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Coordinates: 37°23′16.54″N 121°57′48.74″W / 37.3879278°N 121.9635389°W / 37.3879278; -121.9635389

Intel
Intel
Corporation

Intel
Intel
Corporation's current logo, used since 2006

Intel's headquarters in Santa Clara, California

Formerly called

N M Electronics
Electronics
(1968)

Type

Public

Traded as

NASDAQ: INTC NASDAQ-100
NASDAQ-100
Component DJIA Component S&P 100 Component S&P 500 Component

Industry Semiconductors

Founded July 18, 1968; 49 years ago (1968-07-18)

Founders Gordon Moore Robert Noyce

Headquarters Santa Clara, California, U.S.

Area served

Worldwide

Key people

Gordon Moore ( Chairman
Chairman
Emeritus) Andy Bryant (Chairman) Brian Krzanich (CEO)

Products Central processing units Microprocessors Integrated graphics
Integrated graphics
processing units (iGPU) SoCs Motherboard
Motherboard
chipsets Network interface controllers Modems Mobile phones Solid state drives Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi
and Bluetooth
Bluetooth
Chipsets Flash memory Vehicle automation sensors

Revenue US$62.76 billion (2017)[1]

Operating income

US$17.93 billion (2017)[1]

Net income

US$9.601 billion (2017)[1]

Total assets US$123.2 billion (2017)[1]

Total equity US$69.01 billion (2017)[1]

Number of employees

106,000 (2017)[1]

Subsidiaries Mobileye, McAfee, Here, Wind River Systems

Website www.intel.com

Intel
Intel
Corporation (also known as Intel, stylized as intel) is an American multinational corporation and technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California, in the Silicon Valley. It is the world's second largest and second highest valued semiconductor chip makers based on revenue after being overtaken by Samsung,[2][3] and is the inventor of the x86 series of microprocessors, the processors found in most personal computers (PCs). Intel
Intel
supplies processors for computer system manufacturers such as Apple, Lenovo, HP, and Dell. Intel
Intel
also manufactures motherboard chipsets, network interface controllers and integrated circuits, flash memory, graphics chips, embedded processors and other devices related to communications and computing. Intel
Intel
Corporation was founded on July 18, 1968, by semiconductor pioneers Robert Noyce
Robert Noyce
and Gordon Moore
Gordon Moore
(of Moore's law
Moore's law
fame), and widely associated with the executive leadership and vision of Andrew Grove. The company's name was conceived as portmanteau of the words integrated and electronics, with co-founder Noyce having been a key inventor of the integrated circuit (microchip). The fact that "intel" is the term for intelligence information also made the name appropriate.[4] Intel
Intel
was an early developer of S RAM
RAM
and D RAM
RAM
memory chips, which represented the majority of its business until 1981. Although Intel
Intel
created the world's first commercial microprocessor chip in 1971, it was not until the success of the personal computer (PC) that this became its primary business. During the 1990s, Intel
Intel
invested heavily in new microprocessor designs fostering the rapid growth of the computer industry. During this period Intel
Intel
became the dominant supplier of microprocessors for PCs and was known for aggressive and anti-competitive tactics in defense of its market position, particularly against AMD (Advanced Micro Devices), as well as a struggle with Microsoft
Microsoft
for control over the direction of the PC industry.[5][6] The Open Source Technology
Technology
Center at Intel
Intel
hosts PowerTOP and LatencyTOP, and supports other open-source projects such as Wayland, Intel
Intel
Array Building Blocks, and Threading Building Blocks (TBB), and Xen.[7]

Contents

1 Current operations

1.1 Operating segments 1.2 Top customers 1.3 Market share

1.3.1 Market share in early 2011 1.3.2 Historical market share 1.3.3 Major competitors

2 Corporate history

2.1 Origins 2.2 Early history 2.3 Slowing demand and challenges to dominance in 2000 2.4 Litigation 2.5 Regaining of momentum (2005–2007) 2.6 Sale of XScale
XScale
processor business (2006) 2.7 Acquisitions (2010–present)

2.7.1 Acquisition table (2010–present) 2.7.2 Expansions (2008–2011) 2.7.3 Opening up the foundries to other manufacturers (2013)

3 Product and market history

3.1 SRAMS and the microprocessor 3.2 From D RAM
RAM
to microprocessors 3.3 Intel, x86 processors, and the IBM
IBM
PC

3.3.1 386 microprocessor 3.3.2 486, Pentium, and Itanium 3.3.3 Pentium
Pentium
flaw 3.3.4 " Intel
Intel
Inside" and other campaigns 3.3.5 2018 security flaws 3.3.6 Remote Keyboard Android App

3.4 Solid-state drives (SSD) 3.5 Supercomputers 3.6 Mobile Linux
Linux
software 3.7 Competition, antitrust and espionage 3.8 Use of Intel
Intel
products by Apple Computer (2005–present) 3.9 Core 2 Duo advertisement controversy (2007) 3.10 Introduction of Classmate PC
Classmate PC
(2011) 3.11 Introduction of new mobile processor technology (2011) 3.12 Update to server chips (2011) 3.13 Introduction of Ivy Bridge 22 nm processors (2011) 3.14 Development of Personal Office Energy Monitor (POEM) (2011) 3.15 IT Manager
IT Manager
series 3.16 Car Security
Security
System (2011) 3.17 High-Bandwidth Digital Content Protection 3.18 Move from Wintel desktop to open mobile platforms (2013–2014) 3.19 Introduction of Haswell processors (2013) 3.20 Wearable fashion (2014) 3.21 Fog computing 3.22 Conflict-free production 3.23 Self driving cars

4 Corporate affairs

4.1 Leadership and corporate structure 4.2 Ownership 4.3 Employment

4.3.1 Diversity

4.4 Economic impact in Oregon
Oregon
in 2009 4.5 School funding in New Mexico
New Mexico
in 1997 4.6 Ultrabook
Ultrabook
fund (2011) 4.7 Marketing

4.7.1 Intel
Intel
Inside 4.7.2 Sonic logo 4.7.3 Processor naming strategy 4.7.4 Typography 4.7.5 Intel
Intel
Brand Book

4.8 Open source
Open source
support 4.9 Declining PC sales

5 Litigation and regulatory issues

5.1 Patent infringement litigation (2006–2007) 5.2 Anti-trust allegations and litigation (2005–2009)

5.2.1 Allegations by Japan Fair Trade Commission (2005) 5.2.2 Allegations by the European Union
European Union
(2007–2008) 5.2.3 Allegations by regulators in South Korea (2007) 5.2.4 Allegations by regulators in the United States
United States
(2008–2010)

5.3 Corporate responsibility record 5.4 Age discrimination complaints 5.5 Tax dispute in India

6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Current operations[edit] Operating segments[edit]

Client Computing Group – 55% of 2016 revenues – produces hardware components used in desktop and notebook computers.[8] Data Center Group – 29% of 2016 revenues – produces hardware components used in server, network, and storage platforms.[8] Internet of Things Group – 5% of 2016 revenues – offers platforms designed for retail, transportation, industrial, buildings and home use.[8] Non-Volatile Memory Solutions Group – 4% of 2016 revenues – manufactures NAND flash memory
NAND flash memory
and 3D XPoint, branded as Optane, products primarily used in solid-state drives.[8] Intel
Intel
Security
Security
Group – 4% of 2016 revenues – produces software, particularly security, and antivirus software.[8] Programmable Solutions Group – 3% of 2016 revenues – manufactures programmable semiconductors (primarily FPGAs).[8]

Top customers[edit] In 2016, Dell
Dell
accounted for 15% of Intel's total revenues, Lenovo accounted for 13% of total revenues, and HP Inc.
HP Inc.
accounted for 11% of total revenues.[8] Market share[edit] Market share in early 2011[edit] According to IDC, while Intel
Intel
enjoyed the biggest market share in both the overall worldwide PC microprocessor market (79.3%) and the mobile PC microprocessor (84.4%) in the second quarter of 2011, the numbers decreased by 1.5% and 1.9% compared to the first quarter of 2011.[9][10] Historical market share[edit] In the 1980s, Intel
Intel
was among the top ten sellers of semiconductors (10th in 1987) in the world. In 1992,[11] Intel
Intel
became the biggest chip maker by revenue and has held the position ever since. Other top semiconductor companies include TSMC, Advanced Micro Devices, Samsung, Texas Instruments, Toshiba
Toshiba
and STMicroelectronics. Major competitors[edit] Competitors in PC chipsets include Advanced Micro Devices, VIA Technologies, Silicon Integrated Systems, and Nvidia. Intel's competitors in networking include NXP Semiconductors, Infineon, Broadcom
Broadcom
Limited, Marvell Technology Group
Marvell Technology Group
and Applied Micro Circuits Corporation, and competitors in flash memory include Spansion, Samsung, Qimonda, Toshiba, STMicroelectronics, and SK Hynix. The only major competitor in the x86 processor market is Advanced Micro Devices (AMD), with which Intel
Intel
has had full cross-licensing agreements since 1976: each partner can use the other's patented technological innovations without charge after a certain time.[12] However, the cross-licensing agreement is canceled in the event of an AMD bankruptcy or takeover.[13] Some smaller competitors such as VIA Technologies
VIA Technologies
produce low-power x86 processors for small factor computers and portable equipment. However, the advent of such mobile computing devices, in particular, smartphones, has in recent years led to a decline in PC sales.[14] Since over 95% of the world's smartphones currently use processors designed by ARM Holdings, ARM has become a major competitor for Intel's processor market. ARM is also planning to make inroads into the PC and server market.[15] Intel
Intel
has been involved in several disputes regarding violation of antitrust laws, which are noted below. Corporate history[edit] Further information: Timeline of Intel Origins[edit]

Andy Grove, Robert Noyce
Robert Noyce
and Gordon Moore
Gordon Moore
in 1978.

Intel
Intel
Corporation's former logo, used from 1968 to 2006.

Intel
Intel
was founded in Mountain View, California
California
in 1968 by Gordon E. Moore (of "Moore's law" fame), a chemist, and Robert Noyce, a physicist and co-inventor of the integrated circuit. Arthur Rock (investor and venture capitalist) helped them find investors, while Max Palevsky
Max Palevsky
was on the board from an early stage.[16] Moore and Noyce had left Fairchild Semiconductor
Semiconductor
to found Intel. Rock was not an employee, but he was an investor and was chairman of the board.[17][18] The total initial investment in Intel
Intel
was $2.5 million convertible debentures and $10,000 from Rock. Just 2 years later, Intel
Intel
became a public company via an initial public offering (IPO), raising $6.8 million ($23.50 per share).[17] Intel's third employee was Andy Grove,[19] a chemical engineer, who later ran the company through much of the 1980s and the high-growth 1990s. In deciding on a name, Moore and Noyce quickly rejected "Moore Noyce",[20] homophone for "more noise" – an ill-suited name for an electronics company, since noise in electronics is usually undesirable and typically associated with bad interference. Instead, they founded the company as N M Electronics
Electronics
on July 18, 1968 but by the end of the month had changed the name to Intel
Intel
which stood for Integrated Electronics.[21][22][23][24] Since "Intel" was already trademarked by the hotel chain Intelco, they had to buy the rights for the name.[17][25] Early history[edit] At its founding, Intel
Intel
was distinguished by its ability to make logic circuits using semiconductor devices. The founders' goal was the semiconductor memory market, widely predicted to replace magnetic-core memory. Its first product, a quick entry into the small, high-speed memory market in 1969, was the 3101 Schottky TTL bipolar 6 4-bit
4-bit
static random-access memory (SRAM), which was nearly twice as fast as earlier Schottky diode implementations by Fairchild and the Electrotechnical Laboratory in Tsukuba, Japan.[26][27] In the same year, Intel
Intel
also produced the 3301 Schottky bipolar 102 4-bit
4-bit
read-only memory (ROM)[28] and the first commercial metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) silicon gate S RAM
RAM
chip, the 256-bit 1101.[17][29][30] While the 1101 was a significant advance, its complex static cell structure made it too slow and costly for mainframe memories. The three-transistor cell implemented in the first commercially available dynamic random-access memory (DRAM), the 1103 released in 1970, solved these issues. The 1103 was the bestselling semiconductor memory chip in the world by 1972, as it replaced core memory in many applications.[31][32] Intel's business grew during the 1970s as it expanded and improved its manufacturing processes and produced a wider range of products, still dominated by various memory devices.

