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The Jurassic
Jurassic
( /dʒʊˈræsɪk/; from Jura Mountains) was a geologic period and system that spanned 56 million years from the end of the Triassic
Triassic
Period 201.3 million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Period 145 Mya.[note 1] The Jurassic
Jurassic
constituted the middle period of the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
Era, also known as the Age of Reptiles. The start of the period was marked by the major Triassic–Jurassic extinction event. Two other extinction events occurred during the period: the Pliensbachian/ Toarcian
Toarcian
event in the Early Jurassic, and the Tithonian
Tithonian
event at the end; however, neither event ranks among the "Big Five" mass extinctions. The Jurassic
Jurassic
is named after the Jura Mountains
Jura Mountains
within the European Alps, where limestone strata from the period were first identified. By the beginning of the Jurassic, the supercontinent Pangaea
Pangaea
had begun rifting into two landmasses: Laurasia
Laurasia
to the north, and Gondwana
Gondwana
to the south. This created more coastlines and shifted the continental climate from dry to humid, and many of the arid deserts of the Triassic
Triassic
were replaced by lush rainforests. On land, the fauna transitioned from the Triassic
Triassic
fauna, dominated by both dinosauromorph and crocodylomorph archosaurs, to one dominated by dinosaurs alone. The first birds also appeared during the Jurassic, having evolved from a branch of theropod dinosaurs. Other major events include the appearance of the earliest lizards, and the evolution of therian mammals, including primitive placentals. Crocodilians made the transition from a terrestrial to an aquatic mode of life. The oceans were inhabited by marine reptiles such as ichthyosaurs and plesiosaurs, while pterosaurs were the dominant flying vertebrates.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Divisions 3 Paleogeography and tectonics 4 Fauna

4.1 Aquatic and marine 4.2 Terrestrial

5 Flora 6 See also 7 Explanatory notes 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links

Etymology[edit] The chronostratigraphic term "Jurassic" is directly linked to the Jura Mountains. During a tour of the region in 1795,[7] Alexander von Humboldt recognized the mainly limestone dominated mountain range of the Jura Mountains
Jura Mountains
as a separate formation that had not been included in the established stratigraphic system defined by Abraham Gottlob Werner, and he named it "Jura-Kalkstein" ('Jura limestone') in 1799.[8][9][10][11] The name "Jura" is derived from the Celtic root *jor via Gaulish *iuris "wooded mountain", which, borrowed into Latin as a place name, evolved into Juria and finally Jura.[9][10][12] Divisions[edit] The Jurassic
Jurassic
period is divided into the Early Jurassic, Middle, and Late Jurassic epochs. The Jurassic
Jurassic
System, in stratigraphy, is divided into the Lower Jurassic, Middle, and Upper Jurassic series of rock formations, also known as Lias, Dogger and Malm in Europe.[13] The separation of the term Jurassic
Jurassic
into three sections goes back to Leopold von Buch.[11] The faunal stages from youngest to oldest are:

Upper/Late Jurassic

Tithonian (152.1 ± 4 – 145 ± 4 Mya)

Kimmeridgian (157.3 ± 4 – 152.1 ± 4 Mya)

Oxfordian (163.5 ± 4 – 157.3 ± 4 Mya)

Middle Jurassic

Callovian (166.1 ± 4 – 163.5 ± 4 Mya)

Bathonian (168.3 ± 3.5 – 166.1 ± 4 Mya)

Bajocian (170.3 ± 3 – 168.3 ± 3.5 Mya)

Aalenian (174.1 ± 2 – 170.3 ± 3 Mya)

Lower/Early Jurassic

Toarcian (182.7 ± 1.5 – 174.1 ± 2 Mya)

Pliensbachian (190.8 ± 1.5 – 182.7 ± 1.5 Mya)

Sinemurian (199.3 ± 1 – 190.8 ± 1.5 Mya)

Hettangian (201.3 ± 0.6 – 199.3 ± 1 Mya)

Paleogeography and tectonics[edit]

Depiction of Early Jurassic
Early Jurassic
environment preserved at the St. George Dinosaur
Dinosaur
Discovery Site at Johnson Farm, with Dilophosaurus
Dilophosaurus
wetherilli in bird-like resting pose

