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Actinopterygii
Actinopterygii (; ), members of which are known as ray-finned fishes, is a class of bony fish. They comprise over 50% of living vertebrate species. The ray-finned fishes are so called because their fins are webs of skin supported by bony or horny spines (rays), as opposed to the fleshy, lobed fins that characterize the class Sarcopterygii (lobe-finned fish). These actinopterygian fin rays attach directly to the proximal or basal skeletal elements, the radials, which represent the link or connection between these fins and the internal skeleton (e.g., pelvic and pectoral girdles). By species count, actinopterygians dominate the vertebrates, and they constitute nearly 99% of the over 30,000 species of fish. They are ubiquitous throughout freshwater and marine environments from the deep sea to the highest mountain streams. Extant species can range in size from ''Paedocypris'', at , to the massive ocean sunfish, at , and the long-bodied oarfish, at . The vast majority of Actinop ...
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Osteichthyes
Osteichthyes (), popularly referred to as the bony fish, is a diverse superclass of fish that have skeletons primarily composed of bone tissue. They can be contrasted with the Chondrichthyes, which have skeletons primarily composed of cartilage. The vast majority of fish are members of Osteichthyes, which is an extremely diverse and abundant group consisting of 45 orders, and over 435 families and 28,000 species. It is the largest class of vertebrates in existence today. The group Osteichthyes is divided into the ray-finned fish ( Actinopterygii) and lobe-finned fish ( Sarcopterygii). The oldest known fossils of bony fish are about 425 million years old, which are also transitional fossils, showing a tooth pattern that is in between the tooth rows of sharks and bony fishes. Osteichthyes can be compared to Euteleostomi. In paleontology the terms are synonymous. In ichthyology the difference is that Euteleostomi presents a cladistic view which includes the terrestria ...
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Teleostei
Teleostei (; Greek ''teleios'' "complete" + ''osteon'' "bone"), members of which are known as teleosts ), is, by far, the largest infraclass in the class Actinopterygii, the ray-finned fishes, containing 96% of all extant species of fish. Teleosts are arranged into about 40 orders and 448 families. Over 26,000 species have been described. Teleosts range from giant oarfish measuring or more, and ocean sunfish weighing over , to the minute male anglerfish ''Photocorynus spiniceps'', just long. Including not only torpedo-shaped fish built for speed, teleosts can be flattened vertically or horizontally, be elongated cylinders or take specialised shapes as in anglerfish and seahorses. The difference between teleosts and other bony fish lies mainly in their jaw bones; teleosts have a movable premaxilla and corresponding modifications in the jaw musculature which make it possible for them to protrude their jaws outwards from the mouth. This is of great advantage, enabling them ...
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Neopterygii
Neopterygii (from Greek νέος ''neos'' 'new' and πτέρυξ ''pteryx'' 'fin') is a subclass of ray-finned fish (Actinopterygii). Neopterygii includes the Holostei and the Teleostei, of which the latter comprise the vast majority of extant fishes, and over half of all living vertebrate species. While living holosteans include only freshwater taxa, teleosts are diverse in both freshwater and marine environments. Many new species of teleosts are scientifically described each year. Fossil evidence for crown group neopterygians goes back at least 251 million years to the Induan stage of the Early Triassic epoch, however, one study incorporating morphological data from fossils and molecular data from nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, places this divergence date at least 284 mya (million years ago), during the Artinskian stage of the Early Permian. Another study suggests an even earlier split (360 myr ago, near the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary). Evolution and diversity L ...
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Vertebrate
Vertebrates () comprise all animal taxa within the subphylum Vertebrata () ( chordates with backbones), including all mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish. Vertebrates represent the overwhelming majority of the phylum Chordata, with currently about 69,963 species described. Vertebrates comprise such groups as the following: * jawless fish, which include hagfish and lampreys * jawed vertebrates, which include: ** cartilaginous fish (sharks, rays, and ratfish) ** bony vertebrates, which include: *** ray-fins (the majority of living bony fish) *** lobe-fins, which include: **** coelacanths and lungfish **** tetrapods (limbed vertebrates) Extant vertebrates range in size from the frog species ''Paedophryne amauensis'', at as little as , to the blue whale, at up to . Vertebrates make up less than five percent of all described animal species; the rest are invertebrates, which lack vertebral columns. The vertebrates traditionally include the hagfish, which do not hav ...
