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The Cinema of India[8] consists of films produced in the nation of India.[9] Cinema is immensely popular in India, with as many as 1,600 films produced in various languages every year.[10][11] Indian cinema produces more films watched by more people than any other country; in 2011, over 3.5 billion tickets were sold across the globe, 900,000 more than Hollywood.[12] As of 2013 India
India
ranked first in terms of annual film output, followed by Nigeria,[10][13] Hollywood and China.[14] In 2012, India
India
produced 1,602 feature films.[10] The Indian film
Indian film
industry reached overall revenues of $1.86 billion (₹93 billion) in 2011. In 2015, India
India
had a total box office gross of US$2.1 billion,[7][15]third largest in the world. Indian cinema is a global enterprise.[16] Its films have a following throughout Southern Asia, and across Asia, Europe, the Greater Middle East, North America, Eastern Africa, China
China
and elsewhere, reaching in over 90 countries.[17] Biopics including Dangal became transnational blockbusters grossing over $300 million worldwide[18] Global enterprises such as 20th Century Fox, Sony Pictures, Walt Disney Pictures[19][20] and Warner Bros invested in the industry along with Indian enterprises such as AVM Productions, Prasad's Group, Sun Pictures, PVP Cinemas, Zee, UTV, Suresh Productions, Eros Films, Ayngaran International, Pyramid Saimira, Aascar Films and Adlabs. By 2003 as many as 30 film production companies had been listed in the National Stock Exchange of India.[21] The overall revenue of Indian cinema reached US$1.3 billion in 2000.[22] The industry is segmented by language. The Hindi language film industry is known as Bollywood, the largest sector, representing 43% of box office revenue. The South Indian film industry
South Indian film industry
encompasses five film cultures: Telugu, Tamil, Kannada, Malayalam
Malayalam
and Tulu. Combined Tamil and Telugu film industries revenues represent 36%.[23] Millions of Indians overseas watch Indian films, accounting for some 12% of revenues.[24] Music rights alone account for 4–5% of net revenues.[22]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Silent films (1910s–1920s) 1.2 Talkies
Talkies
(1930s–mid-1940s) 1.3 Golden Age (late 1940s–1960s) 1.4 Contemporary Indian cinema (1970s–present)

1.4.1 Salim-Javed 1.4.2 South Indian industries 1.4.3 Contemporary Bollywood

2 Global discourse 3 Influences 4 Multilinguals 5 Regional industries

5.1 Assam 5.2 Bengali cinema (Tollywood) 5.3 Brajbhasha cinema 5.4 Bhojpuri 5.5 Chhattisgarh (Chhollywood) 5.6 English 5.7 Gujarat 5.8 Hindi (Bollywood) 5.9 Kannada
Kannada
(Sandalwood) 5.10 Konkani 5.11 Malayalam
Malayalam
(Mollywood) 5.12 Meitei 5.13 Marathi 5.14 Gorkha 5.15 Odia 5.16 Punjab 5.17 Sindh 5.18 Sherdukpen 5.19 Tamil (Kollywood) 5.20 Telugu (Tollywood) 5.21 Tulu

6 Genres and styles

6.1 Masala films 6.2 Parallel cinema

7 Production organizations 8 Music 9 Film locations 10 Awards 11 Institutes 12 See also 13 References 14 Further reading 15 External links

History[edit] The history of cinema in India
India
extends back to the beginning of the film era. The Indian film
Indian film
Industry is the 2nd oldest. Following the screening of the Lumière and Robert Paul moving pictures in London (1896), animated photography became a worldwide sensation and by mid-1896 both Lumière and Robert Paul films had been shown in Bombay.[25] Silent films (1910s–1920s)[edit]

History of Indian cinema

Advertisement in The Times of India
India
of 25 May 1912 announcing the screening of the first feature film of India, Shree Pundalik
Shree Pundalik
by Dadasaheb Torne

A scene from Raja Harishchandra
Raja Harishchandra
(1913), the first full-length Indian motion picture

Producer-director-screenwriter Dadasaheb Phalke, the "father of Indian cinema"[26][27][28][29]

AVM Studios in Chennai, India's oldest surviving film studio

In 1897 a film presentation by one Professor Stevenson featured a stage show at Calcutta's Star Theatre. With Stevenson's encouragement and camera Hiralal Sen, an Indian photographer, made a film of scenes from that show, namely The Flower of Persia (1898).[30] The Wrestlers (1899) by H. S. Bhatavdekar, showing a wrestling match at the Hanging Gardens in Bombay, was the first film to be shot by an Indian and the first Indian documentary film.[citation needed] The first Indian film
Indian film
released in India
India
was Shree Pundalik, a silent film in Marathi by Dadasaheb Torne
Dadasaheb Torne
on 18 May 1912 at Coronation Cinematograph, Bombay.[31][32] Some have argued that Pundalik was not the first Indian film, because it was a photographic recording of a play, and because the cameraman was a British man named Johnson and the film was processed in London.[33][34] The first full-length motion picture in India
India
was produced by Dadasaheb Phalke, Phalke is seen as the pioneer of the Indian film industry and a scholar of India's languages and culture. He employed elements from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
epics to produce his Raja Harishchandra
Raja Harishchandra
(1913), a silent film in Marathi. The female characters in the film were played by male actors.[35] Only one print of the film was made, for showing at the Coronation Cinematograph on 3 May 1913. It was a commercial success. The first silent film in Tamil, Keechaka Vadham was made by R. Nataraja Mudaliar
R. Nataraja Mudaliar
in 1916.[36] The first chain of Indian cinemas, Madan Theatre was owned by Parsi entrepreneur Jamshedji Framji Madan, who oversaw production of 10 films annually and distributed them throughout India
India
beginning in 1902.[35] He founded Elphinstone Bioscope Company in Calcutta. Elphinstone merged into Madan Theatres Limited in 1919, which had brought many of Bengal's most popular literary works to the stage. He also produced Satyawadi Raja Harishchandra
Raja Harishchandra
in 1917, a remake of Phalke's Raja Harishchandra
Raja Harishchandra
(1913). Raghupathi Venkaiah Naidu
Raghupathi Venkaiah Naidu
was an Indian artist and a film pioneer.[37] From 1909, he was involved in many aspects of Indian cinema, travelling across Asia. He was the first to build and own cinemas in Madras. He was credited as the father of Telugu cinema. In South India, the first Tamil talkie Kalidas was released on 31 October 1931.[38] Nataraja Mudaliar established South India's first film studio in Madras.[39] Film steadily gained popularity across India. Tickets were affordable to the masses (as low as an anna (one-sixteenth of a rupee) in Bombay) with additional comforts available at a higher price.[25] Young producers began to incorporate elements of Indian social life and culture into cinema. Others brought ideas from across the world. Global audiences and markets soon became aware of India's film industry.[40] In 1927, the British Government, to promote the market in India
India
for British films over American ones, formed the Indian Cinematograph Enquiry Committee. The ICC consisted of three Brits and three Indians, led by T. Rangachari, a Madras
Madras
lawyer.[41] This committee failed to support the desired recommendations of supporting British Film, instead recommending support for the fledgling Indian film
Indian film
industry. Their suggestions were shelved. Talkies
Talkies
(1930s–mid-1940s)[edit] Ardeshir Irani
Ardeshir Irani
released Alam Ara, the first Indian talkie, on 14 March 1931.[35] Irani later produced the first south Indian talkie film Kalidas directed by H. M. Reddy released on 31 October 1931.[42][43] Jumai Shasthi was the first Bengali talkie. Chittor V. Nagaiah, was one of the first multilingual film actor/singer/composer/producer/directors in India. He was known as India's Paul Muni.[44][45] In 1932, the name "Tollywood" was coined for the Bengali film industry because Tollygunge rhymed with "Hollywood". Tollygunge was then the centre of the Indian film
Indian film
industry. Bombay
Bombay
later overtook Tollygunge as the industry's center, spawning "Bollywood" and many other Hollywood-inspired names.[46] In 1933, East India
India
Film Company produced its first Telugu film, Savitri. Based on a stage play by Mylavaram Bala Bharathi Samajam, the film was directed by C. Pullaiah with stage actors Vemuri Gaggaiah and Dasari Ramathilakam.[47] The film received an honorary diploma at the 2nd Venice International Film Festival.[48] In 1935, on 10 March Another pioneer film maker Jyoti Prasad Agarwala made his first film 'Joymoti' in Assamese. Jyoti Prasad went to Berlin to learn more about films. Indramalati is another film he himself produced and directed after Joymoti. The first film studio in South India, Durga Cinetone, was built in 1936 by Nidamarthi Surayya in Rajahmundry, Andhra Pradesh.[49] The 1930s saw the rise of music in Indian cinema with musicals such as Indra Sabha and Devi Devyani marking the beginning of song-and-dance in Indian films.[35] Studios emerged by 1935 in major cities such as Madras, Calcutta
Calcutta
and Bombay
Bombay
as filmmaking became an established craft, exemplified by the success of Devdas.[50] directed by an Assamese film maker Pramathesh Baruah. In 1937, Kisan Kanya directed by Moti B was released, the first colour film made in India.[51] The 1940 film, Vishwa Mohini, is the first Indian film
Indian film
to depict the Indian movie world. The film was directed by Y. V. Rao
Y. V. Rao
and scripted by Balijepalli Lakshmikanta Kavi.[52] Swamikannu Vincent, who had built the first cinema of South India
India
in Coimbatore, introduced the concept of "Tent Cinema" in which a tent was erected on a stretch of open land to screen films. The first of its kind was in Madras, called Edison's Grand Cinemamegaphone. This was due to the fact that electric carbons were used for motion picture projectors.[53] Bombay
Bombay
Talkies
Talkies
opened in 1934 and Prabhat Studios in Pune
Pune
began production of Marathi films meant.[50] R. S. D. Choudhury produced Wrath (1930), which was banned by the British Raj
British Raj
for its depiction of Indian actors as leaders during the Indian independence movement.[35] Sant Tukaram, a 1936 film based on the life of Tukaram (1608–50), a Varkari
Varkari
Sant and spiritual poet became the first Indian film to be screened at an international film festival, at the 1937 edition of the Venice Film Festival. The film was judged one of the three best films of the year.[54] In 1938, Gudavalli Ramabrahmam, co-produced and directed the social problem film, Raithu Bidda, which was also banned by the British administration, for depicting the peasant uprising among the Zamindars during the British raj.[55][56] The Indian Masala film—a term used for mixed-genre films that combined song, dance, romance etc.—arose following World War II.[50] During the 1940s cinema in South India
India
accounted for nearly half of India's cinema halls and cinema came to be viewed as an instrument of cultural revival.[50] The partition of India
India
following independence divided the nation's assets and a number of studios moved to Pakistan.[50] Partition became an enduring film subject thereafter.[50] After Indian independence the film industry was investigated by the S. K. Patil Commission.[57] Patil recommended setting up a Film Finance Corporation (FFC) under the Ministry of Finance.[58] This advice was adopted in 1960 and FFC provide financial support to filmmakers.[58] The Indian government had established a Films Division by 1948, which eventually became one of the world's largest documentary film producers with an annual production of over 200 short documentaries, each released in 18 languages with 9,000 prints for permanent film theatres across the country.[59] The Indian People's Theatre Association
Indian People's Theatre Association
(IPTA), an art movement with a communist inclination, began to take shape through the 1940s and the 1950s.[57] Realist IPTA plays, such as Nabanna
Nabanna
(1944, Bijon Bhattacharya) prepared the ground for realism in Indian cinema, exemplified by Khwaja Ahmad Abbas's Dharti Ke Lal (Children of the Earth) in 1946.[57] The IPTA movement continued to emphasize realism and went on to produce Mother India
India
and Pyaasa, among India's most recognizable cinematic productions.[60] Golden Age (late 1940s–1960s)[edit] The period from the late 1940s to the early 1960s is regarded by film historians as the Golden Age of Indian cinema.[61][62][63]

Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
is recognized as one of the greatest filmmakers of the 20th century.[64][65][66][67][68][69]

This period saw the emergence of the Parallel Cinema movement, mainly led by Bengalis,[70] which then accounted for a quarter of India's film output.[71] The movement emphasized social realism. Early examples include Dharti Ke Lal (1946, Khwaja Ahmad Abbas),[72] Neecha Nagar (1946, Chetan Anand),[73] Nagarik
Nagarik
(1952, Ritwik Ghatak)[74][75] and Do Bigha Zamin
Do Bigha Zamin
(1953, Bimal Roy), laying the foundations for Indian neorealism[76] and the Indian New Wave.[77] The Apu Trilogy
The Apu Trilogy
(1955–1959, Satyajit Ray) won major prizes at all the major international film festivals and firmly established the Parallel Cinema movement. Pather Panchali (1955), the first part of the trilogy, marked Ray's entry in Indian cinema.[78] The trilogy's influence on world cinema can be felt in the "youthful coming-of-age dramas that flooded art houses since the mid-fifties", which "owe a tremendous debt to the Apu trilogy".[79] Cinematographer Subrata Mitra, who debuted in the trilogy, had his own important influence on cinematography globally. One of his most important techniques was bounce lighting, to recreate the effect of daylight on sets. He pioneered the technique while filming Aparajito (1956), the second part of the trilogy.[80] Ray pioneered other effects such as the photo-negative flashbacks and X-ray
X-ray
digressions in Pratidwandi (1972).[81] During the 1960s, Indira Gandhi's intervention during her reign as the Information and Broadcasting Minister of India
India
supported production of off-beat cinematic by FFC.[58] Commercial Hindi cinema
Hindi cinema
began thriving, including acclaimed films Pyaasa
Pyaasa
(1957) and Kaagaz Ke Phool
Kaagaz Ke Phool
(1959, Guru Dutt) Awaara
Awaara
(1951) and Shree 420
Shree 420
(1955, Raj Kapoor). These films expressed social themes mainly dealing with working-class urban life in India; Awaara presented the city as both a nightmare and a dream, while Pyaasa critiqued the unreality of city life.[70] Epic film
Epic film
Mother India
India
(1957, Mehboob Khan), a remake of his earlier Aurat (1940), was the first Indian film
Indian film
to be nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film.[82] Mother India
India
defined the conventions of Hindi cinema
Hindi cinema
for decades.[83][84][85] It spawned a new genre of dacoit films.[86] Gunga Jumna
Gunga Jumna
(1961, Dilip Kumar) was a dacoit crime drama about two brothers on opposite sides of the law, a theme that became common in Indian films in the 1970s.[87] Madhumati (1958, Bimal Roy) popularised the theme of reincarnation in Western popular culture.[88] Kumar (Muhammad Yusuf Khan) debuted in the 1940s and rose to fame in the 1950s and was one of the biggest Indian movie stars. He was a pioneer of method acting, predating Hollywood method actors such as Marlon Brando. Much like Brando's influence on New Hollywood actors, Kumar inspired Indian actors, including Amitabh Bachchan, Naseeruddin Shah, Shah Rukh Khan
Shah Rukh Khan
and Nawazuddin Siddiqui.[89] Neecha Nagar won the Palme d'Or
Palme d'Or
at Cannes,[73] putting Indian films in competition for the Palme d'Or
Palme d'Or
for nearly every year in the 1950s and early 1960s, with many winning major prizes. Ray won the Golden Lion at the Venice Film Festival
Venice Film Festival
for Aparajito
Aparajito
(1956) and the Golden Bear and two Silver Bears for Best Director at the Berlin International Film Festival.[90] The films of screenwriter Khwaja Ahmad Abbas were nominated for the Palme d'Or
Palme d'Or
three times. ( Neecha Nagar won, with nominations for Awaara
Awaara
and Pardesi (1957)). Ray's contemporaries Ghatak and Dutt were overlooked in their own lifetimes, but generated international recognition in the 1980s and 1990s.[90][91] Ray is regarded as one of the greatest auteurs of 20th century cinema,[92] with Dutt[93] and Ghatak.[94] In 1992, the Sight & Sound Critics' Poll ranked Ray at No. 7 in its list of "Top 10 Directors" of all time,[95] while Dutt ranked No. 73 in the 2002 Sight & Sound poll.[93] Multiple films from this era are included among the greatest films of all time in various critics' and directors' polls. Multiple Ray films appeared in the Sight & Sound Critics' Poll, including The Apu Trilogy (ranked No. 4 in 1992 if votes are combined),[96] Jalsaghar (ranked No. 27 in 1992), Charulata
Charulata
(ranked No. 41 in 1992)[97] and Aranyer Din Ratri
Aranyer Din Ratri
(ranked No. 81 in 1982).[98] The 2002 Sight & Sound critics' and directors' poll also included the Dutt films Pyaasa and Kaagaz Ke Phool
Kaagaz Ke Phool
(both tied at #160), Ghatak's films Meghe Dhaka Tara (ranked #231) and Komal Gandhar (ranked #346), and Raj Kapoor's Awaara, Vijay Bhatt's Baiju Bawra, Mehboob Khan's Mother India
India
and K. Asif's Mughal-e-Azam all tied at #346.[99] In 1998, the critics' poll conducted by the Asian film magazine Cinemaya
Cinemaya
included The Apu Trilogy (ranked No. 1 if votes are combined), Ray's Charulata
Charulata
and Jalsaghar (both tied at #11), and Ghatak's Subarnarekha (also tied at #11).[94] South Indian cinema
South Indian cinema
saw the production works based on the epic Mahabharata, such as Mayabazar
Mayabazar
(listed by IBN Live's 2013 Poll as the greatest Indian film
Indian film
of all time).[100] Sivaji Ganesan
Sivaji Ganesan
became India's first actor to receive an international award when he won the "Best Actor" award at the Afro-Asian film festival in 1960 and was awarded the title of Chevalier in the Legion of Honour
Legion of Honour
by the French Government
Government
in 1995.[101] Tamil cinema
Tamil cinema
is influenced by Dravidian politics,[102] with prominent film personalities C N Annadurai, M G Ramachandran, M Karunanidhi
M Karunanidhi
and Jayalalithaa
Jayalalithaa
becoming Chief Ministers of Tamil Nadu.[103] Contemporary Indian cinema (1970s–present)[edit] Realistic Parallel Cinema continued throughout the 1970s,[104] practiced in many Indian film
Indian film
cultures. The FFC's art film orientation came under criticism during a Committee on Public Undertakings investigation in 1976, which accused the body of not doing enough to encourage commercial cinema.[105] Hindi commercial cinema continued with films such as Aradhana (1969), Sachaa Jhutha
Sachaa Jhutha
(1970), Haathi Mere Saathi
Haathi Mere Saathi
(1971), Anand (1971), Kati Patang (1971) Amar Prem
Amar Prem
(1972), Dushman (1972) and Daag (1973).

The screenwriting duo Salim-Javed, consisting of Salim Khan
Salim Khan
(l) and Javed Akhtar
Javed Akhtar
(r), revolutionized Indian cinema in the 1970s,[106] and are considered Bollywood's greatest screenwriters.[107]

