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Actinopterygii
Actinopterygii
/ˌæktɪnˌɒptəˈrɪdʒi.aɪ/, or the ray-finned fishes, constitute a class or subclass of the bony fishes.[1] The ray-finned fishes are so called because their fins are webs of skin supported by bony or horny spines ("rays"), as opposed to the fleshy, lobed fins that characterize the class Sarcopterygii (lobe-finned fish). These actinopterygian fin rays attach directly to the proximal or basal skeletal elements, the radials, which represent the link or connection between these fins and the internal skeleton (e.g., pelvic and pectoral girdles). Numerically, actinopterygians are the dominant class of vertebrates, comprising nearly 99% of the over 30,000 species of fish.[2] They are ubiquitous throughout freshwater and marine environments from the deep sea to the highest mountain streams. Extant species can range in size from Paedocypris, at 8 mm (0.3 in), to the massive ocean sunfish, at 2,300 kg (5,070 lb), and the long-bodied oarfish, at 11 m (36 ft).

Contents

1 Characteristics 2 Reproduction 3 Fossil record 4 Classification 5 References 6 External links

Characteristics[edit]

Anatomy of a typical ray-finned fish (cichlid) A – dorsal fin: B – fin rays: C – lateral line: D – kidney: E – swim bladder: F – Weberian apparatus: G – inner ear: H – brain: I – nostrils: L – eye: M – gills: N – heart O – stomach: P – gall bladder: Q – spleen: R – internal sex organs (ovaries or testes): S – ventral fins: T – spine: U – anal fin: V – tail (caudal fin). Possible other parts not shown: barbels, adipose fin, external genitalia (gonopodium)

Ray-finned fishes occur in many variant forms. The main features of a typical ray-finned fish are shown in the adjacent diagram.

Fin
Fin
arrangements

Ray-finned fish are varied in size, shape and the arrangement and number of their ray-fins. See fish fin.

Tuna
Tuna
are streamlined for straight line speed with a deeply forked tail

The swordfish is even faster and more streamlined than the tuna

Salmon
Salmon
generate enough thrust with their powerful tail fin to jump obstacles during river migrations

Cod
Cod
have three dorsal and two anal fins, which give them great maneuverability

Catfish

Flatfish
Flatfish
have developed partially symmetric dorsal and pelvic fins

Sturgeon

Lanternfish

Elongated bristlemouth

Fangtooth
Fangtooth
are indifferent swimmer who try to ambush their prey

The first spine of the dorsal fin of anglerfish is modified like a fishing rod with a lure

Alfonsino

King of herrings

Cutlassfish

European conger
European conger
are ray-finned fish

So are seahorses

Mirror dory

The venomous red lionfish

African tigerfish (Hydrocynus vittatus)

Reproduction[edit]

Three-spined stickleback males (red belly) build nests and compete to attract females to lay eggs in them. Males then defend and fan the eggs. Painting by Alexander Francis Lydon, 1879

In nearly all ray-finned fish, the sexes are separate, and in most species the females spawn eggs that are fertilized externally, typically with the male inseminating the eggs after they are laid. Development then proceeds with a free-swimming larval stage.[3] However other patterns of ontogeny exist, with one of the commonest being sequential hermaphroditism. In most cases this involves protogyny, fish starting life as females and converting to males at some stage, triggered by some internal or external factor. Protandry, where a fish converts from male to female, is much less common than protogyny.[4] Most families use external rather than internal fertilization.[5] Of the oviparous teleosts, most (79%) do not provide parental care.[6] Viviparity, ovoviviparity, or some form of parental care for eggs, whether by the male, the female, or both parents is seen in a significant fraction (21%) of the 422 teleost families; no care is likely the ancestral condition.[6] Viviparity
Viviparity
is relatively rare and is found in about 6% of teleost species; male care is far more common than female care.[6][7] Male territoriality "preadapts" a species for evolving male parental care.[8][9] There are a few examples of fish that self-fertilise. The mangrove rivulus is an amphibious, simultaneous hermaphrodite, producing both eggs and spawn and having internal fertilisation. This mode of reproduction may be related to the fish's habit of spending long periods out of water in the mangrove forests it inhabits. Males are occasionally produced at temperatures below 19 °C (66 °F) and can fertilise eggs that are then spawned by the female. This maintains genetic variability in a species that is otherwise highly inbred.[10] Fossil record[edit]

