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Calgary
Calgary
(/ˈkælɡəri, -ɡri/ ( listen)) is a city in the Canadian province of Alberta. It is situated at the confluence of the Bow River
Bow River
and the Elbow River
Elbow River
in the south of the province, in an area of foothills and prairie, about 80 km (50 mi) east of the front ranges of the Canadian Rockies. The city anchors the south end of what Statistics Canada
Statistics Canada
defines as the "Calgary–Edmonton Corridor".[13] The city had a population of 1,239,220 in 2016, making it Alberta's largest city and Canada's third-largest municipality.[7] Also in 2016, Calgary
Calgary
had a metropolitan population of 1,392,609, making it the fourth-largest census metropolitan area (CMA) in Canada.[9] The economy of Calgary
Calgary
includes activity in the energy, financial services, film and television, transportation and logistics, technology, manufacturing, aerospace, health and wellness, retail, and tourism sectors.[14] The Calgary
Calgary
CMA is home to the second-highest number of corporate head offices in Canada
Canada
among the country's 800 largest corporations.[15] As a result of its strong performing economy, especially during periods of oil boom, Calgary
Calgary
holds many economic distinctions particularly in categories related to personal wealth. In 2015, Calgary
Calgary
had the highest number of millionaires per capita of any major city in Canada.[16] In 1988, Calgary
Calgary
became the first Canadian city to host the Winter Olympic Games. Calgary
Calgary
has been consistently recognized for its high quality of life. Economist Intelligence Unit
Economist Intelligence Unit
analysts have ranked Calgary
Calgary
as the 5th most livable city in the world in 2017 for the 8th consecutive year.[17]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Early history 2.2 Modern history (1900–present)

3 Geography

3.1 Flora and fauna 3.2 Neighbourhoods 3.3 Climate

4 Demographics

4.1 Ethnicity

5 Economy 6 Arts and culture 7 Attractions

7.1 Tallest buildings

8 Sports and recreation 9 Government

9.1 Municipal politics 9.2 Provincial politics 9.3 Federal politics 9.4 Crime 9.5 Military

10 Infrastructure

10.1 Transportation 10.2 Health care

11 Education

11.1 Primary and secondary 11.2 Post-secondary

12 Media 13 Notable people 14 Sister cities 15 See also 16 References 17 Further reading 18 External links

Etymology[edit] Calgary
Calgary
was named after Calgary
Calgary
on the Isle of Mull, Scotland.[18] In turn, the name originates from a compound of kald and gart, similar Old Norse
Old Norse
words, meaning "cold" and "garden", likely used when named by the Vikings who inhabited the Inner Hebrides.[19] Alternatively, the name might be Gaelic Cala ghearraidh, meaning "beach of the meadow (pasture)", or Gaelic for either "clear running water" or "bay farm".[18] Before contact, the indigenous peoples of Southern Alberta
Alberta
referred to the Calgary
Calgary
area as "elbow", in reference to the sharp bend made by the Bow River
Bow River
and the Elbow
Elbow
River. In some cases, the area was named after the reeds that grew along the riverbanks, which were used to fashion bows. In the Blackfoot language
Blackfoot language
(Siksiká), the area was known as Mohkínstsis akápiyoyis, meaning "elbow many houses", reflecting its strong settler presence. The shorter form of the Blackfoot name, Mohkínstsis, simply meaning "elbow".[3][4][20], has been the popular "indigenous" term for the Calgary
Calgary
area.[21][22][23][24][25] In the Stoney language
Stoney language
(Nakoda), the area was known as Wincheesh-pah or Wenchi Ispase, both meaning "elbow".[3][20] In the Cree Language, the area was known as Otoskwanik meaning "house at the elbow" or Otoskwunee meaning "elbow". In the Sarcee language (Tsuut’ina), the area was known as Kootsisáw meaning "elbow."[3][20] In the Slavey language, the area was known as Klincho-tinay-indihay meaning "many horse town", referring to the Calgary
Calgary
Stampede[3] and the city's settler heritage.[20] There have been several attempts to revive the indigenous names of Calgary. In response to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, local post-secondary institutions have adopted "official acknowledgements" of indigenous territory using the Blackfoot name of the City, Mohkínstsis.[23][24][26][27][28] In 2017, the Stoney Nakoda sent an application to the Government of Alberta, to rename Calgary
Calgary
as Wichispa Oyade meaning "elbow town",[29] however this has been challenged by the Piikani Blackfoot.[30] History[edit] Main article: Timeline of Calgary
Calgary
history Early history[edit] The Calgary
Calgary
area was inhabited by pre-Clovis people whose presence has been traced back at least 11,000 years.[31] Before the arrival of Europeans, the area was inhabited by the Blackfoot, Blood, Peigan and the Tsuu T'ina First Nations
First Nations
peoples, all of which were part of the Blackfoot Confederacy.[citation needed] In 1787, cartographer David Thompson spent the winter with a band of Peigan encamped along the Bow River. He was a Hudson's Bay Company trader and the first recorded European to visit the area. John Glenn was the first documented European settler in the Calgary
Calgary
area, in 1873.[32]

In 1875, the North-West Mounted Police
North-West Mounted Police
erected Fort Calgary
Fort Calgary
in an effort to police the area.

In 1875, the site became a post of the North-West Mounted Police
North-West Mounted Police
(now the Royal Canadian Mounted Police
Royal Canadian Mounted Police
or RCMP). The NWMP detachment was assigned to protect the western plains from US whisky traders, and to protect the fur trade. Originally named Fort Brisebois, after NWMP officer Éphrem-A. Brisebois, it was renamed Fort Calgary
Fort Calgary
in 1876 by Colonel James Macleod. When the Canadian Pacific Railway
Canadian Pacific Railway
reached the area in 1883, and a rail station was constructed, Calgary
Calgary
began to grow into an important commercial and agricultural centre. Over a century later, the Canadian Pacific Railway headquarters moved to Calgary
Calgary
from Montreal
Montreal
in 1996.[33] Calgary
Calgary
was officially incorporated as a town in 1884, and elected its first mayor, George Murdoch. In 1894, it was incorporated as "The City of Calgary" in what was then the North-West Territories.[34] The Calgary Police Service
Calgary Police Service
was established in 1885 and assumed municipal, local duties from the NWMP.[35] The Calgary Fire of 1886
Calgary Fire of 1886
occurred on November 7, 1886. Fourteen buildings were destroyed with losses estimated at $103,200. Although no one was killed or injured,[36] city officials drafted a law requiring all large downtown buildings to be built with Paskapoo sandstone, to prevent this from happening again.[37] After the arrival of the railway, the Dominion Government started leasing grazing land at minimal cost (up to 100,000 acres (400 km2) for one cent per acre per year). As a result of this policy, large ranching operations were established in the outlying country near Calgary. Already a transportation and distribution hub, Calgary
Calgary
quickly became the centre of Canada's cattle marketing and meatpacking industries.[citation needed] By the late 19th century, the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) expanded into the interior and established posts along rivers that later developed into the modern cities of Winnipeg, Calgary
Calgary
and Edmonton. In 1884, the HBC established a sales shop in Calgary. The HBC also built the first of the grand "original six" department stores in Calgary
Calgary
in 1913, the others that followed are Edmonton, Vancouver, Victoria, Saskatoon, and Winnipeg.[38][39] Modern history (1900–present)[edit]

Rounding up cattle for the first Calgary Stampede
Calgary Stampede
in 1912. The Stampede is one of the world's largest rodeos.