Salim-Javed[edit] Main article: Salim-Javed By the early 1970s, Hindi cinema
Hindi cinema
was experiencing thematic stagnation,[108] dominated by musical romance films.[109] The arrival of screenwriter duo Salim-Javed, consisting of Salim Khan
Salim Khan
and Javed Akhtar, revitalized the industry.[108] They established the genre of gritty, violent, Bombay
Bombay
underworld crime films, with films such as Zanjeer (1973) and Deewaar
Deewaar
(1975).[110][111] They reinterpreted the rural themes of Mother India
India
and Gunga Jumna
Gunga Jumna
in an urban context reflecting 1970s India,[108][112] channeling the growing discontent and disillusionment among the masses,[108] unprecedented growth of slums[113] and urban poverty, corruption and crime,[114] as well as anti-establishment themes.[115] This resulted in their creation of the "angry young man", personified by Amitabh Bachchan,[115] who reinterpreted Kumar's performance in Gunga Jumna,[108][112] and gave a voice to the urban poor.[113] By the mid-1970s, crime-action films like Zanjeer and Sholay
Sholay
(1975) solidified Bachchan's position as a lead actor.[105] The devotional classic Jai Santoshi Ma
Jai Santoshi Ma
(1975) was made on a shoe-string budget and became a box office success and a cult classic.[105] Another important film was Deewar (1975, Yash Chopra).[87] This crime film pitted "a policeman against his brother, a gang leader based on the real-life smuggler Haji Mastan", portrayed by Bachchan. Danny Boyle
Danny Boyle
described it as "absolutely key to Indian cinema".[116] "Bollywood" was named in the 70s,[117][118] when the conventions of commercial Bollywood
Bollywood
films were established.[119] Key to this was Nasir Hussain and Salim-Javed's creation of the masala film genre, which combines elements of action, comedy, romance, drama, melodrama and musical.[120][119] Another Hussain/ Salim-Javed
Salim-Javed
concoction, Yaadon Ki Baarat (1973), was identified as the first masala film and the "first" quintessentially "Bollywood" film.[121][119] Salim-Javed
Salim-Javed
wrote more successful masala films in the 1970s and 1980s.[119] Masala films made Bachchan the biggest Bollywood
Bollywood
movie star of the period. Another landmark was Amar Akbar Anthony
Amar Akbar Anthony
(1977, Manmohan Desai).[122][121] Desai further expanded the genre in the 1970s and 1980s. Salim-Javed
Salim-Javed
was highly influential in South Indian cinema. In addition to writing two Kannada
Kannada
films, many of their Bollywood
Bollywood
films had remakes produced in other regions, including Tamil, Telugu and Malayalam
Malayalam
cinema. While the Bollywood
Bollywood
directors and producers held the rights to their films in Northern India, Salim-Javed
Salim-Javed
retained the rights in South India, where they sold remake rights, usually for around ₹1 lakh (equivalent to ₹27 lakh or US$42,000 in 2017) each, for films such as Zanjeer, Yaadon Ki Baarat
Yaadon Ki Baarat
and Don.[123] Several of these remakes became breakthroughs for Rajinikanth, who portrayed Bachchan's role for several Tamil remakes.[109][124] South Indian industries[edit] Kannada
Kannada
film Samskara (1970, Pattabhirama Reddy), pioneered the parallel cinema movement in south Indian cinema. The film won Bronze Leopard at the Locarno International Film Festival.[125] Telugu film Sankarabharanam
Sankarabharanam
(1980) dealt with the revival of Indian classical music and won the Prize of the Public at the 1981 Besancon Film Festival.[126] Tamil-language films appeared at multiple film festivals. Kannathil Muthamittal (Ratnam), Veyyil (Vasanthabalan) and Paruthiveeran. Kanchivaram
Kanchivaram
(2009, Ameer Sultan) premiered at the Toronto International Film Festival. Tamil films were submitted by India
India
for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language on eight occasions.[127] Nayagan (1987, Kamal Hassan) was included in Time magazine's "All-TIME" 100 best movies list.[128] In 1991, Marupakkam directed by K.S. Sethu Madhavan, became the first Tamil film to win the National Film Award for Best Feature Film, the feat was repeated by Kanchivaram in 2007.[129] Malayalam cinema
Malayalam cinema
experienced its own Golden Age in the 1980s and early 1990s. Acclaimed Malayalam
Malayalam
filmmakers industry, included Adoor Gopalakrishnan, G. Aravindan, T. V. Chandran
T. V. Chandran
and Shaji N. Karun.[130] Gopalakrishnan, is often considered to be Ray's spiritual heir.[131] He directed some of his most acclaimed films during this period, including Elippathayam
Elippathayam
(1981) which won the Sutherland Trophy at the London Film Festival, as well as Mathilukal
Mathilukal
(1989) which won major prizes at the Venice Film Festival.[132] Karun's debut film Piravi (1989) won the Camera d'Or at the 1989 Cannes Film Festival, while his second film Swaham
Swaham
(1994) was in competition for the Palme d'Or
Palme d'Or
at the 1994 event.[133] Commercial Malayalam cinema
Malayalam cinema
began gaining popularity with the action films of Jayan, a popular stunt actor who died while filming a helicopter stunt. Contemporary Bollywood[edit] Commercial Hindi cinema
Hindi cinema
grew throughout the 1980s and the 1990s with the release of films such as Ek Duuje Ke Liye
Ek Duuje Ke Liye
(1981), Himmatwala (1983), Tohfa
Tohfa
(1984), Nagina
Nagina
(1986), Mr India
India
(1987), Qayamat Se Qayamat Tak (1988), Tezaab
Tezaab
(1988), Chaalbaaz (1989), Chandni
Chandni
(1989), Maine Pyar Kiya
Maine Pyar Kiya
(1989), Lamhe
Lamhe
(1991), Baazigar
Baazigar
(1993), Darr (1993),[105] Hum Aapke Hain Koun..!
Hum Aapke Hain Koun..!
(1994), Dilwale Dulhaniya Le Jayenge (1995), Dil To Pagal Hai
Dil To Pagal Hai
(1997), Pyar Kiya Toh Darna Kya (1998) and Kuch Kuch Hota Hai
Kuch Kuch Hota Hai
(1998). Cult classic Bandit Queen
Bandit Queen
(1994, Shekhar Kapur) received international recognition and controversy.[134][135] In the late 1990s, Parallel Cinema began a resurgence in Hindi cinema, largely due to the critical and commercial success of crime filmSatya (1998, Ram Gopal Varma). The film's success launched a genre known as Mumbai noir,[136] urban films reflecting social problems there.[137] Since the 1990s, the three biggest Bollywood
Bollywood
movie stars have been the "Three Khans": Aamir Khan, Shah Rukh Khan, and Salman Khan.[138][139] Combined, they starred in the top ten highest-grossing Bollywood films. The three Khans have had successful careers since the late 1980s,[138] and have dominated the Indian box office since the 1990s.[140][141] Shah Rukh Khan
Shah Rukh Khan
was the most successful for most of the 1990s and 2000s, while Aamir Khan
Aamir Khan
has been the most successful since the late 2000s;[142] according to Forbes, Aamir Khan
Aamir Khan
is "arguably the world's biggest movie star" as of 2017, due to his immense popularity in India
India
and China.[143]. Sridevi, is widely considered as the first female superstar of Indian cinema due to her pan-Indian appeal and a rare actor who had an equally successful career in the three major Indian film
Indian film
industries: Hindi, Tamil and Telugu, she's also the only movie star in history of Bollywood
Bollywood
to star in the top 10 highest grossers of the year throughout her active period (1983-1997). Other Hindi stars include Anil Kapoor, Madhuri Dixit
Madhuri Dixit
and Kajol. Haider (2014, Vishal Bhardwaj), the third instalment of the Indian Shakespearean Trilogy after Maqbool (2003) and Omkara (2006),[144] won the People's Choice Award at the 9th Rome Film Festival
Rome Film Festival
in the Mondo Genere category making it the first Indian film
Indian film
to achieve this honor.[145] Global discourse[edit] During colonial rule Indians bought film equipment from Europe.[40] The British funded wartime propaganda films during World War II, some of which showed the Indian army pitted against the Axis powers, specifically the Empire of Japan, which had managed to infiltrate India.[146] One such story was Burma Rani, which depicted civilian resistance to Japanese occupation by British and Indian forces in Myanmar.[146] Pre-independence businessmen such as J. F. Madan and Abdulally Esoofally traded in global cinema.[35] Early Indian films made early inroads into the Soviet Union, Middle East, Southeast Asia[147] and China. Mainstream Indian movie stars gained international fame across Asia[148][149][150] and Eastern Europe.[151][152] For example, Indian films were more popular in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
than Hollywood films[153][154] and occasionally domestic Soviet films.[155] From 1954 to 1991, 206 Indian films were sent to the Soviet Union, drawing higher average audience figures than domestic Soviet productions,[154][156] Films such as Awaara
Awaara
and Disco Dancer drew more than 60 million viewers.[157][158] Films such as Awaara, 3 Idiots
3 Idiots
and Dangal,[159][160] were one of the 20 highest-grossing films in China.[161] Indian films frequently appeared in international fora and film festivals.[147] This allowed Parallel Bengali filmmakers to achieve worldwide fame.[162] Tamil films gained viewers in South East Asia
Asia
and other parts of the world. Chandralekha and Muthu were dubbed into Japanese[163] and grossed a record $1.6 million in 1998.[164] In 2010, Enthiran
Enthiran
grossed a record $4 million in North America. Many Asian and South Asian
South Asian
countries increasingly found Indian cinema as more suited to their sensibilities than Western cinema.[147] Jigna Desai holds that by the 21st century, Indian cinema had become 'deterritorialized', spreading to parts of the world where Indian expatriatres were present in significant numbers, and had become an alternative to other international cinema.[165] Indian cinema more recently began influencing Western musical films, and played a particularly instrumental role in the revival of the genre in the Western world. Ray's work had a worldwide impact, with filmmakers such as Martin Scorsese,[166] James Ivory,[167] Abbas Kiarostami, François Truffaut,[168] Carlos Saura,[169] Isao Takahata and Gregory Nava[170] citing his influence, and others such as Akira Kurosawa praising his work.[171] The "youthful coming-of-age dramas that have flooded art houses since the mid-fifties owe a tremendous debt to the Apu trilogy".[79] Since the 1980s, overlooked Indian filmmakers such as Ghatak[172] and Dutt[173] posthumously gained international acclaim. Baz Luhrmann
Baz Luhrmann
stated that his successful musical film Moulin Rouge! (2001) was directly inspired by Bollywood musicals.[174] That film's success renewed interest in the then-moribund Western musical genre, subsequently fuelling a renaissance.[175] Danny Boyle's Oscar-winning film Slumdog Millionaire (2008) was directly inspired by Indian films,[116][176] and is considered to be an "homage to Hindi commercial cinema".[177] Indian cinema has been recognised repeatedly at the Academy Awards. Indian films Mother India
India
(1957), Salaam Bombay!
Salaam Bombay!
(1988) and Lagaan (2001), were nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. Indian Oscar winners include Bhanu Athaiya
Bhanu Athaiya
(costume designer), Ray (filmmaker), A. R. Rahman
A. R. Rahman
(music composer), Resul Pookutty
Resul Pookutty
(sound editor) and Gulzar
Gulzar
(lyricist), Cottalango Leon and Rahul Thakkar Sci-Tech Award.[178] Influences[edit]

Victoria Public Hall, is a historical building in Chennai, named after Victoria, Empress of India. It served as a theatre in the late 19th century and the early 20th century.

Prasads IMAX
Prasads IMAX
Theatre located at Hyderabad, is the world's largest 3D- IMAX
IMAX
screen, and also the most attended screen in the world.[179][180][181]

Ramoji Film City
Ramoji Film City
located in Hyderabad, holds Guinness World Record
Guinness World Record
as the World's largest film studio.[182]

PVR Cinemas
PVR Cinemas
is one of the largest cinema chains in India

Moti Gokulsing and Wimal Dissanayake identify six major influences that have shaped Indian popular cinema:[183]

The ancient epics of Mahabharata
Mahabharata
and Ramayana
Ramayana
influenced the narratives of Indian cinema. Examples of this influence include the techniques of a side story, back-story and story within a story. Indian popular films often have plots that branch into sub-plots; such narrative dispersals can clearly be seen in the 1993 films Khalnayak and Gardish. Ancient Sanskrit
Sanskrit
drama, with its emphasis on spectacle, combined music, dance and gesture combined "to create a vibrant artistic unit with dance and mime being central to the dramatic experience". Sanskrit
Sanskrit
dramas were known as natya, derived from the root word nrit (dance), featuring spectacular dance-dramas.[184] The Rasa method of performance, dating to ancient times, is one of the fundamental features that differentiate Indian from Western cinema. In the Rasa method, empathetic "emotions are conveyed by the performer and thus felt by the audience," in contrast to the Western Stanislavski method where the actor must become "a living, breathing embodiment of a character" rather than "simply conveying emotion". The rasa method is apparent in the performances of Hindi actors such as Bachchan and Shah Rukh Khan and in Hindi films such as Rang De Basanti
Rang De Basanti
(2006),[185] and Ray's works.[186] Traditional folk theatre became popular around the 10th century with the decline of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
theatre. These regional traditions include the Yatra
Yatra
of West Bengal, the Ramlila
Ramlila
of Uttar Pradesh, Yakshagana
Yakshagana
of Karnataka, 'Chindu Natakam' of Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
and the Terukkuttu
Terukkuttu
of Tamil Nadu. Parsi theatre "blended realism and fantasy, music and dance, narrative and spectacle, earthy dialogue and ingenuity of stage presentation, integrating them into a dramatic melodrama. The Parsi plays contained crude humour, melodious songs and music, sensationalism and dazzling stagecraft."[184] Tthese influences are clearly evident in masala films such as Coolie (1983), and to an extent in more recent critically acclaimed films such as Rang De Basanti.[185] Hollywood made popular musicals from the 1920s through the 1960s. Indian musical makers departed from their Hollywood counterparts in several ways. "For example, the Hollywood musicals had as their plot the world of entertainment itself. Indian filmmakers, while enhancing the elements of fantasy so pervasive in Indian popular films, used song and music as a natural mode of articulation in a given situation in their films. There is a strong Indian tradition of narrating mythology, history, fairy stories and so on through song and dance." In addition, "whereas Hollywood filmmakers strove to conceal the constructed nature of their work so that the realistic narrative was wholly dominant, Indian filmmakers made no attempt to conceal the fact that what was shown on the screen was a creation, an illusion, a fiction. However, they demonstrated how this creation intersected with people's day-to-day lives in complex and interesting ways."[187] Western musical television, particularly MTV, had an increasing influence in the 1990s, as can be seen in the pace, camera angles, dance sequences and music of recent Indian films. An early example of this approach was Bombay
Bombay
(1995, Mani Ratnam).[188]