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Actinopteri
Actinopteri is the sister group of Cladistia in the class Actinopterygii (ray-finned fish). Dating back to the Permian period, the Actinopteri comprise the Chondrostei (sturgeons and paddlefish) and the Neopterygii (bowfin, gars, and teleosts). In other words, the Actinopteri include all extant actinopterygians, minus the Polypteridae (bichirs). Classification The following cladogram summarizes the evolutionary relationships of extant Actinopteri. Divergence time for each clade A clade (), also known as a monophyletic group or natural group, is a group of organisms that are monophyletic – that is, composed of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants – on a phylogenetic tree. Rather than the English ter ... in mya are based on: References {{Taxonbar, from=Q343460 Ray-finned fish taxonomy Vertebrate unranked clades ...
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Holostei
Holostei is a group of ray-finned bony fish. It is divided into two major clades, the Halecomorphi, represented by a single living species, the bowfin ('' Amia calva''), as well as the Ginglymodi, the sole living representatives being the gars (Lepisosteidae), represented by seven living species in two genera ('' Atractosteus'', '' Lepisosteus''). The earliest members of the clade appeared during the Early Triassic, over 250 million years ago. Holostei was thought to be regarded as paraphyletic. However, a recent study provided evidence that the Holostei are the closest living relates of the Teleostei, both within the Neopterygii. This was found from the morphology of the Holostei, for example presence of a paired vomer. Holosteans are closer to teleosts than are the chondrosteans, the other group intermediate between teleosts and cartilaginous fish, which are regarded as (at the nearest) a sister group to the Neopterigii. The spiracles of holosteans are reduced to vestigia ...
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Cladistia
Cladistia is a clade of bony fishes whose only living members are the bichirs. Their major synapomorphies are a heterocercal tail in which the dorsal fin has independent rays, and a posteriorly elongated parasphenoid. Cladistia are the earliest diverging branch of living Actinopterygii, sister group of Actinopteri, the group which includes all other living ray finned fish. Aside from bichirs, other extinct fish groups thought to be members of the group include the Scanilepiformes, known from the Triassic period. Taxonomy Based on work done by Lund 2000 * Order †Guildayichthyiformes Lund 2000 ** Family † Guildayichthyidae Lund 2000 *** Genus †'' Guildayichthys'' Lund 2000 **** Species †'' Guildayichthys carnegiei'' Lund 2000 *** Genus †'' Discoserra'' Lund 2000 **** Species †'' Discoserra pectinodon'' Lund 2000 * Order Polypteriformes Bleeker 1859 ** Genus †'' Latinopollia'' Meunier and Gayet 1998 *** Species †'' Latinopollia suarezi'' (Meunier & Gayet 1996) ...
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Chondrostei
Chondrostei is a group of non-neopterygian ray-finned fish, while the term originally referred to a paraphyletic group of all non-neopterygian ray-finned fish, it was redefined by Patterson in 1982 to be a clade comprising the Acipenseriformes (which includes sturgeon and paddlefish) and their extinct relatives. Taxa commonly suggested to represent relatives of the Acipenseriformes include the Triassic marine fish ''Birgeria'' and the Saurichthyiformes, but their the relationship with the Acipenseriformes has been strongly challenged on cladistical grounds. Coccolepididae, a group of small weakly ossified Jurassic and Cretaceous fish found in both marine and freshwater environments, have been suggested to be close relatives of the Acipenseriformes, however, this has never been subject to cladistical analysis. Classification *Acipenseriformes **Acipenseridae — sturgeons **Polyodontidae — paddlefishes **Chondrosteidae(†) ** Errolichthyidae(†) * Cheirolepidiformes(†) *Cocc ...