Federico Faggin, the designer of Intel
Intel
4004

While Intel
Intel
created the first commercially available microprocessor ( Intel
Intel
4004) in 1971[17] and one of the first microcomputers in 1972,[29][33] by the early 1980s its business was dominated by dynamic random-access memory chips. However, increased competition from Japanese semiconductor manufacturers had, by 1983, dramatically reduced the profitability of this market. The growing success of the IBM
IBM
personal computer, based on an Intel
Intel
microprocessor, was among factors that convinced Gordon Moore
Gordon Moore
(CEO since 1975) to shift the company's focus to microprocessors and to change fundamental aspects of that business model. Moore's decision to sole-source Intel's 386 chip played into the company's continuing success. The development of the micro-processor by Intel, (1971): The micro-processor represented a notable advance in the technology of integrated circuitry. A micro-processor miniaturized the central processing unit of a computer. Which then made it possible for small machines to perform calculations that in the past only very large machines could do. Considerable technological innovation was needed before the micro-processor could actually become the basis of what was first known as a "mini computer" and then known as a "personal computer".[34] By the end of the 1980s, buoyed by its fortuitous position as microprocessor supplier to IBM
IBM
and IBM's competitors within the rapidly growing personal computer market, Intel
Intel
embarked on a 10-year period of unprecedented growth as the primary (and most profitable) hardware supplier to the PC industry, part of the winning 'Wintel' combination. Moore handed over to Andy Grove
Andy Grove
in 1987. By launching its Intel
Intel
Inside marketing campaign in 1991, Intel
Intel
was able to associate brand loyalty with consumer selection, so that by the end of the 1990s, its line of Pentium
Pentium
processors had become a household name. Slowing demand and challenges to dominance in 2000[edit] After 2000, growth in demand for high-end microprocessors slowed. Competitors, notably AMD (Intel's largest competitor in its primary x86 architecture market), garnered significant market share, initially in low-end and mid-range processors but ultimately across the product range, and Intel's dominant position in its core market was greatly reduced.[35] In the early 2000s then-CEO, Craig Barrett attempted to diversify the company's business beyond semiconductors, but few of these activities were ultimately successful. Litigation[edit] Intel
Intel
had also for a number of years been embroiled in litigation. US law did not initially recognize intellectual property rights related to microprocessor topology (circuit layouts), until the Semiconductor Chip Protection Act of 1984, a law sought by Intel
Intel
and the Semiconductor
Semiconductor
Industry Association (SIA).[36] During the late 1980s and 1990s (after this law was passed), Intel
Intel
also sued companies that tried to develop competitor chips to the 80386 CPU.[37] The lawsuits were noted to significantly burden the competition with legal bills, even if Intel
Intel
lost the suits.[37] Antitrust
Antitrust
allegations had been simmering since the early 1990s and had been the cause of one lawsuit against Intel
Intel
in 1991. In 2004 and 2005, AMD brought further claims against Intel
Intel
related to unfair competition. Regaining of momentum (2005–2007)[edit] In 2005, CEO Paul Otellini
Paul Otellini
reorganized the company to refocus its core processor and chipset business on platforms (enterprise, digital home, digital health, and mobility). In 2006, Intel
Intel
unveiled its Core microarchitecture to widespread critical acclaim;[38] the product range was perceived as an exceptional leap in processor performance that at a stroke regained much of its leadership of the field.[39][40] In 2008, Intel
Intel
had another "tick," when it introduced the Penryn microarchitecture, which was 45 nm. Later that year, Intel
Intel
released a processor with the Nehalem architecture. Nehalem had positive reviews.[41] Sale of XScale
XScale
processor business (2006)[edit] On June 27, 2006, the sale of Intel's XScale
XScale
assets was announced. Intel
Intel
agreed to sell the XScale
XScale
processor business to Marvell Technology
Technology
Group for an estimated $600 million and the assumption of unspecified liabilities. The move was intended to permit Intel
Intel
to focus its resources on its core x86 and server businesses, and the acquisition completed on November 9, 2006.[42] Acquisitions (2010–present)[edit] In 2010, Intel
Intel
purchased McAfee, a manufacturer of computer security technology for $7.68 billion.[43] As a condition for regulatory approval of the transaction, Intel
Intel
agreed to provide rival security firms with all necessary information that would allow their products to use Intel's chips and personal computers.[44] After the acquisition, Intel
Intel
had about 90,000 employees, including about 12,000 software engineers.[45] In September 2016, Intel
Intel
sold a majority stake in its computer-security unit to TPG, reversing the five-year-old McAfee
McAfee
acquisition.[46] In August 2010, Intel
Intel
and Infineon
Infineon
Technologies announced that Intel would acquire Infineon's Wireless
Wireless
Solutions business.[47] Intel planned to use Infineon's technology in laptops, smart phones, netbooks, tablets and embedded computers in consumer products, eventually integrating its wireless modem into Intel's silicon chips.[48] In March 2011, Intel
Intel
bought most of the assets of Cairo-based SySDSoft.[49] In July 2011, Intel
Intel
announced that it had agreed to acquire Fulcrum Microsystems Inc., a company specializing in network switches.[50] The company used to be included on the EE Times list of 60 Emerging Startups.[50] In October 2011, Intel
Intel
reached a deal to acquire Telmap, an Israeli-based navigation software company. The purchase price was not disclosed, but Israeli media reported values around $300 million to $350 million.[51] In July 2012, Intel
Intel
agreed to buy 10% of the shares of ASML Holding
ASML Holding
NV for $2.1 billion and another $1 billion for 5% of the shares that need shareholder approval to fund relevant research and development efforts, as part of a EUR3.3 billion ($4.1 billion) deal to accelerate the development of 450-millimeter wafer technology and extreme ultra-violet lithography by as much as two years.[52] In July 2013, Intel
Intel
confirmed the acquisition of Omek Interactive, an Israeli company that makes technology for gesture-based interfaces, without disclosing the monetary value of the deal. An official statement from Intel
Intel
read: "The acquisition of Omek Interactive
Omek Interactive
will help increase Intel's capabilities in the delivery of more immersive perceptual computing experiences." One report estimated the value of the acquisition between US$30 million and $50 million.[53] The acquisition of a Spanish natural language recognition startup, Indisys was announced in September 2013. The terms of the deal were not disclosed but an email from an Intel
Intel
representative stated: "Intel has acquired Indisys, a privately held company based in Seville, Spain. The majority of Indisys employees joined Intel. We signed the agreement to acquire the company on May 31 and the deal has been completed." Indysis explains that its artificial intelligence (AI) technology "is a human image, which converses fluently and with common sense in multiple languages and also works in different platforms."[54] In December 2014, Intel
Intel
bought PasswordBox.[55] In January 2015, Intel
Intel
purchased a 30% stake in Vuzix, a smart glasses manufacturer. The deal was worth $24.8 million.[56] In February 2015, Intel
Intel
announced its agreement to purchase German network chipmaker Lantiq, to aid in its expansion of its range of chips in devices with Internet connection capability.[57] In June 2015, Intel
Intel
announced its agreement to purchase FPGA
FPGA
design company Altera
Altera
for $16.7 billion, in its largest acquisition to date.[58] The acquisition completed in December 2015.[59] In October 2015, Intel
Intel
bought cognitive computing company Saffron Technology
Technology
for an undisclosed price.[60] In August 2016, Intel
Intel
purchased deep-learning startup Nervana Systems for $350 million.[61] In March 2017, Intel
Intel
announced that they had agreed to purchase Mobileye, an Israeli developer of "autonomous driving" systems for US$15.3 billion.[62] In June 2017, Intel
Intel
Corporation announced an investment of over Rs.1100 crore ($170 million) for its upcoming Research and Development (R&D) centre in Bangalore.[63] Acquisition table (2010–present)[edit]

Number Acquisition announcement date Company Business Country Price Used as or integrated with Ref(s).

1 000000002009-06-04-0000June 4, 2009 Wind River Systems Embedded Systems  US $884M Software [64]

2 000000002010-08-19-0000August 19, 2010 McAfee Security  US $7.6B Software [65]

3 000000002010-08-30-0000August 30, 2010 Infineon
Infineon
(partial) Wireless  Germany $1.4B Mobile CPUs [66]

4 000000002011-03-17-0000March 17, 2011 Silicon Hive DSP  Netherlands N/A Mobile CPUs [67]

5 000000002011-09-29-0000September 29, 2011 Telmap Software  Israel N/A Location Services [68]

6 000000002013-04-13-0000April 13, 2013 Mashery API Management  US $180M Software [69]

7 000000002013-05-03-0000May 3, 2013 Aepona SDN  Ireland N/A Software [70]

8 000000002013-05-06-0000May 6, 2013 Stonesoft Corporation Security  Finland $389M Software [71]

9 000000002013-07-16-0000July 16, 2013 Omek Interactive Gesture  Israel N/A Software [53]

10 000000002013-09-13-0000September 13, 2013 Indisys Natural language processing  Spain N/A Software [54]

11 000000002014-03-25-0000March 25, 2014 BASIS Wearable  US N/A New Devices [72]

12 000000002014-08-13-0000August 13, 2014 Avago Technologies
Avago Technologies
(partial) Semiconductor  US $650M Communications Processors [73]

13 000000002014-12-01-0000December 1, 2014 PasswordBox Security  Canada N/A Software [74]

14 000000002015-01-05-0000January 5, 2015 Vuzix Wearable  US $24.8M New Devices [75]

15 000000002015-02-02-0000February 2, 2015 Lantiq Telecom  Germany undisclosed Gateways [76]

16 000000002015-06-01-0000June 1, 2015 Altera Semiconductor  US $16.7B FPGA [58]

17 000000002015-06-18-0000June 18, 2015 Recon Wearable  US $175M New Devices [77]

18 000000002015-10-26-0000October 26, 2015 Saffron Technology Cognitive computing  US undisclosed Software [60]

19 000000002016-01-04-0000January 4, 2016 Ascending Technologies UAVs  Germany undisclosed New Technology [78]