During the early Jurassic
Jurassic
period, the supercontinent Pangaea
Pangaea
broke up into the northern supercontinent Laurasia
Laurasia
and the southern supercontinent Gondwana; the Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico
opened in the new rift between North America
North America
and what is now Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula. The Jurassic
Jurassic
North Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
was relatively narrow, while the South Atlantic did not open until the following Cretaceous
Cretaceous
period, when Gondwana
Gondwana
itself rifted apart.[14] The Tethys Sea closed, and the Neotethys basin appeared. Climates were warm, with no evidence of glaciation. As in the Triassic, there was apparently no land over either pole, and no extensive ice caps existed. The Jurassic
Jurassic
geological record is good in western Europe, where extensive marine sequences indicate a time when much of that future landmass was submerged under shallow tropical seas; famous locales include the Jurassic Coast
Jurassic Coast
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
in southern England and the renowned late Jurassic
Jurassic
lagerstätten of Holzmaden
Holzmaden
and Solnhofen in Germany.[15] In contrast, the North American Jurassic
Jurassic
record is the poorest of the Mesozoic, with few outcrops at the surface.[16] Though the epicontinental Sundance Sea left marine deposits in parts of the northern plains of the United States and Canada during the late Jurassic, most exposed sediments from this period are continental, such as the alluvial deposits of the Morrison Formation. The Jurassic
Jurassic
was a time of calcite sea geochemistry in which low-magnesium calcite was the primary inorganic marine precipitate of calcium carbonate. Carbonate hardgrounds
Carbonate hardgrounds
were thus very common, along with calcitic ooids, calcitic cements, and invertebrate faunas with dominantly calcitic skeletons (Stanley and Hardie, 1998, 1999). The first of several massive batholiths were emplaced in the northern American cordillera beginning in the mid-Jurassic, marking the Nevadan orogeny.[17] Important Jurassic
Jurassic
exposures are also found in Russia, India, South America, Japan, Australasia and the United Kingdom. In Africa, Early Jurassic
Early Jurassic
strata are distributed in a similar fashion to Late Triassic
Triassic
beds, with more common outcrops in the south and less common fossil beds which are predominated by tracks to the north.[18] As the Jurassic
Jurassic
proceeded, larger and more iconic groups of dinosaurs like sauropods and ornithopods proliferated in Africa.[18] Middle Jurassic
Jurassic
strata are neither well represented nor well studied in Africa.[18] Late Jurassic strata are also poorly represented apart from the spectacular Tendaguru fauna in Tanzania.[18] The Late Jurassic
Jurassic
life of Tendaguru is very similar to that found in western North America's Morrison Formation.[18]

Jurassic
Jurassic
limestones and marls (the Matmor Formation) in southern Israel.

The late Jurassic
Jurassic
Morrison Formation
Morrison Formation
in Colorado
Colorado
is one of the most fertile sources of dinosaur fossils in North America.

Gigandipus, a dinosaur footprint in the Lower Jurassic
Lower Jurassic
Moenave Formation at the St. George Dinosaur
Dinosaur
Discovery Site at Johnson Farm, southwestern Utah.

The Permian
Permian
through Jurassic
Jurassic
stratigraphy of the Colorado
Colorado
Plateau area of southeastern Utah.

Fauna[edit] Aquatic and marine[edit] During the Jurassic
Jurassic
period, the primary vertebrates living in the sea were fish and marine reptiles. The latter include ichthyosaurs, which were at the peak of their diversity, plesiosaurs, pliosaurs, and marine crocodiles of the families Teleosauridae
Teleosauridae
and Metriorhynchidae.[19] Numerous turtles could be found in lakes and rivers.[20][21] In the invertebrate world, several new groups appeared, including rudists (a reef-forming variety of bivalves) and belemnites. Calcareous sabellids (Glomerula) appeared in the Early Jurassic.[22][23] The Jurassic
Jurassic
also had diverse encrusting and boring (sclerobiont) communities, and it saw a significant rise in the bioerosion of carbonate shells and hardgrounds. Especially common is the ichnogenus (trace fossil) Gastrochaenolites.[24] During the Jurassic
Jurassic
period, about four or five of the twelve clades of planktonic organisms that exist in the fossil record either experienced a massive evolutionary radiation or appeared for the first time.[13]

A Pliosaurus
Pliosaurus
(right) harassing a Leedsichthys
Leedsichthys
in a Jurassic
Jurassic
sea.

Ichthyosaurus
Ichthyosaurus
from lower (early) Jurassic
Jurassic
slates in southern Germany featured a dolphin-like body shape.

Plesiosaurs like Muraenosaurus
Muraenosaurus
roamed Jurassic
Jurassic
oceans.

