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Commercial broadcasting (also called private broadcasting) is the broadcasting of television programs and radio programming by privately owned corporate media, as opposed to state sponsorship. It was the United States′ first model of radio (and later television) during the 1920s, in contrast with the public television model in Europe during the 1930s, 1940s and 1950s, which prevailed worldwide, except in the United States and Brazil, until the 1980s.

Features




Advertising


Commercial broadcasting is primarily based on the practice of airing radio advertisements and television advertisements for profit. This is in contrast to public broadcasting, which receives government subsidies and usually does not have paid advertising interrupting the show. During pledge drives, some public broadcasters will interrupt shows to ask for donations. In the United States, non-commercial educational (NCE) television and radio exists in the form of community radio; however, premium cable services such as HBO and Showtime generally operate solely on subscriber fees and do not sell advertising. This is also the case for the portions of the two major satellite radio systems that are produced in-house (mainly music programming). Radio broadcasting originally began without paid commercials. As time went on, however, advertisements seemed less objectionable to both the public and government regulators and became more common. While commercial broadcasting was unexpected in radio, in television it was planned due to commercial radio's success. Television began with commercial sponsorship and later transformed to paid commercial time. When problems arose over patents and corporate marketing strategies, regulatory decisions were made by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to control commercial broadcasting.


Paid programming


Commercial broadcasting overlaps with paid services such as cable television, radio and satellite television. Such services are generally partially or wholly paid for by local subscribers and is known as leased access. Other programming (particularly on cable television) is produced by companies operating in much the same manner as advertising-funded commercial broadcasters, and they (and often the local cable provider) sell commercial time in a similar manner. The FCC's interest in program control began with the chain-broadcasting investigation of the late 1930s, culminating in the "Blue Book" of 1946, ''Public Service Responsibility For Broadcast Licensees''. The Blue Book differentiated between mass-appeal sponsored programs and unsponsored "sustaining" programs offered by the radio networks. This sustained programming, according to the Blue Book, had five features serving the public interest: *Sustaining programs balanced the broadcast schedule, supplementing the soap operas and popular-music programs receiving the highest ratings and most commercial sponsors *They allowed for the broadcast of programs which, by their controversial or sensitive nature, were unsuitable for sponsorship *They supplied cultural programming for smaller audiences *They provided limited broadcast access for non-profit and civic organizations *They made possible artistic and dramatic experimentation, shielded from the pressures of short-run rating and commercial considerations of a sponsor.Boddy, William. ''Fifties Television: the Industry and Its Critics.'' University of Illinois Press, 1992. Commercial time has increased 31 seconds per hour for all prime time television shows. For example, ABC has increased from 9 minutes and 26 seconds to 11 minutes and 26 seconds.


Ratings


Programming on commercial stations is more ratings-driven—particularly during periods such as sweeps in the US and some Latin American countries.


Other factors


Commercial broadcasting (especially free-to-air) is sometimes controversial. One reason is a perceived lack of quality and risk in the programming (to which more conservative elements respond that it is too risqué much of the time), an excessively high ratio of advertising to program time (especially on children's television), and a perceived failure to serve the local interest due to media consolidation. Commercial radio (in particular) is criticized for a perceived homogeneity in programming, covert politically motivated censorship of content, and a desire to cut costs at the expense of a station's identifiable personality. Politics is a major force in media criticism, with an ongoing debate (especially in the United States) as to what moral standards – if any – are to be applied to the airwaves.


Global commercial broadcasting





Americas


Commercial broadcasting is the dominant type of broadcasting in the United States and most of Latin America. "The US commercial system resulted from a carefully crafted cooperation endeavor by national corporations and federal regulators." The best-known commercial broadcasters in the United States today are the ABC, CBS, Fox and NBC television networks and the RTEX radio network, based in the United States. Major cable television in the United States operators include Comcast, Cox Communications and Charter Communications. Direct-broadcast satellite (DBS) services include AT&T's DirecTV and Dish Network. In an hour of broadcast time on a commercial broadcasting station, 10 to 20 minutes are typically devoted to advertising. Advertisers pay a certain amount of money to air their commercials, usually based upon program ratings or the audience measurement of a station or network. This makes commercial broadcasters more accountable to advertisers than public broadcasting, a disadvantage of commercial radio and television.