Between 1896 and 1914 settlers from all over the world poured into the area in response to the offer of free "homestead" land.[40] Agriculture and ranching became key components of the local economy, shaping the future of Calgary
Calgary
for years to come.[citation needed] The world-famous Calgary
Calgary
Stampede, still held annually in July, was started by four wealthy ranchers as a small agricultural show in 1912.[41] It is now known as the "greatest outdoor show on earth".[42] Oil was first discovered in Alberta
Alberta
in 1902,[43] but it did not become a significant industry in the province until 1947 when reserves of it were discovered near Leduc. Calgary
Calgary
quickly found itself at the centre of the ensuing oil boom. The city's economy grew when oil prices increased with the Arab Oil Embargo of 1973. The population increased by 272,000 in the eighteen years between 1971 (403,000) and 1989 (675,000) and another 345,000 in the next eighteen years (to 1,020,000 in 2007). During these boom years, skyscrapers were constructed and the relatively low-rise downtown quickly became dense with tall buildings.[44] Calgary's economy was so closely tied to the oil industry that the city's boom peaked with the average annual price of oil in 1981.[45] The subsequent drops in oil prices were cited by industry as reasons for a collapse in the oil industry and consequently the overall Calgary
Calgary
economy. Low oil prices prevented a full recovery until the 1990s.[46]

From 1971, the population of Calgary
Calgary
rose significantly, with many high-rises constructed to accommodate the growth.

With the energy sector employing a huge number of Calgarians, the fallout from the economic slump of the early 1980s was significant, and the unemployment rate soared.[47] By the end of the decade, however, the economy was in recovery. Calgary
Calgary
quickly realized that it could not afford to put so much emphasis on oil and gas, and the city has since become much more diverse, both economically and culturally. The period during this recession marked Calgary's transition from a mid-sized and relatively nondescript prairie city into a major cosmopolitan and diverse centre. This transition culminated in the city hosting Canada's first Winter Olympics in 1988.[48] The success of these Games[49] essentially put the city on the world stage. Thanks in part to escalating oil prices, the economy in Calgary
Calgary
and Alberta
Alberta
was booming until the end of 2009, and the region of nearly 1.1 million people was home to the fastest growing economy in the country.[50] While the oil and gas industry comprise an important part of the economy, the city has invested a great deal into other areas such as tourism and high-tech manufacturing. Over 3.1 million people now visit the city annually[51] for its many festivals and attractions, especially the Calgary
Calgary
Stampede. The nearby mountain resort towns of Banff, Lake Louise, and Canmore are also becoming increasingly popular with tourists, and are bringing people into Calgary
Calgary
as a result. Other modern industries include light manufacturing, high-tech, film, e-commerce, transportation, and services. Widespread flooding throughout southern Alberta, including on the Bow and Elbow
Elbow
rivers, forced the evacuation of over 75,000 city residents on June 21, 2013, and left large areas of the city, including downtown, without power.[52][53] Geography[edit]

View of Calgary
Calgary
from Nose Hill Park. The city is located in a transition zone between the Rocky Mountain Foothills
Rocky Mountain Foothills
and the Prairies.

Calgary
Calgary
is located at the transition zone between the Canadian Rockies foothills and the Canadian Prairies. The city lies within the foothills of the Parkland Natural Region and the Grasslands Natural Region.[54] Downtown Calgary
Downtown Calgary
is about 1,042.4 m (3,420 ft) above sea level,[10] and the airport is 1,076 m (3,531 ft).[55] In 2011, the city covered a land area of 825.29 km2 (318.65 sq mi).[56] Two rivers run through the city. The Bow River
Bow River
is the larger and it flows from the west to the south. The Elbow River
Elbow River
flows northwards from the south until it converges with the Bow River
Bow River
at the historic site of Fort Calgary
Fort Calgary
near downtown. Since the climate of the region is generally dry, dense vegetation occurs naturally only in the river valleys, on some north-facing slopes, and within Fish Creek Provincial Park.[citation needed] The City of Calgary, 848 km2 (327 sq mi) in size,[57] consists of an inner city surrounded by suburban communities of various density.[58] The city is immediately surrounded by two municipal districts – the Municipal District of Foothills No. 31
Municipal District of Foothills No. 31
to the south and Rocky View County
Rocky View County
to the north, west and east. Proximate urban communities beyond the city within the Calgary Region
Calgary Region
include: the City of Airdrie to the north; the City of Chestermere, the Town of Strathmore and the Hamlet of Langdon to the east; the towns of Okotoks and High River
High River
to the south; and the Town of Cochrane to the northwest.[59] Numerous rural subdivisions are located within the Elbow
Elbow
Valley, Springbank and Bearspaw areas to the west and northwest.[60][61][62] The Tsuu T'ina Nation Indian Reserve No. 145 borders Calgary
Calgary
to the southwest.[59] Over the years, the city has made many land annexations to facilitate growth. In the most recent annexation of lands from Rocky View County, completed in July 2007, the city annexed Shepard, a former hamlet, and placed its boundaries adjacent to the Hamlet of Balzac and City of Chestermere, and very close to the City of Airdrie.[63] Flora and fauna[edit] Numerous plant and animal species are found within and around Calgary. The Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir
Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir
(Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca) comes near the northern limit of its range at Calgary.[64] Another conifer of widespread distribution found in the Calgary
Calgary
area is the White Spruce (Picea glauca).[citation needed] Neighbourhoods[edit] Main article: List of neighbourhoods in Calgary

Located east of downtown Calgary, Inglewood is one of the city's oldest residential neighbourhoods.