See also: Evolution of fish The earliest known fossil actinopterygiian is Andreolepis hedei, dating back 420 million years (Late Silurian). Remains have been found in Russia, Sweden, and Estonia.[11]

Classification[edit] Actinopterygians are divided into the subclasses Chondrostei
Chondrostei
and Neopterygii. The Neopterygii, in turn, are divided into the infraclasses Holostei
Holostei
and Teleostei. During the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
and Cenozoic the teleosts in particular diversified widely, and as a result, 96% of all known fish species are teleosts. The cladogram shows the major groups of actinopterygians and their relationship to the terrestrial vertebrates (tetrapods) that evolved from a related group of fish.[12][13][14] Approximate dates are from Near et al., 2012.[12]

Osteichthyes

Sarcopterygii

Coelacanths, Lungfish
Lungfish

Tetrapods

Amphibians

Amniota

Mammals

Sauropsids (reptiles, birds)

Actinopterygii 400 mya

Cladistia

Polypteriformes
Polypteriformes
(bichirs, reedfishes)

Actinopteri

Chondrostei

Acipenseriformes
Acipenseriformes
(sturgeons, paddlefishes)

Neopterygii 360 mya

Holostei 275 mya

Lepisosteiformes
Lepisosteiformes
(gars)

Amiiformes
Amiiformes
(bowfins)

Teleostei
Teleostei
310 mya

The polypterids (bichirs and ropefish) are the sister lineage of all other actinopterygians, The Acipenseriformes
Acipenseriformes
(sturgeons and paddlefishes) are the sister lineage of Neopterygii, and Holostei (bowfin and gars) are the sister lineage of teleosts. The Elopomorpha (eels and tarpons) appears to be the most basic teleosts.[12]

Chondrostei

Atlantic sturgeon

Chondrostei
Chondrostei
(cartilage bone) are primarily cartilaginous fish showing some ossification. There are 52 species divided among two orders, the Acipenseriformes
Acipenseriformes
(sturgeons and paddlefishes) and the Polypteriformes (reedfishes and bichirs). It is thought that the chondrosteans evolved from bony fish but lost the bony hardening of their cartilaginous skeletons, resulting in a lightening of the frame. Elderly chondrosteans show beginnings of ossification of the skeleton, suggesting that this process is delayed rather than lost in these fish.[15] This group has at times been classified with the sharks: the similarities are obvious, as not only do the chondrosteans mostly lack bone, but the structure of the jaw is more akin to that of sharks than other bony fish, and both lack scales (excluding the Polypteriforms). Additional shared features include spiracles and, in sturgeons, a heterocercal tail (the vertebrae extend into the larger lobe of the caudal fin). However the fossil record suggests that these fish have more in common with the Teleostei
Teleostei
than their external appearance might suggest.[15] Chondrostei
Chondrostei
is paraphyletic meaning that this subclass does not contain all the descendants of their common ancestor; reclassification of the Chondrostei
Chondrostei
is therefore not out of the question.

Neopterygii

Atlantic salmon

Neopterygii
Neopterygii
(new fins) appeared somewhere in the Late Permian, before the time of the dinosaurs. There are only few changes during their evolution from the earlier actinopterygians. They are a very successful group of fishes, because they can move more rapidly than their ancestors. Their scales and skeletons began to lighten during their evolution, and their jaws became more powerful and efficient. While electroreception and the ampullae of Lorenzini is present in all other groups of fish, with the exception of hagfish, Neopterygii
Neopterygii
has lost this sense, though it later re-evolved within Gymnotiformes
Gymnotiformes
and catfishes, who possess nonhomologous teleost ampullae.[16]

Skeleton of the angler fish, Lophius piscatorius. The first spine of the dorsal fin of the anglerfish is modified so it functions like a fishing rod with a lure

Skeleton of another ray-finned fish, the lingcod

Hypsospondylus fossil

The listing below follows Phylogenetic Classification of Bony Fishes[17] with notes when this differs from Nelson,[18] ITIS[19] and FishBase[20] and extinct groups from Van der Laan 2016.[21]

