A concerto (/kənˈtʃɛərtoʊ/; plural concertos, or concerti from
the Italian plural) is a musical composition usually composed in three
movements, in which, usually, one solo instrument (for instance, a
piano, violin, cello or flute) is accompanied by an orchestra or
concert band. It is accepted that its characteristics and definition
have changed over time. In the 17th century, sacred works for voices
and orchestra were typically called concertos, as reflected by J.
S. Bach’s usage of the title "concerto" for many of the works that
we know as cantatas.
4 Classical concerto
4.3 Keyboard concertos
4.4 Concertos for other instruments
5 Romantic concerto
6 20th-century concerto
6.4 Concertos for other instruments
6.5 Concertos for orchestra or concert band
7 Concertos for two or more instruments
8 See also
11 External links
The word concerto comes from Italian; its etymology is uncertain, but
it seems to originate from the conjunction of two Latin words:
conserere (meaning to tie, to join, to weave) and certamen
(competition, fight). The idea is that the two parts in a
concerto—the soloist and the orchestra or concert band—alternate
between episodes of opposition, cooperation, and independence to
create a sense of flow.
The concerto, as understood in this modern way, arose in the Baroque
period, in parallel to the concerto grosso, which contrasted a small
group of instruments called a concertino with the rest of the
orchestra, called the ripieno. The popularity of the concerto grosso
form declined after the
Baroque period, and the genre was not revived
until the 20th century. The solo concerto, however, has remained a
vital musical force from its inception to this day.
The term "concerto" was initially used to denote works that involved
voices and instruments in which the instruments had independent
parts—as opposed to the Renaissance common practice in which
instruments that accompanied voices only doubled the voice parts.
Examples of this earlier form of concerto include Giovanni Gabrieli's
"In Ecclesiis" or Heinrich Schütz's "Saul, Saul, was verfolgst du
The concerto began to take its modern shape in the late-Baroque
period, beginning with the concerto grosso form popularized by
Arcangelo Corelli. Corelli's concertino group was two violins and a
cello. In J. S. Bach's Fifth Brandenburg Concerto, for example, the
concertino is a flute, a violin, and a harpsichord; the harpsichord
sometimes plays with the ripieno, as opposed to playing a continuo
Later, the concerto approached its modern form, in which the
concertino usually reduces to a single solo instrument playing with
(or against) an orchestra. The main composers of concertos of the
baroque were Tommaso Albinoni, Antonio Vivaldi, Georg Philipp
Telemann, Johann Sebastian Bach, George Frideric Handel, Pietro
Locatelli, Giuseppe Tartini,
Francesco Geminiani and Johann Joachim
Quantz. The concerto was intended as a composition typical of the
Italian style of the time, and all the composers were studying how to
compose in the Italian fashion (all'Italiana).
Baroque concerto was mainly for a string instrument (violin,
viola, cello, seldom viola d'amore or harp) or a wind instrument
(oboe, trumpet, flute, or horn).
Bach also wrote a concerto for two
violins and orchestra. During the
Baroque period, before the
invention of the piano, keyboard concertos were comparatively rare,
with the exception of the organ and some harpsichord concertos by
Johann Sebastian Bach. As the harpsichord evolved into the fortepiano,
and in the end to the modern piano, the increased volume and the
richer sound of the new instrument allowed the keyboard instrument to
better compete with a full orchestra.
have been written since the
Baroque era, if not earlier. Among the
works from that period, those by
Antonio Vivaldi and Giuseppe Tartini
are still part of the standard repertoire today.
Sonata form in the Classical Concerto. See: trill (music), cadenza,
and coda (music). For exposition, development and recapitulation, see
The concertos of the sons of Johann Sebastian Bach, such as CPE Bach,
are perhaps the best links between those of the
Baroque period and
those of the Classical era.
It is conventional to state that the first movements of concertos from
the Classical period onwards follow the structure of sonata form.
Final movements are often in rondo form, as in J.S. Bach's E Major
Mozart wrote five violin concertos, all in 1775. They show a number of
influences, notably Italian and Austrian. Several passages have
leanings towards folk music, as manifested in Austrian serenades.
Mozart also wrote the highly regarded Sinfonia Concertante for violin,
viola, and orchestra.
