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A minister without portfolio is either a government minister with no specific responsibilities or a minister who does not head a particular ministry (government department), ministry. The sinecure is particularly common in countries ruled by coalition governments and a Cabinet (government), cabinet with decision-making authority wherein a minister without portfolio, while they may not head any particular office or ministry, may still receive a ministerial salary and has the right to cast a vote in cabinet decisions. In some countries where the executive branch is not composed of a coalition of parties and, more often, in countries with purely presidential systems of government, such as the United States, the position of minister without portfolio (or an equivalent position) is uncommon.


Albania

In Albania, ''"Minister without portfolio"'' are considered members of the government who generally are not in charge of a special department, do not have headquarters or offices and usually do not have administration or staff. This post of was first introduced in 1918, during the Turhan Pasha Përmeti, Përmeti II government, otherwise known as the Government of Durrës. The members of this cabinet were referred to as ''Delegatë pa portofol'' (delegate without portfolio). The name "minister" was used two years later, during the Delvina Government, government of Sulejman Delvina. In the 1990s it was common the usage of the name ''Sekretar Shteti'' (Secretary of State) to refer to such a position. Mostly these roles were given to smaller allies by the leading parties. Nowadays the name ''Ministër i Shtetit'' (State Minister or Minister of State) is used.


Australia

Willie Kelly (politician), Willie Kelly was given the title in the Cook Ministry from June 1913 to September 1914. Stanley Bruce was given the title of minister without portfolio when he took up his position in 1932 as the Commonwealth Minister in London. He was given the title by Lyons' Cabinet so that he could better represent the PM and his colleagues free from the limitations of a portfolio. In this case the title was a promotion and carried considerable responsibilities.


Bangladesh

Bangladesh appoints ministers without portfolio during cabinet reshuffles or fresh appointments. Ministers are not usually appointed without portfolio as a coalition negotiation – all long run ministers end up with a portfolio. Suranjit Sengupta was a minister without portfolio in Sheikh Hasina's second government.


Bulgaria

*Bozhidar Dimitrov (2009–2011)


Canada

While the minister without portfolio is seen by some as a mere sinecure appointment, it has been a role that numerous political notables have played over time, including former Prime Minister Jean Chrétien, who filled the role in a Lester Pearson, Pearson cabinet in the 1960s; John Turner also "kept a seat warm" in a Pearson cabinet. Notable Conservatives who filled the role include Richard Bedford Bennett, R. B. Bennett, and Arthur Meighen; however, Meighen served this role after he had been prime minister. The title of minister without portfolio has been used off and on; in recent times, though, the title has fallen out of favour, and the penultimate minister without portfolio, Gilles Lamontagne, was promoted to Postmaster General of Canada, postmaster general in 1978. The practice has continued primarily under the guise of Minister of state (Canada), ministers of state without responsibilities in the ministers' titles. The position has also been filled on the federal or provincial level by experienced politicians near the end of their careers as a way of allowing them to counsel the government and take on projects without the burdens associated with administering a government department. In January 2021, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau appointed Jim Carr as a minister without portfolio, in addition to his role as special representative to the Prairies. Carr served as a cabinet minister until November 2019, leaving as a consequence of his diagnosis with multiple myeloma.


Croatia

*Dragutin Kalogjera (1990) *Zvonimir Medvedović (1990) *Gojko Šušak (1990–1991) *Zdravko Mršić (1990–1991) *Dražen Budiša (1991–1992) *Ivan Cesar (1991–1992) *Ivica Crnić (1992) *Darko Čargonja (1992) *Živko Juzbašić (1991–1992) *Mladen Vedriš (1992) *Vladimir Veselica (1991) *Muhamed Zulić (1991–1992) *Zvonimir Baletić (1991–1992) *Slavko Degoricija (1991) *Stjepan Zdunić (1991) *Čedomir Pavlović (1992–1993) *Smiljko Sokol (1992–1993) *Zlatko Mateša (1993–1995) – Prime Minister (1995–2000) *Juraj Njavro (1993–1997) *Ivan Majdak (1993–1995) *Marijan Petrović (1995) *Adalbert Rebić (1995) *Davor Štern (1995) *Branko Močibob (1995–1997) *Gordana Sobol (2002–2003) *Bianca Matković (2009–2011) *Goran Marić (politician), Goran Marić (2016)