20 March 9, 2016 Replay Technologies Video technology  Israel undisclosed 3D video technology [79]

21 April 5, 2016 Yogitech IoT security and Advanced Driver Assistance Systems.  Italy undisclosed Software [80]

22 August 9, 2016 Nervana Systems Machine learning technology  US $350M New Technology [81]

23 Sept 6, 2016 Movidius Computer Vision  Ireland undisclosed New Technology [82]

24 March 16, 2017 MobilEye Autonomous vehicle technology  Israel $15B Self driving technology

Expansions (2008–2011)[edit] In 2008, Intel
Intel
spun off key assets of a solar startup business effort to form an independent company, SpectraWatt Inc. In 2011, SpectraWatt filed for bankruptcy.[83] In February 2011, Intel
Intel
began to build a new microprocessor manufacturing facility in Chandler, Arizona, completed in 2013 at a cost of $5 billion.[84] The building was never used.[85] The company produces three-quarters of its products in the United States, although three-quarters of its revenue come from overseas.[86] In April 2011, Intel
Intel
began a pilot project with ZTE Corporation
ZTE Corporation
to produce smartphones using the Intel Atom
Intel Atom
processor for China's domestic market. In December 2011, Intel
Intel
announced that it reorganized several of its business units into a new mobile and communications group[87] be responsible for the company's smartphone, tablet, and wireless efforts. Opening up the foundries to other manufacturers (2013)[edit] Finding itself with excess fab capacity after the failure of the Ultrabook
Ultrabook
to gain market traction and with PC sales declining, in 2013 Intel
Intel
reached a foundry agreement to produce chips for Altera
Altera
using 14-nm process. General Manager of Intel's custom foundry division Sunit Rikhi indicated that Intel
Intel
would pursue further such deals in the future.[88] This was after poor sales of Windows 8
Windows 8
hardware caused a major retrenchment for most of the major semiconductor manufacturers, except for Qualcomm, which continued to see healthy purchases from its largest customer, Apple.[89] As of July 2013, five companies were using Intel's fabs via the Intel Custom Foundry division: Achronix, Tabula, Netronome, Microsemi, and Panasonic – most are field-programmable gate array (FPGA) makers, but Netronome
Netronome
designs network processors. Only Achronix
Achronix
began shipping chips made by Intel
Intel
using the 22-nm Tri-Gate process.[90][91] Several other customers also exist but were not announced at the time.[92] The Alliance for Affordable Internet (A4AI) was launched in October 2013 and Intel
Intel
is part of the coalition of public and private organisations that also includes Facebook, Google, and Microsoft. Led by Sir Tim Berners-Lee, the A4AI seeks to make Internet access more affordable so that access is broadened in the developing world, where only 31% of people are online. Google
Google
will help to decrease internet access prices so that they fall below the UN Broadband Commission's worldwide target of 5% of monthly income.[93] Product and market history[edit]

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SRAMS and the microprocessor[edit] Intel's first products were shift register memory and random-access memory integrated circuits, and Intel
Intel
grew to be a leader in the fiercely competitive DRAM, SRAM, and ROM markets throughout the 1970s. Concurrently, Intel
Intel
engineers Marcian Hoff, Federico Faggin, Stanley Mazor and Masatoshi Shima
Masatoshi Shima
invented Intel's first microprocessor. Originally developed for the Japanese company Busicom
Busicom
to replace a number of ASICs in a calculator already produced by Busicom, the Intel 4004 was introduced to the mass market on November 15, 1971, though the microprocessor did not become the core of Intel's business until the mid-1980s. (Note: Intel
Intel
is usually given credit with Texas Instruments for the almost-simultaneous invention of the microprocessor) From D RAM
RAM
to microprocessors[edit] In 1983, at the dawn of the personal computer era, Intel's profits came under increased pressure from Japanese memory-chip manufacturers, and then-president Andy Grove
Andy Grove
focused the company on microprocessors. Grove described this transition in the book Only the Paranoid Survive. A key element of his plan was the notion, then considered radical, of becoming the single source for successors to the popular 8086 microprocessor. Until then, the manufacture of complex integrated circuits was not reliable enough for customers to depend on a single supplier,[clarification needed] but Grove began producing processors in three geographically distinct factories,[which?] and ceased licensing the chip designs to competitors such as Zilog
Zilog
and AMD.[citation needed] When the PC industry boomed in the late 1980s and 1990s, Intel
Intel
was one of the primary beneficiaries. Intel, x86 processors, and the IBM
IBM
PC[edit]

The die from an Intel
Intel
8742, an 8-bit microcontroller that includes a CPU
CPU
running at 12 MHz, 128 bytes of RAM, 2048 bytes of EPROM, and I/O in the same chip

Despite the ultimate importance of the microprocessor, the 4004 and its successors the 8008 and the 8080 were never major revenue contributors at Intel. As the next processor, the 8086 (and its variant the 8088) was completed in 1978, Intel
Intel
embarked on a major marketing and sales campaign for that chip nicknamed "Operation Crush", and intended to win as many customers for the processor as possible. One design win was the newly created IBM
IBM
PC division, though the importance of this was not fully realized at the time. IBM
IBM
introduced its personal computer in 1981, and it was rapidly successful. In 1982, Intel
Intel
created the 80286 microprocessor, which, two years later, was used in the IBM
IBM
PC/AT. Compaq, the first IBM
IBM
PC "clone" manufacturer, produced a desktop system based on the faster 80286 processor in 1985 and in 1986 quickly followed with the first 80386-based system, beating IBM
IBM
and establishing a competitive market for PC-compatible systems and setting up Intel
Intel
as a key component supplier. In 1975, the company had started a project to develop a highly advanced 32-bit
32-bit
microprocessor, finally released in 1981 as the Intel iAPX 432. The project was too ambitious and the processor was never able to meet its performance objectives, and it failed in the marketplace. Intel
Intel
extended the x86 architecture to 32 bits instead.[94][95] 386 microprocessor[edit] During this period Andrew Grove
Andrew Grove
dramatically redirected the company, closing much of its D RAM
RAM
business and directing resources to the microprocessor business. Of perhaps greater importance was his decision to "single-source" the 386 microprocessor. Prior to this, microprocessor manufacturing was in its infancy, and manufacturing problems frequently reduced or stopped production, interrupting supplies to customers. To mitigate this risk, these customers typically insisted that multiple manufacturers produce chips they could use to ensure a consistent supply. The 8080 and 8086-series microprocessors were produced by several companies, notably AMD, with which Intel
Intel
had a technology-sharing contract. Grove made the decision not to license the 386 design to other manufacturers, instead, producing it in three geographically distinct factories: Santa Clara, California; Hillsboro, Oregon; and Chandler, a suburb of Phoenix, Arizona. He convinced customers that this would ensure consistent delivery. In doing this, Intel
Intel
breached its contract with AMD, which sued and was paid millions of dollars in damages but could not manufacture new Intel
Intel
CPU
CPU
designs any longer. (Instead, AMD started to develop and manufacture its own competing x86 designs.) As the success of Compaq's Deskpro 386 established the 386 as the dominant CPU choice, Intel
Intel
achieved a position of near-exclusive dominance as its supplier. Profits from this funded rapid development of both higher-performance chip designs and higher-performance manufacturing capabilities, propelling Intel
Intel
to a position of unquestioned leadership by the early 1990s. 486, Pentium, and Itanium[edit] Intel
Intel
introduced the 486 microprocessor in 1989, and in 1990 established a second design team, designing the processors code-named "P5" and "P6" in parallel and committing to a major new processor every two years, versus the four or more years such designs had previously taken. Engineers Vinod Dham
Vinod Dham
and Rajeev Chandrasekhar (Member of Parliament, India) were key figures on the core team that invented the 486 chip and later, Intel's signature Pentium
Pentium
chip. The P5 project was earlier known as "Operation Bicycle," referring to the cycles of the processor through two parallel execution pipelines. The P5 was introduced in 1993 as the Intel
Intel
Pentium, substituting a registered trademark name for the former part number (numbers, such as 486, cannot be legally registered as trademarks in the United States). The P6 followed in 1995 as the Pentium
Pentium
Pro and improved into the Pentium
Pentium
II in 1997. New architectures were developed alternately in Santa Clara, California
Santa Clara, California
and Hillsboro, Oregon. The Santa Clara design team embarked in 1993 on a successor to the x86 architecture, codenamed "P7". The first attempt was dropped a year later but quickly revived in a cooperative program with Hewlett-Packard
Hewlett-Packard
engineers, though Intel
Intel
soon took over primary design responsibility. The resulting implementation of the IA-64 64-bit architecture was the Itanium, finally introduced in June 2001. The Itanium's performance running legacy x86 code did not meet expectations, and it failed to compete effectively with x86-64, which was AMD's 6 4-bit
4-bit
extension of the 32-bit
32-bit
x86 architecture ( Intel
Intel
uses the name Intel
Intel
64, previously EM64T). As of 2012, Intel
Intel
continues to develop and deploy the Itanium; known planning continues into 2014. The Hillsboro team designed the Willamette processors (initially code-named P68), which were marketed as the Pentium
Pentium
4.[citation needed] Pentium
Pentium
flaw[edit] Main article: Pentium
Pentium
FDIV bug In June 1994, Intel
Intel
engineers discovered a flaw in the floating-point math subsection of the P5 Pentium
Pentium
microprocessor. Under certain data-dependent conditions, the low-order bits of the result of a floating-point division would be incorrect. The error could compound in subsequent calculations. Intel
Intel
corrected the error in a future chip revision, and under public pressure it issued a total recall and replaced the defective Pentium
Pentium
CPUs (which were limited to some 60, 66, 75, 90, and 100 MHz models[96]) on customer request. The bug was discovered independently in October 1994 by Thomas Nicely, Professor of Mathematics at Lynchburg College. He contacted Intel
Intel
but received no response. On October 30, he posted a message about his finding on the Internet.[97] Word of the bug spread quickly and reached the industry press. The bug was easy to replicate; a user could enter specific numbers into the calculator on the operating system. Consequently, many users did not accept Intel's statements that the error was minor and "not even an erratum." During Thanksgiving, in 1994, The New York Times
The New York Times
ran a piece by journalist John Markoff
John Markoff
spotlighting the error. Intel
Intel
changed its position and offered to replace every chip, quickly putting in place a large end-user support organization. This resulted in a $475 million charge against Intel's 1994 revenue.[98] Dr. Nicely later learned that Intel had discovered the FDIV bug in its own testing a few months before him (but had decided not to inform customers).[99] The " Pentium
Pentium
flaw" incident, Intel's response to it, and the surrounding media coverage propelled Intel
Intel
from being a technology supplier generally unknown to most computer users to a household name. Dovetailing with an uptick in the " Intel
Intel
Inside" campaign, the episode is considered to have been a positive event for Intel, changing some of its business practices to be more end-user focused and generating substantial public awareness, while avoiding a lasting negative impression.[100] " Intel
Intel
Inside" and other campaigns[edit]

The iconic former Intel
Intel
Inside logo, used from 1989 to 2005.