Order †?Asarotiformes Schaeffer 1968 Order †?Discordichthyiformes Minikh 1998 Order †?Paphosisciformes Grogan & Lund 2015 Order †?Scanilepiformes Selezneya 1985 Order †Cheirolepidiformes Kazantseva-Selezneva 1977 Order †Paramblypteriformes Heyler 1969 Order †Rhadinichthyiformes Order † Palaeonisciformes
Palaeonisciformes
Hay 1902 Order † Tarrasiiformes sensu Lund & Poplin 2002 Order † Ptycholepiformes Andrews et al. 1967 Order †Redfieldiiformes Berg 1940 Order †Haplolepidiformes Westoll 1944 Order †Aeduelliformes Heyler 1969 Order †Platysomiformes Aldinger 1937 Order †Dorypteriformes Cope 1871 Order †Eurynotiformes Sallan & Coates 2013 Subclass Cladistii
Cladistii
Pander 1860

Order † Guildayichthyiformes Lund 2000 Order Polypteriformes
Polypteriformes
Bleeker 1859 (bichirs and reedfishes)[22]

Subclass Actinopteri
Actinopteri
Cope 1972 s.s.

Order †Elonichthyiformes Kazantseva-Selezneva 1977 Order †Phanerorhynchiformes Order † Saurichthyiformes Berg 1937 Infraclass Chondrostei

Order †Birgeriiformes Jin 2001 Order †Chondrosteiformes Order Acipenseriformes
Acipenseriformes
Berg 1940 (sturgeons and paddlefishes)

Infraclass Neopterygii
Neopterygii
Regan 1923 sensu Xu & Wu 2012

Order † Pholidopleuriformes Berg 1937 Order † Peltopleuriformes Lehman 1966 Order † Perleidiformes Berg 1937 Order †Luganoiiformes Lehman 1958 Order † Pycnodontiformes
Pycnodontiformes
Berg 1937 Clade Holostei
Holostei
Muller 1844

Division Halecomorpha Cope 1872 sensu Grande & Bemis 1998

Order †Parasemionotiformes Lehman 1966 Order †Ionoscopiformes Grande & Bemis 1998 Order Amiiformes
Amiiformes
Huxley 1861 sensu Grande & Bemis 1998 (bowfins)

Division Ginglymodi Cope 1871

Order †Dapediiformes Thies & Waschkewitz 2015 Order † Semionotiformes
Semionotiformes
Arambourg & Bertin 1958 Order Lepisosteiformes
Lepisosteiformes
Hay 1929 (gars)

Clade Teleosteomorpha Arratia 2000 sensu Arratia 2013

Order †Prohaleciteiformes Arratia 2017 Division Aspidorhynchei Nelson, Grand & Wilson 2016

Order † Aspidorhynchiformes
Aspidorhynchiformes
Bleeker 1859 Order † Pachycormiformes
Pachycormiformes
Berg 1937

Division Teleostei
Teleostei
Müller 1844 sensu Arratia 2013

Order †?Araripichthyiformes Order †?Ligulelliiformes Taverne 2011 Order †?Tselfatiiformes Nelson 1994 Order †Pholidophoriformes Berg 1940 Order †Dorsetichthyiformes Nelson, Grand & Wilson 2016 Order †Leptolepidiformes Order † Crossognathiformes
Crossognathiformes
Taverne 1989 Order †Ichthyodectiformes Bardeck & Sprinkle 1969 Teleocephala de Pinna 1996 s.s.

Megacohort Elopocephalai Patterson 1977 sensu Arratia 1999 ( Elopomorpha
Elopomorpha
Greenwood et al. 1966)

Order Elopiformes
Elopiformes
Gosline 1960 (ladyfishes and tarpon) Order Albuliformes
Albuliformes
Greenwood et al. 1966 sensu Forey et al. 1996 (bonefishes) Order Notacanthiformes
Notacanthiformes
Goodrich 1909 (halosaurs and spiny eels) Order Anguilliformes
Anguilliformes
Jarocki 1822 sensu Goodrich 1909 (true eels)

Megacohort Osteoglossocephalai sensu Arratia 1999

Supercohort Osteoglossocephala sensu Arratia 1999 (Osteoglossomorpha Greenwood et al. 1966)

Order †Lycopteriformes Chang & Chou 1977 Order Hiodontiformes
Hiodontiformes
McAllister 1968 sensu Taverne 1979 (mooneye and goldeye) Order Osteoglossiformes
Osteoglossiformes
Regan 1909 sensu Zhang 2004 (bony-tongued fishes)

Supercohort Clupeocephala Patterson & Rosen 1977 sensu Arratia 2010

Cohort Otomorpha Wiley & Johnson 2010 (Otocephala; Ostarioclupeomorpha)

Subcohort Clupei Wiley & Johnson 2010 ( Clupeomorpha
Clupeomorpha
Greenwood et al. 1966)