Gastropod
Gastropod
and attached mytilid bivalves on a Jurassic
Jurassic
limestone bedding plane in southern Israel.

Terrestrial[edit]

Example of Rare Early Jurassic
Early Jurassic
(Pliensbachian) Ecosystem, the Drzewica Formation of Szydłowiec, Poland. This zone was characterised by a very Damp ecosystem a populated by Dinosaur
Dinosaur
Megafauna, more related in several aspects to Middle or Late Jurassic Dinosaurs

On land, various archosaurian reptiles remained dominant. The Jurassic was a golden age for the large herbivorous dinosaurs known as the sauropods—Camarasaurus, Apatosaurus, Diplodocus, Brachiosaurus, and many others—that roamed the land late in the period; their foraging grounds were either the prairies of ferns, palm-like cycads and bennettitales, or the higher coniferous growth, according to their adaptations. The smaller Ornithischian herbivore dinosaurs, like stegosaurs and small ornithopods were less predominant, but played important roles. They were preyed upon by large theropods, such as Ceratosaurus, Megalosaurus, Torvosaurus
Torvosaurus
and Allosaurus. All these belong to the 'lizard hipped' or saurischian branch of the dinosaurs.[25] During the Late Jurassic, the first avialans, like Archaeopteryx, evolved from small coelurosaurian dinosaurs. In the air, pterosaurs were common; they ruled the skies, filling many ecological roles now taken by birds,[26] and may have already produced some of the largest flying animals of all time.[27][28] Within the undergrowth were various types of early mammals, as well as tritylodonts, lizard-like sphenodonts, and early lissamphibians. The rest of the Lissamphibia
Lissamphibia
evolved in this period, introducing the first salamanders and caecilians.[29]

Diplodocus, reaching lengths over 30 m, was a common sauropod during the late Jurassic.

Allosaurus
Allosaurus
was one of the largest land predators during the Jurassic.

Stegosaurus
Stegosaurus
is one of the most recognizable genera of dinosaurs and lived during the mid to late Jurassic.

Archaeopteryx, a primitive bird-like dinosaur, appeared in the Late Jurassic.

Aurornis xui, which lived in the late Jurassic, may be the most primitive avialan dinosaur known to date, and is one of the earliest avialans found to date.

Flora[edit]

Conifers
Conifers
were the dominant land plants of the Jurassic

Various dinosaurs roamed forests of similarly large conifers during the Jurassic
Jurassic
period.

The arid, continental conditions characteristic of the Triassic steadily eased during the Jurassic
Jurassic
period, especially at higher latitudes; the warm, humid climate allowed lush jungles to cover much of the landscape.[30] Gymnosperms were relatively diverse during the Jurassic
Jurassic
period.[13] The Conifers
Conifers
in particular dominated the flora, as during the Triassic; they were the most diverse group and constituted the majority of large trees. Extant conifer families that flourished during the Jurassic
Jurassic
included the Araucariaceae, Cephalotaxaceae, Pinaceae, Podocarpaceae, Taxaceae and Taxodiaceae.[31] The extinct Mesozoic
Mesozoic
conifer family Cheirolepidiaceae
Cheirolepidiaceae
dominated low latitude vegetation, as did the shrubby Bennettitales.[32] Cycads, similar to palm trees, were also common, as were ginkgos and Dicksoniaceous tree ferns in the forest.[13] Smaller ferns were probably the dominant undergrowth. Caytoniaceous seed ferns were another group of important plants during this time and are thought to have been shrub to small-tree sized.[33] Ginkgo
Ginkgo
plants were particularly common in the mid- to high northern latitudes.[13] In the Southern Hemisphere, podocarps were especially successful, while Ginkgos and Czekanowskiales were rare.[30][32] In the oceans, modern coralline algae appeared for the first time.[13] However, they were a part of another major extinction that happened within the next major time period. See also[edit]

Jurassic
Jurassic
portal

Black Jurassic Brown Jurassic White Jurassic Jurassic
Jurassic
Park

Jurassic
Jurassic
portal Mesozoic
Mesozoic
portal Geology portal Paleontology portal Time portal

Explanatory notes[edit]

^ A 140 Ma age for the Jurassic- Cretaceous
Cretaceous
instead of the usually accepted 145 Ma was proposed in 2014 based on a stratigraphic study of Vaca Muerta
Vaca Muerta
Formation in Neuquén Basin, Argentina.[5] Víctor Ramos, one of the authors of the study proposing the 140 Ma boundary age, sees the study as a "first step" toward formally changing the age in the International Union of Geological Sciences.[6]