Deputy Prime Ministers without portfolio

*Bernardo Jurlina (1990–1991) *Mate Babić (1990) *Milan Ramljak (1990–1992) *Franjo Gregurić (1990–1991) – Prime Minister (1991–1992) *Mate Granić (1991–1993) – Minister of Foreign Affairs (1993–2000) *Jurica Pavelić (1991–1992) *Zdravko Tomac (1991–1992) *Ivan Milas (1992–1993) *Vladimir Šeks (1992–1994) *Mladen Vedriš (1992–1993) *Ivica Kostović (1993–1995) *Bosiljko Mišetić (1995) *Borislav Škegro (1993–1997) *Ljerka Mintas Hodak (1995–1998) *Željka Antunović (2000–2002) *Slavko Linić (2000–2003) *Goran Granić (2000–2002) *Ante Simonić (2002–2003) *Damir Polančec (2005–2008) *Đurđa Adlešić (2008–2010) *Slobodan Uzelac (2008–2011) *Domagoj Ivan Milošević (2010–2011) *Tomislav Karamarko (2016) *Božo Petrov (2016) – Speaker of Parliament (2016–2017) *Boris Milošević (2020–present)


Denmark

Three "control ministers" served as ministers without portfolio during World War I. After the Occupation of Denmark, Liberation of Denmark in May 1945, the first Danish cabinet of Vilhelm Buhl II, cabinet included four ministers without portfolio. Among these were Danish ambassador to the U.S. Henrik Kauffmann, who had conducted his own foreign policy throughout the war and refused to follow orders from Copenhagen as long as Denmark remained occupied by a foreign power. Kauffmann served in this capacity from 12 May to 7 November 1945. The three other holders of this title had joined the cabinet a few days before – Aksel Larsen (Communist Party of Denmark), Kr. Juul Christensen (Danish Unity) and Frode Jakobsen (Social Democrats (Denmark), Social Democrats). Lise Østergaard held a position as minister without portfolio with special attention to foreign policy issues in Anker Jørgensen's cabinet from 26 February 1977 to 28 February 1980. Anders Fogh Rasmussen appointed Bertel Haarder as minister without portfolio, but effectively Minister for European Affairs (Denmark), Minister for European Affairs. Haarder served in this capacity from 27 November 2001 to 18 February 2005. The reason for appointing a minister without a ministry was the Danish Presidency of the Council of the European Union, European Union Presidency of 2002. Haarder was considered the most experienced Danish politician on European affairs.


Estonia

*Jaan Tõnisson (1918) (provisional government) *Karl Ast (1924–1925) *Juhan Kaarlimäe (1944) *Johannes Sikkar (1952–1953) (Estonian government-in-exile, in exile) *Artur Terras (1952–1953) (in exile) *Aksel Mark (1956–1962) (in exile) *Arvo Horm (1956–1964) (in exile) *Peeter Panksep (1956–1964) (in exile) *Eduard Leetmaa (1959–1962) (in exile; appointed, but did not enter office) *Ivar Grünthal (1962–1964) (in exile) *Renate Kaasik (1971–1990) (in exile) *Verner Hans Puurand (1973–1977) (in exile) *Jaan Timusk (1973–1990) (in exile) *Ants Pallop (1973–1992) (in exile) *Arvo Horm (1977–1992) (in exile) *Ivar Paljak (1985–1990) (in exile) *Olev Olesk (1986–1990) (in exile) *Endel Lippmaa (1990–1991) (interim government) *Artur Kuznetsov (1990–1991) (interim government) *Klara Hallik (1992) (interim government) *Arvo Niitenberg (1992) (interim government) *Jüri Luik (1992–1993) *Peeter Olesk (literary scientist), Peeter Olesk (1993–1994) *Eiki Nestor (1994–1995) *Arvo Niitenberg (1994–1995) *Ants Leemets (1995) *Jaak Allik (1995–1996) *Endel Lippmaa (1995–1996) *Tiit Kubri (1995–1997) *Riivo Sinijärv (1996) *Andra Veidemann (1996–1999) *Peep Aru (1997–1999) *Katrin Saks (1999–2003) *Toivo Asmer (1999–2003) *Eldar Efendijev (2002–2003) *Paul-Eerik Rummo (2003–2007) *Jaan Õunapuu (2003–2007) *Urve Palo (2007–2009) *Urmas Kruuse (2014) *Anne Sulling (2014)