Beethoven wrote only one violin concerto, under-appreciated until
revealed as a masterpiece in a performance by violin virtuoso Joseph
Haydn wrote at least two cello concertos (for cello, oboes, horns, and
strings), which are the most important works in that genre of the
classical era. However, C.P.E. Bach's three cello concertos and
Boccherini's twelve concertos are also noteworthy.
C.P.E. Bach's keyboard concertos contain some virtuosic solo writing.
Some of them have movements that run into one another without a break,
and there are frequent cross-movement thematic references.
Mozart, as a child, made arrangements for keyboard and orchestra of
four sonatas by now little-known composers. Then he arranged three
sonata movements by Johann Christian Bach. By the time he was twenty,
Mozart was able to write concerto ritornelli that gave the orchestra
admirable opportunity for asserting its character in an exposition
with some five or six sharply contrasted themes, before the soloist
enters to elaborate on the material. Of his 27 piano concertos, the
last 22 are highly appreciated.
A dozen cataloged keyboard concertos are attributed to Haydn, of which
only three or four are considered genuine.
Concertos for other instruments
Bach wrote four flute concertos and two oboe concertos.
Bohemian composer Francesco
Antonio Rosetti composed several solo and
double horn concertos. He was a significant contributor to the genre
of horn concertos in the 18th century. Most of his outstanding horn
concertos were composed between 1782 and 1789 for the Bohemian duo
Franz Zwierzina and Joseph Nage while at the Bavarian court of
Oettingen-Wallerstein. One of his best-known works in this genre is
Concerto in E flat major C49/K III:36. It consists of three
movements: 1. Allegro moderato 2. Romance 3. Rondo.
Many common features of the galant style are present in Rosetti's
music and composing style. In his E-flat horn concerto, we hear
periodic and short phrases, galant harmonic rhythm and melodic line
reduction.[original research?] Rosetti's influence on the 18th century
composers, musicians and music was considerable. At the Bavarian court
of Oettingen-Wallerstein, his music was often performed by the
Wallerstein ensembles. In Paris, his compositions were performed by
the best ensembles of the city, including the orchestra of the Concert
Spirituel. His publishers were Le Menu et Boyer and Sieber. According
H. C. Robbins Landon
H. C. Robbins Landon (
Mozart scholar),[full citation needed]
Rosetti's horn concertos might have been a model for Mozart's horn
Mozart wrote one concerto each for flute, oboe (later rearranged for
flute and known as
Concerto No. 2), clarinet, and bassoon, four
for horn,[contradictory] a
Concerto for Flute, Harp, and Orchestra,
and Exsultate, jubilate, a de facto concerto for soprano
voice. They all exploit and explore the
characteristics of the solo instrument(s).
Haydn wrote an important trumpet concerto and a Sinfonia Concertante
for violin, cello, oboe and bassoon as well as two horn concertos.
In the 19th century the concerto as a vehicle for virtuosic display
flourished as never before. It was an age in which the artist was seen
as hero, to be worshipped with rapture. Early Romantic traits can be
found in the violin concertos of Viotti, but it is Spohr's twelve
violin concertos, written between 1802 and 1827, that truly embrace
the Romantic spirit with their melodic as well as their dramatic
Since the Romantic era, the cello has received as much attention as
the piano and violin as a concerto instrument, and many great Romantic
and even more 20th-century composers left examples.
Antonín Dvořák's cello concerto ranks among the supreme examples
from the Romantic era while Robert Schumann's focuses on the lyrical
qualities of the instrument. The instrument was also popular with
composers of the Franco-Belgian tradition: Saint-Saëns and Vieuxtemps
wrote two cello concertos each and Lalo and Jongen one. Elgar's
popular concerto, while written in the early 20th century, belongs to
the late romantic period stylistically.
Beethoven contributed to the repertoire with a Triple
piano, violin, cello and orchestra while later in the century, Brahms
wrote a Double
Concerto for violin, cello and orchestra.
Tchaikovsky's contribution to the genre is a series of Variations on a
Rococo Theme.[clarification needed] He also left very fragmentary
sketches of a projected
Cello Concerto. Cellist Yuriy Leonovich and
Tchaikovsky researcher Brett Langston published their completion of
the piece in 2006.
David Popper and
Julius Klengel also wrote cello
concertos that were popular in their time and are still played
Today's 'core' repertoire—performed the most of any cello
concertos—are by Elgar, Dvořák, Saint-Saëns, Haydn, Shostakovich
and Schumann, but many more concertos are performed nearly as often
(see below: cello concertos in the 20th century).