Europe


In Europe, commercial broadcasting coexists with public broadcasting (where programming is largely funded by broadcast receiver licences, public donations or government grants). In the UK, British Sky Broadcasting (BSkyB) is available and WorldSpace Satellite Radio was available.


Asia


One of the best-known commercial services in Asia is the oldest radio station in the region, Radio Ceylon.

List of major commercial broadcasters



Americas



Argentina

*América *ViacomCBS International Media Networks **Telefe *El Nueve *El Trece *Net TV

Bolivia

*ATB *Canal 11 *Bolivisión *Red UNO

Brazil

*Band *Globo *RecordTV *RedeTV! *SBT *CNT

Canada

;English language *CTV *Citytv *Global Television Network ;French language *TVA *Noovo

Chile

*UCV Televisión *Canal 13 *Chilevisión *Mega *La Red (Chilean TV channel) *Telecanal

Colombia

*RCN Televisión *Caracol Televisión *Channel 1 *Canal A

Costa Rica

*Teletica *Repretel

Ecuador

*Ecuavisa *Gamavisión *Teleamazonas *TC Televisión *Canal Uno

El Salvador

*Telecorporación Salvadoreña *Canal 12 *Megavisión

Guatemala

*Canal 3

Honduras

*Televicentro

Mexico

*Televisa *TV Azteca *Imagen Televisión *Grupo Multimedios *MVS Comunicaciones *XHQMGU-TDT

Panama

*Telemetro *TVN

Paraguay

*Paravisión *SNT *Trece *Unicanal

Peru

*América Televisión *Global Televisión *ATV *Latina Televisión *Panamericana Televisión *La Tele

United States

;English language *ABC *CBS *Fox *NBC *The CW ;Spanish language *Azteca América *Estrella TV *Telemundo *Univision

Uruguay

*Canal 4 *Canal 10 *Teledoce

Venezuela

*Venevisión *Televen *Globovisión *Meridiano Televisión *Vale TV

Asia



China

*Anhui Broadcasting Corporation (安徽广播电视台|ABC) — Anhui Province, China **Anhui Television (安徽卫视) - Nationwide *Beijing Media Network (北京广播电视台|BMN) — Beijing, China **Beijing Kaku (北京卡酷少儿卫视) **Beijing Television (北京卫视) *Fantastic Television Limited (奇妙電視|FTV) — Hong Kong, China **76HD - Hong Kong International Business Channel (香港國際財經台) **77HD - Hong Kong Open TV (香港開電視) *Guangdong Radio and Television (广东广播电视台|GRT) — Guangdong Province, China **Guangdong Television (广东卫视) **Southern Television Guangdong (广东南方卫视) **Guangdong Jiajia (广东嘉佳卡通卫视) *HK Television Entertainment Ltd (香港電視娛樂有限公司|HKTVE) — Hong Kong, China **96HD - ViuTVsix **97HD - ViuTV *Jiangsu Broadcasting Corporation (江苏省广播电视总台(集团)|JSBC) — Jiangsu Province, China **Jiangsu Television (江苏卫视) **Jiangsu Youman (江苏优漫卡通卫视) *Radio and Television Station of Shanghai, Shanghai Media Group (上海广播电视台、上海文化广播影视集团有限公司|RTS, SMG) — Shanghai, China **Dragon Television (Shanghai) (上海东方卫视) **Shanghai Toonmax (上海哈哈炫动卫视) *Shenzhen Media Group (深圳广播电影电视集团|SZMG) — Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, China **Shenzhen Television (深圳卫视) *Television Broadcasts Limited (電視廣播有限公司 "無綫電視"|TVB) — Hong Kong, China **81HD - TVB Jade (無線電視翡翠台) **82HD - TVB J2 **83HD - TVB News Channel (無線新聞台) **84HD - TVB Pearl (無線電視明珠台) **85HD - TVB Finance & Information Channel (無綫財經·資訊台) *Zhejiang Radio and Television Group (浙江广播电视集团|ZRTG) — Zhejiang Province, China **Zhejiang Television (浙江卫视)

India

*ViacomCBS **Colors TV *Zee Entertainment Enterprises **Zee TV *The Walt Disney Company India **Star India