Sharmistha Gooptu and Bhaumik identify Indo-Persian/ Islamicate culture as another major influence. In the early 20th century, Urdu
Urdu
was the lingua franca of popular performances across northern India, established in performance art traditions such as nautch dancing, Urdu poetry and Parsi theater. Urdu
Urdu
and related Hindi dialects
Hindi dialects
were the most widely understood across northern India, thus Hindi- Urdu
Urdu
became the standardized language of early Indian talkies. One Thousand and One Nights (Arabian Nights) had a strong influence on Parsi theater, which adapted " Persianate
Persianate
adventure-romances" into films, and on early Bombay
Bombay
cinema where "Arabian Nights cinema" became a popular genre.[189] Stadtman identifies foreign influences on commercial Bollywood
Bollywood
masala films: New Hollywood, Hong Kong martial arts cinema and Italian exploitation films.[190] Like mainstream Indian popular cinema, Indian Parallel Cinema was influenced by a combination of Indian theatre and Indian literature (such as Bengali literature
Bengali literature
and Urdu
Urdu
poetry), but differs when it comes to foreign influences, where it is influenced more by European cinema (particularly Italian neorealism
Italian neorealism
and French poetic realism) than by Hollywood. Ray cited Vittorio De Sica's Bicycle Thieves
Bicycle Thieves
(1948) and Jean Renoir's The River (1951), on which he assisted, as influences on his debut film Pather Panchali (1955). Multilinguals[edit] Some Indian films are known as "multilinguals," filmed in similar but non-identical versions in different languages. This was done in the 1930s. According to Rajadhyaksha and Willemen in the Encyclopaedia of Indian Cinema
Indian Cinema
(1994), in its most precise form, a multilingual is

a bilingual or a trilingual [that] was the kind of film made in the 1930s in the studio era, when different but identical takes were made of every shot in different languages, often with different leading stars but identical technical crew and music.[191]:15

Rajadhyaksha and Willemen note that in seeking to construct their Encyclopedia, they often found it "extremely difficult to distinguish multilinguals in this original sense from dubbed versions, remakes, reissues or, in some cases, the same film listed with different titles, presented as separate versions in different languages ... it will take years of scholarly work to establish definitive data in this respect."[191]:15 Regional industries[edit] Films are made in many cities and regions in India
India
including Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, Assam, Bengal, Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Jammu, Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Konkan (Goa), Northern Telangana, Northern Karnataka
Karnataka
and Ranchi (Jharkhand), Kerala, Maharashtra, Manipur, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu and Uttrakhand.

Breakdown by languages

2016 Indian feature films certified by the Central Board of Film Certification by languages.[192] Note: This table indicates the number of films certified by the CBFC's regional offices in nine cities. The actual number of films produced may be less.

Language No. of films

Hindi 340 (digital) and 0 (celluloid), total of 340

Tamil 291 (digital) and 0 (celluloid), total of 291

Telugu 275 (digital) and 0 (celluloid), total of 275

Kannada 204 (digital) and 0 (celluloid), total of 204

Marathi 180 (digital) and 1 (celluloid), total of 181

Malayalam 168 (digital) and 0 (celluloid), total of 168

Bengali 149 (digital) and 0 (celluloid), total of 149

Bhojpuri 67 (digital) and 0 (celluloid), total of 67

Punjabi 45 (digital) and 0 (celluloid), total of 45

Gujarati 45 (digital) and 0 (celluloid), total of 45

Odia 41 (digital) and 0 (celluloid), total of 41

Assamese 20 (digital) and 0 (celluloid), total of 20

Rajasthani (Rollywood) 10 (digital) and 0 (celluloid), total of 10

Chhattisgarhi 10 (digital) and 0 (celluloid), total of 10

Tulu 10 (digital) and 0 (celluloid), total of 10

Konkani 6 (digital) and 0 (celluloid), total of 6

English 5 (digital) and 0 (celluloid), total of 5

Haryanvi 4 (digital) and 0 (celluloid), total of 4

Maithali 20 (digital) and 0 (celluloid), total of 20

Sindhi 3 (digital) and 0 (celluloid), total of 3

Urdu 3 (digital) and 0 (celluloid), total of 3

Bodo 2 (digital) and 0 (celluloid), total of 2

Kurukh 2 (digital) and 0 (celluloid), total of 2

Others 1 each

Total 1607 (digital) and 1 (celluloid), total of 1608

Assam[edit] Main article: Cinema of Assam

First Assamese motion picture, Joymati, filmed in 1935

The Assamese language
Assamese language
film industry traces its origin to the works of revolutionary visionary Rupkonwar Jyotiprasad Agarwala, who was a distinguished poet, playwright, composer and freedom fighter. He was instrumental in the production of the first Assamese film Joymati[193] in 1935, under the banner of Critrakala Movietone. Due to the lack of trained technicians, Jyotiprasad, while making his maiden film, had to shoulder the added responsibilities as the screenwriter, producer, director, choreographer, editor, set and costume designer, lyricist and music director. The film, completed with a budget of 60,000 rupees, was released on 10 March 1935. The picture failed miserably. Like many early films, the negatives and prints of Joymati are missing. Some effort has been made privately by Altaf Mazid to restore and subtitle what is left of the prints. Despite the significant financial loss from Joymati, a second picture, Indramalati, was released in 1939. The 21st century has produced Bollywood-style Assamese movies.[194] Bengali cinema (Tollywood)[edit]

A scene from Dena Paona, 1931, the first Bengali talkie

Main article: Cinema of West Bengal The Bengali language
Bengali language
cinematic tradition of Tollygunge located in West Bengal hosted masters such as Ray, Ghatak and Sen.[195] Recent Bengali films that have captured national attention include Choker Bali.(Rituparno Ghosh)[196] Bengal has produced science fiction and issue films.[197] Bengali cinema dates to the 1890s, when the first "bioscopes" were shown in theatres in Calcutta. Within five years, Hiralal Sen set up the Royal Bioscope Company, producing scenes from the stage productions of a number of popular shows at the Star Theatre, Calcutta, Minerva Theatre and Classic Theatre. Following a long gap after Sen, Dhirendra Nath Ganguly (Known as D.G.) established Indo British Film Co, the first Bengali owned production company, in 1918. The first Bengali Feature film Billwamangal
Billwamangal
was produced in 1919 under the banner of Madan Theatre. Bilat Ferat
Bilat Ferat
(1921) was the IBFC's first production. Madan Theatres production of Jamai Shashthi was the first Bengali talkie.[198] In 1932, the name "Tollywood" was coined for the Bengali film industry because Tollygunge rhymes with "Hollywood" and because it was then the centre of the Indian film
Indian film
industry.[46] The 'Parallel Cinema' movement began in Bengal. Bengali stalwarts such as Ray, Mrinal Sen, Ghatak and others earned international acclaim. Actors including Uttam Kumar
Uttam Kumar
and Soumitra Chatterjee
Soumitra Chatterjee
led the Bengali film industry. Other Bengali art film directors include Mir Shaani, Buddhadeb Dasgupta, Gautam Ghose, Sandip Ray
Sandip Ray
and Aparna Sen. Brajbhasha cinema[edit] Braj Bhasha language films present Brij culture mainly to rural people, predominant in the nebulous Braj region centred around Mathura, Agra, Aligarh
Aligarh
and Hathras
Hathras
in Western Uttar Pradesh
Western Uttar Pradesh
and Bharatpur and Dholpur in Rajasthan. It is the predominant language in the central stretch of the Ganges-Yamuna Doab
Doab
in Uttar Pradesh. The first Brij Bhasha movie India
India
was Brij Bhoomi
Brij Bhoomi
(1982, Shiv Kumar), which was a success throughout the country.[199][200] Later Brij Bhasha cinema saw the production of films like Jamuna Kinare, Brij Kau Birju, Bhakta Surdas
Bhakta Surdas
and Jesus.[201][202] The culture of Brij is presented in Krishna Tere Desh Main (Hindi), Kanha Ki Braj Bhumi,[203] Brij ki radha dwarika ke shyam[204] and Bawre Nain.[205] Bhojpuri[edit] Main article: Bhojpuri cinema Bhojpuri language
Bhojpuri language
films predominantly cater to residents of western Bihar and eastern Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
and also have a large audience in Delhi
Delhi
and Mumbai due to migration of Bhojpuri speakers to these cities. Besides India, markets for these films developed in other Bhojpuri speaking countries of the West Indies, Oceania and South America.[206] Bhojpuri film history begins with Ganga Maiyya Tohe Piyari Chadhaibo (Mother Ganges, I will offer you a yellow sari, 1962, Kundan Kumar).[207] Throughout the following decades, few films were produced. Films such as Bidesiya (Foreigner, 1963, S. N. Tripathi) and Ganga (Ganges, 1965, Kumar) were profitable and popular, but in general Bhojpuri films were not common in the 1960s and 1970s. The industry experienced a revival in 2001 with the hit Saiyyan Hamar (My Sweetheart, Mohan Prasad), which shot Ravi Kissan to superstardom.[208] This was followed by several other successes, including Panditji Batai Na Biyah Kab Hoi (Priest, tell me when I will marry, 2005, Prasad), and Sasura Bada Paisa Wala (My father-in-law, the rich guy, 2005.) Both did much better business in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar than mainstream Bollywood
Bollywood
hits, and both earned more than ten times their production costs.[209] Although smaller than other Indian film
Indian film
industries, these successes increased Bhojpuri cinema's visibility, leading to an awards show[210] and a trade magazine, Bhojpuri City.[211] Chhattisgarh (Chhollywood)[edit] Main article: Chhollywood Chhollywood was born in 1965 with the first Chhattisgarhi
Chhattisgarhi
film Kahi Debe Sandesh (In Black and White, Manu Nayak).[212] Naidu[who?] wrote the lyrics for the film,[213] and two songs were sung by Mohammad Rafi. That film and Ghar Dwar (1971, Niranjan Tiwari) bombed. No Chhollywood movie was produced for nearly 30 years thereafter.[214] English[edit] Deepa Mehta, Anant Balani, Homi Adajania, Vijay Singh and Sooni Taraporevala have garnered recognition in Indian English
Indian English
cinema. Gujarat[edit] Main article: Gujarati cinema Before the arrival of talkies, several silent films were closely related to Gujarati culture. Many film directors, producers and actors associated with silent films were Gujarati and Parsi. Twenty leading film company and studios were owned by Gujaratis between 1913 and 1931. They were mostly located in Mumbai. At least forty-four major Gujarati directors worked during this period.[215] Gujarati cinema
Gujarati cinema
dates to 9 April 1932, when the first Gujarati film, Narsinh Mehta, was released.[215][216][217] Leeludi Dharti (1968) was the first colour Gujarati film.[218] After flourishing through the 1960s to 1980s, the industry declined although it later revived. More than one thousand films were released.[219] Gujarati cinema
Gujarati cinema
ranges from mythology to history and from social to political. Gujarati films originally targeted a rural audience, but after its revival catered to an urban audience.[215] Hindi (Bollywood)[edit] Main article: Bollywood

Amitabh Bacchan
Amitabh Bacchan
has been a popular Bollywood
Bollywood
actor for over 45 years.[220]