Beethoven's five piano concertos increase the technical demands made
on the soloist. The last two are particularly remarkable, integrating
the concerto into a large symphonic structure with movements that
frequently run into one another. His
Concerto No. 4 starts,
against tradition, with a statement by the piano, after which the
orchestra enters in a foreign key, to present what would normally have
been the opening tutti. The work has an essentially lyrical character.
The slow movement is a dramatic dialogue between the soloist and the
Concerto No. 5 has the basic rhythm of a Viennese
military march. There is no lyrical second subject, but in its place a
continuous development of the opening material.[original research?]
The piano concertos of Cramer, Field, Düssek, Woelfl, Ries, and
Hummel provide a link from the Classical concerto to the Romantic
Chopin wrote two piano concertos in which the orchestra is very much
relegated to an accompanying role. Schumann, despite being a
pianist-composer, wrote a piano concerto in which virtuosity is never
allowed to eclipse the essential lyrical quality of the work. The
gentle, expressive melody heard at the beginning on woodwind and horns
(after the piano's heralding introductory chords) bears the material
for most of the argument in the first movement. In fact, argument in
the traditional developmental sense is replaced by a kind of variation
technique in which soloist and orchestra interweave their
Liszt's mastery of piano technique matched that of
Paganini for the
violin. His concertos No. 1 and No. 2 left a deep impression on the
style of piano concerto writing, influencing Rubinstein, and
especially Tchaikovsky, whose First
Piano Concerto's rich chordal
opening is justly famous.
Grieg's concerto likewise begins in a striking manner after which it
continues in a lyrical vein.
Concerto in D minor (pub 1861) was the result of
an immense amount of work on a mass of material originally intended
for a symphony. His Second
Concerto in B♭ major (1881) has
four movements and is written on a larger scale than any earlier
concerto. Like his violin concerto, it is symphonic in proportions.
Fewer piano concertos were written in the late Romantic
Period. But
Sergei Rachmaninoff wrote four piano
concertos between 1891 and 1926. His Second and Third, being the most
popular of the four, went on to become among the most famous in the
piano repertoire.
Other romantic piano concertos, like those by Kalkbrenner, Henri Herz,
Moscheles and Thalberg were also very popular in the Romantic era, but
not today.
Many of the concertos written in the early 20th century belong more to
the late Romantic school than to any modernistic
movement.[clarification needed] Masterpieces were written by Edward
Elgar (a violin concerto and a cello concerto), Sergei Rachmaninoff
Nikolai Medtner (four and three piano concertos, respectively),
Jean Sibelius (a violin concerto),
Frederick Delius (a violin
concerto, a cello concerto, a piano concerto and a double concerto for
violin and cello),
Karol Szymanowski (two violin concertos and a
"Symphonie Concertante" for piano), and
Richard Strauss (two horn
concertos, a violin concerto, Don Quixote—a tone poem that features
the cello as a soloist—and among later works, an oboe concerto).
However, in the first decades of the 20th century, several composers
such as Debussy, Schoenberg, Berg, Hindemith, Stravinsky, Prokofiev
Bartók started experimenting with ideas that were to have
far-reaching consequences for the way music is written and, in some
cases, performed. Some of these innovations include a more frequent
use of modality, the exploration of non-western scales, the
development of atonality and neotonality, the wider acceptance of
dissonances, the invention of the twelve-tone technique of composition
and the use of polyrhythms and complex time signatures.
These changes also affected the concerto as a musical form. Beside
more or less radical effects on musical language, they led to a
redefinition of the concept of virtuosity that included new and
extended instrumental techniques and a focus on previously neglected
aspects of sound such as pitch, timbre and dynamics. In some cases,
they also brought about a new approach to the role of soloists and
their relation to the orchestra.
Two great innovators of early 20th-century music, Schoenberg and
Stravinsky, both wrote violin concertos. The material in Schoenberg's
concerto, like that in Berg's, is linked by the twelve-tone serial
method. Bartók, another major 20th-century composer, wrote two
important concertos for violin. Russian composers
Shostakovich each wrote two concertos while
Khachaturian wrote a
concerto and a Concerto-Rhapsody for the instrument. Hindemith's
concertos hark back to the forms of the 19th century, even if the
harmonic language he used was different.
