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Madrid ( , ) is the capital and most populous city of
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
. The city has almost 3.4 million inhabitants and a
metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core Urban means "related to a city". In that sense, the term may refer to: * Urban area, geographical area distinct from rural areas * Urban culture, the cult ...
population of approximately 6.7 million. It is the second-largest city in the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
(EU), surpassed only by
Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2019 makes it the List of cities in the European Union by ...

Berlin
in its administrative limits, and its
monocentric Duplicated chromosome. (2) identifies the Monocentric centromere—the region that joins the two sister chromatids, or each half of the chromosome. In prophase of mitosis, specialized regions on centromeres called kinetochores attach chromosomes ...
metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core Urban means "related to a city". In that sense, the term may refer to: * Urban area, geographical area distinct from rural areas * Urban culture, the cult ...
is the second-largest in the EU, surpassed only by
Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents , in an area of more than . Since the 17th century, Paris ha ...

Paris
.United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affair
World Urbanization Prospects (2007 revision)
(United Nations, 2008), Table A.12. Data for 2007.
The municipality covers geographical area. Madrid lies on the River Manzanares in the central part of the
Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese language, Aragonese and Occitan language, Occitan: ''Peninsula Iberica'' ** ** * french: Péninsule Ibérique * mwl, Península Eibérica * eu, Iberiar penintsula also known as Iberia, is a peni ...

Iberian Peninsula
. Capital city of both Spain (almost without interruption since 1561) and the surrounding
autonomous community of Madrid The Community of Madrid (; es, Comunidad de Madrid ) is one of the seventeen autonomous communities of Spain. It is located in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula, and of the Meseta Central, Central Plateau (''Meseta Central''). Its capital is ...
(since 1983), it is also the political, economic and cultural centre of the country. The city is situated on an elevated plain about from the closest seaside location. Seasonal differences are large by Iberian standards with
hot summers and cool winters
hot summers and cool winters
. The mayor is
José Luis Martínez-Almeida José Luis Martínez-Almeida Navasqüés (born 17 April 1975) is a Spanish state lawyer and politician. A member of the People's Party (PP), he has been a member of the Madrid City Council since 2015 and serves as Mayor of Madrid The Mayor of M ...

José Luis Martínez-Almeida
from the People's Party. The Madrid urban agglomeration has the second-largest GDP in the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
and its influence in
politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individuals, such as the distribution of res ...

politics
,
education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), values, morals, beliefs, habits, and personal development. Educational methods include teaching, training, storytelling, discussion ...

education
,
entertainment Entertainment is a form of activity that holds the attention and interest In finance Finance is the study of financial institutions, financial markets and how they operate within the financial system. It is concerned with the creatio ...

entertainment
,
environment Environment most often refers to: __NOTOC__ * Natural environment, all living and non-living things occurring naturally * Biophysical environment, the physical and biological factors along with their chemical interactions that affect an organism or ...
,
media Media may refer to: Physical means Communication * Media (communication), tools used to deliver information or data ** Advertising media, various media, content, buying and placement for advertising ** Broadcast media, communications deliv ...
,
fashion Fashion is a form of self-expression and autonomy at a particular period and place and in a specific context, of clothing, footwear, Lifestyle (sociology), lifestyle, Fashion accessory, accessories, makeup, hairstyle, and body posture. The term i ...

fashion
,
science Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictions about the universe."... modern science is a discovery as well as an invention. ...

science
,
culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, Social norm, customs, capabilities, and habits of the individuals i ...

culture
, and the
arts The arts refers to the theory, human application and physical expression of creativity Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something somehow new and somehow valuable is formed. The created item may be intangible (such as an idea, a scienti ...

arts
all contribute to its status as one of the world's major
global cities A global city, also called a power city, world city, alpha city or world center, is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ...
. Due to its
economic output Output in economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumption (economics), consumption of g ...
, high
standard of living Standard of living is the level of income, comforts and services available, generally applied to a society or location, rather than to an individual. Standard of living is relevant because it is considered to contribute to an individual's quality ...
, and market size, Madrid is considered the major financial centre and the leading economic hub of the Iberian Peninsula and of
Southern Europe Southern Europe is the southern region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth a ...

Southern Europe
. The metropolitan area hosts major Spanish companies such as
Telefónica Telefónica, S.A. () is a Spanish Multinational corporation, multinational telecommunications company headquartered in Madrid, Spain. It is List of telephone operating companies, one of the largest telephone operators and List of mobile network o ...

Telefónica
,
Iberia The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese language, Aragonese and Occitan language, Occitan: ''Peninsula Iberica'' ** ** * french: Péninsule Ibérique * mwl, Península Eibérica * eu, Iberiar penintsula also known as Iberia, is a penin ...
,
BBVA Banco Bilbao Vizcaya Argentaria, S.A. (), better known by its initialism BBVA, is a Spanish multinational financial services Financial services are the Service (economics), economic services provided by the finance industry, which encompasses ...
and
FCC The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is an independent agency A regulatory agency or regulatory authority, is a Public benefit corporation Public-benefit corporation is a term that has different meanings in different jurisdictions. In ...
. It concentrates the bulk of banking operations in the country and it is the Spanish-speaking city generating the largest amount of webpages. Madrid houses the headquarters of the
UN
UN
's
World Tourism Organization The World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) is the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among n ...
(UNWTO), the
Ibero-American General Secretariat The Ibero-American General Secretariat (SEGIB) is the permanent support body to the Pro-Tempore Secretariat in the preparation of Ibero-American Summits. Founded in 2005 in replacement of the Secretariat of Ibero-American Cooperation, its main task ...
(SEGIB), the
Organization of Ibero-American States The Organization of Ibero-American States ( es, Organización de Estados Iberoamericanos, pt, Organização dos Estados Ibero-americanos; abbreviated as OEI), formally the Organization of Ibero-American States for Education, Science and Culture, ...
(OEI), and the
Public Interest Oversight Board The Public Interest Oversight Board (PIOB) is an international body that oversees the International Federation of Accountants The International Federation of Accountants (IFAC) is the global organization for the accountancy profession. Founded in ...
(PIOB). It also hosts major international regulators and promoters of the Spanish language: the Standing Committee of the Association of Spanish Language Academies, headquarters of the
Royal Spanish Academy The Royal Spanish Academy ( es, Real Academia Española, generally abbreviated as RAE) is Spain's official royal institution with a mission to ensure the stability of the Spanish language Spanish () or Castilian (, ) is a Romance language ...
(RAE), the
Instituto Cervantes Instituto Cervantes (the Cervantes Institute) is a worldwide non-profit organization created by the Spanish government in 1991. It is named after Miguel de Cervantes (1547–1616), the author of ''Don Quixote'' and perhaps the most important figure ...

Instituto Cervantes
and the Foundation of Urgent Spanish (Fundéu BBVA). Madrid organises fairs such as FITUR, ARCO, SIMO TCI and the Madrid Fashion Week. Madrid is home to two world-famous
football Football is a family of team sport A team is a [group (disambiguation), group of individuals (human or non-human) working together to achieve their goal. As defined by Professor Leigh Thompson (academic), Leigh Thompson of the Kellogg Sch ...
clubs, Real Madrid and Atlético Madrid. While Madrid possesses modern infrastructure, it has preserved the look and feel of many of its historic neighbourhoods and streets. Its landmarks include the Plaza Mayor, Madrid, Plaza Mayor, the
Royal Palace of Madrid The Royal Palace of Madrid ( es, Palacio Real de Madrid) is the official residence of the Spanish royal family#REDIRECT Spanish royal family The House of Borbón-Anjou, or simply House of Borbón ( es, Casa de Borbón), is the reigning royal h ...

Royal Palace of Madrid
; the
Royal Theatre
Royal Theatre
with its restored 1850 Opera House; the
Buen Retiro Park The Buen Retiro Park (Spanish language, Spanish: ''Parque del Buen Retiro'', literally "Park of the Pleasant Retreat"), Retiro Park or simply El Retiro is one of the largest parks of the city of Madrid, Spain. The park belonged to the Spanish Monar ...
, founded in 1631; the 19th-century
National Library A national library is a library A library is a collection of materials, books or media that are easily accessible for use and not just for display purposes. It is responsible for housing updated information in order to meet the user's need ...

National Library
building (founded in 1712) containing some of Spain's historical archives; many national museums, and the
Golden Triangle of ArtThe Golden Triangle of Art is made up of three important art museum An art museum is a building or space for the display of art, usually from the museum's own Collection (artwork), collection. It might be in public or private ownership and may b ...
, located along the
Paseo del Prado The Paseo del Prado is one of the main boulevards in Madrid Madrid (, ) is the capital and most-populous city of Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coa ...
and comprising three art museums:
Prado Museum The Prado Museum ( ; ), officially known as Museo Nacional del Prado, is the main Spanish national art museum, located in central Madrid Madrid (, ) is the capital and most-populous city of Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc ...

Prado Museum
, the
Reina Sofía Museum Reina or La Reina may refer to: * Reina, the Spanish word for wikt:queen, queen Geography * Reina, Badajoz, a municipality in the province of Badajoz, Extremadura, Spain * Reina, Estonia, a village in Saaremaa Parish, Saare County, Estonia * La Re ...

Reina Sofía Museum
, a museum of
modern art Modern art includes artistic work produced during the period extending roughly from the 1860s to the 1970s, and denotes the styles and philosophies Philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental question ...
, and the
Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum The Thyssen-Bornemisza National Museum (in Spanish, the Museo Nacional Thyssen-Bornemisza (), named after its founder), or simply the Thyssen, is an art museum in Madrid, Spain, located near the Museo del Prado, Prado Museum on one of the city's ma ...
, which complements the holdings of the other two museums.
Cibeles Palace and Fountain
Cibeles Palace and Fountain
has become one of the monument symbols of the city.


Etymology

There are various theories regarding the origin of the toponym "Madrid" (all of them with problems when it comes to fully explain the phonetic evolution of the toponym along history), namely: * A
Celtic The words Celt and Celtic (also Keltic) may refer to: Ethno-linguistics *Celts The Celts (, see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) are. "CELTS location: Greater Europe time period: Second millennium B.C.E. to present ancestry: ...
origin (Madrid < * ''Magetoritum''; with the root "-ritu" meaning "
ford Ford commonly refers to: * Ford Motor Company The Ford Motor Company, commonly known as Ford, is an American multinational automaker that has its main headquarters in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit (strait) , nicknames ...
"). * From the
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
''maǧrà'' (meaning "water stream") or ''mayrit'' (مجريػ meaning "spring", "fountain"). * A
Mozarabic Mozarabic, also called Andalusi Romance ( mxi, latino, link=no), was a continuum Continuum may refer to: * Continuum (measurement) Continuum theories or models explain variation as involving gradual quantitative transitions without abrupt ch ...
variant of the Latin ''matrix'', ''matricis'' (also meaning "water stream").


History

The site of modern-day Madrid has been occupied since prehistoric times, and there are archaeological remains of the
Celtic The words Celt and Celtic (also Keltic) may refer to: Ethno-linguistics *Celts The Celts (, see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) are. "CELTS location: Greater Europe time period: Second millennium B.C.E. to present ancestry: ...

Celtic
Carpetani The Carpetani ( Greek: ''Karpetanoi'') were one of the Celtic pre- Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese and Occitan: ''Peninsula Iberica'' ** ** * french: Péninsule Ibérique * mwl, Península ...
settlement,
Roman villa A Roman villa was typically a farmhouse A farmhouse is a building that serves as the primary quarters in a rural or agricultural setting. Historically, farmhouses were often combined with space for animals called a housebarn. Other farmhou ...
s, a
Visigoth The Visigoths (; la, Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi) were an early Germanic people who, along with the Ostrogoths, constituted the two major political entities of the Goths within the Roman Empire in late antiquity, or what is know ...

Visigoth
basilica near the church of Santa María de la Almudena and three Visigoth necropoleis near Casa de Campo, Tetúan and Vicálvaro.