The downtown region of the city consists of five neighbourhoods: Eau Claire (including the Festival District), the Downtown West End, the Downtown Commercial Core, Chinatown, and the Downtown East Village (also part of the Rivers District). The commercial core is itself divided into a number of districts including the Stephen Avenue
Stephen Avenue
Retail Core, the Entertainment District, the Arts District and the Government District. Distinct from downtown and south of 9th Avenue is Calgary's densest neighbourhood, the Beltline. The area includes a number of communities such as Connaught, Victoria Crossing and a portion of the Rivers District. The Beltline is the focus of major planning and rejuvenation initiatives on the part of the municipal government[65] to increase the density and liveliness of Calgary's centre.[citation needed] Adjacent to, or directly radiating from the downtown are the first of the inner-city communities. These include Crescent Heights, Hounsfield Heights/Briar Hill, Hillhurst/Sunnyside (including Kensington BRZ), Bridgeland, Renfrew, Mount Royal, Scarboro, Sunalta, Mission, Ramsay and Inglewood and Albert Park/Radisson Heights directly to the east. The inner city is, in turn, surrounded by relatively dense and established neighbourhoods such as Rosedale and Mount Pleasant to the north; Bowness, Parkdale and Glendale to the west; Park Hill, South Calgary
Calgary
(including Marda Loop), Bankview, Altadore, and Killarney to the south; and Forest Lawn/International Avenue to the east. Lying beyond these, and usually separated from one another by highways, are suburban communities including Evergreen, Somerset, Auburn Bay Country Hills, Sundance, Riverbend, and McKenzie Towne. In all, there are over 180 distinct neighbourhoods within the city limits.[66] Several of Calgary's neighbourhoods were initially separate municipalities that were annexed by the city as it grew. These include Bowness, Montgomery, and Forest Lawn. Climate[edit] Calgary
Calgary
experiences a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb). It falls into the NRC Plant Hardiness Zone 4a.[67] According to Environment Canada, average daily temperatures in Calgary
Calgary
range from 16.5 °C (61.7 °F) in July to −6.8 °C (19.8 °F) in December.[68]

Ice skating on the frozen stream in Bowness Park. Winters in Calgary are cold with temperatures dropping below −20 °C (−4 °F).

Winters are cold and the air temperature can drop to or below −20 °C (−4 °F) on average of 22 days of the year and −30 °C (−22 °F) on average of 3.7 days of the year, and are often broken up by warm, dry Chinook winds that blow into Alberta
Alberta
over the mountains. These winds can raise the winter temperature by 20 °C (36 °F), and as much as 30 °C (54 °F) in just a few hours, and may last several days.[69] As well, Calgary's proximity to the Rocky Mountains affects winter temperature average mean temperature with a mixture of lows and highs, and tends to result in a mild winter for a city in the Prairie Provinces. Temperatures are also affected by the wind chill factor, Calgary's average wind speed is 14.2 km/h, one of the highest in Canadian cities.[70] In summer, daytime temperatures can exceed 30 °C (86 °F) an average of 5.1 days anytime in June, July and August, and occasionally as late as September or as early as May, and in winter drop below or at −30 °C (−22 °F) 3.7 days of the year. As a consequence of Calgary's high elevation and aridity, summer evenings tend to cool off, with monthly averages below 10 °C (50 °F) throughout the summer months.[68] Calgary
Calgary
has the most sunny days year round of Canada's 100 largest cities, with just over 332 days of sun;[68] it has on average 2,396 hours of sunshine annually.[68] With an average relative humidity of 55% in the winter and 45% in the summer (15:00 MST),[68] Calgary International Airport
Calgary International Airport
in the northeastern section of the city receives an average of 418.8 mm (16.49 in) of precipitation annually, with 326.4 mm (12.85 in) of that occurring in the form of rain, and 129 cm (51 in) as snow.[68] The most rainfall occurs in June and the most snowfall in March.[68] Calgary has also recorded snow every month of the year.[71] It is uncommon in July, but not unheard of. The last notable event was on July 15, 1999.[72][73] Thunderstorms can be frequent and some times severe[74] with most of them occurring in the summer months. Calgary
Calgary
lies within Alberta's Hailstorm Alley and is prone to damaging hailstorms every few years. A hailstorm that struck Calgary
Calgary
on September 7, 1991, was one of the most destructive natural disasters in Canadian history, with over $400 million in damage.[75] Being west of the dry line on most occasions, tornadoes are rare in the region. The highest temperature ever recorded in Calgary
Calgary
was 36.1 °C (97 °F) on July 15, 1919, and July 25, 1933.[68][76] The coldest temperature ever recorded was −45.0 °C (−49 °F) on February 4, 1893.[68]

Climate data for Calgary
Calgary
International Airport, 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1881–present

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high humidex 17.3 21.9 25.2 27.2 31.6 33.3 36.9 36.0 32.9 28.7 22.2 19.4 36.9

Record high °C (°F) 17.6 (63.7) 22.6 (72.7) 25.4 (77.7) 29.4 (84.9) 32.4 (90.3) 35.0 (95) 36.1 (97) 35.6 (96.1) 33.3 (91.9) 29.4 (84.9) 22.8 (73) 19.5 (67.1) 36.1 (97)

Average high °C (°F) −0.9 (30.4) 0.7 (33.3) 4.4 (39.9) 11.2 (52.2) 16.3 (61.3) 19.8 (67.6) 23.2 (73.8) 22.8 (73) 17.8 (64) 11.7 (53.1) 3.4 (38.1) −0.8 (30.6) 10.8 (51.4)

Daily mean °C (°F) −7.1 (19.2) −5.4 (22.3) −1.6 (29.1) 4.6 (40.3) 9.7 (49.5) 13.7 (56.7) 16.5 (61.7) 15.8 (60.4) 11.0 (51.8) 5.2 (41.4) −2.4 (27.7) −6.8 (19.8) 4.4 (39.9)

Average low °C (°F) −13.2 (8.2) −11.4 (11.5) −7.5 (18.5) −2.0 (28.4) 3.1 (37.6) 7.5 (45.5) 9.8 (49.6) 8.8 (47.8) 4.1 (39.4) −1.4 (29.5) −8.2 (17.2) −12.8 (9) −1.9 (28.6)

Record low °C (°F) −44.4 (−47.9) −45.0 (−49) −37.2 (−35) −30.0 (−22) −16.7 (1.9) −3.3 (26.1) −0.6 (30.9) −3.2 (26.2) −13.3 (8.1) −25.7 (−14.3) −35.0 (−31) −42.8 (−45) −45.0 (−49)

Record low wind chill −52.1 −52.6 −44.7 −37.1 −23.7 −5.8 0.0 −4.1 −12.5 −34.3 −47.9 −55.1 −55.1