Order †Ellimmichthyiformes Grande 1982 Order Clupeiformes
Clupeiformes
Bleeker 1859 (herrings and anchovies)

Subcohort Alepocephali

Order Alepocephaliformes
Alepocephaliformes
Marshall 1962

Subcohort Ostariophysi
Ostariophysi
Sagemehl 1885

Section Anotophysa (Rosen & Greenwood 1970) Sagemehl 1885

Order †Sorbininardiformes Taverne 1999 Order Gonorynchiformes
Gonorynchiformes
Regan 1909 (milkfishes)

Section Otophysa Garstang 1931

Order Cypriniformes
Cypriniformes
Bleeker 1859 sensu Goodrich 1909 (barbs, carp, danios, goldfishes, loaches, minnows, rasboras) Order Characiformes
Characiformes
Goodrich 1909 (characins, pencilfishes, hatchetfishes, piranhas, tetras, dourado / golden (genus Salminus) and pacu) Order Gymnotiformes
Gymnotiformes
Berg 1940 (electric eels and knifefishes) Order Siluriformes
Siluriformes
Cuvier 1817 sensu Hay 1929 (catfishes)

Cohort Euteleosteomorpha (Greenwood et al. 1966) (Euteleostei Greenwood 1967 sensu Johnson & Patterson 1996)

Subcohort Lepidogalaxii

Lepidogalaxiiformes
Lepidogalaxiiformes
Betancur-Rodriguez et al. 2013 (salamanderfish)

Subcohort Protacanthopterygii
Protacanthopterygii
Greenwood et al. 1966 sensu Johnson & Patterson 1996

Order Argentiniformes
Argentiniformes
(barreleyes and slickheads) (formerly in Osmeriformes) Order Galaxiiformes Order Salmoniformes
Salmoniformes
Bleeker 1859 sensu Nelson 1994 (salmon and trout) Order Esociformes
Esociformes
Bleeker 1859 (pike)

Subcohort Stomiati

Order Osmeriformes
Osmeriformes
(smelts) Order Stomiatiformes
Stomiatiformes
Regan 1909 (bristlemouths and marine hatchetfishes)

Subcohort Neoteleostei
Neoteleostei
Nelson 1969

Infracohort Ateleopodia

Order Ateleopodiformes
Ateleopodiformes
(jellynose fish)

Infracohort Eurypterygia Rosen 1973

Section Aulopa [Cyclosquamata Rosen 1973]

Order Aulopiformes
Aulopiformes
Rosen 1973 ( Bombay duck
Bombay duck
and lancetfishes)

Section Ctenosquamata Rosen 1973

Subsection Myctophata [Scopelomorpha]

Order Myctophiformes
Myctophiformes
Regan 1911 (lanternfishes)

Subsection Acanthomorphata Betancur-Rodriguez et al. 2013

Division Lampridacea Betancur-Rodriguez et al. 2013 [Lampridomorpha; Lampripterygii]

Order Lampriformes
Lampriformes
Regan 1909 (oarfish, opah and ribbonfishes)

Division Paracanthomorphacea sensu Grande et al. 2013 ( Paracanthopterygii
Paracanthopterygii
Greenwood 1937)

Order Percopsiformes
Percopsiformes
Berg 1937 (cavefishes and trout-perches) Order †Sphenocephaliformes Rosen & Patterson 1969 Order Zeiformes
Zeiformes
Regan 1909 (dories) Order Stylephoriformes
Stylephoriformes
Miya et al. 2007 Order Gadiformes
Gadiformes
Goodrich 1909 (cods)

Division Polymixiacea Betancur-Rodriguez et al. 2013 (Polymyxiomorpha; Polymixiipterygii)

Order †Pattersonichthyiformes Gaudant 1976 Order † Ctenothrissiformes Berg 1937 Order Polymixiiformes
Polymixiiformes
Lowe 1838 (beardfishes)

Division Euacanthomorphacea Betancur-Rodriguez et al. 2013 (Euacanthomorpha sensu Johnson & Patterson 1993; Acanthopterygii Gouan 1770 sensu])

Subdivision Berycimorphaceae Betancur-Rodriguez et al. 2013

Order Beryciformes
Beryciformes
(fangtooths and pineconefishes) (incl. Stephanoberyciformes; Cetomimiformes)

Subdivision Holocentrimorphaceae Betancur-Rodriguez et al. 2013

Order Holocentriformes
Holocentriformes
(Soldierfishes)