Middle Ages

The first historical document about the existence of an established settlement in Madrid dates from the Muslim age. At the second half of the 9th century, Cordobese Emir Muhammad I built a fortress on a headland near the river Manzanares, as one of the many fortresses he ordered to be built on the border between
Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
and the kingdoms of
León Leon, Léon (French) or León (Spanish) may refer to: Places Europe * León, Spain, capital city of the Province of León * Province of León, Spain * Kingdom of León, an independent state in the Iberian Peninsula from 910 to 1230 and again from ...
and Castile, with the objective of protecting
Toledo Toledo most commonly refers to: * Toledo, Spain, a city in Spain * Province of Toledo, Spain * Toledo, Ohio, a city in the United States Toledo may also refer to: Places Belize * Toledo District * Toledo Settlement Bolivia * Toledo, Oruro ...
from the Christian invasions and also as a starting point for Muslim offensives. After the disintegration of the
Caliphate of Córdoba A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (; ar, خَلِيفَة ', ), a person considered a politico-religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad a ...
in the early 11th century, Madrid was integrated in the
Taifa of Toledo The ''taifa'' of Toledo () was a Berbers, Berber Muslim ''taifa'' located in what is now central Spain. It existed from the fracturing of the long-eminent Muslim Caliphate of Córdoba in 1035 until the Christianity, Christian conquest in 1085. Hist ...
. In the context of the wider campaign for the conquest of the taifa of Toledo initiated in 1079, Madrid was seized in 1083 by
Alfonso VI of León and Castile Alfonso VI (1 July 1109), nicknamed the Brave (El Bravo) or the Valiant, was king of León (10651072) and of Galicia (10711109), and then king of the reunited Castile and León (10721109). After the conquest of Toledo, Spain, Toledo in 1085, Alfons ...
, who sought to use the town as an offensive outpost against the city of Toledo, in turn conquered in 1085. Following the conquest, Christians occupied the center of the city, while Muslims and Jews were displaced to the suburbs. Madrid, located near
Alcalá
Alcalá
(under Muslim control until 1118), remained a borderland for a while, suffering a number of ''razzias'' during the
Almoravid The Almoravid dynasty ( ar, المرابطون, translit=Al-Murābiṭūn, lit=those from the ribats) was an imperial Berbers, Berber Muslim dynasty centered in Morocco. It established an empire in the 11th century that stretched over the weste ...
period and its walls were destroyed in 1110. The city was confirmed as ''villa de '' (linked to the Crown) in 1123, during the reign of
Alfonso VII Alphons (Latinized ''Alphonsus'', ''Adelphonsus'', or ''Adefonsus'') is a male given name recorded from the 8th century ( Alfonso I of Asturias, r. 739-757) in the Christian successor states of the Visigothic kingdom in the Iberian peninsula. ...
. The 1123 Charter of Otorgamiento established the first explicit limits between Madrid and Segovia, namely the Puerto de El Berrueco and the Puerto de Lozoya. Since 1188, Madrid won the right to be a city with representation in the courts of Castile. In 1202,
Alfonso VIII Alfonso VIII (11 November 11555 October 1214), called the Noble (''El Noble'') or the one of Las Navas (''el de las Navas''), was the King of Castile from 1158 to his death and Kingdom of Toledo, King of Toledo. He is most remembered for his part in ...
gave Madrid its first charter to regulate the municipal council, which was expanded in 1222 by
Ferdinand III
Ferdinand III
. The government system of the town was changed to a ''
regimientoThe regimiento, cabildo de regidores or concejo cerrado ("closed council") was a system of local government established from the 14h century onwards in the Crown of Castile The Crown of Castile was a medieval polity in the Iberian Peninsula tha ...

regimiento
'' of 12 ''
regidor A regidor (plural: ''regidores'') is a member of a council of municipalities in Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , ...
es'' by
Alfonso XI Alfonso XI (13 August 131126 March 1350), called the Avenger (''el Justiciero''), was the king of Castile, León and Galicia. He was the son of Ferdinand IV of Castile and his wife Constance of Portugal. Upon his father's death in 1312, seve ...

Alfonso XI
on 6 January 1346. Since the mid-13th century and up to the late 14th century, the ''concejo'' of Madrid vied for the control of the Real de Manzanares territory against the ''concejo'' of
Segovia Segovia (, also , ) is a city in the autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Castile and León, Spain. It is the capital and most populated municipality of the Province of Segovia. Segovia is in the Inner Plateau, near the norther ...

Segovia
, a powerful town north of the
Sierra de Guadarrama The Sierra de Guadarrama (Guadarrama Mountains) is a mountain range forming the main eastern section of the Sistema Central, the system of mountain ranges along the centre of the Iberian Peninsula. It is located between the systems Sierra de Gred ...

Sierra de Guadarrama
mountain range, characterised by its repopulating prowess and its husbandry-based economy, contrasted by the agricultural and less competent in repopulation town of Madrid. After the decline of
Sepúlveda
Sepúlveda
, another ''concejo'' north of the mountain range, Segovia had become a major actor south of the Guadarrama mountains, expanding across the Lozoya and Manzanares rivers to the north of Madrid and along the Guadarrama river course to its west. In 1309, the Courts of Castile convened at Madrid for the first time under Ferdinand IV, and later in 1329, 1339, 1391, 1393, 1419 and twice in 1435.


Modern Age

During the
revolt of the Comuneros The Revolt of the Comuneros ( es, Guerra de las Comunidades de Castilla, "War of the Communities of Castile") was an uprising by citizens of against the rule of and his administration between 1520 and 1521. At its height, the rebels controll ...
, led by
Juan de Padilla
Juan de Padilla
, Madrid joined the revolt against
Charles, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles, Holy Roman Emperor
, but after defeat at the
Battle of Villalar The Battle of Villalar was a battle in the Revolt of the Comuneros fought on 23 April 1521 near the town of Villalar in Valladolid Valladolid (, ) is a city in Spain and the primary seat of government of the Autonomous communities of Spain, a ...
, Madrid was besieged and occupied by the imperial troops. The city was however granted the titles of ''Coronada'' (Crowned) and ''Imperial''. The number of urban inhabitants grew from 4,060 in the year 1530 to 37,500 in the year 1594. The poor population of the court was composed of ex-soldiers, foreigners, rogues and Ruanes, dissatisfied with the lack of food and high prices. In June 1561
Phillip II
Phillip II
set his court in Madrid, installing it in the old ''alcázar''. Thanks to this, the city of Madrid became the political centre of the monarchy, being the capital of Spain except for a short period between 1601 and 1606, in which the Court was relocated to
Valladolid Valladolid (, ) is a city in Spain and the primary seat of government of the Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Castile and León. It has a population of 309,714 people (2013 est.), Population figures from 1 January 2013. ma ...

Valladolid
(and the Madrid population temporarily plummeted accordingly). Being the capital was decisive for the evolution of the city and influenced its fate and during the rest of the reign of Philip II, the population boomed, going up from about 18,000 in 1561 to 80,000 in 1598. During the early 17th century, although Madrid recovered from the loss of the capital status, with the return of diplomats, lords and affluent people, as well as an entourage of noted writers and artists together with them, extreme poverty was however rampant. The century also was a time of heyday for theatre, represented in the so-called
''corrales de comedias''
''corrales de comedias''
. The city changed hands several times during the
War of the Spanish succession The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was an early-18th-century European war, triggered by the death in November 1700 of the childless Charles II of Spain. It established the principle that dynastic rights were secondary to maintaini ...
: from the Bourbon control it passed to the allied "Austracist" army with Portuguese and English presence that , only to be retaken by the Bourbon army on 4 August 1706. The Habsburg army led by the
Archduke Charles Archduke Charles Louis John Joseph Laurentius of Austria, Duke of Teschen (german: link=no, Erzherzog Karl Ludwig Johann Joseph Lorenz von Österreich, Herzog von Teschen; 5 September 177130 April 1847) was an Austrian Empire, Austrian field-mars ...
in September 1710, leaving the city less than three months after.
Philip VPhilip V may refer to: * Philip V of Macedon (221–179 BC) * Philip V of France (1293–1322) * Philip II of Spain, also Philip V, Duke of Burgundy (1526–1598) * Philip V of Spain (1683–1746) {{hndis, Philip 06 ...

Philip V
entered the capital on 3 December 1710. Seeking to take advantage of the Madrid's location at the geographic centre of Spain, the 18th century saw a sustained effort to create a radial system of communications and transports for the country through public investments. Philip V built the Royal Palace, the
Royal Tapestry Factory The Royal Tapestry Factory ( Spanish: ''Real Fábrica de Tapices de Santa Bárbara'') is a manufacturing plant located in Madrid Madrid (, ) is the capital and most-populous city of Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d ...
and the main Royal Academies. The reign of
Charles III
Charles III
, who came to be known as "the best mayor of Madrid", saw an effort to turn the city into a true capital, with the construction of sewers, street lighting, cemeteries outside the city and a number of monuments and cultural institutions. The reforms enacted by his Sicilian minister were however opposed in 1766 by the populace in the so-called
Esquilache Riots The Esquilache Riots (''Motín de Esquilache'') occurred in March 1766 during the rule of Charles III of Spain it, Carlo Sebastiano di Borbone e Farnese , house = House of Bourbon, Bourbon , father = Philip V of Spain , mother ...

Esquilache Riots
, a revolt demanding to repeal a clothing decree banning the use of traditional hats and long cloaks aiming to curb crime in the city. In the context of the
Peninsular War The Peninsular War (1807–1814) was the military conflict War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or paramilitary groups such as Mercenary, mercenaries, Insurgency, insurg ...

Peninsular War
, the situation in French-occupied Madrid after March 1808 was becoming more and more tense. On 2 May, a crowd began to gather near the
Royal Palace This is a list of royal s, sorted by continent. Africa * , * , * , * , * * * * Imperial Palace- Massawa Eritrea * * Lozitha Palace * Royal Palace Maseru * * Al Manar Palace * , *, * , * , * , * Olowo of Owo's Pal ...

Royal Palace
protesting against the French attempt to evict the remaining members of the Bourbon royal family to
Bayonne Bayonne (; eu, Baiona ; oc, label= Gascon, Baiona ; es, Bayona) is a city and commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Pr ...

Bayonne
, prompting up an uprising against the French Imperial troops that lasted hours and spread throughout the city, including a famous last stand at the Monteleón barracks. Subsequent repression was brutal, with many insurgent Spaniards being
summarily executed A summary execution is an execution in which a person is accused of a crime and immediately killed without the benefit of a Right to a fair trial, full and fair trial. Executions as the result of summary offense, summary justice (such as a drumhead ...
. The uprising led to a declaration of war calling all the Spaniards to fights against the French invaders.


Capital of the Liberal State

The city was invaded on 24 May 1823 by a French army—the so-called
Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis The Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis was the popular name for a French army mobilized in 1823 by the Bourbon King of France The monarchs of the Kingdom of France The Kingdom of France ( fro, Reaume de France, frm, Royaulme de France, ...
—called to intervene to restore the absolutism of Ferdinand that the latter had been deprived from during the 1820–1823 ''trienio liberal''. Unlike other European capitals, during the first half of the 19th century the only noticeable bourgeois elements in Madrid (that experienced a delay in its industrial development up to that point) were merchants. The University of Alcalá de Henares was relocated to Madrid in 1836, becoming the Central University. The economy of the city further modernized during the second half of the 19th century, consolidating its status as a service and financial centre. New industries were mostly focused in book publishing, construction and low-tech sectors. The introduction of
railway transport Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transport, transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, which are located on Track (rail transport), tracks. In contrast to road transport, where the vehic ...
greatly helped Madrid's economic prowess, and led to changes in consumption patterns (such as the substitution of salted fish for fresh fish from the Spanish coasts) as well as further strengthening the city's role as a
logistics node
logistics node
in the country's distribution network. Electric lightning in the streets was introduced in the 1890s. During the first third of the 20th century the population nearly doubled, reaching more than 850,000 inhabitants. New suburbs such as Las Ventas, Tetuán and El Carmen became the homes of the influx of workers, while
Ensanche 200px, The development project for Barcelona, 1859. ''Ensanche'' means "widening" in Spanish. It is used to name the development areas of Spanish cities around the end of the 19th century, when the demographic explosion and the Industrial Revoluti ...
became a middle-class neighbourhood of Madrid.


Second Republic and Civil War

The
Spanish Constitution of 1931 The Spanish Constitution of 1931 was approved by the Constituent Assembly on 9 December 1931. It was the constitution of the Second Spanish Republic The Spanish Republic ( es, link=no, República Española), commonly known as the Second Spani ...
was the first to legislate the location of the country's capital, setting it explicitly in Madrid. During the 1930s, Madrid enjoyed "great vitality"; it was demographically young, becoming urbanized and the centre of new political movements. During this time, major construction projects were undertaken, including the northern extension of the
Paseo de la Castellana Paseo de la Castellana, commonly known as La Castellana, is a major street in Madrid Madrid (, ) is the capital and most-populous city of Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de Esp ...

Paseo de la Castellana
, one of Madrid's major thoroughfares. The tertiary sector, including banking, insurance and telephone services, grew greatly. Illiteracy rates were down to below 20%, and the city's cultural life grew notably during the so-called ''Silver Age'' of Spanish Culture; the sales of newspapers also increased. Conversely, the proclamation of the Republic created a severe housing shortage. Slums and squalor grew due to high population growth and the influx of the poor to the city. Construction of affordable housing failed to keep pace and increased political instability discouraged economic investment in housing in the years immediately prior to the Civil War. Anti-clericalism and Catholicism lived side by side in Madrid; the burning of convents initiated after riots in the city in May 1931 worsened the political environment. However, the 1934 insurrection largely failed in the city. Madrid was one of the most heavily affected cities in the
Spanish Civil War The Spanish Civil War ( es, Guerra Civil Española)) or The Revolution ( es, La Revolución) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War ( es, Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlism, Carlists, and The Rebellion ( es, La Rebelión) or Uprising ( ...

Spanish Civil War
(1936–1939). It was a stronghold of the Republican faction from July 1936 and became an international symbol of
anti-fascist Anti-fascism is a political movement in opposition to fascist Fascism () is a form of far-right, authoritarian ultranationalism characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and strong regimentation of socie ...

anti-fascist
struggle during the conflict. The city suffered aerial bombing, and in November 1936, its western suburbs were the scene of an all-out battle. The city fell to the Francoists in March 1939.


Francoist dictatorship

A staple of post-war Madrid (''Madrid de la posguerra'') was the widespread use of ration coupons. Meat and fish consumption was scarce, resulting in high mortality due to malnutrition. Due to its history as a left-wing stronghold, the right-wing victors toyed with the possibility of moving the capital elsewhere (most notably to
Seville Seville (; es, Sevilla, Castilian Spanish , Andalusian Spanish (with yeísmo) ) is the capital and largest city of the Spain, Spanish autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Andalusia and the province of Seville. It is situate ...