During this period, Intel
Intel
undertook two major supporting advertising campaigns. The first campaign, the 1991 " Intel
Intel
Inside" marketing and branding campaign, is widely known and has become synonymous with Intel
Intel
itself. The idea of "ingredient branding" was new at the time, with only Nutrasweet
Nutrasweet
and a few others making attempts to do so.[101] This campaign established Intel, which had been a component supplier little-known outside the PC industry, as a household name. The second campaign, Intel's Systems Group, which began in the early 1990s, showcased manufacturing of PC "motherboards", the main board component of a personal computer, and the one into which the processor (CPU) and memory (RAM) chips are plugged.[102] The Systems Group campaign was lesser known than the Intel
Intel
Inside campaign. Shortly after, Intel
Intel
began manufacturing fully configured "white box" systems for the dozens of PC clone companies that rapidly sprang up.[citation needed] At its peak in the mid-1990s, Intel
Intel
manufactured over 15% of all PCs, making it the third-largest supplier at the time.[citation needed] During the 1990s, Intel Architecture Labs (IAL) was responsible for many of the hardware innovations for the PC, including the PCI Bus, the PCI Express
PCI Express
(PCIe) bus, and Universal Serial Bus
Universal Serial Bus
(USB). IAL's software efforts met with a more mixed fate; its video and graphics software was important in the development of software digital video,[citation needed] but later its efforts were largely overshadowed by competition from Microsoft. The competition between Intel
Intel
and Microsoft
Microsoft
was revealed in testimony by then IAL Vice-President Steven McGeady at the Microsoft
Microsoft
antitrust trial (United States v. Microsoft
Microsoft
Corp.). 2018 security flaws[edit] Main articles: Meltdown (security vulnerability)
Meltdown (security vulnerability)
and Spectre (security vulnerability) In early January 2018, it was reported that all Intel
Intel
processors made since 1995[103][104] (besides Intel
Intel
Itanium
Itanium
and pre-2013 Intel
Intel
Atom) have been subject to two security flaws dubbed Meltdown and Spectre.[105][106] The impact on performance resulting from software patches is "workload-dependent". Several procedures to help protect home computers and related devices from the Spectre (and Meltdown) security vulnerabilities have been published.[107][108][109][110] Spectre patches have been reported to significantly slow down performance, especially on older computers; on the newer 8th generation Core platforms, benchmark performance drops of 2–14 percent have been measured.[111] Meltdown patches may also produce performance loss.[112][113][114] It is believed that "hundreds of millions" of systems could be affected by these flaws.[104][115] On March 15, 2018, Intel
Intel
reported that it will redesign its CPU processors (performance losses to be determined) to protect against the Spectre security vulnerability, and expects to release the newly redesigned processors later in 2018.[116][117] Remote Keyboard Android App[edit] Intel
Intel
has decided to discontinue with their recent Intel
Intel
Remote Keyboard Android app after encountering several security bugs. This app was launched in early 2015 to help users control Intel single-board computers and Intel
Intel
NUC. The company has asked Remote Keyboard Users to delete the app at their first convenience.[118] Solid-state drives (SSD)[edit] See also: List of Intel
Intel
SSDs

An Intel X25-M
Intel X25-M
SSD

In 2008, Intel
Intel
began shipping mainstream solid-state drives (SSDs) with up to 160 GB storage capacities.[119] As with their CPUs, Intel
Intel
develops SSD chips using ever-smaller nanometer processes. These SSDs make use of industry standards such as NAND flash,[120] mSATA,[121] PCIe, and NVMe. In 2017, Intel
Intel
introduced SSDs based on 3D XPoint technology under the Optane
Optane
brand name.[122] Supercomputers[edit] The Intel
Intel
Scientific Computers division was founded in 1984 by Justin Rattner, to design and produce parallel computers based on Intel microprocessors connected in hypercube internetwork topology.[123] In 1992, the name was changed to the Intel
Intel
Supercomputing Systems Division, and development of the iWarp architecture was also subsumed.[124] The division designed several supercomputer systems, including the Intel
Intel
iPSC/1, iPSC/2, iPSC/860, Paragon and ASCI Red. In November 2014, Intel
Intel
revealed that it is going to use light beams to speed up supercomputers.[125] Mobile Linux
Linux
software[edit] In 2007 Intel
Intel
formed the Moblin
Moblin
project to create an open source Linux operating system for x86-based mobile devices. Following the success of Google's Android platform which ran exclusively on ARM processors, Intel
Intel
announced on February 15, 2010 that it would partner with Nokia and merge Moblin
Moblin
with Nokia's ARM-based Maemo
Maemo
project to create MeeGo.[126] MeeGo
MeeGo
was supported by the Linux
Linux
Foundation.[127] In February 2011 Nokia
Nokia
left the project after partnering with Microsoft, leaving Intel
Intel
in sole charge of MeeGo. An Intel
Intel
spokeswoman said it was "disappointed" by Nokia's decision but that Intel
Intel
was committed to MeeGo.[128] In September 2011 Intel
Intel
stopped working on MeeGo
MeeGo
and partnered with Samsung
Samsung
to create Tizen, a new project hosted by the Linux
Linux
Foundation.[129] Intel
Intel
has since been co-developing the Tizen
Tizen
operating system which runs on several Samsung
Samsung
devices. Competition, antitrust and espionage[edit] See also: AMD v. Intel Two factors combined to end this dominance: the slowing of PC demand growth beginning in 2000 and the rise of the low-cost PC. By the end of the 1990s, microprocessor performance had outstripped software demand for that CPU
CPU
power. Aside from high-end server systems and software, whose demand dropped with the end of the "dot-com bubble", consumer systems ran effectively on increasingly low-cost systems after 2000. Intel's strategy of producing ever-more-powerful processors and obsoleting their predecessors stumbled,[citation needed] leaving an opportunity for rapid gains by competitors, notably AMD. This, in turn, lowered the profitability[citation needed] of the processor line and ended an era of unprecedented dominance of the PC hardware by Intel.[citation needed] Intel's dominance in the x86 microprocessor market led to numerous charges of antitrust violations over the years, including FTC investigations in both the late 1980s and in 1999, and civil actions such as the 1997 suit by Digital Equipment Corporation
Digital Equipment Corporation
(DEC) and a patent suit by Intergraph. Intel's market dominance (at one time[when?] it controlled over 85% of the market for 32-bit
32-bit
x86 microprocessors) combined with Intel's own hardball legal tactics (such as its infamous 338 patent suit versus PC manufacturers)[130] made it an attractive target for litigation, but few of the lawsuits ever amounted to anything.[clarification needed] A case of industrial espionage arose in 1995 that involved both Intel and AMD. Bill Gaede, an Argentine formerly employed both at AMD and at Intel's Arizona
Arizona
plant, was arrested for attempting in 1993 to sell the i486 and P5 Pentium
Pentium
designs to AMD and to certain foreign powers.[131] Gaede videotaped data from his computer screen at Intel
Intel
and mailed it to AMD, which immediately alerted Intel
Intel
and authorities, resulting in Gaede's arrest. Gaede was convicted and sentenced to 33 months in prison in June 1996.[132][133] Use of Intel
Intel
products by Apple Computer (2005–present)[edit] Further information: Apple's transition to Intel
Intel
processors On June 6, 2005, Steve Jobs, then CEO of Apple, announced that Apple would be transitioning from its long favored PowerPC
PowerPC
architecture to the Intel
Intel
x86 architecture because the future PowerPC
PowerPC
road map was unable to satisfy Apple's needs. The first Macintosh
Macintosh
computers containing Intel CPUs
Intel CPUs
were announced on January 10, 2006, and Apple had its entire line of consumer Macs running on Intel
Intel
processors by early August 2006. The Apple Xserve server was updated to Intel
Intel
Xeon processors from November 2006 and was offered in a configuration similar to Apple's Mac Pro.[134] Core 2 Duo advertisement controversy (2007)[edit] In July 2007, the company released a print advertisement for its Intel Core 2 Duo processor featuring six African American runners appearing to bow down to a Caucasian male inside of an office setting (due to the posture taken by runners on starting blocks). According to Nancy Bhagat, Vice President of Intel
Intel
Corporate Marketing, viewers found the ad to be "insensitive and insulting", and several Intel
Intel
executives made public apologies.[135][136] Introduction of Classmate PC
Classmate PC
(2011)[edit] The Classmate PC
Classmate PC
is the company's first low-cost netbook computer.[137] In 2014, the company released an updated version of the Classmate PC.[138] Introduction of new mobile processor technology (2011)[edit] In June 2011, Intel
Intel
introduced the first Pentium
Pentium
mobile processor based on the Sandy Bridge
Sandy Bridge
core. The B940, clocked at 2 GHz, is faster than existing or upcoming mobile Celerons, although it is almost identical to dual-core Celeron
Celeron
CPUs in all other aspects.[139] According to IHS iSuppli's report on September 28, 2011, Sandy Bridge chips have helped Intel
Intel
increase its market share in global processor market to 81.8%, while AMD's market share dropped to 10.4%.[140] Intel
Intel
planned to introduce Medfield – a processor for tablets and smartphones – to the market in 2012, as an effort to compete with ARM.[141] As a 32-nanometer processor, Medfield is designed to be energy-efficient, which is one of the core features in ARM's chips.[142] At the Intel
Intel
Developers Forum (IDF) 2011 in San Francisco, Intel's partnership with Google
Google
was announced. By January 2012, Google's Android 2.3 will use Intel's Atom microprocessor.[143][144][145] Update to server chips (2011)[edit] In July 2011, Intel
Intel
announced that its server chips, the Xeon
Xeon
series, will use new sensors that can improve data center cooling efficiency.[146] Introduction of Ivy Bridge 22 nm processors (2011)[edit] In 2011, Intel
Intel
announced the Ivy Bridge processor family at the Intel Developer Forum.[147] Ivy Bridge supports both DDR3 memory and DDR3L chips. Development of Personal Office Energy Monitor (POEM) (2011)[edit] As part of its efforts in the Positive Energy Buildings Consortium, Intel
Intel
has been developing an application, called Personal Office Energy Monitor (POEM), to help office buildings to be more energy-efficient. With this application, employees can get the power consumption info for their office machines, so that they can figure out a better way to save energy in their working environment.[148] IT Manager
IT Manager
series[edit] Main articles: IT Manager
IT Manager
3: Unseen Forces and IT Manager: Duels Intel
Intel
has introduced some simulation games, starting in 2009 with web-based IT Manager
IT Manager
3: Unseen Forces. In it, the player manages a company's IT department. The goal is to apply technology and skill to enable the company to grow from a small business into a global enterprise.[149][better source needed] The game has since been discontinued and succeeded in 2012 by the web-based multiplayer game IT Manager: Duels, which is no longer available.[citation needed] Car Security
Security
System (2011)[edit] In 2011, Intel
Intel
announced that it is working on a car security system that connects to smartphones via an application. The application works by streaming video to a cloud service if a car armed with the system is broken into.[150] High-Bandwidth Digital Content Protection[edit] Intel
Intel
also developed High-Bandwidth Digital Content Protection (HDCP) to prevent access of digital audio and video content as it travels across connections. Move from Wintel desktop to open mobile platforms (2013–2014)[edit] In 2013, Intel's Kirk Skaugen said that Intel's exclusive focus on Microsoft
Microsoft
platforms was a thing of the past and that they would now support all "tier-one operating systems" such as Linux, Android, iOS, and Chrome.[151] In 2014, Intel
Intel
cut thousands of employees in response to "evolving market trends",[152] and offered to subsidize manufacturers for the extra costs involved in using Intel
Intel
chips in their tablets.[153] Introduction of Haswell processors (2013)[edit] In June 2013, Intel
Intel
unveiled its fourth generation of Intel
Intel
Core processors (Haswell) in an event named Computex in Taipei.[154] Wearable fashion (2014)[edit] On January 6, 2014, Intel
Intel
announced that it was "teaming with the Council of Fashion Designers of America, Barneys New York
Barneys New York
and Opening Ceremony around the wearable tech field."[155] Intel
Intel
developed a reference design for wearable smart earbuds that provide biometric and fitness information. The Intel
Intel
smart earbuds provide full stereo audio, and monitor heart rate, while the applications on the user’s phone keep track of run distance and calories burned. CNBC
CNBC
reported that Intel
Intel
eliminated the division that worked on health wearables in 2017.[156] Fog computing[edit] On November 19, 2015, Intel, alongside ARM Holdings, Dell, Cisco Systems, Microsoft, and Princeton University, founded the OpenFog Consortium, to promote interests and development in fog computing.[157] Intel's Chief Strategist for the IoT Strategy and Technology
Technology
Office, Jeff Faders, became the consortium's first president.[158] Conflict-free production[edit] In 2009, Intel
Intel
announced that it planned to undertake an effort to remove conflict resources—materials sourced from mines whose profits are used to fund armed militant groups, particularly within the Democratic Republic of the Congo—from its supply chain. Intel
Intel
sought conflict-free sources of the precious metals common to electronics from within the country, using a system of first- and third-party audits, as well as input from the Enough Project
Enough Project
and other organizations. During a keynote address at Consumer Electronics
Electronics
Show 2014, Intel
Intel
CEO Brian Krzanich
Brian Krzanich
announced that the company's microprocessors would henceforth be conflict free. In 2016, Intel stated that it had expected its entire supply chain to be conflict-free by the end of the year.[159][160][161] Self driving cars[edit] Intel
Intel
is one of the biggest stakeholders in the self-driving car industry, having joined the race in mid 2017[162] after joining forces with Mobileye.[163] The company is also one of the first in the sector to research consumer acceptance, after an AAA report quoted a 78% nonacceptance rate of the technology in the US.[164] Safety levels of the technology, the thought of abandoning control to a machine, and psychological comfort of passengers in such situations were the major discussion topics initially. The commuters also stated that they did not want to see everything the car was doing. This was primarily a referral to the auto-steering wheel with no one sitting in the driving seat. Intel
Intel
also learned that voice control regulator is vital, and the interface between the humans and machine eases the discomfort condition, and brings some sense of control back.[165] It is important to mention that Intel
Intel
included only 10 people in this study, which makes the study less credible.[164] In a video posted on YouTube,[166] Intel
Intel
accepted this fact and called for further testing. Corporate affairs[edit] Leadership and corporate structure[edit]