Average precipitation mm (inches) 9.4 (0.37) 9.4 (0.37) 17.8 (0.701) 25.2 (0.992) 56.8 (2.236) 94.0 (3.701) 65.5 (2.579) 57.0 (2.244) 45.1 (1.776) 15.3 (0.602) 13.1 (0.516) 10.2 (0.402) 418.8 (16.488)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 0.1 (0.004) 0.1 (0.004) 2.2 (0.087) 10.8 (0.425) 46.1 (1.815) 93.9 (3.697) 65.5 (2.579) 57.0 (2.244) 41.7 (1.642) 7.5 (0.295) 1.5 (0.059) 0.3 (0.012) 326.4 (12.85)

Average snowfall cm (inches) 15.3 (6.02) 14.5 (5.71) 22.7 (8.94) 18.8 (7.4) 11.9 (4.69) 0.1 (0.04) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 3.9 (1.54) 10.0 (3.94) 16.6 (6.54) 15.0 (5.91) 128.8 (50.71)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) 7.3 6.8 9.2 9.0 11.2 13.8 13.0 10.6 9.1 7.2 7.6 6.9 111.8

Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm) 0.27 0.20 1.3 4.1 10.1 13.8 13.0 10.5 8.7 4.2 1.4 0.40 67.9

Average snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm) 7.7 7.4 9.5 6.4 2.6 0.07 0.0 0.10 1.3 4.1 7.4 7.7 54.2

Average relative humidity (%) 54.5 53.2 50.3 40.7 43.5 48.6 46.8 44.6 44.3 44.3 54.0 55.3 48.3

Mean monthly sunshine hours 119.5 144.6 177.2 220.2 249.4 269.9 314.1 284.0 207.0 175.4 121.1 114.0 2,396.3

Percent possible sunshine 45.6 51.3 48.2 53.1 51.8 54.6 63.1 62.9 54.4 52.7 45.0 46.0 52.4

Source: Environment Canada[68]

Climate data for University of Calgary, 1971–2000 normals, extremes 1964–1990

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 16.1 (61) 19.5 (67.1) 20.5 (68.9) 28.0 (82.4) 31.5 (88.7) 32.2 (90) 33.9 (93) 33.5 (92.3) 33.9 (93) 28.0 (82.4) 22.2 (72) 18.0 (64.4) 33.9 (93)

Average high °C (°F) −2.6 (27.3) −0.7 (30.7) 3.8 (38.8) 10.7 (51.3) 16.0 (60.8) 20.0 (68) 22.6 (72.7) 21.7 (71.1) 16.4 (61.5) 12.2 (54) 2.9 (37.2) −1.7 (28.9) 10.11 (50.19)

Daily mean °C (°F) −8.1 (17.4) −6.2 (20.8) −1.7 (28.9) 4.6 (40.3) 9.8 (49.6) 13.9 (57) 16.2 (61.2) 15.4 (59.7) 10.3 (50.5) 6.0 (42.8) −2.3 (27.9) −6.9 (19.6) 4.25 (39.64)

Average low °C (°F) −13.5 (7.7) −11.6 (11.1) −7.2 (19) −1.5 (29.3) 3.6 (38.5) 7.7 (45.9) 9.7 (49.5) 9.0 (48.2) 4.2 (39.6) −0.3 (31.5) −7.5 (18.5) −12.0 (10.4) −1.62 (29.1)

Record low °C (°F) −40.6 (−41.1) −38.0 (−36.4) −31.7 (−25.1) −20.6 (−5.1) −11.1 (12) −1.5 (29.3) 0.0 (32) −2.0 (28.4) −10.6 (12.9) −24.0 (−11.2) −34.0 (−29.2) −41.1 (−42) −41.1 (−42)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 17.5 (0.689) 13.9 (0.547) 18.7 (0.736) 29.1 (1.146) 64.0 (2.52) 64.4 (2.535) 66.8 (2.63) 60.2 (2.37) 51.8 (2.039) 14.8 (0.583) 13.2 (0.52) 16.5 (0.65) 430.9 (16.965)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 0.2 (0.008) 0.1 (0.004) 1.6 (0.063) 13.3 (0.524) 54.9 (2.161) 64.4 (2.535) 66.8 (2.63) 60.2 (2.37) 47.1 (1.854) 5.0 (0.197) 0.6 (0.024) 0.2 (0.008) 314.4 (12.378)

Average snowfall cm (inches) 17.3 (6.81) 13.8 (5.43) 17.1 (6.73) 15.8 (6.22) 9.1 (3.58) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 4.7 (1.85) 9.7 (3.82) 12.6 (4.96) 16.4 (6.46) 116.5 (45.86)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) 9.1 7.8 8.1 8.0 11.5 11.9 12.6 11.3 10.2 5.4 6.8 8.1 110.8

Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm) 0.40 0.05 0.85 3.7 10.5 11.9 12.6 11.3 9.6 3.0 0.68 0.42 65

Average snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm) 9.1 7.8 7.7 5.6 2.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.7 3.1 6.4 7.7 51.3

Source: Environment Canada

Demographics[edit]

Federal census population history

Year Pop. ±%

1891 3,876 —    

1901 4,091 +5.5%

1906 11,967 +192.5%

1911 43,704 +265.2%

1916 56,514 +29.3%

1921 63,305 +12.0%

1926 65,291 +3.1%

1931 83,761 +28.3%

1936 83,407 −0.4%

1941 88,904 +6.6%

1946 100,044 +12.5%

1951 129,060 +29.0%

1956 181,780 +40.8%

1961 249,641 +37.3%

1966 330,575 +32.4%

1971 403,319 +22.0%

1976 469,917 +16.5%

1981 592,743 +26.1%

1986 636,107 +7.3%

1991 710,795 +11.7%

1996 768,082 +8.1%

2001 878,866 +14.4%

2006 988,193 +12.4%

2011 1,096,833 +11.0%

2016 1,239,220 +13.0%

Source: Statistics Canada [77][78][79][80][81][82][83][84][85][86][87] [56][88][89][90][91][92][93][94][95][96][97][7]

Main article: Demographics of Calgary The population of the City of Calgary
City of Calgary
according to its 2017 municipal census is 1,246,337,[98] a change of 6999900000000000000♠0.9% from its 2016 municipal census population of 1,235,171.[99] In the 2016 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, the City of Calgary
City of Calgary
recorded a population of 1,239,220 living in 466,725 of its 489,650 total private dwellings, a change of 7001130000000000000♠13% from its 2011 population of 1,096,833. With a land area of 825.56 km2 (318.75 sq mi), it had a population density of 1,501.1/km2 (3,887.7/sq mi) in 2016.[7] Calgary
Calgary
was ranked 1st among the three cities in Canada
Canada
that saw their population grow by more than 100,000 people between 2011 and 2016. During this time Calgary
Calgary
saw a population growth of 142,387 people, followed by Edmonton
Edmonton
at 120,345 people and Toronto
Toronto
at 116,511 people.[100]