Three violin concertos from David Diamond show the form in
Carlos Chávez completed a substantial
Concerto with an
enormous central cadenza for the unaccompanied violin.
More recently, Dutilleux's L'Arbre des songes has proved an important
addition to the repertoire and a fine example of the composer's atonal
yet melodic style.
Other composers of major violin concertos include John Adams, Samuel
Barber, Benjamin Britten, Peter Maxwell Davies, Philip Glass,
Cristóbal Halffter, György Ligeti, Frank Martin, Carl Nielsen,
Walter Piston, Alfred Schnittke, Jean Sibelius, Ralph Vaughan
Williams, Walton, and Roger Sessions.
In the 20th century, particularly after the Second World War, the
cello enjoyed an unprecedented popularity. As a result, its
concertante repertoire caught up with those of the piano and the
violin both in terms of quantity and quality.
An important factor in this phenomenon was the rise of virtuoso
cellist Mstislav Rostropovich. His outstanding technique and
passionate playing prompted dozens of composers to write pieces for
him, first in his native Soviet Union and then abroad. Among such
compositions may be listed Sergei Prokofiev's Symphony-Concerto,
Dmitri Shostakovich's two cello concertos, Benjamin Britten's
Cello-Symphony (which emphasizes, as its title suggests, the equal
importance of soloist and orchestra), Henri Dutilleux' Tout un monde
lointain..., Cristóbal Halffter's two cello concertos, Witold
Lutosławski's cello concerto, Dmitry Kabalevsky's two cello
concertos, Aram Khachaturian's Concerto-Rhapsody, Arvo Pärt's Pro et
Contra, Alfred Schnittke,
André Jolivet and Krzysztof Penderecki
second cello concertos, Sofia Gubaidulina's Canticles of the Sun,
Luciano Berio's Ritorno degli Snovidenia, Leonard Bernstein's Three
Meditations, James MacMillan's cello concerto and Olivier Messiaen's
Concert à quatre (a quadruple concerto for cello, piano, oboe, flute
In addition, several important composers who were not directly
influenced by Rostropovich wrote cello concertos: Samuel Barber,
Elliott Carter, Carlos Chávez, Alexander Glazunov, Hans Werner Henze,
Paul Hindemith, Arthur Honegger, Erich Wolfgang Korngold, György
Ligeti, Darius Milhaud, Nikolai Myaskovsky, Einojuhani Rautavaara,
Joaquín Rodrigo, Toru Takemitsu, William Walton, Heitor Villa-Lobos,
Bernd Alois Zimmermann for instance.
Stravinsky wrote three works for solo piano and orchestra:
Piano and Wind Instruments, Capriccio for
Orchestra, and Movements for
Piano and Orchestra. Sergei Prokofiev,
another Russian composer, wrote five piano concertos, which he himself
Dmitri Shostakovich composed two. Fellow
Soviet composer Aram
Khachaturian contributed to the repertoire with a
piano concerto and a Concerto-Rhapsody.
Concerto is a well-known example of a
dodecaphonic piano concerto.
Bartók also wrote three piano concertos. Like their violin
counterparts, they show the various stages in his musical development.
Bartok's also rearranged his chamber piece, Sonata for Two Pianos and
Percussion, into a
Concerto for Two Pianos and Percussion, adding
Cristóbal Halffter wrote a prize-winning neoclassical
in 1953, and a second
Concerto in 1987–88.
Ralph Vaughan Williams
Ralph Vaughan Williams wrote a concerto for piano, though it was later
reworked as a concerto for two pianos and orchestra—both versions
have been recorded—while Benjamin Britten's concerto for piano
(1938) is a prominent work from his early period.
Important piano concertos by Latin-American composers included one by
Carlos Chávez, two by Alberto Ginastera, and five by Heitor
György Ligeti's concerto (1988) has a synthetic quality: it mixes
complex rhythms, the composer's Hungarian roots and his experiments
with micropolyphony from the 1960s and 1970s. Witold Lutoslawski's
piano concerto, completed in the same year, alternates between
playfulness and mystery. It also displays a partial return to melody
after the composer's aleatoric period.
Rodion Shchedrin has written six piano concertos.
Einojuhani Rautavaara wrote three piano concertos,
the third one dedicated to Vladimir Ashkenazy, who played and
conducted the world première.