Seville
), such plans were never implemented. The Franco regime instead emphasized the city's history as the capital of past imperial Spain. The intense demographic growth experienced by the city via mass immigration from the rural areas of the country led to the construction of plenty of housing in the peripheral areas of the city to absorb the new population (reinforcing the processes of social polarization of the city), initially comprising substandard housing (with as many as 50,000
shack A shack (or, less often, shanty) is a type of small shelter or dwelling, often primitive or rudimentary in design and construction. Like hut A hut is a primitive dwelling, which may be constructed of various local materials. Huts are a ty ...

shack
s scattered around the city by 1956). A transitional planning intended to temporarily replace the shanty towns were the ''poblados de absorción'', introduced since the mid-1950s in locations such as Canillas, San Fermín, Caño Roto, Villaverde, , Zofío and
FuencarralFuencarral is a neighborhood located in the northern part of Madrid, Spain. It includes the municipal area of the ancient town of Fuencarral, which was annexed to the city of Madrid by a decree of November 10, 1950. Administratively, Fuencarral belon ...

Fuencarral
, aiming to work as a sort of "high-end" shacks (with the destinataries participating in the construction of their own housing) but under the aegis of a wider coordinated urban planning. Madrid grew through the annexation of neighboring municipalities, achieving the present extent of . The south of Madrid became heavily industrialized, and there was significant
immigration Immigration is the international movement of people to a destination country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective ident ...

immigration
from rural areas of Spain. Madrid's newly built north-western districts became the home of a newly enriched middle class that appeared as result of the 1960s Spanish economic boom, while the south-eastern periphery became a large working-class area, which formed the base for active cultural and political movements.


Recent history

After the fall of the Francoist regime, the new 1978 constitution confirmed Madrid as the capital of Spain. The 1979 municipal election brought Madrid's first democratically elected mayor since the Second Republic to power. Madrid was the scene of some of the most important events of the time, such as the mass demonstrations of support for democracy after the failed coup, 23-F, on 23 February 1981. The first democratic mayors belonged to the centre-left PSOE (
Enrique Tierno Galván Enrique Tierno Galván (Madrid, 8 February 1918 – Madrid, 19 January 1986) was a Spanish politician, professor, lawyer and essayist, best known for being the Mayor of Madrid from 1979 to 1986, at the beginning of the new period of Spanish democr ...
, Juan Barranco Gallardo). Since the late 1970s and through the 1980s Madrid became the center of the cultural movement known as '' la Movida''. Conversely, just like in the rest of the country, a heroin crisis took a toll in the poor neighborhoods of Madrid in the 1980s. Benefiting from increasing prosperity in the 1980s and 1990s, the capital city of Spain consolidated its position as an important economic, cultural, industrial, educational, and technological centre on the European continent. During the mandate as Mayor of
José María Álvarez del Manzano José María Álvarez del Manzano y López del Hierro (born 17 October 1937) is a Spanish politician for the People's Party (Spain), People's Party. Although born in Seville he has lived in Madrid since he was 3 years old. He studied at the Coleg ...
construction of traffic tunnels below the city proliferated. The following administrations, also conservative, led by
Alberto Ruiz-Gallardón Alberto Ruiz-Gallardón Jiménez (born 11 December 1958) is a Spain, Spanish politician and former Minister of Justice. He was List of mayors of Madrid, mayor of Madrid between 2003 and 2011. A stalwart of the conservative People's Party (Spain), ...

Alberto Ruiz-Gallardón
and
Ana Botella Ana Botella Serrano (born 23 July 1953) is a Spanish politician belonging to the People's Party and the first female Mayor of Madrid The Mayor of Madrid presides over the Madrid City Council, the government body of the capital city of Spain. The ...
launched three unsuccessful bids for the 2012, 2016 and 2020 Summer Olympics. By 2005, Madrid was the leading European destination for migrants from
developing countries 450px, Example of Older Classifications by the IMF and the United Nations, UN from 2008 A developing country is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries. However, ...

developing countries
, as well as the largest employer of non-European workforce in Spain. Madrid was a centre of the
anti-austerity protests The anti-austerity movement refers to the mobilisation of street protests and grassroots campaigns that has happened across various countries, especially in Europe, since the onset of the worldwide Great Recession. Anti-austerity actions are vari ...
that erupted in Spain in 2011. As consequence of the spillover of the 2008 financial and mortgage crisis, Madrid has been affected by the increasing number of second-hand homes held by banks and house evictions. The mandate of left-wing Mayor
Manuela Carmena Manuela Carmena Castrillo (; born in 1944) is a retired Spanish lawyer A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney at lawAttorney at law or attorney-at-law, usually abbreviated in everyday speech to attorne ...
(2015–2019) delivered the renaturalization of the course of the Manzanares across the city. Since the late 2010s, the challenges the city faces include the increasingly unaffordable rental prices (often in parallel with the
gentrification Gentrification is a process of changing the character of a neighborhood through the influx of more affluent residents and businesses. It is a common and controversial topic in politics and in urban planning. Gentrification often increases th ...

gentrification
and the spike of tourist apartments in the city centre) and the profusion of
betting shop In the United Kingdom, Ireland, Australia and New Zealand, a betting shop is a shop away from a racecourse ("off-course") where one can legally place bets in person with a licensed bookmaker. Most shops are part of chains including William Hill (bo ...
s in working-class areas, leading to an "epidemic" of gambling among young people.


Geography


Location

Madrid lies in the centre of the Iberian peninsula on the southern Meseta Central, 60 km south of the Guadarrama mountain range and straddling the
Jarama Jarama () is a river in central Spain. It flows north to south, and passes east of Madrid where the El Atazar Dam is built on a tributary, the Lozoya River. It flows into the river Tagus in Aranjuez. The Manzanares River, Manzanares is a tributa ...

Jarama
and Manzanares river sub-drainage basins, in the wider
Tagus River The Tagus ( ; es, Tajo ; pt, Tejo ; see #Name, below) is the longest river in the Iberian Peninsula. The river rises in the Montes Universales in mid-eastern Spain, flows , generally west with two main south-westward sections, to empty int ...

Tagus River
catchment area. There is a considerable difference in altitude within the city proper ranging from the around
Plaza de Castilla The Plaza de Castilla ( en, "Castile Square") is a roundabout in the north of Madrid, Spain. Location It is located in the north of the city and is bisected by Paseo de la Castellana, one of the main thoroughfares of the capital, almost at its e ...

Plaza de Castilla
in the north of city to the around ''La China'' wastewater treatment plant on the Manzanares' riverbanks, near the latter's confluence with the Fuente Castellana
thalweg In geography and fluvial geomorphology, a thalweg or talweg () is the line of lowest elevation within a valley or watercourse. Under international law, a thalweg is the middle of the primary navigable channel of a waterway that defines the boundar ...

thalweg
in the south of the city. The Monte de El Pardo (a protected forested area covering over a quarter of the municipality) reaches its top altitude () on its perimeter, in the slopes surrounding located at the north-western end of the municipality, in the
Fuencarral-El Pardo Fuencarral-El Pardo is one of the 21 Districts of Madrid, districts that form the city of Madrid, Spain. Overview Fuencarral-El Pardo is the district number 8 and consists of the following neighborhoods: El Pardo (81), Fuentelarreina (82), Peñagr ...
district. The oldest urban core is located on the hills next to the left bank of the Manzanares River. The city grew to the east, reaching the (now the
Paseo de la Castellana Paseo de la Castellana, commonly known as La Castellana, is a major street in Madrid Madrid (, ) is the capital and most-populous city of Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de Esp ...

Paseo de la Castellana
), and further east reaching the (now the M-30). The city also grew through the annexation of neighbouring urban settlements, including those to the South West on the right bank of the Manzanares.


Climate

Madrid has a
continental mediterranean climate A continentalized Mediterranean climate is a variant of the temperate mediterranean climate with influences of a typical continental climate. It is found inland in the mediterannean region, far away from coasts. This climate is common in inland ...
(
KöppenKöppen is a German surname. Notable people with the surname include: * Bernd Köppen (born 1951), German pianist and composer * Edlef Köppen (1893–1939), German author and radio editor * Friedrich Köppen (1775–1858), German philosopher * Jan ...
''Csa'') in the western half of the city transitioning to a
semi-arid climate A semi-arid climate, semi-desert climate, or steppe climate is the climate Climate is the long-term average of weather, typically averaged over a period of 30 years. More rigorously, it is the mean and variability of meteorological variables ove ...
(''BSk'') in the eastern half. Winters are cool due to its altitude, which is approximately
above sea level Above may refer to: *Above (artist) Tavar Zawacki formerly known as 'ABOVE' (born 1981) is an American abstract art Abstract art uses visual language of shape, form, color and line to create a composition which may exist with a degree of ind ...
and distance from the moderating effect of the sea. While mostly sunny, rain, sporadic snowfalls and frequent frosts can occur between December and February with cooler temperatures particularly during the night and mornings as cold winds blow into the city from surrounding mountains. Summers are hot and sunny, in the warmest month, July, average temperatures during the day range from depending on location, with maxima commonly climbing over and occasionally up to 40 °C during the frequent heat waves. Due to Madrid's altitude and dry climate, humidity is low and diurnal ranges are often significant, particularly on sunny winter days when the temperature rises in the afternoon before rapidly plummeting after nightfall. Madrid is among the sunniest capital cities in Europe. The highest recorded temperature was on 24 July 1995, at , and the lowest recorded temperature was on 16 January 1945 at . These records were registered at the airport, in the eastern side of the city. From 7 January to 9 January 2021, Madrid received the most snow in its recorded history since 1972; Spain's meteorological agency
AEMET The State Meteorological Agency (AEMET) is an agency of the Government of Spain responsible for providing weather forecast, warnings of hazardous weather and assisting the administrations with tasks over civil defence and state defence and security ...
reported between of accumulated snow in its
weather stationyumyum, Victoria, Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List o ...

weather station
s within the city.
Precipitation In meteorology Meteorology is a branch of the (which include and ), with a major focus on . The study of meteorology dates back , though significant progress in meteorology did not begin until the 18th century. The 19th century saw mod ...
is typically concentrated in the autumn and spring, and, together with
Athens , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the appropriate article. rect 15 15 985 460 Acropolis of Athens rect 15 475 48 ...

Athens
, which has similar annual precipitation, Madrid is the driest capital in Europe. It is particularly sparse during the summer, taking the form of about two showers and/or thunderstorms during the season.


Water supply

In the 17th century, the so-called "''viajes de agua''" (a kind of water channels or ''
qanat A qanat or kariz, is a system for transporting water from an aquifer An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeability (Earth sciences), permeable rock, rock fractures or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, or silt). Groun ...

qanat
'') were used to provide water to the city. Some of the most important ones were the (1610–1621, sponsored by the Crown), the (1613–1620) and / (1617–1630), sponsored by the City Council. They were the main infrastructure for the supply of water until the arrival of the
Canal de Isabel II Canal de Isabel II (CYII) is the only company that manages the water supplies for Madrid, Spain. It is owned by the Community of Madrid, Autonomous Community of Madrid. History The ''Y'' in the abbreviated form of the company's name is from the old ...
in the mid-19th century. Madrid derives almost 73.5 percent of its
water supply Water supply is the provision of water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an , transparent, tasteless, odorless, and , which is the main constituent of 's and the s of all known living organisms (in which it acts as a ). It is vital for ...
from dams and reservoirs built on the Lozoya River, such as the El Atazar Dam. This water supply is managed by the Canal de Isabel II, a public entity created in 1851. It is responsible for the supply, depurating waste water and the conservation of all the natural water resources of the Madrid region.


Demographics

The population of Madrid has overall increased since the city became the capital of Spain in the mid-16th century, and has stabilised at approximately 3 million since the 1970s. From 1970 until the mid-1990s, the population dropped. This phenomenon, which also affected other European cities, was caused in part by the growth of satellite suburbs at the expense of the downtown region within the city proper. The demographic boom accelerated in the late 1990s and early first decade of the 21st century due to
immigration Immigration is the international movement of people to a destination country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective ident ...

immigration
in parallel with a surge in Spanish
economic growth Economic growth can be defined as the increase or improvement in the inflation-adjusted market value of the goods and services produced by an economics, economy over time. Statisticians conventionally measure such growth as the percent rate of i ...

economic growth
. The wider Madrid region is the EU region with the highest average life expectancy at birth. The average life expectancy was 82.2 years for males and 87.8 for females in 2016. As the capital city of Spain, the city has attracted many immigrants from around the world, with most of the immigrants coming from
Latin America * ht, Amerik Latin, link=no * pt, América Latina, link=no , image = Latin America (orthographic projection).svg , area = , population = ( est.) , density = , ethnic_groups = , ethnic_groups_year = 2018 , ethnic ...

Latin America
n countries. In 2020, around 76% of the registered population was Spain-born, while, regarding the foreign-born population (24%), the bulk of it relates to
the Americas The Americas (also collectively called America) is a landmass comprising the totality of North North is one of the four compass points or cardinal directions. It is the opposite of south and is perpendicular to East and West. ''North'' ...

the Americas
(around 16% of the total population), and a lesser fraction of the population is born in other
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continents. Ordered ...

Europe
an,
Asia Asia () is 's largest and most populous , located primarily in the and . It shares the continental of with the continent of and the continental landmass of with both Europe and . Asia covers an area of , about 30% of Earth's total lan ...

Asia
n and
Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', ...

Africa
n countries. As of 2019 the highest rising national group of immigrants was Venezuelans. Regarding religious beliefs, according to a 2019 Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas (CIS) survey with a sample size of 469 respondents, 20.7% of respondents in Madrid identify themselves as practising
Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian r ...

Catholic
s, 45.8% as non-practising Catholics, 3.8% as believers of another religion, 11.1% as
agnostics Agnosticism is the view that the existence of God, of the divinity, divine or the supernatural is unknown or Uncertainty, unknowable. (page 56 in 1967 edition) Another definition provided is the view that "human reason is incapable of providing ...

agnostics
, 3.6% as indifferent towards religion, and 12.8% as
atheists Atheism, in the broadest sense, is an absence of belief in the existence of Deity, deities. Less broadly, atheism is a rejection of the belief that any deities exist. In an even narrower sense, atheism is specifically the position that the ...

atheists
. The remaining 2.1% did not state their religious beliefs. The Madrid metropolitan area comprises Madrid and the surrounding municipalities. According to
Eurostat Eurostat (European Statistical Office) is a Directorate-General Within the European Union, directorates-general are departments of the European Union government with specific zones of responsibility, the equivalent of Ministry (government depar ...