The Hindi language
Hindi language
film industry of Bombay—also known as[221] Bollywood—is the largest and most powerful branch.[222] Hindi cinema explored issues of caste and culture in films such as Achhut Kanya (1936) and Sujata (1959).[223] International visibility came to the industry with Raj Kapoor's Awara and later in Shakti Samantha's Aradhana.[224] Hindi cinema
Hindi cinema
grew during the 1990s with the release of as many as 215 films annually. Many actors signed contracts for simultaneous work in 3–4 films.[22] Institutions such as the Industrial Development Bank of India
India
financed Hindi films.[22] Magazines such as Filmfare, Stardust and Cine Blitz became popular.[225] In Hindi cinema
Hindi cinema
audiences participate by clapping, singing and reciting familiar dialogue.[226] Art film
Art film
directors include Kaul, Kumar Shahani, Ketan Mehta, Govind Nihalani, Shyam Benegal,[70] Mira Nair, Nagesh Kukunoor, Sudhir Mishra and Nandita Das. Kannada
Kannada
(Sandalwood)[edit]

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Main article: Cinema of Karnataka The Kannada
Kannada
film industry, also referred to as Sandalwood, is based in Bengaluru
Bengaluru
and caters mostly to Karnataka. Gubbi Veeranna (1891 – 1972) was an Indian theatre director and artist and an awardee of the Padma Shri
Padma Shri
award conferred by the President of India. He was one of the pioneers and most prolific contributors to Kannada
Kannada
theatre. Kannada
Kannada
actor Rajkumar began working with Veeranna and later became an important actor. Veeranna founded Karnataka
Karnataka
Gubbi Productions. He produced Sadarame (1935, Raja Chandrasekar), in which he acted in the lead role. He then produced Subhadra and Jeevana Nataka
Jeevana Nataka
(1942). He took the lead role in Hemareddy Mallamma (1945). Karnataka
Karnataka
Gubbi Productions was later called Karnataka
Karnataka
Films Ltd., and is credited with starting the career of Rajkumar when it offered him the lead role in his debut film Bedara Kannappa. He produced silent movies including His Love Affair, (Raphel Algoet). Veeranna was the lead, accompanied by his wife, Jayamma. Veeranna produced Bedara Kannappa
Bedara Kannappa
(1954, H. L. N. Simha) which received the first Certificate of Merit. However, the first "President's Silver Medal for Best Feature Film in Kannada" was awarded at the 5th National Film Awards ceremony to Premada Puthri (1957, R. Nagendra Rao). Vishnuvardhan and Rajkumar were eminent actors along with Ambarish, Anant Nag, Shankar Nag, Prabhakar, Udaya Kumar, Kalyan Kumar, Gangadhar, Ravichandran, Girish Karnad, Prakash Raj, Charan Raj, B Jayamma, Leelavathi, Kalpana, Bharathi, Jayanthi, Pandari Bai, Aarathi, Jaimala, Tara, Umashri
Umashri
and Ramya. Kannada
Kannada
directors include H. L. N. Simha, R. Nagendra Rao, B. R. Panthulu, M. S. Sathyu, Puttanna Kanagal, G. V. Iyer, Karnad, T. S. Nagabharana Siddalingaiah, B. V. Karanth, A K Pattabhi, T. V. Singh Thakur, Y. R. Swamy, M. R. Vittal, Sundar Rao Nadkarni, P. S. Moorthy, S. K. A. Chari, Hunsur Krishnamurthy, Prema Karanth, Rajendra Singh Babu, N. Lakshminarayan, Shankar Nag, Girish Kasaravalli, Umesh Kulkarni and Suresh Heblikar. Other noted film personalities in Kannada
Kannada
are, Bhargava, G.K. Venkatesh, Vijaya Bhaskar, Rajan-Nagendra, Geethapriya, Hamsalekha, R. N. Jayagopal, M. Ranga Rao and Yogaraj Bhat. Kannada cinema
Kannada cinema
contributed to Indian parallel cinema. Influential Kannada
Kannada
films in this genre include Samskara, Chomana Dudi (B. V. Karanth), Tabarana Kathe, Vamshavruksha, Kaadu Kudure, Hamsageethe, Bhootayyana Maga Ayyu, Accident, Maanasa Sarovara, Bara, Chitegoo Chinte, Galige, Ijjodu, Kaneshwara Rama,Ghatashraddha, Tabarana Kathe, Mane, Kraurya, Thaayi Saheba, Bandhana, Muthina Haara, Banker Margayya, Dweepa, Munnudi, Bettada Jeeva, Mysore Mallige and Chinnari Muththa. The Government
Government
Film and Television Institute, Bangalore (formerly a part of S.J. Polytechnic) is believed to be the first government institute in India
India
to start technical film courses.[227] Konkani[edit] Main article: Konkani cinema Konkani language
Konkani language
films are mainly produced in Goa. It is one of India's smallest film regions, producing four films in 2009.[228] Konkani language
Konkani language
is spoken mainly in the states of Goa, Maharashtra and Karnataka
Karnataka
and to a smaller extent in Kerala. The first full length Konkani film was Mogacho Anvddo (1950, Jerry Braganza), under the banner of Etica Pictures.[229][230] The film's release date, 24 April, is celebrated as Konkani Film Day.[231] Karnataka
Karnataka
is the hub of many Konkani speaking people. An immense body of Konkani literature and art is a resource for filmmakers. Kazar (Marriage, 2009, Richard Castelino) and Ujvaadu (Shedding New Light on Old Age Issues, Kasaragod Chinna) are major releases. The pioneering Mangalorean Konkani film is Mog Ani Maipas. Malayalam
Malayalam
(Mollywood)[edit] Main article: Malayalam
Malayalam
cinema

Vigathakumaran
Vigathakumaran
Movie Poster

A Promotional Notice of Balan

The Malayalam
Malayalam
film industry, India's fourth largest, is based in Kochi. Malayalam
Malayalam
films are known for bridging the gap between parallel cinema and mainstream cinema by portraying thought-provoking social issues with technical flair and low budgets. Filmmakers
Filmmakers
include Gopalakrishnan, Karun, Aravindan, K. G. George, Padmarajan, Sathyan Anthikad, Chandran and Bharathan. The first full-length Malayalam
Malayalam
feature was Vigathakumaran
Vigathakumaran
(1928, J. C. Daniel).[232] This movie is credited as the first Indian social drama feature film. Daniel is considered the father of the Malayalam
Malayalam
film industry. Balan (1938, S. Nottani) was the first Malayalam "talkie".[233][234] Malayalam
Malayalam
films were mainly produced by Tamil producers until 1947, when the first major film studio, Udaya Studio, opened in Kerala.[235] Neelakkuyil
Neelakkuyil
(1954) captured national interest by winning the President's silver medal. Scripted by the well-known Malayalam novelist, Uroob
Uroob
( P. Bhaskaran and Ramu Kariat) is often considered the first authentic Malayali film.[236] Newspaper Boy (1955), made by a group of students, was the first neo-realistic film offering.[237] Chemmeen
Chemmeen
(1965, Ramu Kariat) based on a story by Thakazhi Sivasankara Pillai, became the first South Indian film
Indian film
to win the National Film Award for Best Feature Film.[238] The first Indian 3D film
3D film
My Dear Kuttichathan (1984) was made in Malayalam.[239] The first CinemaScope film made in Malayalam
Malayalam
was Thacholi Ambu
Thacholi Ambu
(1978).[240]Villain (2017) was the first Indian film
Indian film
to be shot entirely in 8K resolution.[241] The period from the late 1980s to early 1990s is regarded as the Golden Age of Malayalam
Malayalam
cinema[242] with the emergence of actors Mohanlal, Mammootty, Suresh Gopi, Jayaram, Bharath Gopi, Murali, Thilakan
Thilakan
and Nedumudi Venu. The major actors who emerged after the Golden Age include Dileep, Jayasurya, Fahadh Faasil, Nivin Pauly, Prithviraj Sukumaran, Dulquer Salmaan, Kunchacko Boban
Kunchacko Boban
and Asif Ali (actor) and Manju Warrier. Notable filmmakers such as I. V. Sasi, Bharathan, Padmarajan, K. G. George, Sathyan Anthikad, Priyadarshan, A. K. Lohithadas, Siddique-Lal, T. K. Rajeev Kumar
T. K. Rajeev Kumar
and Sreenivasan. Art film
Art film
directors include Puttanna Kanagal, Dore Bhagavan, Siddalingaiah in Kannada; Gopalakrishnan, Karun and T.V. Chandran. K. R. Narayanan National Institute of Visual Science and Arts (KRNNIVSA) is an autonomous institute established by the Government
Government
of Kerala
Kerala
at Thekkumthala in Kottayam District
Kottayam District
in Kerala
Kerala
state as a training-cum-research centre in film/audio-visual technology.[243] Meitei[edit] Main article: Meitei cinema Meitei cinema is a small industry in the state of Manipur. This region's debut was a full-length black and white film Matamgee Manipur ( 1972). Meitei cinema started in the 1980s. Langlen Thadoi (1984) was Meitei cinema's first full-length colour film. Meitei cinema gained momentum following a ban on the screening of Hindi films in entertainment houses in Manipur. Screening of Hindi movies came to a halt despite reiterated appeals made by successive Chief Ministers. 80-100 movies are made each year. Cinemas opened in Imphal after World War II. The first full-length Meitei movie was made in 1972, followed by a boom in 2002. Imagi Ningthem (Aribam Syam Sharma) won the Grand Prix in the 1992 Nantes
Nantes
International Film Festival. A nationwide French telecast of Imagi Ningthem expanded the audience. After watching Ishanou (Aribam Syam Sharma), westerners began research on Lai Haraoba
Lai Haraoba
and Manipur's rich folklore. Maipak, Son of Manipur
Manipur
(1971) was the first Meitei documentary film. Among the notable Meitei films are Phijigee Mani, Leipaklei and Pallepfam. Marathi[edit] Main article: Marathi cinema Marathi films are produced in the Marathi language
Marathi language
in Maharashtra. It is one of the oldest efforts in Indian cinema. Dadasaheb Phalke
Dadasaheb Phalke
made the first indigenous silent film Raja Harishchandra
Raja Harishchandra
(1913) with a Marathi crew, which is considered by IFFI
IFFI
and NIFD to be part of Marathi cinema. The first Marathi talkie, Ayodhyecha Raja (1932, Prabhat Films). Shwaas
Shwaas
(2004) and Harishchandrachi Factory
Harishchandrachi Factory
(2009), became India's official Oscar entries. Today the industry is based in Mumbai, but it began in Kolhapur
Kolhapur
and then Pune. Some of the more notable films are Sangte Aika, Ek Gaon Bara Bhangadi, Pinjara, Sinhasan, Pathlaag, Jait Re Jait, Saamana, Santh Wahate Krishnamai, Sant Tukaram
Tukaram
and Shyamchi Aai. Marathi films feature the work of actors including Durga Khote, V. Shantaram, Nutan, Lalita Pawar, Nanda, Tanuja, Shriram Lagoo, Ramesh Deo, Seema Deo, Nana Patekar, Smita Patil, Sadashiv Amrapurkar, Sonali Kulkarni, Sonali Bendre, Urmila Matondkar, Reema Lagoo, Mamta Kulkarni, Padmini Kolhapure
Padmini Kolhapure
and Sachin Khedekar. Gorkha[edit] Gorkha cinema consists of Nepali language
Nepali language
films produced by Nepali-speaking Indians. Odia[edit] Main article: Cinema of Odisha The Odia language
Odia language
film industry operates in Bhubaneswar
Bhubaneswar
and Cuttack.[244] The first Odia talkie Sita Bibaha (1936) came from Mohan Sunder Deb Goswami. Shreeram Panda, Prashanta Nanda, Uttam Mohanty and Bijay Mohanty started the Oriya film industry by finding an audience and a fresh presentation.[245] The first colour film, Gapa Hele Be Sata (Athough a Story, It Is True), was made by Nagen Ray and photographed by Pune
Pune
Film Institute-trained cinematographer Surendra Sahu. The best year for Odia cinema was 1984 when Maya Miriga (Nirad Mohapatra) and Dhare Alua were showcased in Indian Panorama and Maya Miriga was invited to Critics Week at Cannes. The film received the Best Third World Film award at Mannheim Film Festival, Jury Award at Hawaii and was shown at the London Film Festival. Punjab[edit] Main article: Punjabi cinema K.D. Mehra made the first Punjabi film, Sheela (also known as Pind di Kudi (Rustic Girl)). Baby Noor Jehan was introduced as an actress and singer in this film. Sheela was made in Calcutta
Calcutta
and released in Lahore; it was a hit across the province. Its success led many more producers to make Punjabi films. As of 2009, Punjabi cinema
Punjabi cinema
had produced between 900 and 1,000 movies. The average number of releases per year in the 1970s was nine; in the 1980s, eight; and in the 1990s, six. In the 2000s Punjabi cinema
Punjabi cinema
revived with more releases every year featuring bigger budgets.[246] Manny Parmar made the first 3D Punjabi film, Pehchaan 3D (2013). Sindh[edit] Main article: Sindhi cinema The Sindhi film industry produces movies at intervals. The first was Abana (1958 ), which was a success throughout the country. Sindhi cinema then produced some Bollywood-style films such as Hal Ta Bhaji Haloon, Parewari, Dil Dije Dil Waran Khe, Ho Jamalo, Pyar Kare Dis: Feel the Power of Love and The Awakening. Numerous Sindhi have contributed in Bollywood, including G P Sippy, Ramesh Sippy, Nikhil Advani, Tarun Mansukhani, Ritesh Sidhwani and Asrani. Sherdukpen[edit] Director Songe Dorjee Thongdok introduced the first Sherdukpen-language film Crossing Bridges (2014). Sherdukpen is native to the north-eastern state of Arunachal Pradesh.[247] Tamil (Kollywood)[edit] Main article: Tamil cinema

