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HDI The Human Development Index (HDI) is a statistic composite index of life expectancy Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age, and ot ...
, blank1_info_sec1 = 0.897 Very High , blank_name_sec2 =
GDP Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful money bags handed to King George III are contrasted with the beggar whose legs and arms were amputated, in the left corner">174x174px Money is any ...
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$
$
266 billion , footnotes = b. Area of Mexico City that includes non-urban areas at the south , leader_title2 =
DeputiesA deputy is a legislator A legislator (or lawmaker) is a person who writes and passes laws, especially someone who is a member of a legislature. Legislators are often elected by the people of the state. Legislatures may be supra-national (fo ...
, leader_name2 = , elevation_max_m = 3930 , website = , blank_emblem_type = Government logo Mexico City ( es, link=no, Ciudad de México, ; abbreviated as CDMX; nah, Āltepētl Mēxihco) is the
capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowercase (or more formally ''minusc ...
and largest city of
Mexico Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organi ...

Mexico
, as well as the
most populous city The United Nations uses three definitions for what constitutes a city, as not all cities in all jurisdictions are classified using the same criteria. Cities may be defined as the city proper, cities proper, the extent of their urban area, or the ...
in
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
, and is one of the country's 32 federal entities. Mexico City is one of the most important cultural and financial centers in the world. It is located in the
Valley of Mexico The Valley of Mexico ( es, Valle de México) is a highlands plateau in central Mexico Mexico ( es, México ; Nahuan languages: ), officially the United Mexican States (; EUM ), is a List of sovereign states, country in the southern po ...
(), a large valley in the high
plateau In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and -λoγία, ''-logia'', ("study of", "discourse")) is an Earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rock (geology), rocks of which it is composed, and the proces ...

plateau
s in the center of Mexico, at an altitude of . The city has 16 ,
subdivisions Subdivision may refer to: Arts and entertainment * Subdivision (metre) In music, metre ( Commonwealth spelling) or meter ( American spelling; see spelling differences Despite the various English dialects spoken from country to country a ...
colloquially known as or boroughs. The 2020 population for the
city proper A city proper is the geographical area contained within city limits. The term ''proper'' is not exclusive to city, cities; it can describe the geographical area within the boundaries of any given locality. The United Nations defines the term as "t ...
was 9,209,944, with a land area of . According to the most recent definition agreed upon by the federal and state governments, the population of
Greater Mexico City Greater Mexico City refers to the conurbation around Mexico City, officially called Metropolitan Area of the Valley of Mexico ( es, Zona metropolitana del Valle de México). It encompasses Mexico City itself and 60 adjacent municipalities of Mexico ...
is 21,804,515, which makes it the in the world, the second-largest
urban agglomeration An urban area, or built-up area, is a human settlement with a high population density and infrastructure of built environment. Urban areas are created through urbanization and are categorized by urban morphology as city, cities, towns, conurbat ...
in the
Western Hemisphere The Western Hemisphere is the half of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. The remaining ...
(behind
São Paulo São Paulo (, ; Portuguese for 'Saint Paul') is a city in the Southeast Region, Brazil, Southeast Region of Brazil. Listed by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, GaWC as an global city, alpha global city, the Municipalities of ...

São Paulo
,
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles) and with over 211 mill ...

Brazil
), and the largest
Spanish-speaking Hispanophone and Hispanic refers to anything relating to the speech of Spain (the ''Hispanosphere''). In a cultural, rather than merely linguistic sense, the notion of "Hispanophone" goes further than the above definition. The Hispanic culture is t ...

Spanish-speaking
city (city proper) in the world.
Greater Mexico City Greater Mexico City refers to the conurbation around Mexico City, officially called Metropolitan Area of the Valley of Mexico ( es, Zona metropolitana del Valle de México). It encompasses Mexico City itself and 60 adjacent municipalities of Mexico ...
has a
GDP Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful money bags handed to King George III are contrasted with the beggar whose legs and arms were amputated, in the left corner">174x174px Money is any ...
of $411 billion in 2011, which makes it one of the most productive urban areas in the world. The city was responsible for generating 15.8% of Mexico's GDP, and the metropolitan area accounted for about 22% of the country's GDP. If it were an independent country in 2013, Mexico City would be the fifth-largest economy in
Latin America * ht, Amerik Latin, link=no * pt, América Latina, link=no , image = Latin America (orthographic projection).svg , area = , population = ( est.) , density = , ethnic_groups = , ethnic_groups_year = 2018 , ethnic ...