Paul Otellini, Craig Barrett and Sean Maloney (2006)

Robert Noyce
Robert Noyce
was Intel's CEO at its founding in 1968, followed by co-founder Gordon Moore
Gordon Moore
in 1975. Andy Grove
Andy Grove
became the company's president in 1979 and added the CEO title in 1987 when Moore became chairman. In 1998, Grove succeeded Moore as Chairman, and Craig Barrett, already company president, took over. On May 18, 2005, Barrett handed the reins of the company over to Paul Otellini, who had been the company president and COO and who was responsible for Intel's design win in the original IBM
IBM
PC. The board of directors elected Otellini as President and CEO, and Barrett replaced Grove as Chairman of the Board. Grove stepped down as chairman but is retained as a special adviser. In May 2009, Barrett stepped down as chairman of the Board and was succeeded by Jane Shaw. In May 2012, Intel
Intel
vice chairman Andy Bryant, who had held the posts of CFO (1994) and Chief Administrative Officer (2007) at Intel, succeeded Shaw as executive chairman.[167] In November 2012, president and CEO Paul Otellini
Paul Otellini
announced that he would step down in May 2013 at the age of 62, three years before the company's mandatory retirement age. During a six-month transition period, Intel's board of directors commenced a search process for the next CEO, in which it considered both internal managers and external candidates such as Sanjay Jha and Patrick Gelsinger.[168] Financial results revealed that, under Otellini, Intel's revenue increased by 55.8 percent (US$34.2 to 53.3 billion), while its net income increased by 46.7% (US$7.5 billion to 11 billion).[169] On May 2, 2013, Executive Vice President and COO Brian Krzanich
Brian Krzanich
was elected as Intel's sixth CEO,[170] a selection that became effective on May 16, 2013, at the company's annual meeting. Reportedly, the board concluded that an insider could proceed with the role and exert an impact more quickly, without the need to learn Intel's processes, and Krzanich was selected on such a basis.[171] Intel's software head Renée James
Renée James
was selected as president of the company, a role that is second to the CEO position.[172] As of May 2013, Intel's board of directors consists of Andy Bryant, John Donahoe, Frank Yeary, Ambassador Charlene Barshefsky, Susan Decker, Reed Hundt, Paul Otellini, James Plummer, David Pottruck, and David Yoffie and Creative director will.i.am. The board was described by former Financial Times journalist Tom Foremski as "an exemplary example of corporate governance of the highest order" and received a rating of ten from GovernanceMetrics International, a form of recognition that has only been awarded to twenty-one other corporate boards worldwide.[173] Ownership[edit] As of 2017 Intel
Intel
shares are mainly held by institutional investors (Vanguard group, BlackRock, Capital Group Companies, State Street Corporation and others[174]) Employment[edit]

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Intel
Intel
microprocessor facility in Costa Rica
Costa Rica
was responsible in 2006 for 20% of Costa Rican exports and 4.9% of the country's GDP.[175]

The firm promotes very heavily from within, most notably in its executive suite. The company has resisted the trend toward outsider CEOs. Paul Otellini
Paul Otellini
was a 30-year veteran of the company when he assumed the role of CEO. All of his top lieutenants have risen through the ranks after many years with the firm. In many cases, Intel's top executives have spent their entire working careers with Intel.[citation needed] Intel
Intel
has a mandatory retirement policy for its CEOs when they reach age 65. Andy Grove
Andy Grove
retired at 62, while both Robert Noyce
Robert Noyce
and Gordon Moore retired at 58. Grove retired as Chairman
Chairman
and as a member of the board of directors in 2005 at age 68. Intel's headquarters are located in Santa Clara, California, and the company has operations around the world. Its largest workforce concentration anywhere is in Washington County, Oregon[176] (in the Portland metropolitan area's "Silicon Forest"), with 18,600 employees at several facilities.[177] Outside the United States, the company has facilities in China, Costa Rica, Malaysia, Israel, Ireland, India, Russia, Argentina
Argentina
and Vietnam, in 63 countries and regions internationally. In the U.S. Intel
Intel
employs significant numbers of people in California, Colorado, Massachusetts, Arizona, New Mexico, Oregon, Texas, Washington and Utah. In Oregon, Intel
Intel
is the state's largest private employer.[177][178] The company is the largest industrial employer in New Mexico
New Mexico
while in Arizona
Arizona
the company has over 10,000 employees.[citation needed] Intel
Intel
invests heavily in research in China and about 100 researchers – or 10% of the total number of researchers from Intel – are located in Beijing.[179] In 2011, the Israeli government offered Intel
Intel
$290 million to expand in the country. As a condition, Intel
Intel
would employ 1,500 more workers in Kiryat Gat
Kiryat Gat
and between 600–1000 workers in the north.[180] In January 2014, it was reported that Intel
Intel
would cut about 5,000 jobs from its work force of 107,000. The announcement was made a day after it reported earnings that missed analyst targets.[181] In March 2014, it was reported that Intel
Intel
would embark upon a $6 billion plan to expand its activities in Israel. The plan calls for continued investment in existing and new Intel
Intel
plants until 2030. As of 2014 Intel
Intel
employs 10,000 workers at four development centers and two production plants in Israel.[182] Diversity[edit] Intel
Intel
has a Diversity Initiative, including employee diversity groups as well as supplier diversity programs.[183] Like many companies with employee diversity groups, they include groups based on race and nationality as well as sexual identity and religion. In 1994, Intel sanctioned one of the earliest corporate Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender employee groups,[184] and supports a Muslim employees group,[185] a Jewish employees group,[186] and a Bible-based Christian group.[187][188] Intel
Intel
received a 100% rating on the first Corporate Equality Index released by the Human Rights Campaign
Human Rights Campaign
in 2002. It has maintained this rating in 2003 and 2004. In addition, the company was named one of the 100 Best Companies for Working Mothers in 2005 by Working Mother magazine.[citation needed] In January 2015, Intel
Intel
announced the investment of $300 million over the next five years to enhance gender and racial diversity in their own company as well as the technology industry as a whole.[189][190][191][192][193] In February 2016, Intel
Intel
released its Global Diversity & Inclusion 2015 Annual Report.[194] The male-female mix of US employees was reported as 75.2% men and 24.8% women. For US employees in technical roles, the mix was reported as 79.8% male and 20.1% female.[194] NPR reports that Intel
Intel
is facing a retention problem (particularly for African Americans), not just a pipeline problem.[195] Economic impact in Oregon
Oregon
in 2009[edit] In 2011, ECONorthwest conducted an economic impact analysis of Intel's economic contribution to the state of Oregon. The report found that in 2009 "the total economic impacts attributed to Intel's operations, capital spending, contributions and taxes amounted to almost $14.6 billion in activity, including $4.3 billion in personal income and 59,990 jobs."[196] Through multiplier effects, every 10 Intel
Intel
jobs supported, on average, was found to create 31 jobs in other sectors of the economy.[197] School funding in New Mexico
New Mexico
in 1997[edit] In Rio Rancho, New Mexico, Intel
Intel
is the leading employer.[198] In 1997, a community partnership between Sandoval County
Sandoval County
and Intel Corporation funded and built Rio Rancho High School.[199][200] Ultrabook
Ultrabook
fund (2011)[edit] In 2011, Intel Capital announced a new fund to support startups working on technologies in line with the company's concept for next generation notebooks.[201] The company is setting aside a $300 million fund to be spent over the next three to four years in areas related to ultrabooks.[201] Intel
Intel
announced the ultrabook concept at Computex in 2011. The ultrabook is defined as a thin (less than 0.8 inches [~2 cm] thick[202]) notebook that utilizes Intel
Intel
processors[202] and also incorporates tablet features such as a touch screen and long battery life.[201][202] At the Intel
Intel
Developers Forum in 2011, four Taiwan ODMs showed prototype ultrabooks that used Intel's Ivy Bridge chips.[203] Intel plans to improve power consumption of its chips for ultrabooks, like new Ivy Bridge processors in 2013, which will only have 10W default thermal design power.[204] Intel's goal for Ultrabook's price is below $1000;[202] however, according to two presidents from Acer and Compaq, this goal will not be achieved if Intel
Intel
does not lower the price of its chips.[205] Marketing[edit] Intel
Intel
Inside[edit] Intel
Intel
has become one of the world's most recognizable computer brands following its long-running Intel
Intel
Inside campaign. The idea for "Intel Inside" came out of a meeting between Intel
Intel
and one of the major computer resellers, MicroAge.[206] In the late 1980s, Intel's market share was being seriously eroded by upstart competitors such as Advanced Micro Devices
Advanced Micro Devices
(now AMD), Zilog, and others who had started to sell their less expensive microprocessors to computer manufacturers. This was because, by using cheaper processors, manufacturers could make cheaper computers and gain more market share in an increasingly price-sensitive market. In 1989, Intel's Dennis Carter visited MicroAge's headquarters in Tempe, Arizona, to meet with MicroAge's VP of Marketing, Ron Mion. MicroAge had become one of the largest distributors of Compaq, IBM, HP, and others and thus was a primary – although indirect – driver of demand for microprocessors. Intel
Intel
wanted MicroAge to petition its computer suppliers to favor Intel
Intel
chips. However, Mion felt that the marketplace should decide which processors they wanted. Intel's counterargument was that it would be too difficult to educate PC buyers on why Intel
Intel
microprocessors were worth paying more for ... and they were right.[206] But Mion felt that the public didn't really need to fully understand why Intel
Intel
chips were better, they just needed to feel they were better. So Mion proposed a market test. Intel
Intel
would pay for a MicroAge billboard somewhere saying, "If you're buying a personal computer, make sure it has Intel
Intel
inside." In turn, MicroAge would put " Intel
Intel
Inside" stickers on the Intel-based computers in their stores in that area. To make the test easier to monitor, Mion decided to do the test in Boulder, Colorado, where it had a single store. Virtually overnight, the sales of personal computers in that store dramatically shifted to Intel-based PCs. Intel
Intel
very quickly adopted " Intel
Intel
Inside" as its primary branding and rolled it out worldwide.[206] As is often the case with computer lore, other tidbits have been combined to explain how things evolved. " Intel
Intel
Inside" has not escaped that tendency and there are other "explanations" that had been floating around. Intel's branding campaign started with "The Computer Inside" tagline in 1990 in the US and Europe. The Japan chapter of Intel
Intel
proposed an " Intel
Intel
in it" tagline and kicked off the Japanese campaign by hosting EKI-KON (meaning "Station Concert" in Japanese) at the Tokyo railway station dome on Christmas Day, December 25, 1990. Several months later, "The Computer Inside" incorporated the Japan idea to become " Intel
Intel
Inside" which eventually elevated to the worldwide branding campaign in 1991, by Intel
Intel
marketing manager Dennis Carter.[207] The case study of the Inside Intel
Intel
Inside was put together by Harvard Business School.[208] The five-note jingle was introduced in 1994 and by its tenth anniversary was being heard in 130 countries around the world. The initial branding agency for the " Intel
Intel
Inside" campaign was DahlinSmithWhite Advertising of Salt Lake City. The Intel
Intel
swirl logo was the work of DahlinSmithWhite art director Steve Grigg under the direction of Intel
Intel
president and CEO Andy Grove.[citation needed] The Intel
Intel
Inside advertising campaign sought public brand loyalty and awareness of Intel
Intel
processors in consumer computers.[209] Intel
Intel
paid some of the advertiser's costs for an ad that used the Intel
Intel
Inside logo and xylo-marimba jingle.[210]