Kalidas (1931), Tamil cinema's first talkie

Chennai
Chennai
once served as a base for all South Indian films and is South India's second largest production centre.[248] The first south Indian talkie film Kalidas (H. M. Reddy) was shot in Tamil and Telugu. Sivaji Ganesan
Sivaji Ganesan
became India's first actor to receive an international award when he won Best Actor at the Afro-Asian film festival in 1960 and the title of Chevalier in the Legion of Honour
Legion of Honour
by the French Government
French Government
in 1995.[101] Tamil cinema
Tamil cinema
is influenced by Dravidian politics,[102] led by film personalities such as C N Annadurai, M G Ramachandran, M Karunanidhi and Jayalalithaa
Jayalalithaa
who became Chief Ministers of Tamil Nadu.[103] K. B. Sundarambal was the first film personality to enter a state legislature in India.[249] She was also the first to command a salary of one lakh rupees. Tamil films are distributed to various parts of Asia, Southern Africa, Northern America, Europe
Europe
and Oceania.[250] The industry inspired Tamil film-making in Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Singapore and Canada. Rajnikanth
Rajnikanth
is referred to as "Superstar" and holds matinee idol status in South India.[251] The ₹26 crore (US$4.0 million) he earned for Sivaji (2007), made him the highest paid actor in Asia
Asia
after Jackie Chan. Kamal Haasan
Kamal Haasan
debuted in Kalathur Kannamma, for which he won the President's Gold Medal for Best Child Actor. Haasan is tied with Mammootty
Mammootty
and Bachchan for the most Best Actor National Film Awards, with three. With seven submissions, Kamal Haasan
Kamal Haasan
has starred in the highest number of Academy Award submissions. Critically acclaimed composers such as Ilaiyaraaja
Ilaiyaraaja
and A. R. Rahman
A. R. Rahman
work in Tamil cinema. Art film
Art film
directors include Santosh Sivan. Telugu (Tollywood)[edit] Main article: Telugu cinema

Raghupati Venkayya, "father of Telugu cinema"

India's greatest number of theatres are located in Telangana
Telangana
/ Andhra Pradesh and feature films in Telugu. In 2005, 2006 and 2008 the Telugu Film industry produced the largest number of films in India, releasing 268, 245 and 286 films, respectively.[252][253] Ramoji Film City, which holds the Guinness World Record
Guinness World Record
for the world's largest film production facility, is located in Hyderabad.[254] The Prasad IMAX
IMAX
in Hyderabad is the world's largest 3D IMAX
IMAX
screen[179][180] and is the world's most viewed screen.[181] The highest-grossing Telugu movie is Baahubali 2: The Conclusion. Raghupathi Venkaiah Naidu
Raghupathi Venkaiah Naidu
is considered the "father of Telugu cinema". The annual Raghupati Venkaiah Award was incorporated into the Nandi Awards to recognize contributions to the industry.[255] Chittor V. Nagaiah
Chittor V. Nagaiah
was the first multilingual Indian film
Indian film
actor, thespian, composer, director, producer, writer and playback singer. Nagaiah made significant contributions to Telugu cinema, and starred in some two hundred productions.[256] Regarded as one of the finest Indian method actors, he was Telugu's first matinee idol. His forte was intense characters, often immersing himself in the character's traits and mannerisms.[256] He was the first from South India
India
to be honoured with the Padma Shri.[257] He became known as India's Paul Muni.[44][258] S. V. Ranga Rao
S. V. Ranga Rao
was one of the first Indian actors to receive the international award at the Indonesian Film Festival, held in Jakarta, for Narthanasala
Narthanasala
in 1963.[259] N. T. Rama Rao
N. T. Rama Rao
was one of the most successful Telugu actors of his time.[260] B. Narsing Rao, K. N. T. Sastry and Pattabhirama Reddy garnered international recognition for their pioneering work in Parallel Cinema.[261][262] Adurthi Subba Rao won ten National Film Awards, Telugu cinema's highest individual awards, for his directorial work.[263] N .T. Rama Rao was an Indian actor, producer, director, editor and politician who earned three National Film Awards. He served as Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
for seven years over three terms. Bhanumathi Ramakrishna
Bhanumathi Ramakrishna
was a multilingual Indian film
Indian film
actress, drector, music director, singer, producer, author and songwriter.[264][265] Widely known as the first female super star of Telugu cinema, she is also known for her work in Tamil cinema. Ghantasala Venkateswara Rao
Ghantasala Venkateswara Rao
was an Indian film, composer, playback singer known for his works predominantly in Telugu cinema, and other languages. In 1970, he received the Padma Shri
Padma Shri
award. S. P. Balasubramanyam
S. P. Balasubramanyam
holds the Guinness World Record
Guinness World Record
of having sung the most number of songs for any male playback singer; the majority were in Telugu.[266][267][268] S. V. Ranga Rao, N. T. Rama Rao, Kanta Rao, Bhanumathi Ramakrishna, Savitri, Gummadi and Sobhan Babu
Sobhan Babu
received the Rashtrapati Award
Rashtrapati Award
for best performance in a leading role.[269][270] Sharada, Archana, Vijayashanti, Rohini, Nagarjuna Akkineni, and P. L. Narayana received the National Film Award for the best performance in acting. Chiranjeevi
Chiranjeevi
was listed among "the men who changed the face of the Indian Cinema" by IBN-live India.[271][272] Art film
Art film
directors include K. N. T. Sastry, B. Narsing Rao, Akkineni Kutumba Rao and Deva Katta. Tulu[edit] 30 to 40 films are made annually in Tulu. K. N. Tailor and Machchendra nath Pandeshwar are Tulu icons. Usually Tulu films are released in theatres across the Kanara
Kanara
region of Karnataka.[273] Enna Thangadi, was the first, released in 1971.The critically acclaimed Suddha won the award for Best Indian Film at the Osian film festival held at New Delhi
Delhi
in 2006.[274][275][276] Oriyardori Asal, released in 2011, is the most successful.[277] Koti Chennaya (1973, Vishu Kumar) was the first history-based. The first colour film was Kariyani Kattandi Kandani (1978, Aroor Bhimarao). Genres and styles[edit] Further information: Mumbai underworld film and Dacoit film Masala films[edit] Main article: Masala (film genre) Masala is a style of Indian cinema that mix genres in one work, especially in Bollywood, West Bengal
West Bengal
and South India. For example, one film can portray action, comedy, drama, romance and melodrama. These films tend to be musicals, with songs filmed in picturesque locations. Plots for such movies may seem illogical and improbable to unfamiliar viewers. The genre is named after masala, a mixture of spices in Indian cuisine. Parallel cinema[edit] Main article: Parallel Cinema Parallel Cinema, also known as Art Cinema or the Indian New Wave, is known for its realism and naturalism, addressing the sociopolitical climate. This movement is distinct from mainstream Bollywood
Bollywood
cinema and began around the same time as the French and Japanese New Waves. The movement began in Bengal (led by Ray, Sen and Ghatak) and then gained prominence in the regions. The movement was launched by Roy's Do Bigha Zamin
Do Bigha Zamin
(1953), which was both a commercial and critical success, winning the International Prize at the 1954 Cannes Film Festival.[76][77][278] Ray's films include The Apu Trilogy. Its three films won major prizes at the Cannes, Berlin and Venice Film Festivals, and are frequently listed among the greatest films of all time.[279][280][281][282] Other neo-realist filmmakers were Shyam Benegal, Karun, Gopalakrishnan[70] and Kasaravalli.[283] Production organizations[edit] More than 1000 production organizations operate in the Indian film industry, but few are successful. AVM Productions
AVM Productions
is the oldest surviving studio in India. Other major production houses include Yash Raj Films, Red Chillies Entertainment, Dharma Productions, Eros International, Ajay Devgn FFilms, Balaji Motion Pictures, UTV Motion Pictures, Raj Kamal Films International,Wunderbar studios, Indian Movies Limited and Geetha Arts.[284] Music[edit] See also: Filmi Music is a substantial revenue generator, with music rights alone accounting for 4–5% of net revenues.[22] The major film music companies are Saregama
Saregama
and Sony Music.[22] Film music accounts for 48% of net music sales.[22] A typical film may feature 5–6 choreographed songs.[285] The demands of a multicultural, increasingly globalized Indian audience led to a mixing of local and international musical traditions.[285] Local dance and music remain a recurring theme in India
India
and followed the Indian diaspora.[285] Playback singers such as Mohammad Rafi, Kishore Kumar, Lata Mangeshkar, S. P. Balasubrahmanyam and Yesudas
Yesudas
drew crowds to film music stage shows.[285] In the 21st century interaction increased between Indian artists and others.[286] Film locations[edit] In filmmaking, a location is any place where acting and dialogue are recorded. Sites where filming without dialog takes place is termed a second unit photography site. Filmmakers
Filmmakers
often choose to shoot on location because they believe that greater realism can be achieved in a "real" place. Location shooting is often motivated by budget considerations. The most popular locations are the main cities for each regional industry. Other locations include Manali and Shimla
Shimla
in Himachal Pradesh, Srinagar
Srinagar
and Ladakh
Ladakh
in Jammu and Kashmir, Lucknow, Agra
Agra
and Varanasi
Varanasi
in Uttar Pradesh, Ooty
Ooty
in Tamil Nadu, Amritsar
Amritsar
in Punjab, Darjeeling
Darjeeling
in West Bengal, Udaipur, Jodhpur, Jaisalmer
Jaisalmer
and Jaipur
Jaipur
in Rajasthan, Delhi, Kerala
Kerala
and Goa.[287][288] Awards[edit] Dadasaheb Phalke
Dadasaheb Phalke
is known as the "Father of Indian cinema".[26][27][28][29] The Dadasaheb Phalke
Dadasaheb Phalke
Award, for lifetime contribution to cinema, was instituted in his honour by the Government of India
India
in 1969, and is the country's most prestigious and coveted film award.[289]