Finland

Minister without portfolio is not a common type of cabinet position, and the last minister without portfolio served in 1949. The most famous one was Juho Kusti Paasikivi, who was a part of the "Triumvirate" of Prime Minister Risto Ryti, Minister of Foreign Affairs Väinö Tanner and Paasikivi during the Winter War and the year 1940. Mikko Luopajärvi (Agrarian Union) 17.4.1919 – 15.8.1919(Kaarlo Castrén Cabinet, Kaarlo Castren Cabinet), 15.8.1919 – 5.1.1920 (Vennola I Cabinet) Kalle Aukusti Lohi (Agrarian Union) 31.3.1925 – 31.12.1925 (Tulenheimo Cabinet) Matti Paasivuori (Social Democratic Party) 13.12.1926 – 15.11.1927 (Tanner Cabinet) Kalle Jutila (Agrarian Union) 17.12.1927 – 16.10.1928 (Sunila I Cabinet) Juhani Leppälä (Agrarian Union) 16.8.1929 – 27.8.1929 (Kallio III Cabinet) Eljas Erkko (Progressive Party) 20.10.1932 – 25.11.1932 (Sunila II Cabinet) Ernst von Born (Swedish People's Party) 13.10.1939 – 1.12.1939 (Cajander III Cabinet) Juho Kusti Paasikivi (Unaffiliated/No party) 1.12.1939 – 27.3.1940 (Ryti I Cabinet) Mauno Pekkala (Social Democratic Party) 17.11.1944 – 24.11.1944 (Paasikivi II Cabinet) Hertta Kuusinen (Finnish People's Democratic Party) 26.5.1948 – 4.6.1948 (Pekkala Cabinet) Aleksi Aaltonen (Social Democratic Party) 29.7.1948 – 30.7.1948 (Fagerholm I Cabinet) Unto Varjonen (Social Democratic Party) 29.7.1949 – 19.8.1949 (Fagerholm I Cabinet)


Germany

*Hermann Göring (1933) *Ernst Röhm (1933) *Rudolf Hess *Arthur Seyss-Inquart (1939–1945) *Hjalmar Schacht (1939–1943) Since 1949, a Federal Minister for Special Affairs of Germany, Federal Minister for Special Affairs (''Bundesminister für besondere Aufgaben'') is a member of the Cabinet of Germany, Federal Government that does not have charge of a Federal Ministry, although the ministry is now commonly assigned to the Heads of the German Chancellery to give this important government functionary cabinet (government), cabinet-rank. The ministry was first created in October 1953 to give a ministry level position to Franz Josef Strauss, but has been used almost exclusively for the Head of the Federal Chancellery since the 1960s. A notable exception occurred in the course of German reunification when four members of de Maizière cabinet, East Germany's last government were made "Minister for Special Affairs" from October 3, 1990, to January 1991.


Hungary

*Zsolt Semjén (2010–present) *Tamás Fellegi (2011–2012)


India

* N. Gopalaswami Ayyangar - First Nehru ministry, Nehru government * Mamata Banerjee - Vajpayee government * Natwar Singh - First Manmohan Singh ministry, Manmohan Singh government * Arun Jaitley - Narendra Modi Government


Indonesia

Since the inception of the state, Indonesia had ministers without portfolio, usually given the title ''Menteri Negara'' ('State Minister'). The number was not fixed, entirely depended on the behest of the President. Below is the list of ministers without portfolio in each Cabinet.


Presidential Cabinet (Indonesia), Presidential Cabinet (19 August – 14 November 1945)

* Mohammad Amir * Sartono * Alexander Andries Maramis * Oto Iskandar di Nata


First Sjahrir Cabinet (11 November 1945 – 28 February 1946)

* Rasjidi (on religious affairs)


Third Sjahrir Cabinet (5 October 1946 – 27 July 1947)

* Hamengkubuwono IX * Wahid Hasyim * Wikana (on youth affairs) * Soedarsono * Tan Po Gwan * Ernest Douwes Dekker, Danoedirdja Setiaboedi


Sixth Development Cabinet (6 June – 1 October 1997)

The cabinet was unique, with President Suharto moved the Minister of Information Harmoko to the office of State Minister of Special Affairs ( id, Menteri Negara Urusan Khusus) on 6 June 1997. The Ministry of Special Affairs was dissolved on 1 October 1997, following the inauguration of next-term's People's Consultative Assembly, parliament and the appointment of Harmoko as its speaker.