2009–2011 Pentium
Pentium
Inside badge design

In 2008, Intel
Intel
planned to shift the emphasis of its Intel
Intel
Inside campaign from traditional media such as television and print to newer media such as the Internet.[211] Intel
Intel
required that a minimum of 35% of the money it provided to the companies in its co-op program be used for online marketing.[211] The Intel
Intel
2010 annual financial report indicated that $1.8 billion (6% of the gross margin and nearly 16% of the total net income) was allocated to all advertising with Intel Inside being part of that.[212] Sonic logo[edit] The famous D♭  D♭  G♭  D♭  A♭ xylophone/xylomarimba jingle, sonic logo, tag, audio mnemonic was produced by Musikvergnuegen and written by Walter Werzowa, once a member of the Austrian 1980s sampling band Edelweiss.[213] The sonic Intel
Intel
logo was remade in 1999 to coincide with the launch of the Pentium
Pentium
III, and a second time in 2004 to coincide with the new logo change (although it overlapped with the 1999 version and was not mainstreamed until the launch of the Core processors in 2006) , with the melody unchanged. Advertisements for products featuring Intel processors with prominent MMX branding featured a version of the jingle with an embellishment after the final note. Processor naming strategy[edit] In 2006, Intel
Intel
expanded its promotion of open specification platforms beyond Centrino, to include the Viiv
Viiv
media center PC and the business desktop Intel
Intel
vPro. In mid-January 2006, Intel
Intel
announced that they were dropping the long running Pentium
Pentium
name from their processors. The Pentium
Pentium
name was first used to refer to the P5 core Intel
Intel
processors and was done to comply with court rulings that prevent the trademarking of a string of numbers, so competitors could not just call their processor the same name, as had been done with the prior 386 and 486 processors (both of which had copies manufactured by IBM
IBM
and AMD). They phased out the Pentium
Pentium
names from mobile processors first, when the new Yonah chips, branded Core Solo
Core Solo
and Core Duo, were released. The desktop processors changed when the Core 2 line of processors were released. By 2009, Intel
Intel
was using a good-better-best strategy with Celeron
Celeron
being good, Pentium
Pentium
better, and the Intel Core
Intel Core
family representing the best the company has to offer.[214] According to spokesman Bill Calder, Intel
Intel
has maintained only the Celeron
Celeron
brand, the Atom brand for netbooks and the vPro lineup for businesses. Since late 2009, Intel's mainstream processors have been called Celeron, Pentium, Core i3, Core i5, and Core i7, in order of performance from lowest to highest. The first generation core products carry a 3 digit name, such as i5 750, and the second generation products carry a 4 digit name, such as the i5 2500. In both cases, a K at the end of it shows that it is an unlocked processor, enabling additional overclocking abilities (for instance, 2500K). vPro products will carry the Intel Core
Intel Core
i7 vPro processor or the Intel Core
Intel Core
i5 vPro processor name.[215] In October 2011, Intel
Intel
started to sell its Core i7-2700K "Sandy Bridge" chip to customers worldwide.[216] Since 2010, "Centrino" is only being applied to Intel's WiMAX and Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi
technologies.[215] Typography[edit] Neo Sans Intel
Intel
is a customized version of Neo Sans based on the Neo Sans and Neo Tech, designed by Sebastian Lester in 2004.[217] Intel
Intel
Clear is a global font announced in 2014 designed for to be used across all communications.[218][219] The font family was designed by Red Peek Branding and Daltan Maag Ltd.[220][220] Initially available in Latin, Greek and Cyrillic scripts, it replaced Neo Sans Intel
Intel
as the company's corporate typeface.[221][222] Intel
Intel
Clear Hebrew, Intel Clear Arabic were added by Daltan Maag Ltd.[223] Intel
Intel
Brand Book[edit] It is a book produced by Red Peek Branding as part of new brand identity campaign, celebrating Intel's achievements while setting the new standard for what Intel
Intel
looks, feels and sounds like.[224] Open source
Open source
support[edit] Intel
Intel
has a significant participation in the open source communities since 1999.[225] For example, in 2006 Intel
Intel
released MIT-licensed X.org drivers for their integrated graphic cards of the i965 family of chipsets. Intel
Intel
released FreeBSD
FreeBSD
drivers for some networking cards,[226] available under a BSD-compatible license,[227] which were also ported to OpenBSD.[227] Binary firmware files for non-wireless Ethernet
Ethernet
devices were also released under a BSD licence allowing free redistribution.[228] Intel
Intel
ran the Moblin
Moblin
project until April 23, 2009, when they handed the project over to the Linux
Linux
Foundation. Intel also runs the LessWatts.org campaigns.[229] However, after the release of the wireless products called Intel Pro/ Wireless
Wireless
2100, 2200BG/2225BG/2915ABG and 3945ABG in 2005, Intel was criticized for not granting free redistribution rights for the firmware that must be included in the operating system for the wireless devices to operate.[230] As a result of this, Intel
Intel
became a target of campaigns to allow free operating systems to include binary firmware on terms acceptable to the open source community. Linspire- Linux
Linux
creator Michael Robertson outlined the difficult position that Intel
Intel
was in releasing to open source, as Intel
Intel
did not want to upset their large customer Microsoft.[231] Theo de Raadt
Theo de Raadt
of OpenBSD
OpenBSD
also claimed that Intel
Intel
is being "an Open Source fraud" after an Intel
Intel
employee presented a distorted view of the situation at an open-source conference.[232] In spite of the significant negative attention Intel
Intel
received as a result of the wireless dealings, the binary firmware still has not gained a license compatible with free software principles.[233] Declining PC sales[edit] Due to declining PC sales, in 2016 Intel
Intel
cut 12,000 jobs.[234] Litigation and regulatory issues[edit] Patent infringement litigation (2006–2007)[edit] In October 2006, a Transmeta lawsuit was filed against Intel
Intel
for patent infringement on computer architecture and power efficiency technologies.[235] The lawsuit was settled in October 2007, with Intel agreeing to pay US$150 million initially and US$20 million per year for the next five years. Both companies agreed to drop lawsuits against each other, while Intel
Intel
was granted a perpetual non-exclusive license to use current and future patented Transmeta technologies in its chips for 10 years.[236] Anti-trust allegations and litigation (2005–2009)[edit] Main article: High-Tech Employee Antitrust
Antitrust
Litigation See also: AMD v. Intel In September 2005, Intel
Intel
filed a response to an AMD lawsuit,[237] disputing AMD's claims, and claiming that Intel's business practices are fair and lawful. In a rebuttal, Intel
Intel
deconstructed AMD's offensive strategy and argued that AMD struggled largely as a result of its own bad business decisions, including underinvestment in essential manufacturing capacity and excessive reliance on contracting out chip foundries.[238] Legal analysts predicted the lawsuit would drag on for a number of years since Intel's initial response indicated its unwillingness to settle with AMD.[239][240] In 2008 a court date was finally set,[241] but in 2009, Intel
Intel
settled with a $1.25 billion payout to AMD (see below).[242] On November 4, 2009, New York's attorney general filed an antitrust lawsuit against Intel
Intel
Corp, claiming the company used "illegal threats and collusion" to dominate the market for computer microprocessors. On November 12, 2009, AMD agreed to drop the antitrust lawsuit against Intel
Intel
in exchange for $1.25 billion.[242] A joint press release published by the two chip makers stated "While the relationship between the two companies has been difficult in the past, this agreement ends the legal disputes and enables the companies to focus all of our efforts on product innovation and development."[243][244] An antitrust lawsuit[245] and a class-action suit relating to cold calling employees of other companies has been settled.[246] Allegations by Japan Fair Trade Commission (2005)[edit] In 2005, the local Fair Trade Commission found that Intel
Intel
violated the Japanese Antimonopoly Act. The commission ordered Intel
Intel
to eliminate discounts that had discriminated against AMD. To avoid a trial, Intel agreed to comply with the order.[247][248][249][250] Allegations by the European Union
European Union
(2007–2008)[edit] In July 2007, the European Commission
European Commission
accused Intel
Intel
of anti-competitive practices, mostly against AMD.[251] The allegations, going back to 2003, include giving preferential prices to computer makers buying most or all of their chips from Intel, paying computer makers to delay or cancel the launch of products using AMD chips, and providing chips at below standard cost to governments and educational institutions.[252] Intel
Intel
responded that the allegations were unfounded and instead qualified its market behavior as consumer-friendly.[252] General counsel Bruce Sewell responded that the Commission had misunderstood some factual assumptions as to pricing and manufacturing costs.[253] In February 2008, Intel
Intel
stated that its office in Munich had been raided by European Union
European Union
regulators. Intel
Intel
reported that it was cooperating with investigators.[254] Intel
Intel
faced a fine of up to 10% of its annual revenue, if found guilty of stifling competition.[255] AMD subsequently launched a website promoting these allegations.[256][257] In June 2008, the EU filed new charges against Intel.[258] In May 2009, the EU found that Intel
Intel
had engaged in anti-competitive practices and subsequently fined Intel €1.06 billion (US$1.44 billion), a record amount. Intel was found to have paid companies, including Acer, Dell, HP, Lenovo
Lenovo
and NEC,[259] to exclusively use Intel
Intel
chips in their products, and therefore harmed other companies including AMD.[259][260][261] The European Commission
European Commission
said that Intel
Intel
had deliberately acted to keep competitors out of the computer chip market and in doing so had made a "serious and sustained violation of the EU's antitrust rules".[259] In addition to the fine, Intel
Intel
was ordered by the Commission to immediately cease all illegal practices.[259] Intel
Intel
has stated that they will appeal against the Commission's verdict. In June 2014, the General Court, which sits below the European Court of Justice, rejected the appeal.[259] Allegations by regulators in South Korea (2007)[edit] In September 2007, South Korean regulators accused Intel
Intel
of breaking antitrust law. The investigation began in February 2006, when officials raided Intel's South Korean offices. The company risked a penalty of up to 3% of its annual sales, if found guilty.[262] In June 2008, the Fair Trade Commission ordered Intel
Intel
to pay a fine of US$25.5 million for taking advantage of its dominant position to offer incentives to major Korean PC manufacturers on the condition of not buying products from AMD.[263] Allegations by regulators in the United States
United States
(2008–2010)[edit] New York started an investigation of Intel
Intel
in January 2008 on whether the company violated antitrust laws in pricing and sales of its microprocessors.[264] In June 2008, the Federal Trade Commission
Federal Trade Commission
also began an antitrust investigation of the case.[265] In December 2009, the FTC announced it would initiate an administrative proceeding against Intel
Intel
in September 2010.[266][267][268][269] In November 2009, following a two-year investigation, New York Attorney General Andrew Cuomo
Andrew Cuomo
sued Intel, accusing them of bribery and coercion, claiming that Intel
Intel
bribed computer makers to buy more of their chips than those of their rivals, and threatened to withdraw these payments if the computer makers were perceived as working too closely with its competitors. Intel
Intel
has denied these claims.[270] On July 22, 2010, Dell
Dell
agreed to a settlement with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) to pay $100M in penalties resulting from charges that Dell
Dell
did not accurately disclose accounting information to investors. In particular, the SEC charged that from 2002 to 2006, Dell
Dell
had an agreement with Intel
Intel
to receive rebates in exchange for not using chips manufactured by AMD. These substantial rebates were not disclosed to investors, but were used to help meet investor expectations regarding the company's financial performance; "These exclusivity payments grew from 10 percent of Dell's operating income in FY 2003 to 38 percent in FY 2006, and peaked at 76 percent in the first quarter of FY 2007.".[271] Dell
Dell
eventually did adopt AMD as a secondary supplier in 2006, and Intel
Intel
subsequently stopped their rebates, causing Dell's financial performance to fall.[272][273][274] Corporate responsibility record[edit] Intel
Intel
has been accused by some residents of Rio Rancho, New Mexico
New Mexico
of allowing VOCs to be released in excess of their pollution permit. One resident claimed that a release of 1.4 tons of carbon tetrachloride was measured from one acid scrubber during the fourth quarter of 2003 but an emission factor allowed Intel
Intel
to report no carbon tetrachloride emissions for all of 2003.[275] Another resident alleges that Intel
Intel
was responsible for the release of other VOCs from their Rio Rancho site and that a necropsy of lung tissue from two deceased dogs in the area indicated trace amounts of toluene, hexane, ethylbenzene, and xylene isomers,[276] all of which are solvents used in industrial settings but also commonly found in gasoline, retail paint thinners and retail solvents. During a sub-committee meeting of the New Mexico
New Mexico
Environment Improvement Board, a resident claimed that Intel's own reports documented more than 1,580 pounds (720 kg) of VOCs were released in June and July 2006.[277] Intel's environmental performance is published annually in their corporate responsibility report.[278] In its 2012 rankings on the progress of consumer electronics companies relating to conflict minerals, the Enough Project
Enough Project
rated Intel
Intel
the best of 24 companies, calling it a "Pioneer of progress".[279] In 2014, chief executive Brian Krzanich
Brian Krzanich
urged the rest of the industry to follow Intel's lead by also shunning conflict minerals.[280] Age discrimination complaints[edit] Intel
Intel
has faced complaints of age discrimination in firing and layoffs. Intel
Intel
was sued in 1993 by nine former employees, over allegations that they were laid off because they were over the age of 40.[281] A group called FACE Intel
Intel
(Former and Current Employees of Intel) claims that Intel
Intel
weeds out older employees. FACE Intel
Intel
claims that more than 90 percent of people who have been laid off or fired from Intel
Intel
are over the age of 40. Upside magazine requested data from Intel
Intel
breaking out its hiring and firing by age, but the company declined to provide any.[282] Intel
Intel
has denied that age plays any role in Intel's employment practices.[283] FACE Intel
Intel
was founded by Ken Hamidi, who was fired from Intel
Intel
in 1995 at the age of 47.[282] Hamidi was blocked in a 1999 court decision from using Intel's email system to distribute criticism of the company to employees,[284] which overturned in 2003 in Intel
Intel
Corp. v. Hamidi. Tax dispute in India[edit] In August 2016, Indian officials of the Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike (BBMP) parked garbage trucks on Intel's campus and threatened to dump them for evading payment of property taxes between 2007 and 2008, to the tune of 340 million Indian rupees (4.9 million USD). Intel
Intel
had reportedly been paying taxes as a non-air-conditioned office, when the campus in fact had central air conditioning. Other factors, such as land acquisition and construction improvements, added to the tax burden. Previously, Intel
Intel
had appealed the demand in the Karnataka
Karnataka
high court in July, during which the court ordered Intel
Intel
to pay BBMP half the owed amount (170 million rupees, or 2.4 million USD) plus arrears by August 28 of that year.[285][286] See also[edit]