Subdivision Percomorphaceae Betancur-Rodriguez et al. 2013 ( Percomorpha
Percomorpha
sensu Miya et al. 2003; Acanthopteri)

Series Ophidiimopharia Betancur-Rodriguez et al. 2013

Order Ophidiiformes
Ophidiiformes
(pearlfishes)

Series Batrachoidimopharia Betancur-Rodriguez et al. 2013

Order Batrachoidiformes
Batrachoidiformes
(toadfishes)

Series Gobiomopharia Betancur-Rodriguez et al. 2013

Order Kurtiformes(Nurseryfishes and cardinalfishes) Order Gobiiformes(Sleepers and gobies)

Series Scombrimopharia Betancur-Rodriguez et al. 2013

Order Syngnathiformes
Syngnathiformes
(seahorses, pipefishes, sea moths, cornetfishes and flying gurnards[23]) Order Scombriformes (Tunas and (mackerels)

Series Carangimopharia Betancur-Rodriguez et al. 2013

Sub Series Anabantaria Betancur-Rodriguez et al. 2014

Order Synbranchiformes
Synbranchiformes
(swamp eels) Order Anabantiformes
Anabantiformes
(Labyrinthici) (gouramies, snakeheads, )

Sub Series Carangaria Betancur-Rodriguez et al. 2014

Carangaria incertae sedis Order Istiophoriformes
Istiophoriformes
Betancur-Rodriguez 2013 (Marlins, swordfishes, billfishes) Order Carangiformes (Jack mackerels, pompanos) Order Pleuronectiformes
Pleuronectiformes
Bleeker 1859 (flatfishes)

Sub Series Ovalentaria Smith & Near 2012 ( Stiassnyiformes
Stiassnyiformes
sensu Li et al. 2009)

Ovalentaria incertae sedis Order Cichliformes
Cichliformes
Betancur-Rodriguez et al. 2013 (Cichlids, Convict blenny, leaf fishes) Order Atheriniformes
Atheriniformes
Rosen 1964 (silversides and rainbowfishes) Order Cyprinodontiformes
Cyprinodontiformes
Berg 1940 (livebearers, killifishes) Order Beloniformes
Beloniformes
Berg 1940 (flyingfishes and ricefishes) Order Mugiliformes
Mugiliformes
Berg 1940 (mullets) Order Blenniiformes
Blenniiformes
Springer 1993 (Blennies) Order Gobiesociformes
Gobiesociformes
Gill
Gill
1872 (Clingfishes)

Series Eupercaria Betancur-Rodriguez et al. 2014 (Percomorpharia Betancur-Rodriguez et al. 2013)

Eupercaria incertae sedis Order Gerreiformes
Gerreiformes
(Mojarras) Order Uranoscopiformes (Paratrachinoidei sensu Li et al. 2009) (Stargazers, sandperches) Order Labriformes
Labriformes
(Wrasses and Parrotfishes) Order Moroniformes (temperate sea basses) Order Ephippiformes (Sicklefishes, Spadefishes) Order Chaetodontiformes (butterflyfishes, ponyfishes) Order Acanthuriformes Jordan 1923 (Louvars, Moorish Idols, surgeonfishes) Order Lutjaniformes (Snappers, grunts) Order Lobotiformes (Tiger perches, Atlantic tripletail) Order Spariformes Bleeker 1876 sensu Akazaki 1962 (sea breams, porgy) Order Scatophagiformes Bleeker 1876 (Scats) Order Priacanthiformes (Bigeyes, Bandfishes) Order Caproiformes
Caproiformes
(Boarfishes) Order Lophiiformes
Lophiiformes
Garman 1899 (anglerfishes) Order Tetraodontiformes
Tetraodontiformes
Regan 1929 (filefishes and pufferfish) Order Pempheriformes (Sweepers) Order Centrarchiformes Bleeker 1859 (Sunfishes and mandarin fishes) Order Perciformes
Perciformes
Bleeker 1859 (incl. Gasterosteiformes; Scorpaeniformes)

Acipenser oxyrinchus
Acipenser oxyrinchus
(Acipenseriformes)

Albula vulpes
Albula vulpes
(Albuliformes)

Amia calva
Amia calva
(Amiiformes)

Anguilla anguilla
Anguilla anguilla
(Anguilliformes)

Ateleopus japonicus (Ateleopodiformes)

Atherina boyeri
Atherina boyeri
(Atheriniformes)

Synodus variegatus
Synodus variegatus
(Aulopiformes)