Prominent government-sponsored film awards

Award Year of Inception Awarded by

National Film Awards 1954 Directorate of Film Festivals, Government
Government
of India

Bengal Film Journalists' Association Awards 1937 Government
Government
of West Bengal

Maharashtra
Maharashtra
State Film Awards 1963 Government
Government
of Maharashtra

Nandi Awards 1964 Governments of Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
and Telangana

Punjab Rattan Awards[290] 1940 Government
Government
of Punjab

Tamil Nadu State Film Awards 1967 Government
Government
of Tamil Nadu

Karnataka
Karnataka
State Film Awards 1967 Government
Government
of Karnataka

Orissa State Film Awards 1968 Government
Government
of Odisha

Kerala
Kerala
State Film Awards 1969 Government
Government
of Kerala

Prominent non-governmental awards

Award Year of Inception Awarded by

Filmfare
Filmfare
Awards Filmfare
Filmfare
Awards South 1954 Bennett, Coleman and Co. Ltd.

Screen Awards 1994 Screen Weekly

Zee Cine Awards 1998 Zee Entertainment Enterprises

Asianet
Asianet
Film Awards 1998 Asianet

IIFA Awards 2000 Wizcraft International Entertainment Pvt Ltd

Stardust Awards 2003 Stardust

Zee Gaurav Puraskar 2003 Zee Entertainment Enterprises

Apsara Awards 2004 Apsara Producers Guilt awards

Vijay Awards 2007 STAR Vijay

Marathi International Film and Theatre Awards 2010 Marathi Film Industry

South Indian International Movie Awards 2012 South Indian Film Industry

Punjabi International Film Academy Awards 2012 Parvasi Media Inc.

Prag Cine Awards 2013 Prag AM Television

Filmfare
Filmfare
Awards East 2014 Bennett, Coleman and Co. Ltd.

Institutes[edit] Government-run and private institutes provide formal education in various aspects of filmmaking. Some of the prominent ones include:

State Institute of Film and Television AJK Mass Communication Research Centre, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi Annapurna International School of Film and Media, Hyderabad Asian Academy of Film and Television Biju Pattnaik Film and Television Institute of Odisha BOFTA - Blue Ocean Film and Television Academy, Kodambakkam, Chennai, Tamil Nadu[291] Centre for advanced media studies, Patiala Department of Culture and Media studies, Central University of Rajasthan Film and Television Institute of India
India
(FTII), Pune Film-Theater Studies, SOH, Tamil Nadu Open University, Saidapet, Chennai Government
Government
Film and Television Institute, Bangalore[292] K. R. Narayanan National Institute of Visual Science and Arts (KRNNIVSA), Kottayam, Kerala[293] L. V. Prasad
L. V. Prasad
Film and TV Academy, Chennai[294] MGR Film and Television institute, Chennai Matrikas Film School[295] National Institute of Design, Ahmedabad[296] Palme Deor Media College, Tambaram west, Chennai
Chennai
and Arulananda Nagar, Thanjavur[297] Regional Government Film and Television Institute (RGFTI), Guwahati Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
Film and Television Institute, Calcutta School of Media and Cultural Studies, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai[298] Srishti School of Art, Design and Technology, Bangalore, Karnataka Whistling Woods International National school of Drama Delhi

See also[edit]

Bollywood
Bollywood
portal Film portal

Earliest color films in South India Bengaluru
Bengaluru
International Film Festival Bollywood
Bollywood
100 Crore Club Bollywood
Bollywood
1000 Crore Club Cinema of Bangladesh Cinema of Nepal Cinema of Pakistan Cinema of West Bengal List of Indian animated movies International Film Festival of India International Film Festival of Kerala Khans of Bollywood Kolkata International Film Festival List of cinema of the world List of highest-grossing Indian films List of Indian Academy Award winners and nominees Malayalam
Malayalam
cinema

References[edit]

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Further reading[edit]

Suresh Chabria; Paolo Cherchi Usai (1994). Light of Asia: Indian Silent Cinema, 1912–1934. Wiley Eastern. ISBN 978-81-224-0680-1.  Stanley A. Wolpert (2006). Encyclopedia of India. ISBN 978-0-684-31350-4.  Desai, Jigna (2004). Beyond Bollywood: The Cultural Politics of South Asian Diasporic Film. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-415-96684-9.  K. Moti Gokulsing; Wimal Dissanyake (2004). Indian Popular Cinema: A Narrative of Cultural Change. Trentham Books Limited. ISBN 978-1-85856-329-9.  Gulzar, Govin Nihalanni, & Saibel Chatterjee. Encyclopaedia of Hindi Cinema New Delhi: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2003. ISBN 81-7991-066-0. Khanna, Amit (2003), "The Business of Hindi Films", Encyclopaedia of Hindi Cinema: historical record, the business and its future, narrative forms, analysis of the medium, milestones, biographies, Encyclopædia Britannica (India) Private Limited, ISBN 978-81-7991-066-5. Gopal, Sangita; Moorti, Sujata (2008). Global Bollywood: Travels of Hindi Song and Dance. University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-4578-7.  Narweker, Sanjit, ed. Directory of Indian Film-Makers and Films. Flicks Books, 1994. ISBN 0-948911-40-9 Stanley A. Wolpert (2006). Encyclopedia of India. ISBN 978-0-684-31351-1.  Nowell-Smith, Geoffrey (1996). The Oxford History of World Cinema. Oxford University Press, US. ISBN 978-0-19-811257-0.  Passek, Jean-Loup, ed. (1983). Le cinéma indien. Paris: Centre national d'art et de culture Georges Pompidou. ISBN 9782864250371. OCLC 10696565.  Rajadhyaksha, Ashish; Willemen, Paul (1999). Encyclopedia of Indian Cinema. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-57958-146-6.  Stanley A. Wolpert (2006). Encyclopedia of India. ISBN 978-0-684-31351-1.  Velayutham, Selvaraj (2008). Tamil Cinema: The Cultural Politics of India's Other Film Industry. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-415-39680-6.  Watson, James L. (2009), Globalization, Encyclopædia Britannica. Gopal, Sangita; Moorti, Sujata (2008). Global Bollywood: Travels of Hindi Song and Dance. University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-4578-7.  Report of the Indian Cinematograph Committee 1927–1928. Superintendent, The Government
Government
Press, Madras. 1928.  Dwyer, Rachel; Patel, Divia (2002). Cinema India: The Visual Culture of Hindi Film. ISBN 978-0-8135-3175-5.  Culture and Representation: The Emerging Field of Media Semiotics/J A H Khatri/Ruby Press & Co./ISBN 978-93-82395-12-6/ 2013.

External links[edit]

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Assamese Bengali Bhojpuri English Gujarati Hindi Kannada Konkani Malayalam Meitei Marathi Oriya Punjabi Sanskrit Sindhi Tamil Telugu Tulu Urdu

Other topics

Actors Art Directors Awards Directors Choreographers Cinematographers Composers Costume designers Editors Festivals Lyricists Playback singers Producers Screenwriters Studios

List of Indian film
Indian film
series Science fiction films in India Highest-grossing films Most expensive films

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Media of India

Print

List of newspapers in India List of newspapers in India
India
by circulation List of newspapers in India
India
by readership

Electronic

List of news channels in India

News agencies

Press Trust of India United News of India Indo-Asian News Service

Radio

List of Indian-language radio stations Amateur radio in India

Television

Television in India List of television stations in India

Cinema

Cinema of India

Other

Media bias in India Indian paid news scandal Online journalism in India

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Indian animation industry

Notable feature films

The Banyan Deer (1957) Ek Anek Aur Ekta (1974) Raja Chinna Roja
Raja Chinna Roja
(1989) Deepa & Rupa: A Fairy Tale from India
India
(1990) Ramayana: The Legend of Prince Rama (1992) O' Faby
O' Faby
(1993) Pandavas: The Five Warriors (2000) Son of Aladdin
Son of Aladdin
(2003) Hanuman (2005) Bhagmati: The Queen of Fortune (2005) Kittu (2006) Bal Ganesh (2007) Inimey Nangathan (2007) Return of Hanuman
Return of Hanuman
(2007) My Friend Ganesha (2007) My Friend Ganesha 2 (2008) Cheenti Cheenti Bang Bang
Cheenti Cheenti Bang Bang
(2008) Ghatothkach
Ghatothkach
(2008) Dashavatar (2008) Jumbo (2008) Roadside Romeo
Roadside Romeo
(2008) Bal Ganesh 2 (2009) My Friend Ganesha 3 (2010) Lava Kusa: The Warrior Twins (2010) Ramayana: The Epic (2010) Toonpur Ka Super Hero
Toonpur Ka Super Hero
(2010) Main Krishna Hoon
Main Krishna Hoon
(2011) Crackers (2011) Anaganaga O Dheerudu (2011) Super K – The Movie (2011) Arjun – The Warrior Prince (2012) Chhota Bheem and the Curse of Damyaan
Chhota Bheem and the Curse of Damyaan
(2012) Eega
Eega
(2012) Delhi
Delhi
Safari (2012) Sons of Ram (2012) Krishna Aur Kans (2012) Goopi Gawaiya Bagha Bajaiya
Goopi Gawaiya Bagha Bajaiya
(2013) Mahabharat (2013) Once Upon a Time (2013) Chhota Bheem and the Throne of Bali (2014) Kochadaiiyaan
Kochadaiiyaan
(2014) Chaar Sahibzaade
Chaar Sahibzaade
(2014) True Love Story (2014) Alibaba Aur 41 Chor
Alibaba Aur 41 Chor
(2016) Chhota Bheem
Chhota Bheem
Himalayan Adventure (2016) Nagarahavu (2016) Chaar Sahibzaade: The Rise of Banda Singh Bahadur (2016) Hanuman Da' Damdaar
Hanuman Da' Damdaar
(2017)

Television

The Adventures of Tenali Raman Akbar Birbal Chamatkari Telephone Chhota Bheem Chorr Police Ghayab Aaya Kumbh Karan Little Krishna Motu Patlu Pakdam Pakdai Roll No 21 Vir The Robot Boy Shiva

Companies

Children's Film Society, India Crest Animation Studios Disney India Makuta Animation Pentamedia Graphics Tata Elxsi Toonz India
India
Ltd Trace VFX Turner International India