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Slender-spined Porcupine Fish
The slender-spined porcupine fish or globefish''Melbourne's Wildlife'' (Museum Victoria, 2006), 324. (''Diodon nicthemerus'') is a porcupinefish of the family Diodontidae, found in the waters of southern Australia, as far north as Port Jackson to Geraldton, Western Australia. It is most common in Port Phillip Bay and the coastal waters of Tasmania in shallow coastal waters and under manmade jetties. It is known to occur at a depth range of 1 to 70 m (3 to 230 ft). ''Diodon nicthemerus'' is similar in appearance and size to the three-bar porcupinefish ('' Dicotylichthys punctulatus''), with both species reaching around 40 cm (15.7 inches) in total length, although patterning and morphology can differentiate the two. It is nocturnal, occasionally forms small groups, and feeds on benthic zone invertebrates Invertebrates are a paraphyletic group of animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a ''backbone'' or ''spine''), derived from the ...
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Pterois Antennata
''Pterois antennata'', the spotfin lionfish, banded lionfish, broadbarred lionfish, broadbarred firefish, raggedfinned firefish, raggedfinned scorpionfish or roughscaled lionfish, is a species of marine ray-finned fish belonging to the family Scorpaenidae, the scorpionfishes and lionfishes. It is found in the tropical Indian and Western Pacific Oceans. Taxonomy ''Pterois antennata'' was first formally described in 1787 as ''Scorpaena antennata'' by the German physician and naturalist Marcus Elieser Bloch with the type locality given as Ambon Island in Indonesia. The specific name ''antennata'' means ”with antennae”, an allusion to the supraorbital tentacles. Description ''Pterois antennata'' has a laterally compressed rather deep body. There are 13 spines and 11 or 12 soft rays in the dorsal fin and 3 spines and 6 soft rays in its anal fin. There is a long tentacle above each eye. Coronal spines are present and there are many head spines.There are 17 simple fin rays ...
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Northern Pike
The northern pike (''Esox lucius'') is a species of carnivorous fish of the genus ''Esox'' (the pikes). They are typical of brackish water, brackish and fresh waters of the Northern Hemisphere (''i.e.'' holarctic in distribution). They are known simply as a pike in Great Britain, Britain, Ireland, and most of Eastern Europe, Canada and the United States. Pike can grow to a relatively large size: the average length is about , with maximum recorded lengths of up to and published weights of . The International Game Fish Association, IGFA currently recognizes a pike caught by Lothar Louis on Greffern Lake, Germany, on 16 October 1986, as the all-tackle world-record northern pike. Northern pike grow to larger sizes in Eurasia than in North America, and typically grow to larger sizes in coastal than inland regions of Eurasia. Etymology The northern pike gets its common name from its resemblance to the pole-weapon known as the Pike (weapon), pike (from the Middle English for 'point ...
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Wels Catfish
The wels catfish ( or ; ''Silurus glanis''), also called sheatfish or just wels, is a large species of catfish native to wide areas of central, southern, and eastern Europe, in the basins of the Baltic, Black and Caspian Seas. It has been introduced to Western Europe as a prized sport fish and is now found from the United Kingdom east to Kazakhstan and China and south to Greece and Turkey. It is a freshwater fish recognizable by its broad, flat head and wide mouth. Wels catfish can live for at least fifty years. Etymology The English common name comes from Wels, the common name of the species in German language. ''Wels'' is a variation of Old High German ''wal'', from Proto-Germanic ''*hwalaz'' – the same source as for '' whale'' – from Proto-Indo-European ''*(s)kʷálos'' ('sheatfish'). Description The wels catfish's mouth contains lines of numerous small teeth, two long barbels on the upper jaw and four shorter barbels on the lower jaw. It has a long anal fin that exten ...
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