Opsanus beta
Opsanus beta
(Batrachoidiformes)

Tylosurus crocodilus
Tylosurus crocodilus
(Beloniformes)

Sargocentron spiniferum
Sargocentron spiniferum
(Holocentriformes)

Barbourisia rufa
Barbourisia rufa
(Cetomimiformes)

Pygocentrus nattereri
Pygocentrus nattereri
(Characiformes)

Alosa fallax
Alosa fallax
(Clupeiformes)

Carassius gibelio
Carassius gibelio
(Cypriniformes)

Nothobranchius rachovii
Nothobranchius rachovii
(Cyprinodontiformes)

Megalops atlanticus
Megalops atlanticus
(Elopiformes)

Esox
Esox
lucius (Esociformes)

Trisopterus luscus
Trisopterus luscus
(Gadiformes)

Gasterosteus aculeatus
Gasterosteus aculeatus
(Gasterosteiformes)

Diplecogaster bimaculata
Diplecogaster bimaculata
(Gobiesociformes)

Chanos chanos
Chanos chanos
(Gonorynchiformes)

Electrophorus electricus
Electrophorus electricus
(Gymnotiformes)

Regalecus glesne
Regalecus glesne
(Lampridiformes)

Lepisosteus platyrhincus
Lepisosteus platyrhincus
(Lepisosteiformes)

Sladenia shaefersi
Sladenia shaefersi
(Lophiiformes)

Mugil cephalus
Mugil cephalus
(Mugiliformes)

Myctophum punctatum
Myctophum punctatum
(Myctophiformes)

Aldrovandia
Aldrovandia
sp. (Notacanthiformes)

Spectrunculus grandis
Spectrunculus grandis
(Ophidiiformes)

Hypomesus nipponensis
Hypomesus nipponensis
(Osmeriformes)

Scleropages formosus
Scleropages formosus
(Osteoglossiformes)

Pomacanthus imperator
Pomacanthus imperator
(Spariformes)

Aphredoderus sayanus
Aphredoderus sayanus
(Percopsiformes)

Bothus lunatus
Bothus lunatus
(Pleuronectiformes)

Polymixia lowei (Polymixiiformes)

Polypterus weeksii
Polypterus weeksii
(Polypteriformes)

Eurypharynx pelecanoides
Eurypharynx pelecanoides
(Saccopharyngiformes)

Oncorhynchus mykiss
Oncorhynchus mykiss
(Salmoniformes)

Pterois volitans
Pterois volitans
(Scorpaeniformes)

Silurus glanis
Silurus glanis
(Siluriformes)

Scopelogadus mizolepis (Stephanoberyciformes)

Chauliodus
Chauliodus
sp. (Stomiiformes)

Mastacembelus erythrotaenia
Mastacembelus erythrotaenia
(Synbranchiformes)

Phycodurus eques
Phycodurus eques
(Syngnathiformes)

Pseudobalistes flavimarginatus
Pseudobalistes flavimarginatus
(Tetraodontiformes)

Zeus faber
Zeus faber
(Zeiformes)

References[edit]