Notes[edit]

^ Image:Sauerstoffgehalt-1000mj.svg ^ File:OxygenLevel-1000ma.svg ^ Image: Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
Carbon Dioxide.png ^ Image:All palaeotemps.png ^ Vennari, Verónica V.; Lescano, Marina; Naipauer, Maximiliano; Aguirre-Urreta, Beatriz; Concheyro, Andrea; Schaltegger, Urs; Armstrong, Richard; Pimentel, Marcio; Ramos, Victor A. (2014). "New constraints on the Jurassic– Cretaceous
Cretaceous
boundary in the High Andes using high-precision U–Pb data". Gondwana
Gondwana
Research. 26: 374–385. doi:10.1016/j.gr.2013.07.005. Retrieved 16 January 2016.  ^ Jaramillo, Jessica. "Entrevista al Dr. Víctor Alberto Ramos, Premio México Ciencia y Tecnología 2013" (in Spanish). Si logramos publicar esos nuevos resultados, sería el primer paso para cambiar formalmente la edad del Jurásico-Cretácico. A partir de ahí, la Unión Internacional de la Ciencias Geológicas y la Comisión Internacional de Estratigrafía certificaría o no, depende de los resultados, ese cambio.  ^ Alexander von Humboldt, Kosmos, volume 4 (Stuttgart: Cotta, 1858), p. 632: "Ich hatte mich auf einer geognostischen Reise, die ich 1795 durch das südliche Franken, die westliche Schweiz und Ober-Italien machte, davon überzeugt, daß der Jura-Kalkstein, welchen Werner zu seinem Muschelkalk rechnete, eine eigne Formation bildete. In meiner Schrift über die unterirdischen Gasarten, welche mein Bruder Wilhelm von Humboldt 1799 während meines Aufenthalts in Südamerika herausgab, wird der Formation, die ich vorläufig mit dem Namen Jura-Kalkstein bezeichnete, zuerst (S. 39) gedacht." ('On a geological tour that I made in 1795 through southern France, western Switzerland and upper Italy, I convinced myself that the Jura limestone, which Werner included in his shell limestone, constituted a separate formation. In my paper about subterranean types of gases, which my brother Wilhelm von Humboldt published in 1799 during my stay in South America, the formation, which I provisionally designated with the name "Jura limestone", is first conceived (p. 39).' ^ Alexander von Humboldt, Ueber die unterirdischen Gasarten und die Mittel, ihren Nachteil zu vermindern, ein Beitrag zur Physik der praktischen Bergbaukunde ['On the types of subterranean gases and means of minimizing their harm, a contribution to the physics of practical mining'] (Braunschweig: Vieweg, 1799), p. 39: "[…] die ausgebreitete Formation, welche zwischen dem alten Gips und neueren Sandstein liegt, und welchen ich vorläufig mit dem Nahmen Jura-Kalkstein bezeichne." ('… the widespread formation which lies between the old gypsum and the more recent sandstone and which I provisionally designate with the name "Jura limestone".') ^ a b Hölder, H. 1964. Jura – Handbuch der stratigraphischen Geologie, IV. Enke-Verlag, Stuttgart. ^ a b Arkell, W.J. 1956. Jurassic
Jurassic
Geology of the World. Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh und London. ^ a b Pieńkowski, G.; Schudack, M.E.; Bosák, P.; Enay, R.; Feldman-Olszewska, A.; Golonka, J.; Gutowski, J.; Herngreen, G.F.W.; Jordan, P.; Krobicki, M.; Lathuiliere, B.; Leinfelder, R.R.; Michalík, J.; Mönnig, E.; Noe-Nygaard, N.; Pálfy, J.; Pint, A.; Rasser, M.W.; Reisdorf, A.G.; Schmid, D.U.; Schweigert, G.; Surlyk, F.; Wetzel, A. & Theo E. Wong, T.E. 2008. "Jurassic". In: McCann, T. (ed.): The Geology of Central Europe. Volume 2: Mesozoic
Mesozoic
and Cenozoic, Geological Society, London, pp. 823–922. ^ Rollier, L. 1903. Das Schweizerische Juragebirge (Sonderabdruck aus dem Geographischen Lexikon der Schweiz). Verlag von Gebr. Attinger, Neuenburg. ^ a b c d e f Kazlev, M. Alan (2002) Palaeos website Archived 2006-01-05 at the Wayback Machine. Accessed July. 22, 2008 ^ Late Jurassic ^ Jurassic
Jurassic
Period Archived 2007-07-14 at the Wayback Machine. ^ map Archived 2007-07-15 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Monroe and Wicander, 607. ^ a b c d e Jacobs, Louis, L. (1997). "African Dinosaurs". Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs. Edited by Phillip J. Currie and Kevin Padian. Academic Press. p. 2-4. ^ Motani, R. (2000), Rulers of the Jurassic
Jurassic
Seas, Scientific American vol.283, no. 6 ^ Wings, Oliver; Rabi, Márton; Schneider, Jörg W.; Schwermann, Leonie; Sun, Ge; Zhou, Chang-Fu; Joyce, Walter G. (2012), "An enormous Jurassic
Jurassic
turtle bone bed from the Turpan Basin of Xinjiang, China", Naturwissenschaften: The Science of Nature, 114: 925–935, Bibcode:2012NW.....99..925W, doi:10.1007/s00114-012-0974-5  ^ Gannon, Megan (October 31, 2012), " Jurassic
Jurassic
turtle graveyard found in China", Livescience.com  ^ Vinn, O.; Mutvei, H. (2009). "Calcareous tubeworms of the Phanerozoic" (PDF). Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences. 58 (4): 286–296. doi:10.3176/earth.2009.4.07. Retrieved 2012-09-16.  ^ Vinn, O.; ten Hove, H.A.; Mutvei, H. (2008). "On the tube ultrastructure and origin of calcification in sabellids (Annelida, Polychaeta)". Palaeontology. 51: 295–301. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2008.00763.x. Retrieved 2014-06-11.  ^ Taylor, P. D.; Wilson, M. A. (2003). "Palaeoecology and evolution of marine hard substrate communities". Earth-Science Reviews. 62 (1–2): 1–103. Bibcode:2003ESRv...62....1T. doi:10.1016/S0012-8252(02)00131-9.  ^ Haines, Tim (2000). Walking with Dinosaurs: A Natural History. New York: Dorling Kindersley. ISBN 0-7894-5187-5.  ^ Feduccia, A. (1996). The Origin and Evolution
Evolution
of Birds. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-06460-8.  ^ Witton, Mark P.; Martill, David M.; Loveridge, Robert F. (2010). "Clipping the Wings of Giant Pterosaurs: Comments on Wingspan Estimations and Diversity". Acta Geoscientica Sinica. 31 (Supp 1): 79–81.  ^ Why the giant azhdarchid Arambourgiania philadelphiae needs a fanclub ^ Carroll, R. L. (1988). Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution. New York: WH Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-1822-7.  ^ a b Haines, 2000. ^ Behrensmeyer et al., 1992, 349. ^ a b Behrensmeyer et al., 1992, 352 ^ Behrensmeyer et al., 1992, 353