Key people

Nikhil Advani Suddhasattwa Basu Rajiv Chilaka Jugal Hansraj Karan Johar Ram Mohan Vijaya Mulay S. P. Muthuraman S. S. Rajamouli Soundarya Rajinikanth Gitanjali Rao Kodi Ramakrishna Singeetam Srinivasa Rao Binu Sasidharan Pankaj Sharma Manick Sorcar

Awards

National Film Award for Best Animated Film National Film Award for Best Non-Feature Animation Film

Schools, colleges and institutes

Arena Animation DSK International Campus Frameboxx Animation & Visual Effects Image College of Arts, Animation & Technology Industrial Design Centre National Institute of Design National Institute of Design, Gandhinagar University Institute of Animation & Multimedia, Chandigarh University

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Life in India

Arts and Entertainment Caste Cinema Citizenship Climate Cuisine Culture Corruption Demographics Economy Education Ethnic relations Flag Geography Government History Holidays Languages Law Police Politics Poverty Literacy Military Religion Sports Transport Unemployment Aviation

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World cinema

National cinema

Africa

Northern

Algeria Egypt Morocco Tunisia

Eastern

Djibouti Kenya Somalia Uganda

Western

Burkina Faso Cape Verde Ghana Liberia Niger Nigeria Senegal

Central

D.R. Congo Cameroon

Southern

Angola Madagascar South Africa

Asia

Eastern

China

Hong Kong

Japan Mongolia Korea

North Korea South Korea

Taiwan

Southern

Afghanistan Bangladesh Bhutan India

Bollywood South India West Bengal

Nepal Pakistan Sri Lanka

Jaffna

Southeastern

Burma Cambodia Indonesia Malaysia Philippines Singapore Thailand Vietnam

Western

Armenia Azerbaijan Bahrain Georgia Iran Iraq Israel

Jewish

Jordan Kuwait Lebanon Oman Palestine Saudi Arabia Syria Turkey U.A.E. Yemen

Central

Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan Turkmenistan Uzbekistan

Europe

Eastern

Belarus Czech Republic Hungary Moldova Poland Romania Russia

Russian Empire Soviet Union

Slovakia Slovenia Ukraine

Northern

Denmark Estonia Faroe Islands Finland Iceland Latvia Lithuania Norway Sweden

Southern

Albania Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Greece Italy Kosovo Macedonia Malta Montenegro Portugal Serbia

Yugoslavia

Spain

Galicia

Western

Austria Belgium France Germany Ireland Luxembourg Netherlands Switzerland United Kingdom

Northern Ireland Scotland Wales

North America

Canada

Quebec

Cuba Haiti Jamaica Mexico United States

Puerto Rico

Oceania

Australia Fiji New Zealand Samoa

South America

Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Paraguay Peru (Iquitos) Uruguay Venezuela

Intercontinental: Arab World Middle East Latin America

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National Film Awards

Directorate of Film Festivals Ministry of Information and Broadcasting Cinema of India

Special
Special
Award

Dadasaheb Phalke
Dadasaheb Phalke
Award

Feature Films

Golden Lotus Awards

Best Feature Film Best Director Best Popular Film Providing Wholesome Entertainment Best Children's Film Best First Film of a Director Best Animated Film

Silver Lotus Awards

Best Actor Best Actress Best Supporting Actor Best Supporting Actress Best Child Artist Best Music Direction Best Male Playback Singer Best Female Playback Singer Best Lyrics Best Production Design Best Audiography Best Choreography Best Cinematography Best Costume Design Best Editing Best Make-up Best Screenplay Best Special
Special
Effects

Best Film on Environment Conservation/Preservation Best Film on Family Welfare Best Film on National Integration Best Film on Other Social Issues Special
Special
Jury Award Special
Special
Mention

Silver Lotus Awards (Regional)

Assamese Bodo Bengali English Dogri Gujarati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Konkani Maithili Malayalam Meitei Marathi Odia Punjabi Sanskrit Tamil Telugu Urdu

Bhojpuri Khasi Kodava Kokborok Mishing Mizo Monpa Rabha Sherdukpen Tulu Wancho

Discontinued Awards

Second Best Feature Film Third Best Feature Film Best Story

Non-Feature Films

Golden Lotus Awards

Best Non-Feature Film Best Director

Silver Lotus Awards

Best First Film of a Director Best Audiography Best Cinematography Best Editing Best Music Direction Best Narration / Voice Over

Best Agriculture Film Best Animation Film Best Anthropological / Ethnographic Film Best Arts / Cultural Film Best Biographical Film Best Educational / Motivational / Instructional Film Best Environment/Conservation/Preservation Film Best Exploration / Adventure Film Best Film on Family Welfare Best Historical Reconstruction / Compilation Film Best Investigative Film Best Promotional Film Best Scientific Film Best Short Fiction Film Best Film on Social Issues Special
Special
Jury Award / Special
Special
Mention

Discontinued Awards

Best Experimental Film Best Filmstrip Best Industrial Film Best News Review Best Newsreel Cameraman

Writing on Cinema

Golden Lotus Awards

Best Book on Cinema Best Film Critic

Special
Special
Awards

Special
Special
Jury Award / Special
Special
Mention (Book on Cinema) Special
Special
Jury Award / Special
Special
Mention (Film Critic)

Awards by year

1953–1960

1953 (1st) 1954 (2nd) 1955 (3rd) 1956 (4th) 1957 (5th) 1958 (6th) 1959 (7th) 1960 (8th)

1961–1980

1961 (9th) 1962 (10th) 1963 (11th) 1964 (12th) 1965 (13th) 1966 (14th) 1967 (15th) 1968 (16th) 1969 (17th) 1970 (18th) 1971 (19th) 1972 (20th) 1973 (21st) 1974 (22nd) 1975 (23rd) 1976 (24th) 1977 (25th) 1978 (26th) 1979 (27th) 1980 (28th)

1981–2000

1981 (29th) 1982 (30th) 1983 (31st) 1984 (32nd) 1985 (33rd) 1986 (34th) 1987 (35th) 1988 (36th) 1989 (37th) 1990 (38th) 1991 (39th) 1992 (40th) 1993 (41st) 1994 (42nd) 1995 (43rd) 1996 (44th) 1997 (45th) 1998 (46th) 1999 (47th) 2000 (48th)

2001–present

2001 (49th) 2002 (50th) 2003 (51st) 2004 (52nd) 2005 (53rd) 2006 (54th) 2007 (55th) 2008 (56th) 2009 (57th) 2010 (58th) 2011 (59th) 2012 (60th) 2013 (61st) 2014 (62nd) 2015 (63rd) 2016 (64th) 2017 (65th)

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Indian submission for Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film

1957–1980

Mother India
India
(1957) Madhumati
Madhumati
(1958) The World of Apu
The World of Apu
(1959) Sahib Bibi Aur Ghulam
Sahib Bibi Aur Ghulam
(1962) Mahanagar
Mahanagar
(1963) Guide (1965) Amrapali (1966) Aakhri Khat
Aakhri Khat
(1967) Majhli Didi (1968) Deiva Magan (1969) Reshma Aur Shera (1971) Uphaar
Uphaar
(1972) Saudagar (1973) Garm Hava
Garm Hava
(1974) Manthan
Manthan
(1977) The Chess Players (1978) Payal Ki Jhankaar (1980)

1981–2000

Saaransh
Saaransh
(1984) Saagar (1985) Swati Mutyam
Swati Mutyam
(1986) Nayakan
Nayakan
(1987) Salaam Bombay!
Salaam Bombay!
(1988) Parinda
Parinda
(1989) Anjali (1990) Henna (1991) Thevar Magan
Thevar Magan
(1992) Rudaali
Rudaali
(1993) In Custody (1994) Kuruthipunal (1995) Indian (1996) Guru (1997) Jeans (1998) Earth (1999) Hey Ram
Hey Ram
(2000)

2001–present

Lagaan
Lagaan
(2001) Devdas (2002) Shwaas
Shwaas
(2004) Paheli
Paheli
(2005) Rang De Basanti
Rang De Basanti
(2006) Eklavya - The Royal Guard
Eklavya - The Royal Guard
(2007) Taare Zameen Par
Taare Zameen Par
(2008) Harishchandrachi Factory
Harishchandrachi Factory
(2009) Peepli Live (2010) Adaminte Makan Abu
Adaminte Makan Abu
(2011) Barfi!
Barfi!
(2012) The Good Road
The Good Road
(2013) Liar's Dice (2014) Court (2015) Visaranai (2016) Newton (2017)

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New Wave in cinema

By country

Argentina Australia Brazil Britain Czechoslovakia France Hong Kong India
India
(Malayalam) Iran Japan Kazakhstan Mexico Nigeria Romania Taiwan United States West Germany

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Filmfare
Filmfare
Awards

Category History of film

Merit awards

Best Film Director Actor Actress Supporting Actor Supporting Actress Best Performance in a Negative Role Best Performance in a Comic Role Male Debut Female Debut Debut Director Music Director Lyricist Male Playback Singer Female Playback Singer

Critics' awards

Best Film Best Actor Best Actress Documentary

Technical awards

Story Screenplay Dialogue Action Art Direction Background Score Cinematographer Editing Choreography Sound Design Special
Special
Effects Costume Design

Special
Special
awards

Lifetime Achievement RD Burman Award Special
Special
Award New Face of the Year Scene of the Year Power Award

Award ceremonies

1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

The Times Group Filmfare
Filmfare
Awards Category Filmfare Records and facts South awards East awards

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Filmfare
Filmfare
Awards South

Creative awards

Kannada

Best Film Best Director Best Actor Best Actress Best Supporting Actor Best Supporting Actress Best Music Director Best Lyricist Best Male Playback Best Female Playback

Malayalam

Best Film Best Director Best Actor Best Actress Best Supporting Actor Best Supporting Actress Best Music Director Best Lyricist Best Male Playback Best Female Playback

Tamil

Best Film Best Director Best Actor Best Actress Best Supporting Actor Best Supporting Actress Best Music Director Best Lyricist Best Male Playback Best Female Playback

Telugu

Best Film Best Director Best Actor Best Actress Best Supporting Actor Best Supporting Actress Best Music Director Best Lyricist Best Male Playback Best Female Playback

Technical awards

Best Cinematography Best Choreography Best Editor Best Art Director Best Action Director

Special
Special
awards

Best Male Debut Best Female Debut Critics Best Actor Special
Special
Jury Award Lifetime Achievement Award

Retired awards

Best Tamil Villain Best Tamil Comedian Best Telugu Villain Best Telugu Comedian

Award ceremonies

1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017

Filmfare Filmfare
Filmfare
Awards Filmfare
Filmfare
Awards East

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Cinema of Asia

Sovereign states

Afghanistan Armenia Azerbaijan Bahrain Bangladesh Bhutan Brunei Cambodia China Cyprus East Timor (Timor-Leste) Egypt Georgia India Indonesia Iran Iraq Israel Japan Jordan Kazakhstan North Korea South Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Lebanon Malaysia Maldives Mongolia Myanmar Nepal Oman Pakistan Philippines Qatar Russia Saudi Arabia Singapore Sri Lanka Syria Tajikistan Thailand Turkey Turkmenistan United Arab Emirates Uzbekistan Vietnam Yemen

States with limited recognition

Abkhazia Artsakh Northern Cyprus Palestine South Ossetia Taiwan

Dependencies and other territories

British Indian Ocean Territory Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islan

.