plantarum Project. University of Maryland: Norton-Brown Herbarium. Retrieved 3 January 2016. * Reveal, James (22 November 1998). "Lists of the Flowering Plant Taxa Accepted by Cronquist, Dahlgren, Reveal, Takhtajan & Thorne". Vascular Plant Family Nomenclature. University of Maryland: Norton-Brown Herbarium. Retrieved 3 January 2016.

WORK BY CRONQUIST

* Cronquist, Arthur. (1957). Outline of a new system of families and orders of dicotyledons. Bull. Jard. Bot. Etat Brux. 27: 13–40. * Cronquist, Arthur (October 1960). "The divisions and classes of plants". The Botanical Review. 26 (4): 425–482. doi :10.1007/BF02940572 . * Cronquist, Arthur (September 1965). "The Status of the General System of Classification of Flowering Plants". Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden . 52 (3): 281–303. doi :10.2307/2394794 . * Cronquist, Arthur ; Takhtajan, Armen ; Zimmermann, Walter (April 1966). "On the Higher Taxa of Embryobionta". Taxon . 15 (4): 129–134. doi :10.2307/1217531 . JSTOR
JSTOR
1217531 . * Cronquist, A (1981). An integrated system of classification of flowering plants. New York: Columbia University Press
Columbia University Press
. ISBN 9780231038805 .

* Cronquist, A (1988) . The evolution and classification of flowering plants (2nd ed.). Bronx, NY: New York Botanical Garden.

* Excerpt: Classification. 7 pp.

* v * t * e

List of systems of plant taxonomy

PRE-LINNAEAN

JOHN RAY SYSTEM (1686–1704)

* A discourse on the seeds of plants * Methodus plantarum nova * De Variis Plantarum Methodis Dissertatio Brevis * Methodus plantarum emendata et aucta

PRE-DARWINIAN

LINNAEAN SYSTEM (1735–51)

* Systema Naturae * Species Plantarum * Genera Plantarum * Philosophia Botanica

ADANSON SYSTEM (1763) Familles naturelles des plantes

DE JUSSIEU SYSTEM (1789) Genera Plantarum, secundum ordines naturales disposita juxta methodum in Horto Regio Parisiensi exaratam

DE CANDOLLE SYSTEM (1819–24)

* Théorie élémentaire de la botanique, ou exposition des principes de la classification naturelle et de l'art de décrire et d'etudier les végétaux * Prodromus systemati naturalis regni vegetabilis sive enumeratio contracta ordinum, generum specierumque plantarum huc usque cognitarum, juxta methodi naturalis normas digesta

Berchtold and Presl system (1820–1823) O Prirozenosti Rostlin

AGARDH SYSTEM (1825) Classes Plantarum

GRAY SYSTEM (1821) The Natural Arrangement of British Plants

DUMORTIER SYSTEM (1829) Analyse des familles des plantes

LINDLEY SYSTEM (1830–45)

* An Introduction to the Natural System of Botany * The Vegetable Kingdom

DON SYSTEM (1834) General History of Dichlamydious Plants.

Bentham border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

NINETEENTH CENTURY

EICHLER SYSTEM (1875–1886)

* Blüthendiagramme: construirt und erläutert * Syllabus der Vorlesungen über Phanerogamenkunde

ENGLER SYSTEM (1886–1924)

* Führer durch den Königlich botanischen Garten der Universität zu Breslau * Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien * Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien * Das Pflanzenreich

VAN TIEGHEM SYSTEM (1891) Traité de botanique

TWENTIETH CENTURY

Dalla Torre border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* A system and phylogeny of the flowering plants * Flowering plants: origin and dispersal * Diversity and classification of flowering plants

CRONQUIST SYSTEM (1968–81)

* The evolution and classification of flowering plants * An integrated system of classification of flowering plants

GOLDBERG SYSTEM (1986–89 Classification, Evolution and Phylogeny of the Families of Dicotyledons

DAHLGREN SYSTEM (1975–85) The families of the monocotyledons: structure, evolution, and taxonomy

THORNE SYSTEM (1968–2000) An updated phylogenetic classification of the flowering plants

KUBITZKI SYSTEM (1990–) The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants

REVEAL SYSTEM (1999) Reveal System of Angiosperm Classification

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group System (1998–2009)

* An ordinal classification for the families of flowering plants (APG I) * An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II * An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III * An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV * Angiosperm Phylogeny Website

SEE ALSO Plantae at Wikispecies

Note: This is a selected list of the more influential systems. There are many other systems, for instance a review of earlier systems, published by Lindley in his 1853 edition, and Dahlgren (1982). Examples include the works of Scopoli , Bats

.