San Francisco Bay Area portal Companies portal

5 nm
5 nm
The Quantum tunneling leakage Wall ASCI Red Advanced Micro Devices Bumpless Build-up Layer Comparison of ATI Graphics Processing Units Comparison of Intel
Intel
processors Comparison of Nvidia
Nvidia
graphics processing units Cyrix Engineering sample (CPU) Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) Intel Developer Zone
Intel Developer Zone
( Intel
Intel
DZ) Intel
Intel
Driver Update Utility Intel GMA
Intel GMA
(Graphics Media Accelerator) Intel
Intel
HD and Iris Graphics Intel
Intel
Loihi Intel
Intel
Museum Intel
Intel
Science Talent Search List of Intel
Intel
chipsets List of Intel
Intel
CPU
CPU
microarchitectures List of Intel
Intel
manufacturing sites List of Intel
Intel
microprocessors List of Intel
Intel
graphics processing units List of Semiconductor
Semiconductor
Fabrication Plants Wintel

Intel
Intel
related biographical articles on:

Andy Grove Bill Gaede Bob Colwell Craig Barrett (chief executive) Gordon Moore Justin Rattner Pat Gelsinger Paul Otellini Robert Noyce Sean Maloney

References[edit]

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System Development Kit Intel
Intel
Upgrade Service Intel740 InTru3D IXP1200 OFono Omni-Path Performance acceleration technology Shooting Star Smart Cache SSDs (X25-M) Stable Image Platform Virtual 8086 mode WiDi X86 Intel
Intel
Clear Video Intel
Intel
Quick Sync Video

Litigation

Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. v. Intel
Intel
Corp. High-Tech Employee Antitrust
Antitrust
Litigation Intel
Intel
Corp. v. Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. Intel
Intel
Corp. v. Hamidi Intel
Intel
Corporation Inc. v CPM United Kingdom Ltd Silvaco Data Systems v. Intel
Intel
Corp.

People

Gordon Moore Robert Noyce

Related

Intel
Intel
Foundation Achievement Award Apple's transition to Intel
Intel
processors Intel
Intel
Architecture Labs ASCI Red BiiN Classmate PC Convera Corporation Copy Exactly! Cornell Cup USA Intel
Intel
Developer Forum Dynamic video memory technology Intel
Intel
Extreme Masters List of Intel
Intel
microprocessors List of Intel graphics processing units (2013 or earlier) I/O Acceleration Technology IA-32 Execution Layer IM Flash Technologies The Innovators Inside Inside Films Intel
Intel
ADX Intel
Intel
Capital Intel
Intel
Cluster Ready Intel
Intel
Compute Stick Intel
Intel
Ireland Intel
Intel
Mobile Communications Intel
Intel
Outstanding Researcher Award Intel
Intel
SHA extensions Intel
Intel
Teach List of semiconductor fabrication plants List of Intel
Intel
manufacturing sites Intel
Intel
Museum OnCue Intel
Intel
PRO/Wireless Intel
Intel
International Science and Engineering Fair Regeneron
Regeneron
Science Talent Search Simple Firmware
Firmware
Interface Single-chip Cloud Computer Software
Software
Guard Extensions Supervisor Mode Access Prevention Tarari Intel
Intel
Technology
Technology
Journal Intel
Intel
Tera-Scale Timeline of Intel Xircom

v t e

Intel
Intel
technology

Platforms

Centrino Centrino
Centrino
2 Viiv MID Tablet CULV Ultrabook Skulltrail NUC Galileo Edison Curie

Discontinued

Common Building Block MultiProcessor Specification Intel
Intel
Communication Streaming Architecture Intel
Intel
Inboard 386 Intel
Intel
Play MMC-1 MMC-2

Current

Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controller

APIC x2APIC

Intel
Intel
Turbo Boost vPro Intel
Intel
Secure Key Active Management Technology

AMT versions

High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection High Definition Audio Hub Architecture Matrix RAID I/O Controller Hub Enhanced SpeedStep Serial Digital Video Out Host Embedded Controller Interface Omni-Path Platform Environment Control Interface QuickPath Interconnect Platform Controller Hub System Management Bus Thunderbolt UltraPath Interconnect

Upcoming

Silicon Photonics Link

v t e

Intel
Intel
software

Items in italics are no longer maintained or have planned end-of-life dates.