^ Kardong, Kenneth (2015). Vertebrates: Comparative Anatomy, Function, Evolution. New York: McGraw-Hill Education. pp. 99–100. ISBN 978-0-07-802302-6.  ^ (Davis, Brian 2010). ^ Dorit, R.L.; Walker, W.F.; Barnes, R.D. (1991). Zoology. Saunders College Publishing. p. 819. ISBN 978-0-03-030504-7.  ^ Avise, J.C.; Mank, J.E. (2009). "Evolutionary perspectives on hermaphroditism in fishes". Sexual Development. 3: 152–163. doi:10.1159/000223079.  ^ Pitcher, T (1993). The Behavior of Teleost Fishes. London: Chapman & Hall.  ^ a b c Reynolds, John; Nicholas B. Goodwin; Robert P. Freckleton (19 March 2002). "Evolutionary Transitions in Parental Care and Live Bearing in Vertebrates". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 357 (1419): 269–281. doi:10.1098/rstb.2001.0930. PMC 1692951 . PMID 11958696.  ^ Clutton-Brock, T. H. (1991). The Evolution of Parental Care. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP.  ^ Werren, John; Mart R. Gross; Richard Shine (1980). "Paternity and the evolution of male parentage". Journal of Theoretical Biology. 82 (4): 619–631. doi:10.1016/0022-5193(80)90182-4. Retrieved 15 September 2013.  ^ Baylis, Jeffrey (1981). "The Evolution of Parental Care in Fishes, with reference to Darwin's rule of male sexual selection". Environmental Biology of Fishes. 6 (2): 223–251. doi:10.1007/BF00002788. Retrieved 16 September 2013.  ^ Wootton, Robert J.; Smith, Carl (2014). Reproductive Biology of Teleost Fishes. Wiley. ISBN 978-1-118-89139-1.  ^ "Fossilworks: Andreolepis".  ^ a b c Thomas J. Near; et al. (2012). "Resolution of ray-finned fish phylogeny and timing of diversification". PNAS. 109 (34): 13698–13703. doi:10.1073/pnas.1206625109.  ^ Betancur-R, Ricardo; et al. (2013). "The Tree of Life and a New Classification of Bony Fishes". PLOS Currents Tree of Life (Edition 1). doi:10.1371/currents.tol.53ba26640df0ccaee75bb165c8c26288. Archived from the original on 13 October 2013.  ^ Laurin, M.; Reisz, R.R. (1995). "A reevaluation of early amniote phylogeny". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 113: 165–223. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.1995.tb00932.x.  ^ a b "Chondrosteans: Sturgeon
Sturgeon
Relatives". paleos.com. Archived from the original on 25 December 2010.  ^ Theodore Holmes Bullock; Carl D. Hopkins; Arthur N. Popper (2005). Electroreception. Springer Science+Business Media, Incorporated. p. 229. ISBN 978-0-387-28275-6.  ^ Betancur-Rodriguez; et al. (2017). "Phylogenetic Classification of Bony Fishes Version 4". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 17 (1). doi:10.1186/s12862-017-0958-3. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ Nelson, Joseph, S. (2016). Fishes of the World. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN 9781118342336.  ^ "Actinopterygii". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 3 April 2006.  ^ R. Froese and D. Pauly, editors (February 2006). "FishBase". CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Van der Laan, Richard (2016). Family-group names of fossil fishes. doi:10.13140/RG.2.1.2130.1361.  ^ In Nelson, Polypteriformes
Polypteriformes
is placed in its own subclass Cladistia. ^ In Nelson and ITIS, Syngnathiformes
Syngnathiformes
is placed as the suborder Syngnathoidei of the order Gasterosteiformes.

External links[edit]

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Actinopterygii

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Actinopterygii.

Actinopterygii
Actinopterygii
at the Encyclopedia of Life
Encyclopedia of Life
Actinopterygii
Actinopterygii
at UntamedScience.com Jonna, R. (2004) Actinopterygii
Actinopterygii
Animal
Animal
Diversity Web. Updated 29 August 2006. Accessed 2 February 2013.

v t e

Extant Actinopterygii
Actinopterygii
orders by subclass

Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Subphylum Vertebrata Infraphylum Gnathostomata Superclass Osteichthyes

Cladistii

Polypteriformes

Actinopteri

Chondrostei

Acipenseriformes

Neopterygii

Holostei

Lepisosteiformes Amiiformes

Teleostei

Elopomorpha

Elopiformes Albuliformes Notacanthiformes Anguilliformes

Osteoglossomorpha

Osteoglossiformes Hiodontiformes

Otomorpha

Clupeiformes Alepocephaliformes Gonorynchiformes Cypriniformes Characiformes Gymnotiformes Siluriformes

Lepidogalaxii

Lepidogalaxiiformes

Protacanthopterygii

Argentiniformes Galaxiiformes Salmoniformes Esociformes

Stomiati

Osmeriformes Stomiiformes

incertae sedis

Ateleopodiformes Aulopiformes Myctophiformes Lampriformes Polymixiiformes

Paracanthopterygii

Percopsiformes Zeiformes Stylephoriformes Gadiformes

Acanthopterygii

Beryciformes Trachichthyiformes Holocentriformes Ophidiiformes Batrachoidiformes Kurtiformes Gobiiformes Syngnathiformes Scombriformes Synbranchiformes Anabantiformes Istiophoriformes Carangiformes Pleuronectiformes Cichliformes Atheriniformes Cyprinodontiformes Beloniformes Mugiliformes Gobiesociformes Blenniiformes Gerreiformes Uranoscopiformes Labriformes Moroniformes Ephippiformes Chaetodontiformes Acanthuriformes Lutjaniformes Lobotiformes Spariformes Scatophagiformes Priacanthiformes Caproiformes Lophiiformes Tetraodontiformes Pempheriformes Centrarchiformes Perciformes

v t e

Extant chordate classes

Kingdom Animalia (unranked) Bilateria Superphylum Deuterostomia

Cephalochordata

Leptocardii (lancelets)