Eurostat
, the "metropolitan region" of Madrid has a population of slightly more than 6.271 million people covering an area of . It is the largest in Spain and the second largest in the European Union.


Government


Local government and administration

The City Council (''Ayuntamiento de Madrid'') is the body responsible for the government and administration of the municipality. It is formed by the Plenary (''Pleno''), the Mayor (''alcalde'') and the Government Board (''Junta de Gobierno de la Ciudad de Madrid''). The Plenary of the Ayuntamiento is the body of
political representation Political representation is the activity of making citizens Citizenship is the Status (law), status of a person recognized under the law of a country (and/or local jurisdiction) of belonging to thereof. In international law it is membership to ...
of the citizens in the
municipal government A municipality is usually a single administrative division having municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordinate. The term ''municipali ...
. Its 57 members are elected for a 4-year mandate. Some of its attributions are: fiscal matters, the election and deposition of the mayor, the approval and modification of decrees and regulations, the approval of budgets, the agreements related to the limits and alteration of the municipal term, the services management, the participation in supramunicipal organisations, etc. The mayor, the supreme representative of the city, presides over the ''Ayuntamiento''. He is charged with giving impetus to the municipal policies, managing the action of the rest of bodies and directing the executive municipal administration. He is responsible to the ''Pleno''. He is also entitled to preside over the meetings of the ''Pleno'', although this responsibility can be delegated to another municipal councillor.
José Luis Martínez-Almeida José Luis Martínez-Almeida Navasqüés (born 17 April 1975) is a Spanish state lawyer and politician. A member of the People's Party (PP), he has been a member of the Madrid City Council since 2015 and serves as Mayor of Madrid The Mayor of M ...

José Luis Martínez-Almeida
, a member of the People's Party, serves as Mayor since 2019. The Government Board consists of the mayor, deputy mayors and a number of delegates assuming the portfolios for the different government areas. All those positions are held by municipal councillors. Since 2007, the
Cybele Palace Cibeles Palace ( Spanish: ''Palacio de Cibeles''), formally known as Palacio de Comunicaciones (''Palace of Communications'') and Palacio de Telecomunicaciones (''Palace of Telecommunications'') until 2011, is a complex composed of two buildings ...
(or Palace of Communications) serves as
City Hall#REDIRECT Town hall#REDIRECT Town hall In local government, a city hall, town hall, civic centre (in the United Kingdom, UK or Australia), guildhall, or (more rarely) a municipal building, is the chief administration (government), admini ...

City Hall
.


Administrative subdivisions

Madrid is administratively divided into 21 districts, which are further subdivided into 131 neighbourhoods (''barrios''):


Regional capital

Madrid is the capital of the Community of Madrid. The region has its own legislature and enjoys a wide range of competencies in areas such as social spending, healthcare, and education. The seat of the regional parliament, the
Assembly of Madrid The Assembly of Madrid or Madrid Assembly ( es, Asamblea de Madrid) is the Unicameralism, unicameral regional legislature of the Autonomous Community of Madrid since the approval of the Madrid Charter of Autonomy in 1983. It is elected every four ...
, is located at the district of
Puente de Vallecas Puente de Vallecas (''Bridge of Vallecas'') is one of the 21 Districts of Madrid, districts of the city of Madrid, Spain. It forms, with the district of Villa de Vallecas, the geographical area of Vallecas. Geography Subdivision The district is ad ...
. The presidency of the regional government is headquartered at the
Royal House of the Post Office The Royal House of the Post Office (Spanish: ''Real Casa de Correos'') is an eighteenth century building in Puerta del Sol, Madrid Madrid (, ) is the capital and most-populous city of Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume ...
at the very centre of the city, the
Puerta del Sol The Puerta del Sol (English: "Gate of the Sun") is a public square in Madrid Madrid (, ) is the capital and most-populous city of Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España ...

Puerta del Sol
.


Capital of Spain

Madrid is the capital of Spain. The
King of Spain , coatofarms = Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch.svg , coatofarms_article = Coat of arms of the King of Spain , image = King Felipe VI of Spain.jpg , incumbent = Felipe VI , incumbentsince = 19 June 2014 , h ...

King of Spain
, the country's head of state, has his official residence in the Zarzuela Palace. As the seat of the
Government of Spain gl, Goberno de España eu, Espainiako Gobernua , image = , caption = Logo of the Government of Spain , headerstyle = background-color: #efefef , label1 = Role , data1 = Executive power , label2 = Established , da ...
, Madrid also houses the official residence of the President of the Government (Prime Minister) and regular meeting place of the
Council of MinistersThe Council of Ministers is a traditional name given to the supreme executive organ in some governments. The term is usually equivalent to the word " cabinet" ( Council of State is a similar term that also may refer to a Cabinet. However, the terms ...
, the Moncloa Palace, as well as the headquarters of the ministerial departments. Both the residences of the head of state and government are located at the northwest of the city. Additionally, the seats of the Lower and Upper Chambers of the Spanish Parliament, the Cortes Generales (respectively, the and the
Palacio del Senado The Palace of the Senate is the home of the Senate of Spain The Senate ( es, Senado) is the upper house of the Cortes Generales, which along with the Congress of Deputies—the Lower house, lower chamber—comprises the Parliament of the Kingdom of ...
), also lie on Madrid.


Law enforcement

The (''Policía Municipal de Madrid'') is the local law enforcement body, dependent on the ''Ayuntamiento''. As of 2018, it had a workforce of civil servants. The headquarters of both the Directorate-General of the Police and the Directorate-General of the Civil Guard are located in Madrid. The headquarters of the Higher Office of Police of Madrid (''Jefatura Superior de Policía de Madrid''), the peripheral branch of the
National Police Corps The National Police Corps ( es, Cuerpo Nacional de Policía, CNP; ; also known simply as National Police, ''Policía Nacional'') is the national civilian police force The police are a constituted body of persons empowered by a state, with ...
with jurisdiction over the region also lies on Madrid.


Cityscape


Architecture

Little medieval architecture is preserved in Madrid, mostly in the Almendra Central, including the San Nicolás and San Pedro el Real, Madrid, San Pedro el Viejo church towers, the church of San Jerónimo el Real, and the Chapel of Obispo de Madrid, Bishop's Chapel. Nor has Madrid retained much Renaissance architecture, other than the Bridge of Segovia (Madrid), Bridge of Segovia and the Convent of Las Descalzas Reales. Philip II moved his court to Madrid in 1561 and transformed the town into a capital city. During the Early Hapsburg period, the import of European influences took place, underpinned by the monicker of ''Austrian style''. The Austrian style featured not only Austrian influences but also Italian and Dutch (as well as Spanish), reflecting on the international preeminence of the Habsburgs. During the second half of the 16th-century the use of pointy slate spires in order to top structures such as church towers was imported to Spain from Central Europe. Slate spires and roofs consequently became a staple of the Madrilenian architecture at the time. Stand out architecture in the city dating back to the early 17th-century includes several buildings and structures (most of them attributed to Juan Gómez de Mora) such as the Palacio de los Concejos, Palace of the Duke of Uceda (1610), the Royal Monastery of La Encarnación, Monastery of La Encarnación (1611–1616); the Plaza Mayor de Madrid, Plaza Mayor (1617–1619) or the ''Cárcel de Corte'' (1629–1641), currently known as the Santa Cruz Palace, Madrid, Santa Cruz Palace. The century also saw the construction of the former City Hall, the Casa de la Villa. The Colegio Imperial de Madrid, Imperial College church model dome was imitated in all of Spain. Pedro de Ribera introduced Churrigueresque architecture to Madrid; the Cuartel del Conde-Duque, the Our Lady of Montserrat Church, Madrid, church of Montserrat, and the Bridge of Toledo (Madrid), Bridge of Toledo are among the best examples. The reign of Bourbon Spain, the Bourbons during the eighteenth century marked a new era in the city.
Philip VPhilip V may refer to: * Philip V of Macedon (221–179 BC) * Philip V of France (1293–1322) * Philip II of Spain, also Philip V, Duke of Burgundy (1526–1598) * Philip V of Spain (1683–1746) {{hndis, Philip 06 ...

Philip V
tried to complete King Philip II's vision of urbanisation of Madrid. Philip V built a palace in line with French taste, as well as other buildings such as St. Michael's Basilica (Madrid), St. Michael's Basilica and the Church of Santa Barbara, Madrid, Church of Santa Bárbara. King beautified the city and endeavoured to convert Madrid into one of the great European capitals. He pushed forward the construction of the Prado Museum (originally intended as a Natural Science Museum), the Puerta de Alcalá, the Royal Observatory of Madrid, Royal Observatory, the Basilica of San Francisco el Grande, the Casa de Correos in
Puerta del Sol The Puerta del Sol (English: "Gate of the Sun") is a public square in Madrid Madrid (, ) is the capital and most-populous city of Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España ...

Puerta del Sol
, the Real Casa de la Aduana, and the General Hospital (which now houses the Reina Sofia Museum and Royal Conservatory of Music). The
Paseo del Prado The Paseo del Prado is one of the main boulevards in Madrid Madrid (, ) is the capital and most-populous city of Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coa ...
, surrounded by gardens and decorated with neoclassical statues, is an example of urban planning. The Duke of Berwick ordered the construction of the Liria Palace. During the early 19th century, the
Peninsular War The Peninsular War (1807–1814) was the military conflict War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or paramilitary groups such as Mercenary, mercenaries, Insurgency, insurg ...

Peninsular War
, the Spanish American wars of independence, loss of viceroyalties in the Americas, and continuing coups limited the city's architectural development (, the Biblioteca Nacional de España, National Library of Spain, the Palace of the Senate, and the Congress of Deputies (Spain)#Congress of Deputies building, Congress). The Segovia Viaduct linked the Royal Alcázar to the southern part of town. The list of key figures of madrilenian architecture during the 19th and 20th centuries includes authors such as Narciso Pascual Colomer, Narciso Pascual y Colomer, Francisco Jareño y Alarcón, Francisco de Cubas, Juan Bautista Lázaro de Diego, Ricardo Velázquez Bosco, Antonio Palacios, Secundino Zuazo, Luis Gutiérrez Soto, and Alejandro de la Sota. From the mid-19th century until the Civil War, Madrid modernised and built new neighbourhoods and monuments. The expansion of Madrid developed under the Ensanche, Plan Castro, resulting in the neighbourhoods of Salamanca (Madrid), Salamanca, Moncloa-Aravaca, Argüelles, and Chamberí. Arturo Soria conceived the linear city and built the first few kilometres of the road that bears his name, which embodies the idea. The Gran Vía (Madrid), Gran Vía was built using different styles that evolved over time: French style, eclectic, art deco, and expressionist. Antonio Palacios built a series of buildings inspired by the Viennese Secession, such as the Palace of Communication, the Círculo de Bellas Artes, and the Río de La Plata Bank (now
Instituto Cervantes Instituto Cervantes (the Cervantes Institute) is a worldwide non-profit organization created by the Spanish government in 1991. It is named after Miguel de Cervantes (1547–1616), the author of ''Don Quixote'' and perhaps the most important figure ...

Instituto Cervantes
). Other notable buildings include the Bank of Spain, the neo-Gothic Almudena Cathedral, Atocha Station, and the Catalan art-nouveau Palace of Longoria. Las Ventas Bullring was built, as the Market of San Miguel (Cast-Iron style). Following the Francoist takeover that ensued the end of Spanish Civil war, architecture experienced an involution, discarding rationalism and, eclecticism notwithstanding, going back to an overall rather "outmoded" architectural language, with the purpose of turning Madrid into a capital worthy of the "Immortal Spain". Iconic examples of this period include the Ministry of the Air (a case of herrerian revival) and the Edificio España (presented as the tallest building in Europe when it was inaugurated in 1953). Many of these buildings distinctly combine the use of brick and stone in the façades. The Casa Sindical marked a breaking point as it was the first to reassume rationalism, although that relinking to modernity was undertaken through the imitation of the Italian Fascist architecture. With the advent of Spanish economic development, skyscrapers, such as Torre Picasso, Torres Blancas and Torre BBVA, and the Gate of Europe, appeared in the late 20th century in the city. During the decade of the 2000s, the four tallest skyscrapers in Spain were built and together form the Cuatro Torres Business Area. Terminal 4 at Madrid-Barajas Airport was inaugurated in 2006 and won several architectural awards. Terminal 4 is one of the world's largest terminal areas and features glass panes and domes in the roof, which allow natural light to pass through.