References[edit]

Behrensmeyer, Damuth, J.D., DiMichele, W.A., Potts, R., Sues, H.D. & Wing, S.L. (eds.) (1992), Terrestrial Ecosystems through Time: the Evolutionary Paleoecology of Terrestrial Plants and Animals, University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London, ISBN 0-226-04154-9 (cloth), ISBN 0-226-04155-7 (paper). Haines, Tim (2000) Walking with Dinosaurs: A Natural History, New York: Dorling Kindersley Publishing, Inc., p. 65. ISBN 0-563-38449-2. Kazlev, M. Alan (2002) Palaeos website Accessed Jan. 8, 2006. Mader, Sylvia (2004) Biology, eighth edition. Monroe, James S., and Reed Wicander. (1997) The Changing Earth: Exploring Geology and Evolution, 2nd ed. Belmont: West Publishing Company, 1997. ISBN 0-314-09577-2. Ogg, Jim; June, 2004, Overview of Global Boundary Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSP's), International Commission on Stratigraphy, pp. 17 Stanley, S.M.; Hardie, L.A. (1998). "Secular oscillations in the carbonate mineralogy of reef-building and sediment-producing organisms driven by tectonically forced shifts in seawater chemistry". Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 144: 3–19. doi:10.1016/s0031-0182(98)00109-6.  Stanley, S.M.; Hardie, L.A. (1999). "Hypercalcification; paleontology links plate tectonics and geochemistry to sedimentology". GSA Today. 9: 1–7.  Taylor, P.D.; Wilson, M.A. (2003). "Palaeoecology and evolution of marine hard substrate communities" (PDF). Earth-Science Reviews. 62: 1–103. Bibcode:2003ESRv...62....1T. doi:10.1016/s0012-8252(02)00131-9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-03-25. 