Latin America
. Mexico's capital is both the oldest capital city in the Americas and one of two founded by
indigenous people Indigenous peoples, also referred to as first peoples, first nations, aboriginal peoples, native peoples (with these terms often capitalized when referred to relating to specific countries), or autochthonous peoples, are culturally distinct e ...
. The city was originally built on a group of islands in
Lake Texcoco Lake Texcoco ( es, Lago de Texcoco) was a natural lake A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, surrounded by land, apart from any river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing toward ...
by the in 1325 as
Tenochtitlan Tenochtitlan ( nah, Tenōchtitlan ; es, Tenochtitlán), also known as Mexico-Tenochtitlan ( nah, Mēxihco Tenōchtitlan ; es, México-Tenochtitlán), was a large Mexica ''altepetl'' in what is now the historic center of Mexico City. The exact ...

Tenochtitlan
. It was almost completely destroyed in the 1521
Siege of Tenochtitlan The Fall of Tenochtitlan, the capital of the Aztec Empire The Aztec Empire, or the Triple Alliance ( nci, Ēxcān Tlahtōlōyān, Help:IPA for Nahuatl, jéːʃkaːn̥ t͡ɬaʔtoːˈlóːjaːn̥, was an alliance of three Nahua peoples, Nahua ...
and subsequently redesigned and rebuilt in accordance with the Spanish urban standards. In 1524, the
municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, ...

municipality
of Mexico City was established, known as , and as of 1585, it was officially known as (Mexico City). Mexico City was the political, administrative, and financial center of a major part of the
Spanish colonial empire The Spanish Empire ( es, Imperio Español; la, Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy ( es, Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy ( es, Monarquía Católica), was a colonial empire A colonial empire is a ...

Spanish colonial empire
. After independence from Spain was achieved, the
federal district A federal district is a type of administrative division of a federation, usually under the direct control of a federal government and organized sometimes with a single municipal body. Federal districts often include Capital districts and territori ...
was created in 1824. After years of demanding greater political
autonomy In developmental psychology Developmental psychology is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictions ...

autonomy
, residents were finally given the right to
elect An election is a formal group decision-makingGroup decision-making (also known as collaborative decision-making or collective decision-making) is a situation faced when individuals An individual is that which exists as a distinct entity. Ind ...

elect
both a
head of government The head of government is either the highest or second-highest official in the executive Executive may refer to: Role, title, or function * Executive (government), branch of government that has authority and responsibility for the administrat ...
and the representatives of the
unicameral In government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by ...
Legislative Assembly Legislative assembly is the name given in some countries to either a legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, political entity such as a Sovereign state, country or city. ...
by election in 1997. Ever since, left-wing parties (first the
Party of the Democratic Revolution The Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD, es, Partido de la Revolución Democrática, ) is a social democratic Social democracy is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, maki ...
and later the
National Regeneration Movement The National Regeneration Movement ( es, Movimiento Regeneración Nacional), also known by its acronym MORENA (Spanish for "Bronze (racial classification), bronze-skinned", Olive skinned or "tanned", alluding to Mexico's national patroness, the " ...
) have controlled both of them. The city has several progressive policies, such as
abortion Abortion is the ending of a pregnancy Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring In biology, offspring are the young born of living organism, organisms, produced either by a single organism ...
on demand, a limited form of
euthanasia Euthanasia (from el, εὐθανασία 'good death': εὖ, ''eu'' 'well, good' + θάνατος, ''thanatos'' 'death') is the practice of intentionally ending life to relieve pain and suffering. Different countries have different Legality ...
,
no-fault divorceNo-fault may refer to: * No-fault divorce * No-fault insurance *No-fault liability also known as strict liability {{disambig *Cádiz, Spain *Cerro, Havana, Cerro (Havana), Cuba *Chicago, United States *Cusco, Peru *Havana, Cuba *Istanbul, Turkey *Kyiv, Ukraine *Kuwait City, Kuwait *Los Angeles, United States *Madrid, Spain *Nagoya, Japan *Nairobi, Kenya *Quito, Ecuador *San Antonio de los Baños, Cuba *San José, Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica *Seoul, South Korea *Tegucigalpa, Honduras


Union of Ibero-American Capital Cities

Mexico City also is a part of the Union of Ibero-American Capital Cities.


See also

* Cuisine of Mexico City *List of pre-columbian archaeological sites in Mexico City *List of colonial churches in Mexico City * Gentrification of Mexico City *
Greater Mexico City Greater Mexico City refers to the conurbation around Mexico City, officially called Metropolitan Area of the Valley of Mexico ( es, Zona metropolitana del Valle de México). It encompasses Mexico City itself and 60 adjacent municipalities of Mexico ...
* Historic center of Mexico City * Large Cities Climate Leadership Group * Largest cities in the Americas * Metropolitan areas of Mexico * Outline of Mexico * World's largest cities


Notes


References


External links

* *
Mexico City Government

Mexico City Tourism Ministry
{{Authority control Mexico City, Cities in Mexico Subdivisions of Mexico Nahua settlements Mexico City metropolitan area 1520s establishments in Mexico 1521 establishments in New Spain 1521 in Mexico Articles containing video clips Capital districts and territories Capitals in North America Populated places established in 1521