Indonesia

*PT Media Nusantara Citra (MNC Media) **PT Rajawali Citra Televisi Indonesia (RCTI) **PT MNC Televisi Indonesia (MNCTV) **PT Global Informasi Bermutu (GTV) **PT MNC Televisi Network (iNews) *PT Elang Mahkota Teknologi Tbk (Emtek) **PT Omni Intivision (O Channel) **PT Surya Citra Media (SCM) ***PT Surya Citra Televisi (SCTV) ***PT Indosiar Visual Mandiri (Indosiar) ***PT Mentari Prima Televisi (Mentari TV) *PT Media Group **PT Media Televisi Indonesia (MetroTV) **PT Mitra Media Digital (Magna Channel) **PT Mitra Siaran Digital (BNTV) *PT Trans Media Corpora (Trans Media) **PT Televisi Transformasi Indonesia (Trans TV) **PT Duta Visual Nusantara Tivi Tujuh (Trans7) **PT Trans News Corpora (CNN Indonesia) (along with WarnerMedia) **PT Trans Business Corpora (CNBC Indonesia) (along with NBCUniversal) *PT Visi Media Group (VIVA) **PT Intermedia Capital (IMDA) ***PT Cakrawala Andalas Televisi (ANTV) **PT Lativi Media Karya (tvOne) *PT Net Visi Media (NET.) **PT Net Mediatama Televisi (NET.) *PT Kompas Gramedia (Kompas Gramedia) **PT Cipta Megaswara Televisi (Kompas TV) *PT Rajawali Corpora (Rajawali Corp) **PT Metropolitan Televisindo (RTV) *PT Mayapada Group (Mayapada) **PT Metropolitan Televisindo (RTV) *BeritaSatu Media Holdings **PT First Media News (BeritaSatu) *NT Corp **PT Nusantara Media Mandiri (Nusantara TV)

Japan (key stations)

*Tokyo TV Asahi (東京テレビ朝日) (EX) *Tokyo Fuji TV (東京フジテレビ) (CX) *Tokyo Nippon Television Network (東京日本テレビ放送網) (AX) *Tokyo Broadcasting System Television (東京TBSテレビ) (RX) *TV Tokyo (テレビ東京) (TX)

Malaysia


Commercial Radio Malaysia
**Hitz **Lite **Mix **Era **Hot FM **Sinar **Suria FM **Melody **My **One FM **BFM 89.9 **Fly FM **KK12FM **Best FM **Gegar **Kool FM **Manis FM **Zayan **988 FM **City Plus FM **goXuan **TEA FM **Raaga **Bapakku.FM **RADIOROSAK **Cats FM **IM4U FM 107.9 **Kupi-Kupi FM **VOKFM *Media Prima **Media Prima Television Networks ***Sistem Televisyen Malaysia Berhad (TV3) ***Natseven TV Sdn Bhd (NTV7) ***Metropolitan TV Sdn Bhd (8TV) ***Ch-9 Media Sdn Bhd (TV9) ***Wow Shop ***Drama Sangat **Ripple ***Synchrosound Studio Sdn Bhd (Hot FM) ***Max-Airplay Sdn Bhd (Fly FM) ***One FM Radio Sdn Bhd (One FM) ***Kool FM Radio Sdn Bhd (Kool FM) ***Ais Kacang ***SuperDeals **Primeworks Studios ***Primeworks Distribution ***Monkey Bone ***8unit **New Straits Times Press ***New Straits Times ***Berita Harian ***Harian Metro ***Hijab & Heels ***FullAMark ***Mind Campus **Big Tree ***Kurnia Outdoor ***UPD ***The Right Channel ***Gotcha ***Big Tree Seni Jaya *Astro Malaysia Holdings **Go Shop *Awesome Media Network Berhad **Awesome TV

Philippines (major station)