Religion in Calgary
Calgary
(2011 census)

Religion

Percent(%)

Christian

54.9%

No religion

32.3%

Muslim

5.2%

Sikh

2.6%

Buddhist

2.1%

Hindu

1.6%

Jewish

0.6%

Other

0.7%

In the 2011 Census, the City of Calgary
City of Calgary
had a population of 1,096,833 living in 423,417 of its 445,848 total dwellings, a change of 10.9% from its 2006 adjusted population of 988,812. With a land area of 825.29 km2 (318.65 sq mi), it had a population density of 1,329.0/km2 (3,442.2/sq mi) in 2011.[56] According to the 2011 Statistics Canada
Statistics Canada
Census, persons aged 14 years and under made up 17.9% of the population, and those aged 65 and older made up 9.95%. The median age was 36.4 years. In 2011, the city's gender population was 49.9% male and 50.1% female.[101] The Calgary
Calgary
census metropolitan area (CMA) is the fifth-largest CMA in Canada
Canada
and largest in Alberta. It had a population of 1,214,839 in the 2011 Census compared to its 2006 population of 1,079,310. Its five-year population change of 12.6 percent was the highest among all CMAs in Canada
Canada
between 2006 and 2011. With a land area of 5,107.55 km2 (1,972.04 sq mi), the Calgary
Calgary
CMA had a population density of 237.9/km2 (616.0/sq mi) in 2011.[102] Statistics Canada's latest estimate of the Calgary
Calgary
CMA population, as of July 1, 2013, is 1,364,827.[103] The population within an hour commuting distance of the city is 1,511,755.[104] As a consequence of the large number of corporations, as well as the presence of the energy sector in Alberta, Calgary
Calgary
has a median family income of $104,530.[105] Christians make up 54.9% of the population, while 32.3% have no religious affiliation. Other religions in the city are Muslims (5.2%), Sikhs (2.6%) and Buddhists (2.1%).[106] Its St. Mary’s Cathedral is the see of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Calgary. There is also an Anglican Diocese of Calgary. Ethnicity[edit] As of 2016, 36.2% of the population belong to a visible minority group. Of the largest Canadian cities, Calgary
Calgary
ranked fourth in proportion of visible minorities, behind Toronto, Vancouver, and Winnipeg. Among the immigrants arriving in Calgary
Calgary
between 2001 and 2006, 78% belonged to a visible minority group. South Asians (mainly from India
India
or Pakistan) make up the largest group (7.5%), followed by Chinese (6.8%). There were more than 200 different ethnic origins in Calgary, the most frequently reported were English, Scottish, Canadian, German and Irish.[107] Economy[edit] See also: Economy of Alberta

Employment by industry[108]

Industry Calgary Alberta

Agriculture 6.1% 10.9%

Manufacturing 15.8% 15.8%

Trade 15.9% 15.8%

Finance 6.4% 5.0%

Health and education 25.1% 18.8%

Business services 25.1% 18.8%

Other services 16.5% 18.7%

Labour force (2016)[109]

Rate Calgary Alberta Canada

Employment 66.9% 66.3% 61.2%

Unemployment 10.3% 9.0% 6.8%

Participation 74.6% 72.9% 65.6%

Calgary
Calgary
is recognized as a Canadian leader in the oil and gas industry as well as for being a leader in economic expansion.[110] Its high personal and family incomes,[15][111] low unemployment and high GDP per capita[112] have all benefited from increased sales and prices due to a resource boom,[110] and increasing economic diversification. Calgary
Calgary
benefits from a relatively strong job market in Alberta, is part of the Calgary– Edmonton
Edmonton
Corridor, one of the fastest growing regions in the country. It is the head office for many major oil and gas related companies, and many financial service business have grown up around them. Small business and self-employment levels also rank amongst the highest in Canada.[111] It is also a distribution and transportation hub[113] with high retail sales.[111] Calgary's economy is decreasingly dominated by the oil and gas industry, although it is still the single largest contributor to the city's GDP. In 2006, Calgary's real GDP (in constant 1997 dollars) was C$52.386 billion, of which oil, gas and mining contributed 12%.[114] The larger oil and gas companies are BP Canada, Canadian Natural Resources Limited, Cenovus Energy, Encana, Imperial Oil, Suncor
Suncor
Energy, Shell Canada, Husky Energy, TransCanada, and Nexen, making the city home to 87% of Canada's oil and natural gas producers and 66% of coal producers.[115] As of November 2016, the city had a labour force of 901,700 (a 74.6% participation rate) and 10.3% unemployment rate.[116][117][118] In 2006, the unemployment rate was amongst the lowest of the major cities in Canada
Canada
at 3.2%,[119] causing a shortage of both skilled and unskilled workers.[120] In 2010 the "Professional, Technical and Management" Industry accounted for over 14% of employment and the areas of "Architectural, Engineering and Design Services" and "Management, Scientific and Technical Services" employment levels far exceed Canadian levels. Though Trade employs 14.7% of the work force, its percentage of total employment is not higher than the Canadian average. Levels of employment in Construction are both fairly high, exceed Canadian averages, and have grown 16% between 2006 and 2010. Health and Welfare services, which account for 10% of employment, have grown 20% in that period.[110][121]

The Bow is an office building and headquarters for Encana, and Cenovus Energy. Calgary
Calgary
has the second-highest concentration of head offices in Canada.