Parks and forests

Madrid is the European city with the highest number of trees and green surface per inhabitant and it has the second highest number of aligned trees in the world, with 248,000 units, only exceeded by Tokyo. Madrid's citizens have access to a green area within a 15-minute walk. Since 1997, green areas have increased by 16%. At present, 8.2% of Madrid's grounds are green areas, meaning that there are of green area per inhabitant, far exceeding the per inhabitant recommended by the World Health Organization. A great bulk of the most important parks in Madrid are related to areas originally belonging to the royal assets (including El Pardo, Soto de Viñuelas, Casa de Campo, El Buen Retiro, la Florida and the Príncipe Pío (hill), Príncipe Pío hill, and the Queen's Casino). The other main source for the "green" areas are the ' owned by the municipality (including the Dehesa de la Villa, the Dehesa de Arganzuela or Viveros). Buen Retiro Park, El Retiro is the most visited location of the city. Having an area bigger than (350 acres), it is the largest park within the Almendra Central, the inner part of the city enclosed by the M-30. Created during the reign of Philip IV of Spain, Philip IV (17th century), it was handed over to the municipality in 1868, after the Glorious Revolution. It lies next to the Real Jardín Botánico de Madrid, Royal Botanical Garden of Madrid. Located northwest of the city centre, the Parque del Oeste ("Park of the West") comprises part of the area of the former royal possession of the "Real Florida", and it features a slope as the height decreases down to the Manzanares. Its southern extension includes the Temple of Debod, a transported ancient Egyptian temple. Other urban parks are the Parque de El Capricho, the Parque Juan Carlos I (both in northeast Madrid), Madrid Río, the , the as well as gardens such as the Campo del Moro (opened to the public in 1978) and the Sabatini Gardens (opened to the public in 1931) near the Royal Palace. Further west, across the Manzanares, lies the Casa de Campo, a large forested area with more than (6.6 sq mi) where the Zoo Aquarium de Madrid, Madrid Zoo, and the Parque de Atracciones de Madrid amusement park are located. It was ceded to the municipality following the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic in 1931. The Monte de El Pardo is the largest forested area in the municipality. A Quercus rotundifolia, holm oak forest covering a surface over hectares, it is considered the best preserved mediterranean forest in the Community of Madrid and one of the best preserved in Europe. Already mentioned in the
Alfonso XI Alfonso XI (13 August 131126 March 1350), called the Avenger (''el Justiciero''), was the king of Castile, León and Galicia. He was the son of Ferdinand IV of Castile and his wife Constance of Portugal. Upon his father's death in 1312, seve ...

Alfonso XI
's ' from the mid 14th-century, its condition as hunting location linked to the Spanish monarchy help to preserve the environmental value. During the reign of Ferdinand VII the regime of hunting prohibition for the Monte de El Pardo became one of full property and the expropriation of all possessions within its bounds was enforced, with dire consequences for the madrilenians at the time. It is designated as Special Protection Area for bird-life and it is also part of the Regional Park of the High Basin of the Manzanares. Other large forested areas include the Soto de Viñuelas, the and the . As of 2015, the most recent big park in the municipality is the Valdebebas Park. Covering a total area of , it is sub-divided in a forest park (the ), a periurban park as well as municipal garden centres and compost plants.


Economy

After it became the capital of Spain in the 16th century, Madrid was more a centre of consumption (economics), consumption than of production or trade. Economic activity was largely devoted to supplying the city's own rapidly growing population, including the royal household and national government, and to such trades as banking and publishing. A large industrial sector did not develop until the 20th century, but thereafter industry greatly expanded and diversified, making Madrid the second industrial city in Spain. However, the economy of the city is now becoming more and more dominated by the tertiary sector of the economy, service sector. A major European financial center, its stock market is the third largest stock market in Europe featuring both the IBEX 35 index and the attached stock market (with the second most important index for
Latin America * ht, Amerik Latin, link=no * pt, América Latina, link=no , image = Latin America (orthographic projection).svg , area = , population = ( est.) , density = , ethnic_groups = , ethnic_groups_year = 2018 , ethnic ...

Latin America
n companies). Madrid is the 5th most important leading Centre of Commerce in Europe (after London, Paris, Frankfurt and Amsterdam) and ranks 11th in the world. It is the leading Spanish-speaking city in terms of webpage creation.


Economic history

As the capital city of the Spanish Empire from 1561, Madrid's population grew rapidly. Administration, banking, and small-scale manufacturing centred on the royal court were among the main activities, but the city was more a locus of consumption than production or trade, geographically isolated as it was before the coming of the railways. The Bank of Spain is one of the oldest European central banks. Originally named as the Bank of San Carlos as it was founded in 1782, it was later renamed to Bank of San Fernando in 1829 and ultimately became the Bank of Spain in 1856. Bank of Spain Building, Its headquarters are located at the calle de Alcalá. The Bolsa de Madrid, Madrid Stock Exchange was inaugurated on 20 October 1831. Its benchmark stock market index is the IBEX 35. Industry started to develop on a large scale only in the 20th century,Juliá, S. et al. (1995), ''Madrid, Historia de una capital'' but then grew rapidly, especially during the "Spanish miracle" period around the 1960s. The economy of the city was then centred on manufacturing industries such as those related to motor vehicles, aircraft, chemicals, electronic devices, pharmaceuticals, Food processing, processed food, printed materials, and leather goods. Since the restoration of democracy in the late 1970s, the city has continued to expand. Its economy is now among the most dynamic and diverse in the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
.


Present-day economy

Madrid concentrates activities directly connected with power (central and regional government, headquarters of Spanish companies, regional HQ of Multinational corporation, multinationals, finance, financial institutions) and with knowledge and technological innovation (research centres and universities). It is one of Europe's largest financial centres, and the largest in Spain.''Estructura Economica de le Ciudad de Madrid''
''Ayuntamiento de Madrid'' (Madrid City Council), August 2013
The city has 17 universities and over 30 research centres. It is the second metropolis in the EU by population, and the third by gross internal product. Leading employers include
Telefónica Telefónica, S.A. () is a Spanish Multinational corporation, multinational telecommunications company headquartered in Madrid, Spain. It is List of telephone operating companies, one of the largest telephone operators and List of mobile network o ...

Telefónica
,
Iberia The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese language, Aragonese and Occitan language, Occitan: ''Peninsula Iberica'' ** ** * french: Péninsule Ibérique * mwl, Península Eibérica * eu, Iberiar penintsula also known as Iberia, is a penin ...
, Prosegur,
BBVA Banco Bilbao Vizcaya Argentaria, S.A. (), better known by its initialism BBVA, is a Spanish multinational financial services Financial services are the Service (economics), economic services provided by the finance industry, which encompasses ...
, Urbaser, Dragados, and
FCC The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is an independent agency A regulatory agency or regulatory authority, is a Public benefit corporation Public-benefit corporation is a term that has different meanings in different jurisdictions. In ...
. The Community of Madrid, the region comprising the city and the rest of municipalities of the province, had a GDP of €220B in 2017, equating to a GDP per capita of €33,800. In 2011 the city itself had a GDP per capita 74% above the national average and 70% above that of the 27
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
member states, although 11% behind the average of the top 10 cities of the EU. Although housing just over 50% of the Community of Madrid, region's's population, the city generates 65.9% of its GDP. Following the 2008–14 Spanish financial crisis, recession commencing 2007/8, recovery was under way by 2014, with forecast growth rates for the city of 1.4% in 2014, 2.7% in 2015 and 2.8% in 2016. The economy of Madrid has become based increasingly on the tertiary sector of the economy, service sector. In 2011 services accounted for 85.9% of value added, while Industrial sector, industry contributed 7.9% and construction 6.1%. Nevertheless, Madrid continues to hold the position of Spain's second industrial centre after Barcelona, specialising particularly in high-technology production. Following the recession, services and industry were forecast to return to growth in 2014, and construction in 2015.


Standard of living

Mean household income and spending are 12% above the Spanish average. The proportion classified as "at risk of poverty" in 2010 was 15.6%, up from 13.0% in 2006 but less than the average for Spain of 21.8%. The proportion classified as affluent was 43.3%, much higher than Spain overall (28.6%). Consumption by Madrid residents has been affected by job losses and by austerity measures, including a rise in sales tax from 8% to 21% in 2012. Although residential property prices have fallen by 39% since 2007, the average price of dwelling space was €2,375.6 per sq. m. in early 2014, and is shown as second only to London in a list of 22 European cities.


Employment

Participation in the labour force was 1,638,200 in 2011, or 79.0%. The employed workforce comprised 49% women in 2011 (Spain, 45%). 41% of economically active people are university graduates, against 24% for Spain as a whole. In 2011, the unemployment rate was 15.8%, remaining lower than in Spain as a whole. Among those aged 16–24, the unemployment rate was 39.6%. Unemployment reached a peak of 19.1% in 2013, but with the start of an economic recovery in 2014, employment started to increase. Employment continues to shift further towards the service sector, with 86% of all jobs in this sector by 2011, against 74% in all of Spain. In the second quarter of 2018 the unemployment rate was 10.06%.


Services

The share of services in the city's economy is 86%. Services for business, transport & communications, property, and financial together account for 52% of the total value added. The types of services that are now expanding are mainly those that facilitate movement of capital, information, goods and persons, and "advanced business services" such as research and development (R&D), information technology, and technical accountancy. Madrid and the wider region's authorities have put a notable effort in the development of Logistics center, logistics infrastructure. Within the city proper, some of the standout centres include Mercamadrid, the logistics centre, the Villaverde's Logistics Centre and the Vicálvaro's Logistics Centre to name a few. Banks based in Madrid carry out 72% of the banking activity in Spain. The Spanish central bank, Bank of Spain, has existed in Madrid since 1782. Stocks & shares, bond (finance), bond markets, insurance, and pension funds are other important forms of financial institution in the city. Madrid is an important centre for trade fairs, many of them coordinated by IFEMA, the Trade Fair Institution of Madrid. The public sector employs 18.1% of all employees. Madrid attracts about 8M tourism, tourists annually from other parts of Spain and from all over the world, exceeding even Barcelona. Spending by tourists in Madrid was estimated (2011) at €9,546.5M, or 7.7% of the city's GDP. The construction of Transport in Madrid, transport infrastructure has been vital to maintain the economic position of Madrid. Travel to work and other local journeys use a high-capacity metropolitan road network and a well-used public transport system. In terms of longer-distance transport, Madrid is the central node of the system of ''autovías'' and of the high-speed rail network (AVE), which has brought major cities such as Seville and Barcelona within 2.5 hours travel time. Also important to the city's economy is Madrid-Barajas Airport, the fourth largest airport in Europe. Madrid's central location makes it a major logistics, logistical base.


Industry

As an industrial centre Madrid retains its advantages in infrastructure, as a transport hub, and as the location of headquarters of many companies. Industries based on advanced technology are acquiring much more importance here than in the rest of Spain. Industry contributed 7.5% to Madrid's value-added in 2010. However, industry has slowly declined within the city boundaries as more industry has moved outward to the periphery. Industrial Gross Value Added grew by 4.3% in the period 2003–2005, but decreased by 10% during 2008–2010. The leading industries were: paper, printing & publishing, 28.8%; energy & mining, 19.7%; vehicles & transport equipment, 12.9%; electrical and electronic, 10.3%; foodstuffs, 9.6%; clothing, footwear & textiles, 8.3%; chemical, 7.9%; industrial machinery, 7.3%. The Groupe PSA, PSA Peugeot Citroën plant is located in Villaverde district.


Construction

The construction sector, contributing 6.5% to the city's economy in 2010, was a growing sector before the recession, aided by a large transport and infrastructure program. More recently the construction sector has fallen away and earned 8% less in 2009 than it had been in 2000. The decrease was particularly marked in the residential sector, where prices dropped by 25%–27% from 2007 to 2012/13 and the number of sales fell by 57%.


Tourism

Madrid is the seat of the
World Tourism Organization The World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) is the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among n ...
(UNWTO) and the (FITUR). In 2018, the city received million tourists (53.3% of them international tourists).p. 9 The biggest share of international tourists come from the United States, followed by Italy, France, United Kingdom and Germany.p. 10 As of 2018, the city has 793 hotels, hotel places and hotel rooms.p. 18 It also had, as of 2018, an estimated tourist apartments.p. 20 The most visited museum was the ''Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía'', with 3.8 million visitors in the sum of its three seats in 2018. Conversely, the Prado Museum had 2.8 million visitors and the
Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum The Thyssen-Bornemisza National Museum (in Spanish, the Museo Nacional Thyssen-Bornemisza (), named after its founder), or simply the Thyssen, is an art museum in Madrid, Spain, located near the Museo del Prado, Prado Museum on one of the city's ma ...
visitors.p. 32 By the late 2010s, the gentrification and the spike of tourist apartments in the city centre led to an increase in rental prices, pushing residents out of the city centre. Most of the tourist apartments in Madrid (50–54%) are located in the Centro District. In the Sol (Madrid), Sol neighborhood (part of the latter district), 3 out of 10 homes are dedicated to tourist apartments, and 2 out of 10 are listed in AirBnB. In April 2019 the plenary of the ''ayuntamiento'' passed a plan intending to regulate this practice, seeking to greatly limit the number of tourist apartments. The normative would enforce a requirement for independent access to those apartments in and out of the street. However, after the change of government in June 2019, the new municipal administration plans to revert the regulation.


International rankings

A recent study placed Madrid 7th among 36 cities as an attractive base for business. It was placed third in terms of availability of office space, and fifth for easy of access to markets, availability of qualified staff, mobility within the city, and quality of life. Its less favourable characteristics were seen as pollution, languages spoken, and political environment. Another ranking of European cities placed Madrid 5th among 25 cities (behind
Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2019 makes it the List of cities in the European Union by ...

Berlin
, London, Paris and Frankfurt), being rated favourably on economic factors and the labour market as well as transport and communication.


Media and entertainment

Madrid is an important film and television production hub, whose content is distributed throughout the Spanish-speaking world and abroad. Madrid is often seen as the entry point into the European media market for
Latin America * ht, Amerik Latin, link=no * pt, América Latina, link=no , image = Latin America (orthographic projection).svg , area = , population = ( est.) , density = , ethnic_groups = , ethnic_groups_year = 2018 , ethnic ...