O l f a c t o r e s

Urochordata (tunicates)

Ascidiacea
Ascidiacea
(sea squirts) Appendicularia (larvaceans) Thaliacea
Thaliacea
(pyrosomes, salps, doliolids)

Craniata (Vertebrates + Myxini) (fish + Tetrapods)

Agnatha
Agnatha
(jawless fish)

Cyclostomata

Myxini (hagfish) Hyperoartia
Hyperoartia
(lampreys)

Gnathostomata (jawed vertebrates)

Chondrichthyes
Chondrichthyes
(cartilaginous fish: sharks, rays, chimaeras)

Osteichthyes (bony fish)

Actinopterygii
Actinopterygii
(ray-finned fish)

Sarcopterygii (lobe-finned fish)

Actinistia
Actinistia
(coelacanths)¹

R h i p i d i s t i a

Dipnoi
Dipnoi
(lungfish)¹

T e t r a p o d a

Amphibia (amphibians)

A m n i o t a

Synapsida

Mammalia (mammals)

Sauropsida (withal Diapsida)

Lepidosauria

Rhynchocephalia
Rhynchocephalia
(tuatara)² Squamata
Squamata
(scaled reptiles)²

Archelosauria

Testudines (turtles)²,³

Archosauria

Crocodilia
Crocodilia
(crocodilians)² Aves (birds)

¹subclasses of Sarcopterygii ²orders of class Reptilia (reptiles) ³traditionally placed in Anapsida italic are paraphyletic groups

v t e

Evolution of fish

Forerunners

Cephalochordate

†Pikaia †Cathaymyrus Lancelet

Olfactores

†Haikouella Tunicate †Myllokunmingiidae? †Zhongxiniscus?

Jawless fish

Cyclostomata

Hagfish Hyperoartia

†Haikouichthys Lamprey

†Conodonts

†Protoconodonta? †Paraconodontida †Prioniodontida

†Promissum

†Ostracoderms

†Pteraspidomorphi †Thelodonti †Anaspida †Cephalaspidomorphi

†Galeaspida †Pituriaspida †Osteostraci

Jawed fish

†Placoderms

†Antiarchi †Arthrodira †Brindabellaspida †Petalichthyida †Phyllolepida †Ptyctodontida †Rhenanida † Acanthothoraci
Acanthothoraci
† †Pseudopetalichthyida? †Stensioellida?

†Spiny sharks

†Climatiiformes †Ischnacanthiformes

Cartilaginous

Elasmobranchii Holocephali

Bony

Lobe-finned

†Onychodontida Actinistia

Coelacanth

Dipnomorpha

†Porolepiformes Lungfish

Tetrapodomorpha

Ray-finned

Cladistii Chondrostei Neopterygii

†Semionotiformes Holostei Teleostei

Lists

Lists of prehistoric fish

spiny sharks placoderms cartilaginous bony lobe-finned

List of transitional fossils

Related

Prehistoric life Transitional fossils Vertebrate
Vertebrate
paleontology

† extinct

v t e

Fins, limbs and wings

Fins

Aquatic locomotion Cephalopod fin Fish
Fish
locomotion Fin
Fin
and flipper locomotion Caudal fin Dorsal fin Fish
Fish
fin flipper Lobe-finned fish Ray-finned fish Pectoral fins Pelvic fin

Limbs

Limb development Limb morphology

digitigrade plantigrade unguligrade uniped biped facultative biped triped quadruped

Arthropod Cephalopod Tetrapod

dactyly

Digit

Wings

Flying and gliding animals Bat wing Bird
Bird
wing

keel skeleton feathers

Insect wing Pterosaur wing Wingspan

Evolution

Evolution of fish Evolution of tetrapods Evolution of birds Origin of birds Origin of avian flight Evolution of cetaceans Comparative anatomy Convergent evolution Analogous structures Homologous structures

Related

Animal
Animal
locomotion Gait Robot locomotion Samara Terrestrial locomotion Tradeoffs for locomotion in air and water Rotating locomotion Undulatory locomotion

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q127282 ADW: Actinopterygii EoL: 1905 EPPO: 1ACTNC Fauna Europaea: 12006 GBIF: 204 ITIS: 161061 NCBI: 7898

.