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v t e

Jurassic
Jurassic
Period

Lower/Early Jurassic Middle Jurassic Upper/Late Jurassic

Hettangian Sinemurian Pliensbachian Toarcian

Aalenian Bajocian Bathonian Callovian

Oxfordian Kimmeridgian Tithonian

v t e

Geologic history of Earth

Cenozoic
Cenozoic
era¹ (present–66.0 Mya)

Quaternary
Quaternary
(present–2.588 Mya)

Holocene
Holocene
(present–11.784 kya) Pleistocene
Pleistocene
(11.784 kya–2.588 Mya)

Neogene
Neogene
(2.588–23.03 Mya)

Pliocene
Pliocene
(2.588–5.333 Mya) Miocene
Miocene
(5.333–23.03 Mya)

Paleogene (23.03–66.0 Mya)

Oligocene
Oligocene
(23.03–33.9 Mya) Eocene
Eocene
(33.9–56.0 Mya) Paleocene
Paleocene
(56.0–66.0 Mya)

Mesozoic
Mesozoic
era¹ (66.0–251.902 Mya)

Cretaceous
Cretaceous
(66.0–145.0 Mya)

Late (66.0–100.5 Mya) Early (100.5–145.0 Mya)

Jurassic
Jurassic
(145.0–201.3 Mya)

Late (145.0–163.5 Mya) Middle (163.5–174.1 Mya) Early (174.1–201.3 Mya)

Triassic
Triassic
(201.3–251.902 Mya)

Late (201.3–237 Mya) Middle (237–247.2 Mya) Early (247.2–251.902 Mya)

Paleozoic
Paleozoic
era¹ (251.902–541.0 Mya)

Permian
Permian
(251.902–298.9 Mya)

Lopingian
Lopingian
(251.902–259.8 Mya) Guadalupian
Guadalupian
(259.8–272.3 Mya) Cisuralian
Cisuralian
(272.3–298.9 Mya)

Carboniferous
Carboniferous
(298.9–358.9 Mya)

Pennsylvanian (298.9–323.2 Mya) Mississippian (323.2–358.9 Mya)

Devonian
Devonian
(358.9–419.2 Mya)

Late (358.9–382.7 Mya) Middle (382.7–393.3 Mya) Early (393.3–419.2 Mya)

Silurian
Silurian
(419.2–443.8 Mya)

Pridoli (419.2–423.0 Mya) Ludlow (423.0–427.4 Mya) Wenlock (427.4–433.4 Mya) Llandovery (433.4–443.8 Mya)

Ordovician
Ordovician
(443.8–485.4 Mya)

Late (443.8–458.4 Mya) Middle (458.4–470.0 Mya) Early (470.0–485.4 Mya)

Cambrian
Cambrian
(485.4–541.0 Mya)

Furongian (485.4–497 Mya) Series 3 (497–509 Mya) Series 2 (509–521 Mya) Terreneuvian
Terreneuvian
(521–541.0 Mya)

Proterozoic
Proterozoic
eon² (541.0 Mya–2.5 Gya)

Neoproterozoic era (541.0 Mya–1 Gya)

Ediacaran
Ediacaran
(541.0-~635 Mya) Cryogenian (~635-~720 Mya) Tonian (~720 Mya-1 Gya)

Mesoproterozoic era (1–1.6 Gya)

Stenian (1-1.2 Gya) Ectasian (1.2-1.4 Gya) Calymmian (1.4-1.6 Gya)

Paleoproterozoic era (1.6–2.5 Gya)

Statherian (1.6-1.8 Gya) Orosirian
Orosirian
(1.8-2.05 Gya) Rhyacian (2.05-2.3 Gya) Siderian
Siderian
(2.3-2.5 Gya)

Archean
Archean
eon² (2.5–4 Gya)

Eras

Neoarchean (2.5–2.8 Gya) Mesoarchean (2.8–3.2 Gya) Paleoarchean
Paleoarchean
(3.2–3.6 Gya) Eoarchean
Eoarchean
(3.6–4 Gya)

Hadean
Hadean
eon² (4–4.6 Gya)

 

 

kya = thousands years ago. Mya = millions years ago. Gya = billions years ago.¹ = Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
eon. ² = Precambrian
Precambrian
supereon. Source: (2017/02). International Commission on Stratigraphy. Retrieved 13 July 2015. Divisions of Geologic Time—Major Chronostratigraphic and Geochronologic Units USGS Retrieved 10 March 2013.

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