Development

Parallel Studio C++ Compiler Fortran Compiler Debugger Advisor Inspector VTune Array Visualizer Cilk Plus

Components

Concurrent Collections for C++ (CnC) Data Analytics Acceleration Library (DAAL) Indeo Integrated Performance Primitives (IPP) Math Kernel Library (MKL) Parallel Building Blocks (PBB)

Intel Array Building Blocks (ArBB) Ct

Threading Building Blocks (TBB)

Open source

Cilk Plus Concurrent Collections for C++ (CnC) Data Analytics Acceleration Library (DAAL) MeeGo Moblin Threading Building Blocks (TBB) Tizen

Software
Software
programs

Telekinesys Research1

Havok1 Vision1

Intel
Intel
Security

SiteAdvisor Stonesoft VirusScan Validate

Wind River Systems

Simics VxWorks

Organizations

Developer Zone AppUp Research

1Sold  

v t e

Intel
Intel
processors

Discontinued

BCD oriented (4-bit)

4004 (1971) 4040 (1974)

pre-x86 (8-bit)

8008 (1972) 8080 (1974) 8085 (1977)

Early x86 (16-bit)

8086 (1978) 8088 (1979) 80186 (1982) 80188 (1982) 80286 (1982)

x87 (external FPUs)

8/ 16-bit databus 8087 (1980) 16-bit databus 80187 80287 80387SX 32-bit
32-bit
databus 80387DX 80487

IA-32 (32-bit)

80386

SX 376 EX

80486

SX DX2 DX4 SL RapidCAD OverDrive

A100/A110 Celeron
Celeron
(1998)

M D (2004)

Pentium

Original OverDrive Pro II II OverDrive III 4 M Dual-Core

Core

Solo Duo

Tolapai

x86-64 (64-bit)

Celeron

D Dual-Core

Pentium

4 D Extreme Edition Dual-Core

Core

2 i7 (some)

Other

CISC iAPX 432 RISC i860 i960 StrongARM XScale

Current

IA-32 (32-bit)

Atom

CE SoC

Quark

x86-64 (64-bit)

Atom

CE SoC

Celeron Pentium Core

i3 i5 i7 i9 M

Xeon

E3 E5 E7 Phi

EPIC

Itanium

Lists

Atom Celeron Core

2 i3 i5 i7 i9 M

Itanium Pentium

Pro II III 4 D M

Xeon

Related

Chipsets PCHs SCHs ICHs PIIXs GPUs Codenames GMA HD and Iris Graphics Stratix

Microarchitectures

P5

800 nm P5 600 nm P54C 350 nm P54CS P55C 250 nm Tillamook

P6 / Pentium
Pentium
M / Enhanced Pentium
Pentium
M

500 nm P6 350 nm P6 Klamath 250 nm Mendocino Dixon Tonga Covington Deschutes Katmai Drake Tanner 180 nm Coppermine Coppermine T Timna Cascades 130 nm Tualatin Banias 90 nm Dothan Stealey Tolapai Canmore 65 nm Yonah Sossaman

NetBurst

180 nm Willamette Foster 130 nm Northwood Gallatin Prestonia 90 nm Tejas and Jayhawk Prescott Smithfield Nocona Irwindale Cranford Potomac Paxville 65 nm Cedar Mill Presler Dempsey Tulsa

Core / Penryn

65 nm Merom-L Merom Conroe-L Allendale Conroe Kentsfield Woodcrest Clovertown Tigerton 45 nm Penryn Penryn-QC Wolfdale Yorkfield Wolfdale-DP Harpertown Dunnington

Bonnell / Saltwell

45 nm Silverthorne Diamondville Pineview Lincroft Tunnel Creek Stellarton Sodaville Groveland 32 nm Cedarview Penwell Cloverview Berryville Centerton

Nehalem / Westmere

45 nm Clarksfield Lynnfield Jasper Forest Bloomfield Gainestown (Nehalem-EP) Beckton (Nehalem-EX) 32 nm Arrandale Clarkdale Gulftown (Westmere-EP) Westmere-EX

Sandy Bridge
Sandy Bridge
/ Ivy Bridge

32 nm Sandy Bridge Sandy Bridge-E Gladden 22 nm Ivy Bridge Ivy Bridge-EP Ivy Bridge-EX

Haswell / Broadwell

22 nm Haswell 14 nm Broadwell

Silvermont / Airmont

22 nm Valleyview Tangier Anniedale 14 nm Cherryview

Skylake / Kaby Lake / Coffee Lake / Cascade Lake / Cannon Lake

14 nm Skylake Kaby Lake Coffee Lake Cascade Lake 10 nm Cannon Lake

Goldmont

14 nm Goldmont Goldmont Plus

Future (Ice Lake / Tiger Lake / Sapphire Rapids)

10 nm Ice Lake Tiger Lake 7 nm or 10 nm Sapphire Rapids

Links to related articles

v t e

Solid-state drives

Key terminology

Encryption ECC Flash file system Flash memory SLC/MLC Flash memory
Flash memory
controller Garbage collection IOPS MB/s Memory wear Open-channel SSD Over-provisioning Read disturb Secure erase Solid-state storage Trim command Wear leveling Write amplification

Flash manufacturers

IM Flash Technologies Micron Samsung SK hynix Partnership between SanDisk
SanDisk
and Toshiba

Controllers

Independent

Greenliant Systems Indilinx (bankrupt, assets sold to Toshiba) JMicron Marvell Phison PMC-Sierra SandForce
SandForce
(now part of Seagate) SMI

Captive

Fusion-io HGST

sTec

Intel Micron Samsung Seagate Toshiba

OCZ

SSD manufacturers

List of solid-state drive manufacturers Intel

Interfaces

Advanced Host Controller Interface (AHCI) Fibre Channel
Fibre Channel
(FC) NVM Express
NVM Express
(NVMe) PCI Express
PCI Express
(PCIe) SATA Express Serial ATA
Serial ATA
(SATA) Serial attached SCSI
Serial attached SCSI
(SAS) Universal Serial Bus
Universal Serial Bus
(USB)

Configurations

HDD form factors mSATA M.2 PCI Express
PCI Express
expansion card Thunderbolt

Mini DisplayPort USB
USB
Type-C

U.2

Related organizations

INCITS JEDEC
JEDEC
/ JC-42, JC-64.8 ONFI NVMHCI Work Group USB-IF SATA-IO SFF Committee SNIA SSSI T10/SCSI T11/FC T13/ATA

Category

v t e

Companies of the NASDAQ-100
NASDAQ-100
index

21st Century Fox Activision Blizzard Adobe Systems Alexion Pharmaceuticals Align Technology Alphabet Amazon.com American Airlines Group Amgen Analog Devices Apple Applied Materials ASML Holding Autodesk Automatic Data Processing Baidu Biogen BioMarin Pharmaceutical Booking Holdings Broadcom
Broadcom
Limited CA Technologies Cadence Design Systems Celgene Cerner Charter Communications Check Point Cintas Cisco Systems Citrix Systems Cognizant Comcast Costco CSX Ctrip.com International Dentsply Sirona Dish Network Dollar Tree eBay Electronic Arts Expedia Express Scripts Facebook Fastenal Fiserv Gilead Sciences Hasbro Henry Schein Hologic Idexx Laboratories Illumina Incyte Intel Intuit Intuitive Surgical J. B. Hunt
J. B. Hunt
Transport Services JD.com KLA-Tencor Kraft Heinz Lam Research Liberty Global Liberty Interactive Marriott International Maxim Integrated
Maxim Integrated
Products MercadoLibre Microchip Technology Micron Technology Microsoft Mondelez International Monster Beverage Mylan NetEase Netflix Nvidia O'Reilly Auto Parts Paccar Paychex PayPal Qualcomm Regeneron Ross Stores Seagate Technology Shire Sirius XM Holdings Skyworks Solutions Starbucks Symantec Synopsys T-Mobile
T-Mobile
US Take-Two Interactive Tesla, Inc. Texas Instruments Ulta Beauty Verisk Analytics Vertex Pharmaceuticals Vodafone Walgreens Boots Alliance Western Digital Workday Wynn Resorts Xilinx

v t e

Open Handset Alliance

Mobile operators

Bouygues Telecom China Mobile China Telecommunications Corporation China Unicom KDDI Nepal Telecom NTT DoCoMo SoftBank Group Sprint Corporation T-Mobile Telecom Italia Telefónica Telus Vodafone

Software
Software
companies

Access Ascender Corporation eBay Google Myriad Group Nuance Communications NXP Software Omron PacketVideo SVOX VisualOn

Semiconductor
Semiconductor
companies

AKM Semiconductor, Inc. Arm Holdings Audience Broadcom CSR plc
CSR plc
(joined as SiRF) Cypress Semiconductor Freescale Semiconductor Gemalto Intel Marvell Technology
Technology
Group MediaTek MIPS Technologies Nvidia Qualcomm Qualcomm
Qualcomm
Atheros Renesas Electronics ST-Ericsson
ST-Ericsson
(joined as Ericsson Mobile Platforms) Synaptics Texas Instruments

Handset makers

Acer Inc. Alcatel Mobile Phones Asus Chaudhary Group
Chaudhary Group
(with association of LG) CCI Dell Foxconn Garmin HTC Huawei Kyocera Lenovo
Lenovo
Mobile LG Electronics Motorola Mobility NEC
NEC
Corporation Samsung
Samsung
Electronics Sharp Corporation Sony
Sony
Mobile Toshiba ZTE

Commercialization companies

Accenture Borqs Sasken Communication Technologies Teleca The Astonishing Tribe Wind River Systems Wipro Technologies

See also

Android Dalvik virtual machine Google
Google
Nexus T-Mobile
T-Mobile
G1

v t e

Major semiconductor companies

Companies with an annual revenue of over US$3 billion

ASE Group Fujitsu Infineon
Infineon
Technologies Integrated Micro-Electronics, Inc. Intel NXP Semiconductors
Semiconductors
(Freescale) ON Semiconductor Panasonic Renesas Electronics Samsung
Samsung
Electronics Sony STMicroelectronics Texas Instruments

Fabless

Advanced Micro Devices Apple Inc. Broadcom Marvell Technology
Technology
Group MediaTek Nvidia Qualcomm VIA Technologies

Memory

Micron Technology Samsung
Samsung
Electronics SanDisk SK Hynix Toshiba

Foundries

GlobalFoundries TSMC United Microelectronics Corporation Samsung
Samsung
Foundry SMIC

Equipment

ASML Applied Materials KLA-Tencor Lam Research Tokyo Electron

See also Largest IT companies Semiconductor
Semiconductor
industry Category: Semiconductor
Semiconductor
companies

v t e

Programmable logic

Concepts

ASIC SOC FPGA

Logic block

CPLD EPLD PLA PAL GAL PSoC Reconfigurable computing

Xputer

Soft microprocessor Circuit underutilization

Languages

Verilog

A AMS

VHDL

AMS VITAL

SystemVerilog

DPI

SystemC AHDL Handel-C PSL UPF PALASM ABEL CUPL OpenVera C to HDL Flow to HDL MyHDL JHDL ELLA

Companies

Accellera Actel Achronix AMD Aldec Altera Atmel Cadence Cypress Duolog Forte Intel Lattice National Mentor Graphics Microsemi Signetics Synopsys

Magma Virage Logic

Texas Instruments Tabula Xilinx

Products

Hardware

iCE Stratix Virtex

Software

Altera
Altera
Quartus Xilinx
Xilinx
ISE Xilinx
Xilinx
Vivado ModelSim VTR Simulators

IP

Proprietary

ARC LEON LatticeMico8 MicroBlaze PicoBlaze Nios Nios II

Open-source

JOP LatticeMico32 OpenCores OpenRISC

1200

RISC-V Zet

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 154747966 LCCN: n78020122 ISNI: 0000 0004 1217 7655 SUDOC: 1458350

.