*ABS-CBN *GMA Network *TV5

South Korea

*Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) **MBC TV **MBC Drama **MBC Sports+ **MBC Every 1 **MBC M **MBC On **Channel M **MBC FM4U **MBC Standard FM **MBC C&I **MBC Plus **MBC Voice Acting Division **Vlending (joint venture with SBS) *Seoul Broadcasting System (SBS) **SBS TV **SBS Plus **SBS Sports **SBS CNBC (co-owned with NBCUniversal) **SBS funE **SBS Golf **SBS MTV (co-owned with ViacomCBS) **Nickelodeon (co-owned with ViacomCBS) **SBS Love FM **SBS Power FM **SBS V-Radio **Korea New Network (KNN) **Taegu Broadcasting Corporation (TBC) **Kwangju Broadcasting Corporation (KBC) **Taejon Broadcasting Corporation (TJB) **Ulsan Broadcasting Corporation (UBC) **Jeonju Television (JTV) **Cheongju Broadcasting (CJB) **Gangwon No.1 Broadcasting (G1) **Jeju Free International City Broadcasting System (JIBC) *OBS Gyeongin TV

Taiwan

*Taiwan Television (臺灣電視公司 "台視"|TTV) **TTV Main Channel **TTV Finance **TTV Variety **TTV News Channel *China Television (中國電視公司 "中視"|CTV) **CTV Main Channel **CTV News Channel **CTV Classic **CTV Bravo *Chinese Television System (中華電視公司 "華視"|CTS) **CTS Main Channel **CTS Education, Sports and Culture **CTS News and Info *Formosa Television (民間全民電視公司 "民視"|FTV) **FTV Main Channel **FTV Taiwan **FTV News **FTV One

Thailand

*Bangkok MCOT HD (30) *Bangkok ONE 31 HD (31) *Bangkok Thairath TV HD (32) *Bangkok Channel 3 HD (33) *Bangkok Amarin TV HD (34) *Bangkok Channel 7 HD (35) *Bangkok PPTV HD (36)

Vietnam

*Vietnam Television Corporation

Europe



Republic of Ireland

*Eir Sport **Eir Sport 1 **Eir Sport 2 *Virgin Media Television **Virgin Media One (SD, HD & +1) **Virgin Media Two (SD & HD) **Virgin Media Three (SD & HD) **Virgin Media Sport (SD & HD)

United Kingdom

*ViacomCBS International Media Networks **Channel 5 **5Select **5Spike **5Star **5USA **Paramount Network *ITV plc **ITV TV Network **ITV TV Channel

France

*TF1 Group **TF1 **TMC **TFX **TF1 Séries Films **LCI *M6 Group **M6 **W9 **6ter **Gulli *Canal+ Group **Canal+ **C8 **CNews **CStar

Italy

*Mediaset **Rete 4 **Canale 5 **Italia 1 **20 **Iris **La5 **Cine34 **Focus **Top Crime **TgCom24 **Mediaset Extra **Italia 2

Germany

*Mediengruppe RTL Deutschland **RTL Television **VOX **RTL II **RTLplus **Nitro **Super RTL **Toggo Plus **n-tv **VOXup *ProSiebenSat.1 Media **Sat.1 **ProSieben **kabel eins **sixx * Sat.1 Gold * ProSieben Maxx * kabel eins Doku

Netherlands

*RTL Nederland **RTL 4 **RTL 5 **RTL 7 **RTL 8 **RTL Z **RTL Crime **RTL Lounge **RTL Telekids *Talpa Network **Talpa TV ***Net5 ***SBS6 ***Veronica ***SBS9 **TV 538

Spain

*Atresmedia **Antena 3 **La Sexta **Neox **Nova **Mega **Atreseries *Mediaset España **Telecinco **Cuatro **FDF **Divinity **Energy **Boing **Be Mad TV HD

Portugal

*SIC **SIC **SIC Notícias **SIC Mulher **SIC Radical **SIC K **SIC Caras **SIC Internacional *TVI **TVI **TVI Ficção **TVI 24 **TVI Reality **TVI África **TVI Internacional

Oceania



Australia

*Seven Network *Nine Network *ViacomCBS International Media Networks **Network 10

New Zealand

*MediaWorks New Zealand *New Zealand Media and Entertainment *Sky

See also

*Broadcast clock *Broadcast network *Citizen media *Digital broadcasting *Leonard Plugge

References



External links

*Video
CURRENTLY UNAVAILABLE AS OF 29 APRIL 2011 --
Videoaudio
interview with Ray Fitzwalter on commercial TV in Britain, ''The rise and fall of ITV'', Frontline Club, London, May 2008. {{DEFAULTSORT:Commercial Broadcasting Category:Broadcasting