Latin America
n media companies, and likewise the entry point into the Latin American markets for European companies. Madrid is the headquarters of media groups such as RTVE, Radiotelevisión Española, Atresmedia, Mediaset España Comunicación, and Movistar+, which produce numerous films, television shows and series which are distributed globally on various platforms. Since 2018, the region is also home to Netflix's Madrid Production Hub, Mediapro, Mediapro Studio, and numerous others such as Viacom International Media Networks, Viacom International Studios. As of 2019, the film and television industry in Madrid employs 19,000 people (44% of people in Spain working in this industry). RTVE, the state-owned Spanish Radio and Television Corporation is headquartered in Madrid along with all its TV and radio channels and web services (La 1 (Spanish TV channel), La 1, La 2 (Spanish TV channel), La 2, Clan (TV channel), Clan, Teledeporte, 24 Horas (Spanish TV channel), 24 Horas, TVE Internacional, Radio Nacional (Spanish radio station), Radio Nacional de España), Radio Exterior de España, Radio Clásica. The Atresmedia group (Antena 3 (Spain), Antena 3, La Sexta, Onda Cero) is headquartered in nearby San Sebastián de los Reyes. The television network and media production company, the largest in Spain, Mediaset España Comunicación (Telecinco, Cuatro (TV channel), Cuatro) maintains its headquarters in
Fuencarral-El Pardo Fuencarral-El Pardo is one of the 21 Districts of Madrid, districts that form the city of Madrid, Spain. Overview Fuencarral-El Pardo is the district number 8 and consists of the following neighborhoods: El Pardo (81), Fuentelarreina (82), Peñagr ...
district. Together with RTVE, Atresmedia and Mediaset account for nearly the 80% of share of Generalist channel, generalist TV. The Spanish media conglomerate PRISA (Cadena SER, Los 40 Principales, M80 Radio, Cadena Dial) is headquartered in Gran Vía, Madrid, Gran Vía street in central Madrid. Madrid (or the wider region) hosts the main TV and radio producers and broadcasters as well as the most of the major written mass media in Spain. It is home to numerous newspapers, magazines and publications, including ''ABC (newspaper), ABC'', ''El País'', ''El Mundo (Spain), El Mundo'', ''La Razón (Madrid), La Razón'', ''Marca (newspaper), Marca'', ''¡Hola!'', ''Diario AS'', ''El Confidencial'' and ''Cinco Días''. The Spanish international news agency EFE maintains its headquarters in Madrid since its inception in 1939. The second news agency of Spain is the privately owned Europa Press, founded and headquartered in Madrid since 1953.


Art and culture


Museums and cultural centres

Madrid is considered one of the top European destinations concerning art museums. Best known is the
Golden Triangle of ArtThe Golden Triangle of Art is made up of three important art museum An art museum is a building or space for the display of art, usually from the museum's own Collection (artwork), collection. It might be in public or private ownership and may b ...
, located along the
Paseo del Prado The Paseo del Prado is one of the main boulevards in Madrid Madrid (, ) is the capital and most-populous city of Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coa ...
and comprising three major museums: the Prado Museum, the Reina Sofía Museum, and the Thyssen Bornemisza Museum. The Prado Museum (''Museo del Prado'') is a museum and art gallery that features one of the world's finest collections of European art, from the 12th century to the early 19th century, based on the former Spanish Royal Collection. It has the best collection of artworks by Goya, Velázquez, El Greco, Rubens, Titian, Hieronymus Bosch, José de Ribera, and Patinir as well as works by Rogier van der Weyden, Raphael Sanzio, Tintoretto, Paolo Veronese, Veronese, Caravaggio, Van Dyck, Albrecht Dürer, Claude Lorrain, Bartolomé Esteban Murillo, Murillo, and Zurbarán, among others. Some of the standout works exhibited at the museum include ''Las Meninas'', ''La maja vestida'', ''La maja desnuda'', ''The Garden of Earthly Delights'', ''The Immaculate Conception (Tiepolo), The Immaculate Conception'' and ''The Judgement of Paris (Rubens), The Judgement of Paris''. The Reina Sofía National Art Museum (''Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía''; MNCARS) is Madrid's national museum of 20th-century art and houses Pablo Picasso's 1937 anti-war masterpiece, ''Guernica (painting), Guernica''. Other highlights of the museum, which is mainly dedicated to Spanish art, include excellent collections of Spain's greatest 20th-century masters including Salvador Dalí, Joan Miró, Picasso, Juan Gris, and Julio González (sculptor), Julio González. The Reina Sofía also hosts a free-access art library. The Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum (''Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza'') is an art museum that fills the historical gaps in its counterparts' collections: in the Prado's case, this includes Italian primitives and works from the English art, English, Dutch School (painting), Dutch, and German schools, while in the case of the Reina Sofía, the Thyssen-Bornemisza collection, once the second largest private collection in the world after the British Royal Collection,Kandell, Jonathan (28 April 2002)
"Baron Thyssen-Bornemisza, Industrialist Who Built Fabled Art Collection, Dies at 81"
''The New York Times''. Retrieved 7 August 2012.
includes Impressionists, Expressionists, and European and American paintings from the second half of the 20th century, with over 1,600 paintings. The National Archaeological Museum (Madrid), National Archaeological Museum of Madrid (''Museo Arqueológico Nacional'') shows archaeological finds from Prehistory to the 19th century (including Roman mosaics, Greek ceramics, Islamic art and Romanesque art), especially from the Iberian Peninsula, distributed over three floors. An iconic item in the museum is the ''Lady of Elche'', an Iberian bust from the 4th century BC. Other major pieces include the ''Lady of Baza'', the ''Lady of Cerro de los Santos'', the ''Lady of Ibiza'', the ''Bicha of Balazote'', the ''Treasure of Guarrazar'', the ''Pyxis of Zamora'', the ''Mausoleum of Pozo Moro'' or a napier's bones. In addition, the museum has a reproduction of the polychromatic paintings in the Altamira Cave. The Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, Royal Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando (''Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando'') houses a fine art collection of paintings ranging the 15th to 20th centuries. The academy is also the headquarters of the Madrid Academy of Art. CaixaForum Madrid is a post-modern art gallery in the centre of Madrid, next to the Prado Museum. The
Royal Palace of Madrid The Royal Palace of Madrid ( es, Palacio Real de Madrid) is the official residence of the Spanish royal family#REDIRECT Spanish royal family The House of Borbón-Anjou, or simply House of Borbón ( es, Casa de Borbón), is the reigning royal h ...

Royal Palace of Madrid
, a massive building characterised by its luxurious rooms, houses rich collections of armours and weapons, as well as the most comprehensive collection of Antonio Stradivari, Stradivarius in the world. The Museo de las Colecciones Reales is a future museum intended to host the most outstanding pieces of the Royal Collections part of the Patrimonio Nacional. Located next to the Royal Palace and the Almudena, Patrimonio Nacional has tentatively scheduled its opening for 2021. The Museum of the Americas (Madrid), Museum of the Americas (''Museo de América'') is a national museum that holds artistic, archaeological, and ethnographic collections from the Americas, ranging from the Paleolithic period to the present day. Other notable museums include the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, National Museum of Natural Sciences (the Spain's national museum of natural history), the Museo Naval de Madrid, Naval Museum, the Convent of Las Descalzas Reales (with many works of Renaissance and Baroque art, and Brussels tapestry, Brussels tapestries inspired by paintings of Rubens), the Museum of Lázaro Galdiano (housing a collection specialising in decorative arts, featuring a collection of weapons that features the sword of Pope Innocent VIII), the Museo Nacional de Artes Decorativas, National Museum of Decorative Arts, the Museum of Romanticism (Madrid), National Museum of Romanticism (focused on 19th century Romanticism), the Museum Cerralbo, the Museo Nacional de Antropología (Madrid), National Museum of Anthropology (featuring as highlight a Guanches, Guanche mummy from Tenerife) the Sorolla Museum (focused in the namesake Valencian Impressionist painter, also including sculptures by Auguste Rodin, part of Sorolla's personal effects), or the Museo de Historia de Madrid, History Museum of Madrid (housing pieces related to the local history of Madrid), the Wax Museum of Madrid, the Railway Museum (Madrid), Railway Museum (located in the building that was once the Delicias Station). Major cultural centres in the city include the Círculo de Bellas Artes, Fine Arts Circle (one of Madrid's oldest arts centres and one of the most important private cultural centres in Europe, hosting exhibitions, shows, film screenings, conferences and workshops), the Cuartel del Conde-Duque, Conde Duque cultural centre or the Matadero Madrid, a cultural complex (formerly an abattoir) located by the river Manzanares. The Matadero, created in 2006 with the aim of "promoting research, production, learning, and diffusion of creative works and contemporary thought in all their manifestations", is considered the third most valued cultural institution in Madrid among art professionals.


Literature

Madrid has been one of the great centres of Spanish literature. Some of the most distinguished writers of the Spanish Golden Age, Spanish Golden Century were born in Madrid, including Lope de Vega (author of ''Fuenteovejuna'' and ''The Dog in the Manger (play), The Dog in the Manger''), who reformed the Spanish theatre, a project continued by Calderon de la Barca (author of ''Life is a Dream''). Francisco de Quevedo, who criticised the Spanish society of his day, and author of ''El Buscón'', and Tirso de Molina, who created the character Don Juan, were born in Madrid. Miguel de Cervantes, Cervantes and Luis de Góngora, Góngora also lived in the city, although they were not born there. The Madrid homes of Lope de Vega, Quevedo, Gongora, and Cervantes still exist, and they are all in the Barrio de las Letras (Literary Neighborhood). Other writers born in Madrid in later centuries have been Leandro Fernandez de Moratín, Mariano José de Larra, Jose de Echegaray (Nobel Prize in Literature), Ramón Gómez de la Serna, Dámaso Alonso, Enrique Jardiel Poncela and Pedro Salinas. The "Barrio de las Letras" owes its name to the intense literary activity taking place there during the 16th and 17th centuries. Some of the most prominent writers of the Spanish Golden Age lived here, such as Lope de Vega, Francisco de Quevedo, Quevedo, and Luis de Góngora, Góngora, and it contained the Cruz and Príncipe Theatres, two of the most important in Spain. At 87 Calle de Atocha, on the northern end of the neighborhood, was the printing house of Juan de la Cuesta, where the first edition of Don Quixote was typeset and printed in 1604. Most of the literary routes are articulated along the Barrio de las Letras, where you can find scenes from novels of the Siglo de Oro and more recent works like "Bohemian Lights". Although born in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spanish Realist literature, realist writer Benito Pérez Galdós made Madrid the setting for many of his stories; there is a giidebook to the Madrid of Galdós (''Madrid galdosiano''). Madrid is home to the Real Academia Española, the Royal Academy of the Spanish Language, which governs, with statutory authority, over Spanish, preparing, publishing, and updating authoritative reference works on it. The academy's motto (''lema'', in Spanish) states its purpose: it cleans the language, stabilizes it, and gives it brilliance ("Limpia, fija y da resplendor"). Madrid is also home to another international cultural institution, the
Instituto Cervantes Instituto Cervantes (the Cervantes Institute) is a worldwide non-profit organization created by the Spanish government in 1991. It is named after Miguel de Cervantes (1547–1616), the author of ''Don Quixote'' and perhaps the most important figure ...

Instituto Cervantes
, whose task is the promotion and teaching of the Spanish language as well as the dissemination of the culture of
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
and Hispanic America. The Biblioteca Nacional de España, National Library of Spain is the largest major public library in Spain. The library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 30,000 manuscripts, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 510,000 music scores, 500,000 maps, 600,000 sound recording, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, more than 500,000 microforms, etc.


Cuisine

The Madrilenian cuisine has received plenty of influences from other regions of Spain and its own identity actually relies in its ability to assimilate elements from the immigration. The ''cocido madrileño'', a chickpea-based stew, is one of the most emblematic dishes of the Madrilenian cuisine. The ' is another traditional winter specialty, usually made of cattle tripes. Other offal dishes typical in the city include the ' or grilled Pig's ear (food), pig's ear. Fried squid has become a culinary specialty in Madrid, often consumed in sandwich as Squid sandwich, ''bocata de calamares''. Other generic dishes commonly accepted as part of the Madrilenian cuisine include the ''potaje'', the ''Garlic soup, sopa de ajo'' (Garlic soup), the Spanish omelette, the ' (bream), ' (snails, sp. ''Cornu aspersum'') or the soldaditos de Pavía, the ''patatas bravas'' (consumed as snack in bars) or the ''gallina en '' (hen or chicken cooked with the yolk of boiled egg, hard-boiled eggs and almonds) to name a few. Traditional desserts include ''French toast, torrijas'' (a variant of French toast consumed in the Easter) and '.


Nightlife

Madrid is reputed to have a "vibrant nightlife". Some of the highlight bustling locations include the surroundings of the Plaza de Santa Ana, Malasaña and La Latina (particularly near the ). It is one of the city's main attractions with tapas bars, cocktail bars, clubs, jazz lounges, live music venues and flamenco theatres. Most nightclubs liven up by 1:30 .and stay open until at least 6 . Nightlife flourished in the 1980s while Madrid's mayor
Enrique Tierno Galván Enrique Tierno Galván (Madrid, 8 February 1918 – Madrid, 19 January 1986) was a Spanish politician, professor, lawyer and essayist, best known for being the Mayor of Madrid from 1979 to 1986, at the beginning of the new period of Spanish democr ...
(Spanish Socialist Workers' Party, PSOE) was in office, nurturing the cultural-musical movement known as ''La Movida Madrileña, La Movida''. Nowadays, the Malasaña area is known for its Independent music, alternative scene. The area of Chueca has also become a hot spot in the Madrilenian nightlife, especially for the gay population. Chueca is known as gay quarter, comparable to The Castro, San Francisco, The Castro district in San Francisco.