Concertos for other instruments
The 20th century also witnessed a growth of the concertante repertoire
of instruments, some of which had seldom or never been used in this
capacity. As a result, almost all classical instruments now have a
concertante repertoire. Examples include:
Accordion concerto: Hovhaness, Sofia Gubaidulina, Toshio Hosokawa,
Alto saxophone Concerto: Adams, Creston, Dahl, Denisov, Dubois,
Glazunov, Husa, Ibert, Koch, Larsson, Maslanka, Muczynski, Salonen,
Ticheli, Tomasi, Worley, Yoshimatsu
Chieftain's Salute by Graham Waterhouse
Bandoneón Concerto: Piazzolla
Baritone saxophone Concerto: Gaines, Glaser, Haas, van Beurden
Bass clarinet Concerto: Bouliane
Bass oboe concerto: Bryars
Bassoon concerto: Aho, Butterworth, Davies, Donatoni,
Eckhardt-Gramatté, Fujikura, Gubaidulina, Hétu, Jolivet, Kaipainen,
Knipper, Landowski, Panufnik, Rihm, Rota, Sæverud, J. Williams
Clarinet concerto: Aho, Arnold, Copland, Davies, Denisov, Dusapin,
Fairouz, Finzi, Françaix, Hartke, Hétu, Hindemith, Nielsen,
Penderecki, Piston, Rautavaara, Shapey, Stravinsky, Takemitsu,
Ticheli, Tomasi, J. Williams
Clavinet concerto: Woolf
Contrabassoon Concerto: Aho, Erb
Contrabass flute Concerto: McGowan
Cornet Concerto: Wright
Double bass concerto: Aho, Gagneux, Henze, Koussevitsky, Davies,
Ohzawa, Rautavaara, Skalkottas, Tubin
Euphonium Concerto: Clarke, Cosma, Ewazen, Gillingham, Golland,
Graham, Horovitz, Lindberg, Linkola, Sparke, Wilby.
Flute Concerto: Aho, Arnold, Davies, Denisov, Dusapin, Harman, Hétu,
Ibert, Jolivet, Landowski, Nielsen, Penderecki, Rautavaara, Rodrigo,
Takemitsu, J. Williams
Free bass accordion
Free bass accordion Concerto: Serry, Sr.
Guitar Concerto: Arnold, Brouwer, Castelnuovo-Tedesco, Hovhaness,
Ohana, Ponce, Rodrigo, Villa-Lobos
Harmonica concerto: Arnold, Hovhaness, Vaughan Williams, Villa-Lobos
Harp Concerto: Ginastera, Glière, Jongen, Milhaud, Jolivet,
Rautavaara, Rodrigo, Villa-Lobos
Harpsichord Concerto: de Falla, Glass, Górecki, Martinů, Poulenc
Horn Concerto: Aho, Arnold, Arutiunian, Atterberg, Bowen, Carter,
Davies, Glière, Gipps, Hindemith, Hovhaness, Jacob, Knussen, Ligeti,
Murail, Penderecki, Strauss, Tomasi, J. Williams
Kanun Concerto: Alnar
Mandolin Concerto: Thile
Marimba concerto: Creston, Larsen, Milhaud, Rosauro, Svoboda, Viñao
Oboe concerto: Aho, Arnold, Bouliane, Davies, Denisov, Harman,
MacMillan, Maderna, Martinů, Penderecki, Shchedrin, Strauss, Vaughan
Ondes Martenot concerto: Jolivet
Organ concerto: Arnold, Hanson, Harrison, Hétu, Hindemith, Jongen,
MacMillan, Peeters, Poulenc, Rorem, Sowerby
Percussion concerto: Aho, Dorman, Glass, Jolivet, MacMillan, Milhaud,
Piccolo Concerto: Davies, Liebermann
Recorder concerto: Malcolm Arnold, Richard Harvey
Shakuhachi Concerto: Takemitsu
Sheng Concerto: Unsuk Chin.