In 2006, the top three private sector employers in Calgary
Calgary
were Shaw Communications (7,500 employees), Nova Chemicals
Nova Chemicals
(4,945) and Telus (4,517).[122] Companies rounding out the top ten were Mark's Work Wearhouse, the Calgary
Calgary
Co-op, Nexen, Canadian Pacific Railway, CNRL, Shell Canada
Shell Canada
and Dow Chemical Canada.[122] The top public sector employers in 2006 were the Calgary
Calgary
Zone of the Alberta
Alberta
Health Services (22,000), the City of Calgary
City of Calgary
(12,296) and the Calgary
Calgary
Board of Education (8,000).[122] Public sector employers rounding out the top five were the University of Calgary
University of Calgary
and the Calgary
Calgary
Roman Catholic Separate School Division.[122] In Canada, Calgary
Calgary
has the second-highest concentration of head offices in Canada
Canada
(behind Toronto), the most head offices per capita, and the highest head office revenue per capita.[15][111] Some large employers with Calgary
Calgary
head offices include Canada
Canada
Safeway Limited, Westfair Foods Ltd., Suncor
Suncor
Energy, Agrium, Flint Energy Services Ltd., Shaw Communication, and Canadian Pacific Railway.[123] CPR moved its head office from Montreal
Montreal
in 1996 and Imperial Oil
Imperial Oil
moved from Toronto
Toronto
in 2005. EnCana's new 58-floor corporate headquarters, the Bow, became the tallest building in Canada
Canada
outside of Toronto.[124] In 2001, the city became the corporate headquarters of the TSX Venture Exchange. WestJet
WestJet
is headquartered close to the Calgary
Calgary
International Airport,[125] and Enerjet
Enerjet
has its headquarters on the airport grounds.[126] Prior to their dissolution, Canadian Airlines[127] and Air Canada's subsidiary Zip were also headquartered near the city's airport.[128] Although the main office is now based in Yellowknife, Canadian North, purchased from Canadian Airlines
Canadian Airlines
in September 1998, still maintain the operations and charter offices in Calgary.[129][130] According to a report by Alexi Olcheski of Avison Young published in August 2015, vacancy rates rose to 11.5 per cent in the second quarter of 2015 from 8.3 per cent in 2014. Oil and gas company office spaces in downtown Calgary
Calgary
are subleasing 40 per cent of their overall vacancies.[131] H&R Real Estate Investment Trust, which owns the 58-storey 158,000-square-metre highrise the Bow Tower
Bow Tower
claims the building was fully leased. Tenants such as Suncor
Suncor
"have been letting staff and contractors go in response to the downturn".[131] Arts and culture[edit] Calgary
Calgary
has a number of multicultural areas. Forest Lawn is among the most diverse areas in the city and as such, the area around 17 Avenue SE within the neighbourhood is also known as International Avenue. The district is home to many ethnic restaurants and stores.[citation needed] Calgary
Calgary
was designated as one of the cultural capitals of Canada
Canada
in 2012.[132] While many Calgarians continue to live in the city's suburbs, more central districts such as 17 Avenue, Kensington, Inglewood, Forest Lawn, Marda Loop and the Mission District have become more popular and density in those areas has increased.[citation needed] The nightlife and the availability of cultural venues in these areas has gradually begun to evolve as a result.[citation needed]

The Southern Alberta
Alberta
Jubilee Auditorium is home to the Alberta
Alberta
Ballet Company, the Calgary
Calgary
Opera, and the Kiwanis Music Festival.

The Calgary Public Library
Calgary Public Library
is the city's public library network, with 20 branches loaning books, e-books, CDs, DVDs, Blu-rays, audio books, and more. Based on borrowing, the library is the second largest in Canada, and sixth-largest municipal library system in North America. The 22,000-square-metre (240,000 sq ft) Calgary
Calgary
Central Library is under construction in Calgary
Calgary
East Village, and is expected to open on November 1, 2018.[133] Calgary
Calgary
is the site of the Southern Alberta
Alberta
Jubilee Auditorium performing arts, culture and community facility. The auditorium is one of two "twin" facilities in the province, the other located in Edmonton, each being locally known as the "Jube". The 2,538-seat auditorium was opened in 1957[134] and has been host to hundreds of Broadway musical, theatrical, stage and local productions. The Calgary Jube is the resident home of the Alberta
Alberta
Ballet Company, the Calgary Opera, the Kiwanis Music Festival, and the annual civic Remembrance Day ceremonies. Both auditoriums operate 365 days a year, and are run by the provincial government. Both received major renovations as part of the province's centennial in 2005.[134] The Alberta
Alberta
Ballet is the third largest dance company in Canada. Under the artistic direction of Jean Grand-Maître, the Alberta
Alberta
Ballet is at the forefront both at home and internationally. The dance company has developed a distinctive repertoire and a high level of performance. Jean Grand-Maître has become well known for his successful collaborations with pop-artists like Joni Mitchell, Elton John, and Sarah McLachlan. The Alberta
Alberta
Ballet resides in the Nat Christie Centre.[135][136][137]

The Arts Commons
Arts Commons
is a multi-venue arts centre in downtown Calgary.

The city is also home to a number of theatre companies; among them are One Yellow Rabbit, which shares the Arts Commons
Arts Commons
building with the Calgary
Calgary
Philharmonic Orchestra, as well as Theatre Calgary, Alberta Theatre Projects and Theatre Junction GRAND, culture house dedicated to the contemporary live arts. Calgary
Calgary
was also the birthplace of the improvisational theatre games known as Theatresports. The Calgary International Film Festival is also held annually, as well as the International Festival of Animated Objects.[138] Every three years, Calgary
Calgary
hosts the Honens International Piano Competition (formerly known as the Esther Honens International Piano Competition). The finalists of the competition perform piano concerti with the Calgary
Calgary
Philharmonic Orchestra; the laureate is awarded a cash prize (currently $100,000.00 CDN, the largest cash award of any international piano competition), and a three-year career development program. The Honens is an integral component of the classical music scene in Calgary. Visual and conceptual artists like the art collective United Congress are active in the city. There are a number of art galleries in the downtown along Stephen Avenue; the SoDo (South of Downtown) Design District; the 17 Avenue corridor; and the neighbourhood of Inglewood, including the Esker Foundation.[139][140] Calgary
Calgary
is also home to the Alberta
Alberta
College of Art and Design. A number of marching bands are based in Calgary. They include the Calgary
Calgary
Round-Up Band, the Calgary
Calgary
Stetson Show Band, the Bishop Grandin Marching Ghosts, and the five-time World Association for Marching Show Bands champions, the Calgary Stampede
Calgary Stampede
Showband, as well as military bands including the Band of HMCS Tecumseh, the King's Own Calgary
Calgary
Regiment Band, and the Regimental Pipes and Drums of The Calgary
Calgary
Highlanders. There are many other civilian pipe bands in the city, notably the Calgary Police Service
Calgary Police Service
Pipe Band.[141]

A competition for bareback bronc riding during the 2011 Calgary Stampede.