Ireland

The Ministers and Secretaries Acts, Ministers and Secretaries (Amendment) Act 1939 allows a Minister to be a member of the Government of Ireland who does not have charge of a Department of state (Ireland), Department of State, such a person to be known as a "Minister without portfolio". Such a minister may be given a specific style or title. The only substantive minister without portfolio has been Frank Aiken, the Minister for the Co-ordination of Defensive Measures during World War II. By the Emergency Powers Act 1939 then in force, the Minister for Defence (Ireland), Minister for Defence was able to delegate some competences to him. On a number of occasions a minister has been appointed to an incoming government with the title of a new Department of State (Ireland), Department of State. Between the date of appointment and the date of creation of the department, such a minister is formally a minister without portfolio. When Helen McEntee took six months' maternity leave on 28 April 2021, her portfolio as Minister for Justice (Ireland), Minister for Justice was reassigned to Heather Humphreys, in addition to Humphreys's existing portfolio as Minister for Social Protection and Minister for Rural and Community Development. McEntee remained a member of Government of the 33rd Dáil, the coalition government as minister without portfolio, and was reassigned to the Department of Justice on 1 November 2021.


Israel

It is common practice in Israel to appoint ministers without portfolio as part of the coalition negotiations, as it allows small coalition partners a seat at the cabinet table. All cabinets in recent years have had at least some such appointment. The Governance Law passed in 2013 forbade ministers without portfolio effectively ending the practice, however in spite of some objections, after the 2015 elections this issue was revisited in the Knesset and it was allowed for the practice to resume. The full alphabetical list of ministers without portfolio since 1949 is: *Ofir Akunis (2015) *Yosef Almogi (1961–62) *Shulamit Aloni (1974, 1993) *Yehuda Amital (1995–96) *Shaul Amor (1999) *Zalman Aran (1954–55) *Moshe Arens (1984–86, 1987–88) *Eli Avidar (2021-) *Ruhama Avraham (2007–08) *Ami Ayalon (2007–08) *Yisrael Barzilai (1969–70) *Benny Begin (2009–13, 2015) *Menachem Begin (1967–70) *Mordechai Ben-Porat (1982–84) *Yosef Burg (1984) *Eitan Cabel (2006–07) *Ra'anan Cohen (2001–02) *Yitzhak Cohen (2006–08) *Aryeh Deri (1993) *Aryeh Dolchin (1969–70) *Sarah Doron (1983–84) *Abba Eban (1959–60) *Rafael Edri (1988–90) *Yaakov Edri (2006–07) *Effi Eitam (2002) *Yisrael Galili (1966–67, 1969–77) *Akiva Govrin (1963–64) *Mordechai Gur (1988–90) *Gideon Hausner (1974–77) *Tzachi Hanegbi (2016, 2020) *Yigal Hurvitz (1984–88) *Haim Landau (1978–79) *Pinhas Lavon (1952–54) *David Levy (Israeli politician), David Levy (2002) *Yitzhak Levy (2002) *Tzipi Livni (2001–02) *David Magen (1990) *Raleb Majadele (2007) *Dan Meridor (2001–03) *Yitzhak Moda'i (1981–82, 1986–88) *Shaul Mofaz (2012) *Peretz Naftali (1951–52, 1955–59) *Meshulam Nahari (2006–13) *Dan Naveh (2001–03) *Moshe Nissim (1978–80, 1988–90) *Ehud Olmert (1988–90) *Yossi Peled (2009) *Shimon Peres (1969) *Yitzhak Peretz (politician born 1938), Yitzhak Peretz (1984, 1987–88) *Haim Ramon (2005) *Pinchas Sapir (1968–69) *Yosef Sapir (1967–69) *Avner Shaki (1988–90) *Yosef Shapira (1984–88) *Ariel Sharon (1983–84) *Victor Shem-Tov (1969–70) *Salah Tarif (2001–02) *Ezer Weizman (1984–88) *Dov Yosef (1952–53) *Rehavam Ze'evi (1991–92)