Bohemian culture

The city has venues for performing alternative art and expressive art. They are mostly located in the centre of the city, including in Ópera, Antón Martín, Chueca and Malasaña. There are also several festivals in Madrid, including the Festival of Alternative Art, the Festival of the Alternative Scene. The neighbourhood of Malasaña, as well as Antón Martín and Lavapiés, hosts several bohemian cafés/galleries. These cafés are typified with period or retro furniture or furniture found on the street, a colourful, nontraditional atmosphere inside, and usually art displayed each month by a new artist, often for sale. Cafés include the retro café ''Lolina'' and bohemian cafés ''La Ida'', ''La Paca'' and ''Café de la Luz'' in Malasaña, ''La Piola'' in Huertas and ''Café Olmo'' and ''Aguardiente'' in Lavapiés. In the neighbourhood of Lavapiés, there are also "hidden houses", which are illegal bars or abandoned spaces where concerts, poetry readings and the famous Spanish ''botellón'' (a street party or gathering that is now illegal but rarely stopped).


Classical music and opera

The National Auditorium of Music, Auditorio Nacional de Música is the main venue for classical music concerts in Madrid. It is home to the Spanish National Orchestra, the Chamartín Symphony Orchestra and the venue for the symphonic concerts of the Community of Madrid Orchestra and the Madrid Symphony Orchestra. It is also the principal venue for orchestras on tour playing in Madrid. The Teatro Real is the main opera house in Madrid, located just in front of the
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Royal Palace
, and its resident orchestra is the Madrid Symphony Orchestra. The theatre stages around seventeen opera titles (both own productions and co-productions with other major European opera houses) per year, as well as two or three major ballets and several recitals. The Teatro de la Zarzuela is mainly devoted to Zarzuela (the Spanish traditional musical theatre genre), as well as operetta and recitals. The resident orchestra of the theatre is the Community of Madrid Orchestra. The Teatro Monumental is the concert venue of the RTVE Symphony Orchestra. Other concert venues for classical music are the Fundación Joan March and the Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía, Auditorio 400, devoted to contemporary music.


Feasts and festivals


San Isidro

The local feast par excellence is the Day of Isidore the Laborer (''San Isidro Labrador''), the patron Saint of Madrid, celebrated on 15 May. It is a public holiday. According to tradition, Isidro was a farmworker and well manufacturer born in Madrid in the late 11th century, who lived a pious life and whose corpse was reportedly found to be Incorruptibility, incorrupt in 1212. Already very popular among the madrilenian people, as Madrid became the capital of the Hispanic Monarchy in 1561 the city council pulled efforts to promote his canonization; the process started in 1562. Isidro was beatified in 1619 and the feast day set on 15 May (he was finally canonized in 1622). On 15 May the Madrilenian people gather around the and the (on the right-bank of the Manzanares) often dressed with checkered caps (') and kerchiefs (''safos'') characteristic of the chulapos and chulapas, dancing Schottische, ''chotis'' and ''pasodobles'', eating ''rosquillas'' and ''barquillos''.


LGBT pride

The Madrilenian LGBT Pride has grown to become the event bringing the most people together in the city each year as well as one of the most importants Pride celebrations worldwide. Madrid's Pride Parade began in 1977, in the Chueca neighbourhood, which also marked the beginning of the gay, lesbian, transgender, and bisexual rights movement after being repressed for forty years in a dictatorship. This claiming of LGBT rights has allowed the Pride Parade in Madrid to grow year after year, becoming one of the best in the world. In 2007, this was recognised by the European Pride Owners Association (EPOA) when Madrid hosted Europride, the Official European Pride Parade. It was hailed by the President of the EPOA as "the best Europride in history". In 2017, Madrid celebrated the 40th anniversary of their first Pride Parade by hosting the WorldPride Madrid 2017. Numerous conferences, seminars and workshops as well as cultural and sports activities took place at the festival, the event being a "kids and family pride" and a source of education. More than one million people attended the pride's central march. The main purpose of the celebration was presenting Madrid and the Spanish society in general as a multicultural, diverse, and tolerant community. The 2018 Madrid Pride roughly had 1.5 million participants.p. 34 Since Spain legalised same-sex marriage in July 2005, Madrid has become one of the largest hot spots for LGBT culture. With about 500 businesses aimed toward the LGBT community, Madrid has become a "Gateway of Diversity".


Other

Despite often being labelled as "having no tradition" by foreigners, the Carnival was popular in Madrid already in the 16th century. However, during the Francoist dictatorship the carnival was under government ban and the feasts suffered a big blow. It has been slowly recovering since then. Other signalled days include the regional day (2 May) commemorating the Dos de Mayo Uprising (a public holiday), the feasts of San Antonio de la Florida (13 June), the feast of the Virgen de la Paloma (circa 15 August) or the day of the co-patron of Madrid, the Virgin of Almudena (9 November), although the latter's celebrations are rather religious in nature. The most important musical event in the city is the Mad Cool festival; created in 2016, it reached an attendance of during the three-day long schedule of the 2018 edition.p. 33


Bullfighting

Madrid hosts the largest ''plaza de toros'' (bullring) in Spain, Las Ventas, established in 1929. Las Ventas is considered by many to be the world centre of bullfighting and has a seating capacity of almost 25,000. Madrid's bullfighting season begins in March and ends in October. Bullfights are held every day during the festivities of Isidore the Laborer, San Isidro (Madrid's patron saint) from mid May to early June, and every Sunday, and holiday, public holiday, the rest of the season. The style of the plaza is Neo-Mudéjar. Las Ventas also hosts music concerts and other events outside of the bullfighting season.


Sport


Football

Real Madrid CF, Real Madrid, club founded in 1902, competes in La Liga and play their home games at the Santiago Bernabéu Stadium, Santiago Bernabéu. The club is one of the most widely supported teams in the world and their supporters are referred to as ''madridistas'' or ''merengues'' (Meringues). Real was selected as the best club of the 20th century (FIFA Club of the Century), being the Forbes' list of the most valuable sports teams, most valuable sports team in the world and the List of world champion football clubs, most successful football team with a record 26 international titles, and a record 13 UEFA Champions League, European Cups. Atlético Madrid, club founded in 1903, competes in La Liga and play their home games at the Metropolitano Stadium. The club is also well-supported in the city, having the third national fan base in Spain and their supporters are referred to as ''atléticos'' or ''colchoneros'' (The Mattressers). Atlético is considered a UEFA coefficient#UEFA team ranking, European elite team, having reached in the last ten seasons, two UEFA Europa League titles and two List of European Cup and UEFA Champions League finals, UEFA Champions League finals. Historically nationwide, Atletico has won eleven La Liga, Leagues and ten Copa del Rey, Cups. Madrid has hosted five List of European Cup and UEFA Champions League finals, European Cup/Champions League finals, four at the Santiago Bernabéu Stadium, Bernabéu, and the most recent 2019 UEFA Champions League Final, 2019 final at the Metropolitano Stadium, Metropolitano. As well, the Santiago Bernabéu Stadium, Bernabéu has hosted the final matches for the national teams competitions 1964 European Nations' Cup, 1964 UEFA European Championship and 1982 FIFA World Cup.


Basketball

Real Madrid Baloncesto, section founded in 1931, competes in Liga ACB and play their home games at the Palacio de Deportes de la Comunidad de Madrid, Palacio de Deportes (WiZink Center). Real Madrid's basketball section, like its football side, is the most successful basketball team in Europe, with a record 10 EuroLeague titles, and a national record 35 Liga ACB, Leagues and 28 Copa del Rey de Baloncesto, Cups. CB Estudiantes, Club Baloncesto Estudiantes, club founded in 1948, competes in Liga Española de Baloncesto, LEB Oro and play their home games also at the Palacio de Deportes de la Comunidad de Madrid, Palacio de Deportes (WiZink Center). Estudiantes was one of the only three teams until 2021, that have never been relegated from the Spanish basketball league system, Spain's top division. Historically nationwide, its achievements include three Copa del Rey de Baloncesto, Cups and four Liga ACB, League runners-up positions. Madrid has hosted six EuroLeague Finals, European Cup/EuroLeague finals, the last two at the Palacio de Deportes. Regarding national teams competitions, the city hosted the final matches for the 1986 FIBA World Championship, 1986 and 2014 FIBA Basketball World Cup, 2014 FIBA Basketball World Cup, FIBA World Cups and the EuroBasket 2007, both held at the Palacio de Deportes.


Events

The main annual international events held in Madrid are in cycle sport, cycling, the Vuelta a España (La Vuelta), one of the three worldwide prestigious three-week-long Grand Tours, that takes Madrid as the final stage, in the first week Sunday of September. In tennis hosts Madrid Open (tennis), Madrid Open, a male and female tennis tournament, played on clay court. The event is part of the nine ATP Tour Masters 1000, ATP Masters 1000 and the nine WTA 1000 tournaments. It is held during the first week of May in the Caja Mágica. Also since 2019 Davis Cup, 2019, hosts the finals of the major tournament between men's national teams, Davis Cup.


Education

State Education in Spain is free, and compulsory from 6 to 16 years. The education, education system is called LOE (''Ley Orgánica de Educación'').


Universities

Madrid is home to many public and Private university, private universities. Some of them are among the oldest in the world, and many of them are the most prestigious universities in Spain. The Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, National Distance Education University (''Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia''; UNED) has as its mission the public service of higher education through the modality of distance education. At more than 205,000 students (2015), UNED has the largest student population in Spain and is one of the largest universities in Europe. Since 1972, UNED has sought to translate into action the principle of equal opportunity in access to higher education through a methodology based on the principles of distance learning and focused on the needs of the student. The Complutense University of Madrid (''Universidad Complutense de Madrid''; UCM) is the second largest university in Spain after UNED and one of the oldest universities in the world. It has over 11,000 staff members and a student population of 117,000. Most of the academic staff is Spanish. It is located on two campuses, the main one of Ciudad Universitaria de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria in the Moncloa-Aravaca district, and the secondary campus of Somosaguas, located outside the city limits in Pozuelo de Alarcón and founded in 1971. The Complutense University of Madrid was founded in Alcalá de Henares, old Complutum, by Cardinal Cisneros in 1499. Nevertherless, its real origin dates back to 1293, when King Sancho IV of Castile built the General Schools of Alcalá, which would give rise to Cisnero's Complutense University. During the course of 1509–1510 five schools were already operative: ''Artes y Filosofía'' (Arts and Philosophy), ''Teología'' (Theology), ''Derecho Canónico'' (Canonical Laws), ''Letras'' (Liberal Arts) and ''Medicina'' (Medicine). In 1836, during the reign of Isabella II of Spain, Isabel II, the university was moved to Madrid, where it took the name of Central University and was located at San Bernardo Street. Subsequently, in 1927, a new University City of Madrid, University City (Ciudad Universitaria) was planned to be built in the district of Moncloa-Aravaca, in lands handed over by the King Alfonso XIII of Spain, Alfonso XIII to this purpose. The
Spanish Civil War The Spanish Civil War ( es, Guerra Civil Española)) or The Revolution ( es, La Revolución) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War ( es, Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlism, Carlists, and The Rebellion ( es, La Rebelión) or Uprising ( ...

Spanish Civil War
turned the University City into a war zone, causing the destruction of several schools in the area, as well as the loss of part of its rich scientific, artistic and bibliographic heritage. In 1970 the Government reformed the High Education, and the Central University became the Complutense University of Madrid. It was then when the new campus at Somosaguas was created to house the new School of Social Sciences. The old Alcalá campus was reopened as the independent UAH, University of Alcalá, in 1977. Complutense also serves to the population of students who select Madrid as their residency during their study abroad period. Students from the United States for example, might go to Madrid on a program like API (Academic Programs International) and study at Complutense for an intense immersion into the Spanish Language. After studying at the university, students return home with a fluent sense of Spanish as well as culture and diversity. The Technical University of Madrid (''Universidad Politécnica de Madrid''; UPM), is the top technical university in Spain. It is the result of the merger of different Technical school, Technical Schools of Engineering. It shares the Ciudad Universitaria campus with the UCM, while it also owns several schools scattered in the city centre and additional campuses in the
Puente de Vallecas Puente de Vallecas (''Bridge of Vallecas'') is one of the 21 Districts of Madrid, districts of the city of Madrid, Spain. It forms, with the district of Villa de Vallecas, the geographical area of Vallecas. Geography Subdivision The district is ad ...
district and in the neighbouring municipality of Boadilla del Monte. The Autonomous University of Madrid (''Universidad Autónoma de Madrid''; UAM) was instituted under the leadership of the physicist, Nicolás Cabrera. The Autonomous University is widely recognised for its research strengths in theoretical physics. Known simply as ''La Autónoma'' by locals, its main site is the Cantoblanco Campus, located at the North of the municipality, close to its boundaries with the neighbouring municipalities of Alcobendas, San Sebastián de los Reyes and Tres Cantos. Located on the main site are the Rectorate building and the Faculties of Science, Philosophy and Fine art, Fine Arts, Law, Economics, Economic Science and Business, Business Studies, Psychology, Higher School of Computer science, Computing Science and Engineering, and the Faculty of Teacher education, Teacher Training and Education. The UAM is considered the institution to study law in Spain, The Medical school, Medical School is sited outside the main site and beside the Hospital Universitario La Paz. The private Comillas Pontifical University (''Universidad Pontificia Comillas''; UPC) has its rectorate and several faculties in Madrid. The private Nebrija University is also based in Madrid. Some of the big public universities headquartered in the surrounding municipalities also have secondary campuses in Madrid proper: it is the case of the Charles III University of Madrid (''Universidad Carlos III de Madrid''; UC3M) with its main site in Getafe and an educational facility in Embajadores (after signing a deal with the regional government and the city council in 2011) and the King Juan Carlos University (''Universidad Rey Juan Carlos''; URJC) having its main site in Móstoles and a secondary campus in Vicálvaro. The private Universidad Camilo José Cela, Camilo José Cela University (''Universidad Camilo José Cela''; UCJC) has a postgrade school in Chamberí.