Calgary
Calgary
is also home to a choral music community, including a variety of amateur, community, and semi-professional groups. Some of the mainstays include the Mount Royal Choirs from the Mount Royal University Conservatory, the Calgary
Calgary
Boys' Choir, the Calgary
Calgary
Girls Choir, the Youth Singers of Calgary, the Cantaré Children's Choir, and Spiritus Chamber Choir. Calgary
Calgary
hosts a number of annual festivals and events. These include the Calgary
Calgary
International Film Festival, the Calgary
Calgary
Folk Music Festival, FunnyFest Calgary
Calgary
Comedy Festival, Sled Island music festival, Beakerhead arts, science and engineering festival, the Folk Music Festival, the Greek festival, Carifest, Wordfest, the Lilac Festival, GlobalFest, Otafest, FallCon, the Calgary
Calgary
Fringe Festival, Summerstock, Expo Latino, Calgary
Calgary
Pride, Calgary
Calgary
International Spoken Word Festival,[142] and many other cultural and ethnic festivals. Calgary's best-known event is the Calgary
Calgary
Stampede, which has occurred each July since 1912. It is one of the largest festivals in Canada, with a 2005 attendance of 1,242,928 at the 10-day rodeo and exhibition.[143] Several museums are located in the city. The Glenbow Museum
Glenbow Museum
is the largest in western Canada
Canada
and includes an art gallery and First Nations gallery.[144] Other major museums include the Chinese Cultural Centre (at 70,000 sq ft (6,500 m2), the largest stand-alone cultural centre in Canada),[145] Canada's Sports Hall of Fame (at Canada
Canada
Olympic Park), The Military Museums, the Cantos Music Museum and the Aero Space Museum. Numerous films have been shot in Calgary
Calgary
and area. Notable films shot in and around the city include: Assassination of Jesse James, Brokeback Mountain, Dances with Wolves, Doctor Zhivago, Inception, Legends of the Fall, Unforgiven and The Revenant.[146] The Calgary Herald
Calgary Herald
and the Calgary Sun
Calgary Sun
are the main newspapers in Calgary. Global, City, CTV and CBC television networks have local studios in the city. Attractions[edit] Main article: List of attractions and landmarks in Calgary

Featuring a mix of boutiques and high-end retailers, Stephen Avenue
Stephen Avenue
is a major pedestrian mall and tourist attraction in Calgary.

Downtown features an eclectic mix of restaurants and bars, cultural venues, public squares (including Olympic Plaza) and shopping. Notable shopping areas include such as The Core Shopping Centre (formerly Calgary
Calgary
Eaton Centre/TD Square), Stephen Avenue
Stephen Avenue
and Eau Claire Market. Downtown tourist attractions include the Calgary
Calgary
Zoo, the Telus
Telus
Spark, the Telus
Telus
Convention Centre, the Chinatown district, the Glenbow Museum, the Calgary
Calgary
Tower, the Art Gallery of Calgary
Calgary
(AGC), Military Museum and the EPCOR Centre for the Performing Arts. At 1.0 hectare (2.5 acres), the Devonian Gardens is one of the largest urban indoor gardens in the world,[147] and it is located on the 4th floor of The Core Shopping Centre (above the shopping). The downtown region is also home to Prince's Island Park, an urban park located just north of the Eau Claire district. Directly to the south of downtown is Midtown and the Beltline. This area is quickly becoming one of the city's densest and most active mixed use areas.[citation needed] At the district's core is the popular 17 Avenue, known for its many bars and nightclubs, restaurants, and shopping venues. During the Calgary
Calgary
Flames' playoff run in 2004, 17 Avenue was frequented by over 50,000 fans and supporters per game night. The concentration of red jersey-wearing fans led to the street's playoff moniker, the "Red Mile". Downtown is easily accessed using the city's C-Train
C-Train
light rail (LRT) transit system. Attractions on the west side of the city include the Heritage Park Historical Village historical park, depicting life in pre-1914 Alberta and featuring working historic vehicles such as a steam train, paddle steamer and electric streetcar. The village itself comprises a mixture of replica buildings and historic structures relocated from southern Alberta. Other major city attractions include Canada
Canada
Olympic Park, which features Canada's Sports Hall of Fame, and Spruce Meadows. In addition to the many shopping areas in the city centre, there are a number of large suburban shopping complexes in the city. Among the largest are Chinook Centre
Chinook Centre
and Southcentre Mall
Southcentre Mall
in the south, Westhills and Signal Hill in the southwest, South Trail Crossing and Deerfoot Meadows in the southeast, Market Mall
Market Mall
in the northwest, Sunridge Mall
Sunridge Mall
in the northeast, and the newly built CrossIron Mills just north of the Calgary
Calgary
city limits, and south of the City of Airdrie. In nearby Airdrie at the Calgary/Airdrie Airport
Calgary/Airdrie Airport
the Airdrie Regional Airshow is held every two years. In 2011 the airshow featured the Canadian Snowbirds, a CF-18 demo and a United States
United States
Air Force F-16.[148][149] Tallest buildings[edit] Main article: List of tallest buildings in Calgary

Many of Calgary's tallest buildings are located downtown.

Downtown can be recognized by its numerous skyscrapers. Some of these structures, such as the Calgary Tower
Calgary Tower
and the Scotiabank Saddledome are unique enough to be symbols of Calgary. Office buildings tend to concentrate within the commercial core, while residential towers occur most frequently within the Downtown West End and the Beltline, south of downtown. These buildings are iconographic of the city's booms and busts, and it is easy to recognize the various phases of development that have shaped the image of downtown. The first skyscraper building boom occurred during the late 1950s and continued through to the 1970s.[citation needed] After 1980, during the recession, many high-rise construction projects were immediately halted.[citation needed] It was not until the late 1980s and through to the early 1990s that major construction began again, initiated by the 1988 Winter Olympics and stimulated by the growing economy.[citation needed] In total, there are 14 office towers that are at least 150 m (490 ft) (usually around 40 floors) or higher. The tallest of these is Brookfield Place, which is the tallest office tower in Canada outside Toronto.[150] Calgary's Bankers Hall
Bankers Hall
Towers are also the tallest twin towers in Canada. As of 2008, there were 264 completed high-rise buildings, with 42 more under construction, another 13 approved for construction and 63 more proposed.[citation needed] Sports and recreation[edit] Main article: Sports in Calgary Within Calgary
Calgary
there are approximately 8,000 ha (20,000 acres) of parkland available for public usage and recreation.[151] These parks include Fish Creek Provincial Park, Inglewood Bird Sanctuary, Bowness Park, Edworthy Park, Confederation Park, Prince’s Island Park, Nose Hill Park, and Central Memorial Park. Nose Hill Park
Nose Hill Park
is one of the largest municipal parks in Canada
Canada
at 1,129 ha (2,790 acres). The park has been subject to a revitalization plan that began in 2006. Its trail system is currently undergoing rehabilitation in accordance with this plan.[152][153] The oldest park in Calgary, Central Memorial Park, dates back to 1911. Similar to Nose Hill Park, revitalization also took place in Central Memorial Park
Central Memorial Park
in 2008–2009 and reopened to the public in 2010 while still maintaining its Victorian style.[154] A 800 km (500 mi) pathway system connects these parks and various neighbourhoods.[151][155] Calgary
Calgary
also has multiple private sporting clubs including the Glencoe Club and the Calgary Winter Club.