Italy

In the Italian government, ministers without portfolio are nominated by the President of the Council of Ministers of Italy, President of the Council of Ministers (Prime Minister) and formally appointed by the President of the Italian Republic, President of the Republic to lead particular departments directly under the Presidency (or Presidium) of the Council of Ministers. Unlike the office of State Undersecretary to the Presidency, who fulfils duties in the Prime Minister's remit, ministers without portfolio enjoy the full status of ministers but do not lead an independent ministry. Departments on equalities, European affairs and relations with regions, for example, are usually led by ministers without portfolio. The Monti Cabinet had six ministers without portfolio: *Dino Piero Giarda (Relations with Parliament) *Fabrizio Barca (Territorial cohesion) *Piero Gnudi (Regional affairs, Tourism and Sport) *Enzo Moavero Milanesi (European affairs) *Andrea Riccardi (Integration and International cooperation) *Filippo Patroni Griffi (Public Administration and Law simplification) The Letta Cabinet had eight ministers without portfolio: *Josefa Idem (Equal opportunities, Sport and Youth policy; resigned in June) *Cécile Kyenge (Integration and Youth Policy) *Giampiero D'Alia (Public Administration) *Dario Franceschini (Relations with Parliament) *Enzo Moavero Milanesi (European affairs) *Graziano Delrio (Regional affairs and Sport) *Carlo Triglia (Territorial cohesion) *Gaetano Quagliariello (Constitutional reforms) The Renzi Cabinet had three ministers without portfolio: *Maria Elena Boschi (Constitutional Reforms and Parliamentary Relations) *Marianna Madia (Simplification of Public Administration) *Maria Carmela Lanzetta (2014–2015) (Regional Affairs)


North Macedonia

As of 2017, ministers without portfolio (министер без ресор) are: * Ramiz Merko * Edmond Ademi * Robert Popovski * Zoran Sapurik * Zorica Apostolovska * Adnan Kahil * Samka Ibraimovski


Malta

* Carmelo Abela (2020–) * Joe Mizzi (1996–1998) * Konrad Mizzi (2016–2017) On April 28, 2016, following the appearance of his name in the Panama Papers leaks, Prime Minister Joseph Muscat announced in a press conference at the Auberge de Castille that Konrad Mizzi was to be removed from the position of Health and Energy Minister. Mizzi would however retain the title of minister without portfolio, working within the Office of the Prime Minister.


Nepal

Dr. Ram Sharan Mahat.


Netherlands

A minister without portfolio in the Netherlands is a minister that does not head a specific ministry (government department), ministry, but assumes the same power and responsibilities as a minister that does. The minister is responsible for a specific part of another minister's policy field. In that sense, a minister without portfolio is comparable to a ''State Secretary (Netherlands), staatssecretaris'' (state secretary or junior minister) in Dutch politics, who also falls under another ministry and is responsible for a specific part of that minister's policy field. However, one distinct difference is that a minister without portfolio is a member of the Council of Ministers of the Netherlands, council of ministers and can vote in it, whereas a state secretary is not. The minister for development cooperation has always been a minister without portfolio. In the second Balkenende cabinet there were three ministers without portfolio: Agnes van Ardenne-van der Hoeven, Agnes van Ardenne (Development Cooperation), Rita Verdonk (Integration and Immigration) and Alexander Pechtold (Government Reform and Kingdom Relations). In the fourth Balkenende cabinet there were three ministers without portfolio: Eberhard van der Laan (Housing, Neighbourhoods and Integration), Bert Koenders (Development Cooperation) and André Rouvoet, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Youth and Family. The second Rutte cabinet had two ministers without portfolio: Stef Blok (Housing and the Central Government Sector) and Lilianne Ploumen (Development Cooperation). The third Rutte cabinet has four ministers without portfolio: Sigrid Kaag (Development Cooperation), Sander Dekker (Legal Protection), Martin van Rijn (Medical Care), and Arie Slob (Primary and Secondary Education and Media).


New Zealand

In the First Labour Government of New Zealand, First Labour Government from 1935 Mark Fagan was a "minister without portfolio" from 1935 to 1939, as was David Wilson (New Zealand politician), David Wilson from 1939 to 1949. They were appointed to the New Zealand Legislative Council, upper house and made a "minister without portfolio" to add them to the cabinet although neither were elected to a seat in Parliament. In the Third National Government of New Zealand, Third National Government, Keith Holyoake was made a Minister of State 1975–77 after he had retired as party leader, and in the Fourth National Government of New Zealand, Fourth National Government Robin Gray (New Zealand politician), Robin Gray was made a Minister of State 1993–96 after he was replaced as Speaker (though he was also Associate Minister of Foreign Affairs). Both appointments were considered sinecures to avoid their return as 'backbenchers'. The following were appointed to the Executive Council as ministers without portfolio. ;Key
†: Died in office


Norway

From 2009 to 2013 Karl Eirik Schjøtt-Pedersen (Labour) was a Minister without Portfolio and Chief of Staff in the Prime Ministers Office, where his job was to co-ordinate within government.