Business schools

IE Business School (formerly Instituto de Empresa) has its main campus on the border of the Chamartín and Salamanca districts of Madrid. IE Business School recently ranked #1 in WSJ's 2009 rankings for Best MBA Programs under 2 years. It scored ahead of usual stalwarts, INSEAD and International Institute for Management Development, IMD, giving it top billing among International MBA programs. Although based in Barcelona, both IESE, IESE Business School and ESADE Business School also have Madrid campuses. These three schools are the top-ranked business schools in Spain, consistently rank among the top 20 business schools globally, and offer Master of Business Administration, MBA programs (in English or Spanish) as well as other business degrees. Madrid is a good destination for business schools and a city much desired by foreign students. The most important Spanish business schools (IESE, IE, ESADE) have invested 125 million euros in expanding their campuses in Madrid in 2020. Other Madrid business schools and universities that have MBA programs include: EAE Business School (in English and Spanish), the Charles III University of Madrid through the ''Centro de Ampliación de Estudios'' (in English or Spanish); the Comillas Pontifical University (in Spanish only) and the Technical University of Madrid (in Spanish only).


Transport

In 2018, Madrid banned all non-resident vehicles from its downtown areas. Madrid is served by several roads and three modes of public surface transport, and two airports, one of them being almost two different airports. A great many important road, rail and air links converge on the capital, providing effective connections with other parts of the metropolitan region and with the rest of Spain and other parts of Europe.


Road transport

;Madrid Central Cars (except for hybrid and electric vehicles as well as residents and guests) were banned in the Madrid Central low-emission zone in 2018. Pollution in the area dropped following the ban. In 2016 it was announced that Madrid will stop the use of all diesel powered cars and trucks within the next decade. ;Radial roads Madrid is the centre of the most important roads of Spain. Already in 1720, the ''Reglamento General de Postas'' enacted by
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Philip V
configurated the basis of a radial system of roads in the country. Madrid features a number of the most prominent ''autovías'' (fast dualled highways), part of the . Clock-wise starting from the north: the Autovía A-1, A-1 (Madrid–Irún–France, French border), Autovía A-2, A-2 (Madrid–Zaragoza–Barcelona–French border), Autovía A-3, A-3 (Madrid–Valencia, Spain, Valencia), Autovía A-4, A-4 (Madrid–Córdoba, Spain, Córdoba–Sevilla–Cádiz), Autovía A-5, A-5 (Madrid–Badajoz–Portugal, Portuguese border) and the Autovía A-6, A-6 (Madrid–A Coruña). The Autovía A-42, A-42, another highway connecting Madrid to
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, is also part of the State Network. The M-607 connects Madrid to the Puerto de Navacerrada. It is a fast dualled highway in its initial stretch from Madrid to Colmenar Viejo, and part of the (in relation to the concerning administration, not to the technical features of the road). Due to the large amount of traffic, new toll highways were built parallel to the main national freeways. Their names are , R-3 motorway (Spain), R-3, R-4 motorway (Spain), R-4 and and they were intended to provide a paid alternative to the often overcrowded free radials. However, except the R-3, they do not end close to the M-30 innermost ring road, as the R-2 finishes in the M-40, the R-4 in the M-50 and the R-5 in the M-40. ;Orbital roads Also Madrid road network includes four ring road, orbital ones at different distances from the centre. The innermost ring-road, the M-30, is the only one with its path strictly located within the Madrid municipal limits. It is owned by the Madrid City Council and operated by Madrid Calle 30, S.A. It is the busiest Spanish road, famous for its traffic jams. A significant portion of the southern part runs underground parallel to the Manzanares, with tunnel sections of more than in length and 3 to 6 lanes in each direction. The second ring-road, the Autopista de Circunvalación M-40, M-40 (part of the State Road Network) circles the city, while also extending to other surrounding municipalities. A NW stretch of the road runs underground, below the southern reaches of the Monte de El Pardo protected area. The Autopista de Circunvalación M-45, M-45 partially circles the city, connecting the M-40 and M-50, passing through areas like Villaverde and Vallecas in the South-East of the municipality. The Autopista de Circunvalación M-50, M-50, the Madrid's outer ring road, connects municipalities and cities in the metropolitan area, like Fuenlabrada, Móstoles, Getafe, Leganés in the South and Boadilla del Monte and Las Rozas de Madrid, Las Rozas in the West.


Public transport

There are four major components of public transport, with many transport hub, intermodal interchanges. The Consorcio Regional de Transportes de Madrid (CRTM) coordinates the public transport operations across multiple providers in the region, harmonizing fares for the commuter rail, rapid transit, light rail and bus transport services provided by different operators. ;Metro The Metro is the rapid transit system serving Madrid as well as some suburbs. Founded in 1919, it underwent extensive enlargement in the second half of the 20th century. It is the second longest metro system in Europe (after London's) at . , it has 302 stations. Only the Métro of Paris has more stations. It features 13 lines; 12 of them are colour-coded and numbered 1 to 12 (Line 1 (Madrid Metro), Line 1, Line 2 (Madrid Metro), Line 2, Line 3 (Madrid Metro), Line 3, Line 4 (Madrid Metro), Line 4, Line 5 (Madrid Metro), Line 5, Line 6 (Madrid Metro), Line 6, Line 7 (Madrid Metro), Line 7, Line 8 (Madrid Metro), Line 8, Line 9 (Madrid Metro), Line 9, Line 10 (Madrid Metro), Line 10, Line 11 (Madrid Metro), Line 11 and Line 12 (Madrid Metro), Line 12), while the other one, the short ''Ramal (Madrid Metro), Ramal'' (R), links Ópera to Príncipe Pío. ;Cercanías Cercanías Madrid is the commuter rail service used for longer distances from the suburbs and beyond into Madrid, consisting of nine lines totalling and more than 90 stations. With fewer stops inside the centre of the city they are faster than the Metro, but run less frequently. This system is connected with Metro (presently 22 stations) and Light Metro. The lines are named: C-1 (Cercanías Madrid), C-1, C-2 (Cercanías Madrid), C-2, C-3 (Cercanías Madrid), C-3, C-4 (Cercanías Madrid), C-4, C-5 (Cercanías Madrid), C-5, C-7 (Cercanías Madrid), C-7, C-8 (Cercanías Madrid), C-8, C-9 (Cercanías Madrid), C-9, C-10 (Cercanías Madrid), C-10, respectively. ;Buses There is a dense network of bus routes, run by the municipal company Empresa Municipal de Transportes de Madrid, Empresa Municipal de Transportes (or EMT Madrid), which operates 24 hours a day; special services called "N lines" are run during nighttime. The special Airport Express Shuttle line connecting the airport with the city centre features distinctively yellow buses. In addition to the urban lines operated by the EMT, the green buses (''interurbanos'') connect the city with the suburbs. The later lines, while also regulated by the CRTM, are often run by private operators. Almost half of all journeys in the metropolitan area are made on public transport, a very high proportion compared with most European cities. Madrid has 15723 taxis around all the city. ;Taxi The taxicabs are regulated by a specific sub-division of taxi service, a body dependent of the Madrid City Council. The authorisation entails a badge for the vehicle and a license for the driver, who has to be older than 18. Since the 1970s, the fleet of taxis has remained stable roughly around vehicles, accounting for in 2014.


Long-distance transport

In terms of longer-distance transport, Madrid is the central node of the system of ''autovías'', giving the city direct fast road links with most parts of Spain and with France and Portugal. It is also the focal point of one of the world's three largest high-speed rail systems, ''Alta Velocidad Española'' (AVE), which has brought major cities such as Seville and Barcelona within 2.5 hours travel time. There are now of AVE track, connecting Madrid with 17 provincial capitals, and further lines are under construction. Also Spain business are designing new high speed trains which will be the new generation AVE like Talgo AVRIL. Aside from the local and regional bus commuting services, Madrid is also a node for long-distance bus connections to plenty of national destinations. The in Méndez Álvaro, the busiest bus station in the country, also features international bus connections to cities in Morocco as well as to diverse European destinations.


Airport

Madrid is also home to the Madrid-Barajas Airport, the sixth-largest airport in Europe, handling over 60 million passengers annually, of whom 70% are international travellers, in addition to the majority of Spain's air freight movements. Barajas is a major European hub, yet a largely westward facing one, specialized in the Americas, with a comparatively lighter connectivity to Asia. Madrid's location at the centre of the
Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese language, Aragonese and Occitan language, Occitan: ''Peninsula Iberica'' ** ** * french: Péninsule Ibérique * mwl, Península Eibérica * eu, Iberiar penintsula also known as Iberia, is a peni ...

Iberian Peninsula
makes it a major logistics base. Madrid-Barajas Airport has 4 Terminals and also the terminal 4S, called Satellite terminal, this terminal is from the terminal 4 and connected by an Automated People Mover System (AMP) train. The smaller (and older) Cuatro Vientos Airport has a dual military-civilian use and hosts several aviation schools. The Torrejón Air Base, located in the neighbouring municipality of Torrejón de Ardoz, also has a secondary civilian use aside from the military purpose.


International relations


Diplomacy

Madrid hosts List of diplomatic missions in Spain, 121 foreign embassies accredited before Spain, comprising all resident embassies in the country. The headquarters of the Spanish Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Spain), Ministry of Foreign Affairs, European Union and Cooperation, the Spanish Agency for International Development Cooperation and the Diplomatic School of Spain, Diplomatic School are also located in the city.


International organizations

Madrid hosts the seat of international organizations such as the United Nations'
World Tourism Organization The World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) is the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among n ...
(UNWTO), the
Ibero-American General Secretariat The Ibero-American General Secretariat (SEGIB) is the permanent support body to the Pro-Tempore Secretariat in the preparation of Ibero-American Summits. Founded in 2005 in replacement of the Secretariat of Ibero-American Cooperation, its main task ...
(SEGIB), the
Organization of Ibero-American States The Organization of Ibero-American States ( es, Organización de Estados Iberoamericanos, pt, Organização dos Estados Ibero-americanos; abbreviated as OEI), formally the Organization of Ibero-American States for Education, Science and Culture, ...
(OEI), the (OIJ), the (OISS), the International Organization of Securities Commissions (IOSCO), the Club of Madrid and the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT)


Twin towns and sister cities

Madrid has reached twin towns, sister city 'agreements' (''acuerdos'') with: * Tokyo, Japan (1965) * Seoul, South Korea (1978) * Lisbon, Portugal (1979) * Panama City, Panama (1980) * New York City, New York, United States (1982) * Malabo, Equatorial Guinea (1982) * Bordeaux, France (1984) * Nouakchott, Mauritania (1986) *
Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2019 makes it the List of cities in the European Union by ...

Berlin
, Germany (1988) * Manila, Philippines (2005) * Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina (2007) * Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (2007) * Miami, United States (2014) Madrid has reached twin towns, sister city 'minutes' (''actas'') with: * Rabat, Morocco (1988) * Tripoli, Libya (1988)


Union of Ibero-American Capital Cities

Madrid is part of the Union of Ibero-American Capital Cities establishing brotherly relations with the following cities through the issuing of a collective statement in October 1982: * Asunción, Paraguay * Bogotá, Colombia * Buenos Aires, Argentina * Caracas, Venezuela * Guatemala City, Guatemala * Havana, Cuba * La Paz, Bolivia * Lima, Peru * Lisbon, Portugal * Managua, Nicaragua * Mexico City, Mexico * Montevideo, Uruguay * Panama City, Panama * Quito, Ecuador * Rio de Janeiro, Brazil * San Jose (Costa Rica), San Jose, Costa Rica * San Juan (Puerto Rico), San Juan, Puerto Rico * San Salvador, El Salvador * Santiago, Chile * Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic * Tegucigalpa, Honduras


Other city partnerships

*
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Athens
, Greece * Beijing, China * Belgrade, Serbia * Brasilia, Brazil * Brussels, Belgium * Budapest, Hungary * Cebu City, Philippines * Chongqing, China * Davao City, Philippines * Guadalajara, Mexico * Kathmandu, Nepal * Lumbini, Nepal * Moscow, Russia * Paris, France * Prague, Czech Republic * Rome, Italy * Sofia, Bulgaria * Sucre, Bolivia * Warsaw, Poland * Zamboanga City, Philippines


Partnerships with international organizations

* C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group, C-40 Cities (C40) * International Labour Organization (OIT) *
Ibero-American General Secretariat The Ibero-American General Secretariat (SEGIB) is the permanent support body to the Pro-Tempore Secretariat in the preparation of Ibero-American Summits. Founded in 2005 in replacement of the Secretariat of Ibero-American Cooperation, its main task ...
(SEGIB) * UNESCO, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) * United Nations Human Settlements Programme (ONU-HABITAT)


Notable people


Honours

* Madrid Dome in Aristotle Mountains, Graham Land in Antarctica is named after the city.Madrid Dome.
Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research, SCAR Composite Antarctic Gazetteer.


See also

* C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group * Madrid Conference of 1991 * Mayor of Madrid * List of tallest buildings in Madrid * OPENCities * List of films set in Madrid


References


Footnotes


Citations


Bibliography

* * * * * * * * * * *


External links

*
Official website of Madrid on tourism and business


* [https://www.postalcodigo.com/madrid Postal codes in Madrid] {{Authority control Madrid, Capitals in Europe Municipalities in the Community of Madrid Populated places established in the 9th century