Soprano saxophone Concerto: Aho, Higdon, Hovhaness, Mackey, Torke,
Tenor saxophone Concerto: Bennett, Ewazen, Gould, Nicolau, Ward,
Theremin concerto: Aho
Timpani concerto: Aho, Druschetzky, Glass, Kraft, Rosauro
Trombone Concerto: Aho, Bourgeois, Dusapin, Gagneux, Grøndahl,
Holmboe, Larsson, Milhaud, Olsen, Rota, Rouse, Sandström, Tomasi
Trumpet Concerto: Aho, Arnold, Arutiunian, Böhme, Jolivet, Perry,
Sandström, Ticheli, Williams, Zimmermann
Tuba Concerto: Aho, Arutiunian, Broughton, Gagneux, Holmboe, Vaughan
Williams, J. Williams
Viola concerto: Aho, Arnold, Bartók, Denisov, Gagneux, Gubaidulina,
Hindemith, Kancheli, Martinů, Milhaud, Murail, Penderecki, Schnittke,
Viola d'amore concerto: Hindemith
Xylophone concerto: Mayuzumi
Yamaha GX-1: Akutagawa
Concerto for Solo Actress : The Legend Of Yush's Poet:
The Legend of Yush’s Poet is the first concerto written for an
actress by Ehsan Saboohi.“The structure of this “concerto” is a
combination of contemporary Naghali (recounting stories), spoken word,
and contemporary performance art. The actress here creates musical
events with voice, body, and movement; a bit like a piano concerto
that does not have an orchestra. For me, the Mise-en-scène functions
like the orchestration of a piece.
Among the works of the prolific composer
Alan Hovhaness may be noted
Prayer of St. Gregory for trumpet and strings, though it is not a
concerto in the usual sense of the term.
Today the concerto tradition has been continued by composers such as
Maxwell Davies, whose series of
Strathclyde Concertos exploit some of
the instruments less familiar as soloists.
Concertos for orchestra or concert band
Concerto for Orchestra
In the 20th and 21st centuries, several composers wrote concertos for
orchestra or concert band. In these works, different sections and/or
instruments of the orchestra or concert band are treated at one point
or another as soloists with emphasis on solo sections and/or
instruments changing during the piece. Some examples include those
Orchestra – 1945
Carter – 1969
Hindemith – Op. 38, 1925
Knussen – 1969
Kodály – 1940
Lindberg – 2003
Orchestra – 1954
Shchedrin – No. 1 Naughty Limericks (1963), No. 2 The Chimes (1968),
No. 3 Old Russian Circus Music (1989), No. 4 Round Dances (Khorovody)
(1989), No. 5 Four Russian Songs (1998)
Dutilleux has also described his Métaboles as a concerto for
Bryant – 2007–2010
Foss – 2002
Husa – 1982
Jacob – 1974
Jager – 1982
Concertos for two or more instruments
Many composers also wrote concertos for two or more soloists.
Vivaldi's concertos for 2, 3 or 4 violins, for 2 cellos, for 2
mandolins, for 2 trumpets, for 2 flutes, for oboe and bassoon, for
cello and bassoon... etc.. Some of Vivaldi's concertos were written
for a very large number of soloists, including the extraordinary
RV555, which features 3 violins, an oboe, 2 recorders, 2 viole
all'inglese, a chalumeau, 2 cellos, 2 harpsichords and 2 trumpets.
Bach's concertos for 2 violins, for 2, 3, or 4 harpsichords as well as
several of his Brandenburg concertos.
In the Classical era:
Haydn's concerto for violin and keyboard (usually referred to as the
Concerto No. 6) and
Sinfonia concertante for violin, cello,
oboe and bassoon.
Mozart's concertos for two pianos and three pianos, the Sinfonia
concertante for violin and viola, and his concerto for flute and harp.
Concerto for oboe, violin and cello, and his double
concerto for flute and oboe.
In the Romantic era:
Beethoven's triple concerto for piano, violin, and cello.
Brahms's double concerto for violin and cello.
Bruch's double concerto for viola and clarinet and one for 2 pianos.
In the 20th century:
Malcolm Arnold's concerto for piano duet and strings, as well as his
concerto for two violins and string orchestra
Béla Bartók's concerto for two pianos and percussion
Capricorn Concerto for flute, oboe and trumpet.
Benjamin Britten's double concerto for violin and viola.
Elliott Carter's Double
Piano with Two
Peter Maxwell Davies's Strathclyde
Concerto No. 3 for horn, trumpet
and orchestra, No. 4 for violin, viola and string orchestra and No. 9
for piccolo, alto flute, cor anglais, E-flat clarinet, bass clarinet,
contrabassoon and string orchestra.