Philippines

During the Second Philippine Republic, Japanese Occupation of the Philippines, then-Senate President Manuel Roxas was appointed minister without portfolio by the Japanese Government.


Portugal

Following the Carnation Revolution, several politicians were made ministers without portfolio: * Álvaro Cunhal (1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th provisional government) * Ernesto Melo Antunes (2nd, 3rd provisional government) * Francisco Pereira de Moura (1st, 4th provisional government) * Francisco Sá Carneiro (1st provisional government) * Joaquim Magalhães Mota (2nd, 3rd, 4th provisional government) * Jorge Campinos (1st constitutional government) * Mário Soares (4th provisional government) * Vítor Alves (soldier), Vítor Alves (2nd, 3rd provisional government) After the I Constitutional Government of Portugal, 1st Constitutional Government (1976–1978), there haven't been any appointments of ministers without portfolio. A similar but not sinecural cabinet position, that of :pt:Lista de ministros adjuntos de Portugal, Minister Adjunct (''ministro adjunto''), who does not head a particular ministry but is instead tasked with the general interministerial measures found in the government programme, has been created in some Portuguese governments.


Serbia

From 2007 to 2008, Dragan Đilas was a "minister without portfolio" in charge of the National Investment Plan (Serbia), National Investment Plan. * Milan Krkobabić (2016) * Slavica Đukić Dejanović (2017) * Nenad Popović (2017)


Singapore

In Singapore, the appointment holder is known as a 'Minister in the Prime Minister's Office (Singapore), Prime Minister's Office'.


Sweden

* Dag Hammarskjöld (1951–1953). * Olof Palme (1963–1965).


Taiwan

In the Executive Yuan of the Republic of China, there are several ministers without portfolio at once. Currently, they are: * Audrey Tang * Chang Ching-sen * Huang Chih-ta * John Deng * Kung Ming-hsin, also serving as Minister of National Development Council (Taiwan), National Development Council * Lo Ping-cheng * Lin Wan-i * Wu Tze-cheng, also serving as Minister of Public Construction Commission


Tanzania

President Jakaya Kikwete appointed Professor Mark Mwandosya as a minister without portfolio in 2012.


Uganda

Since 2015, the cabinet list has included a minister without portfolio: * Abraham Byandala – 2015 until 2016 * Abdul Nadduli – 2016 to 2019 * Kirunda Kivejinja – 2019 to 2021


United Kingdom


United States

The Vice President of the United States is a member of the Cabinet of the United States, Cabinet but heads no department. As such, the Vice President may be assigned to policy areas of the President's choosing such as foreign diplomacy (Richard Nixon), space programs (Lyndon B. Johnson) or public health (Mike Pence). Prior to the mid-19th century, the Vice President's position as President of the United States Senate, President of the Senate caused the office to be seen as primarily legislative in nature, and as such they were not assigned to deal with public policy. An individual who has great influence on government affairs without holding formal office might be described as a "minister without portfolio". Such an appellation is completely unofficial (possibly intended jokingly or disparagingly) and merely serves to underscore the extent of the individual's already-existing influence; it does not grant any new influence or power. Examples include Bernard Baruch, Arthur Burns, and Ivanka Trump. During his tenure as Secretary of Commerce of the United States the later President Herbert Hoover was sometimes referred to as "Secretary of Commerce and Under-Secretary of all other departments" due to his propensity to get involved in federal government policy outside his department and taking charge when other ministers or the President wouldn't or couldn't, such as his administration of federal relief efforts in the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927.


References


External links


List of Canadian Ministers Without Portfolio and Ministers of State
(Parliament of Canada Website)

{{Cabinet Office Government ministers, *Without portfolio Lists of government ministers of the United Kingdom, *Without portfolio Canadian ministers Ministerial offices in the United Kingdom, Portfolio, Minister without Ministers without portfolio,