Frederick Delius's double concerto for violin and cello.
Concerto Sinfonico for saxophone quartet and
Jean Françaix's concerto for two pianos and another for two harps, as
well as his Divertissement for string trio and orchestra, his
Concerto for flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon and orchestra,
Concerto for flute and clarinet, and his
Concerto for 15
Soloists and Orchestra
Philip Glass's concerto for saxophone quartet and orchestra.
Cristóbal Halffter's Concierto a cuatro for saxophone quartet and
Hans Werner Henze's double concerto for oboe and harp.
Paul Hindemith's concerto for flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon, harp,
and orchestra as well as his concerto for trumpet, bassoon, and
Gustav Holst's Fugal
Concerto for flute, oboe and string orchestra.
Concerto for violin, sitar, and orchestra
Tristan Keuris's concerto for saxophone quartet and orchestra.
György Kurtág's double concerto for piano and cello.
Lowell Liebermann's concerto for flute and harp
György Ligeti's double concerto for flute and oboe.
Concerto for Group and
Orchestra for rock band.
Witold Lutosławski's concerto for oboe and harp.
Concerto Grosso for saxophone quartet and orchestra.
Petite Symphonie Concertante and
Concerto for seven
wind instruments, timpani, percussion, and string orchestra.
Bohuslav Martinu's concerto for string quartet, concertino for piano
trio and string orchestra, two concertante duos for two violins,
concerto for two pianos, sinfonia concertante No. 2 for violin, cello,
oboe, bassoon and orchestra with piano, and his concerto for violin
Concert à quatre for piano, cello, oboe and flute.
Darius Milhaud's Symphonie concertante for bassoon, horn, trumpet and
double bass, as well as his concertos for flute and violin, and for
marimba and vibraphone.
Michael Nyman's concerto for saxophone quartet and orchestra.
Francis Poulenc's concerto for two pianos.
Concerto a cinque for piano, oboe, violin,
trumpet, double bass and string orchestra
Joaquín Rodrigo's Concierto madrigal for 2 guitars and Concierto
Andaluz for 4 guitars.
William Russo's concerto for blues band.
Alfred Schnittke's double concerto for oboe, harp, and strings as well
as his Konzert zu Dritt, for violin, viola, violoncello and strings.
Rodion Shchedrin's double concerto for piano and cello.
Michael Tippett's triple concerto for violin, viola, and cello.
Charles Wuorinen's concerto for saxophone quartet and orchestra.
In the 21st century:
Concerto Grosso for saxophone quartet and orchestra.
Concerto No. 10 "
Book of Signs", for two guitars.
Mohammed Fairouz's Double
Concerto 'States of Fantasy' for violin and
Concerto Fantasy for two Timpanists and
Concerto for violin and cello.
William P. Perry's Gemini
Concerto for violin and piano.
Karl Jenkins' Over the Stone for two harps
Terry Manning's The Darkness Within Light
Concerto for flute and piano
List of concertos for English horn
The Carnival of the Animals
List of concert works for saxophone
^ a b Wolf, p. 186
^ Talbot, Michael. "The Italian concerto in the Late seventeenth and
early eighteenth centuries". The Cambridge Companion to the Concerto.
Cambridge Companions to Music.
^ Steinberg, p. 14
^ Steinberg,1998, p. 14
^ Steinberg, pp. 11-19
^ Steinberg, pp. 17-19
^ a b White, John D. (1976). The Analysis of Music, p.62.
^ David Threasher, reviewer, HAYDN Keyboard Concertos Nos 3, 4 &
Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Concerto". Encyclopædia Britannica
(11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
Hill, Ralph, Ed., 1952, The Concerto, Penguin Books.
Randel, Don Michael, Ed., 1986, The New Harvard Dictionary of Music,
Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA and London.
Steinberg, Michael, 1998, The Concerto: A Listener's Guide, Oxford
Tovey, Donald Francs, 1936, Essays in Musical Analysis, Volume III,
Concertos, Oxford University Press.
Wolf, Eugene K., Concerto, in Randel, Ed., 1986, pp. 186–191.
Look up concerto in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Concerto for orchestra
Bass oboe concerto
Concerto for solo piano
Double bass concerto
Double concerto for violin and cello
English horn concerto
Triple concertos for violin, cello, and piano