Fish Creek Provincial Park
Fish Creek Provincial Park
is one of several parks located in Calgary.

In large part due to its proximity to the Rocky Mountains, Calgary
Calgary
has traditionally been a popular destination for winter sports. Since hosting the 1988 Winter Olympics, the city has also been home to a number of major winter sporting facilities such as Canada
Canada
Olympic Park (bobsleigh, luge, cross-country skiing, ski jumping, downhill skiing, snowboarding, and some summer sports) and the Olympic Oval
Olympic Oval
(speed skating and hockey). These facilities serve as the primary training venues for a number of competitive athletes. Also, Canada
Canada
Olympic Park serves as a mountain biking trail in the summer months. In the summer, the Bow River
Bow River
is very popular among fly-fishermen. Golfing is also an extremely popular activity for Calgarians and the region has a large number of courses.[citation needed] Calgary
Calgary
hosted the 2009 World Water Ski Championship Festival in August, at the Predator Bay Water Ski Club, approximately 40 km (25 mi) south of the city.[citation needed] As part of the wider Battle of Alberta, the city's sports teams enjoy a popular rivalry with their Edmonton
Edmonton
counterparts, most notably the rivalries between the National Hockey League's Calgary Flames
Calgary Flames
and Edmonton
Edmonton
Oilers, and the Canadian Football League's Calgary
Calgary
Stampeders and Edmonton
Edmonton
Eskimos.[citation needed]

McMahon Stadium
McMahon Stadium
is the home stadium for the CFL's Calgary
Calgary
Stampeders and was the Olympic Stadium
Olympic Stadium
for the 1988 Winter Olympics.

The Scotiabank Saddledome
Scotiabank Saddledome
is a multi-use indoor arena and is home to the NHL's Calgary
Calgary
Flames, and the NLL's Calgary
Calgary
Roughnecks.

Calgary
Calgary
is renowned in professional wrestling tradition as both the home-city of the prominent Hart wrestling family
Hart wrestling family
and the location of the infamous Hart family "Dungeon", wherein WWE Hall of Fame
WWE Hall of Fame
member and patriarch of the Hart Family, Stu Hart,[156] trained numerous professional wrestlers including Superstar Billy Graham, Brian Pillman, the British Bulldogs, Edge, Christian, Greg Valentine, Chris Jericho, Jushin Thunder Liger
Jushin Thunder Liger
and many more. Also among the trainees were the Hart family members themselves, including WWE Hall of Fame member and former WWE champion Bret Hart
Bret Hart
and his brother, the 1994 WWF King of the Ring, Owen Hart.[156] In 1997 Calgary
Calgary
hosted The World Police & Fire Games hosting over 16,000 athletes from all over the world.

Professional sports teams

Club League Venue Established Championships

Calgary
Calgary
Stampeders Canadian Football League McMahon Stadium 1945 7

Calgary
Calgary
Flames National Hockey League Scotiabank Saddledome 1980 1

Calgary
Calgary
Roughnecks National Lacrosse League Scotiabank Saddledome 2001 2

Semi-professional teams

Club League Venue Established Championships

Calgary
Calgary
Crush American Basketball Association SAIT 2011 0

Amateur and junior clubs

Club League Venue Established Championships

Calgary
Calgary
Canucks Alberta
Alberta
Junior Hockey League Max Bell Centre 1971 9

Calgary
Calgary
Mustangs Alberta
Alberta
Junior Hockey League Father David Bauer Olympic Arena 1990 1

Calgary
Calgary
Hitmen Western Hockey League Scotiabank Saddledome 1995 2

Calgary
Calgary
Inferno Canadian Women's Hockey League Olympic Oval 2011 1

Calgary
Calgary
Mavericks Rugby Canada
Canada
National Junior Championship Calgary
Calgary
Rugby Park 1998 1

Government[edit] The city is a corporate power-centre, a high percentage of the workforce is employed in white-collar jobs. The high concentration of oil and gas corporations led to the rise of Peter Lougheed's Progressive Conservative Party in 1971.[157] However, as Calgary's population has increased, so has the diversity of its politics. Municipal politics[edit]

Calgary Municipal Building
Calgary Municipal Building
is the seat of local government for the City of Calgary. Attached to the building is Calgary's old city hall.

Calgary
Calgary
is governed in accordance with Alberta's Municipal Government Act (1995).[158] Calgarians elect 14 ward councillors and a mayor to Calgary City Council
Calgary City Council
every four years. Naheed Nenshi
Naheed Nenshi
was first elected mayor in the 2010 municipal election. Naheed Nenshi
Naheed Nenshi
was re-elected in 2013 and 2017. Three school boards operate independently of each other in Calgary, the public, the separate (catholic) and francophone systems. Both the public and separate boards have 7 elected trustees each representing 2 of 14 wards. The School Boards are considered to be part of municipal politics in Calgary
Calgary
as they are elected at the same time as City Council.[159] Provincial politics[edit] As a result of the 2015 provincial election, Calgary
Calgary
is represented by twenty-five MLAs, including fifteen New Democrats, seven Progressive Conservatives, and one member each of the Wildrose Party, Alberta Party and Alberta
Alberta
Liberal Party.[160] During this election, the Alberta
Alberta
Party won its first-ever seat, with MLA Greg Clark in the Calgary- Elbow
Elbow
riding. The Progressive Conservative Party had the most to lose, losing 13 of the seats it previously held. Federal politics[edit] On October 19, 2015, Calgary
Calgary
elected its first two Liberal federal MPs since 1968, Darshan Kang
Darshan Kang
for Calgary Skyview
Calgary Skyview
and Kent Hehr
Kent Hehr
for Calgary Centre.[161] The remaining MPs are members of the Conservative Party of Canada
Canada
(CPC).[162] Before 2015, the Liberals had only elected three MPs from Calgary
Calgary
ridings in their entire history-- Manley Edwards (1940–1945),[163] Harry Hays (1963–1965)[164] and Pat Mahoney (1968–1972).[165] The federal riding of Calgary Heritage
Calgary Heritage
was held by former Prime Minister and CPC leader Stephen Harper. That seat was also held by Preston Manning, the leader of the Reform Party of Canada; it was known as Calgary Southwest
Calgary Southwest
at the time. Harper is the second Prime Minister to represent a Calgary
Calgary
riding; the first was R. B. Bennett from Calgary
Calgary
West, who held that position from 1930 to 1935. Joe Clark, former Prime Minister and former leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada
Conservative Party of Canada
(also a predecessor of the CPC), held the riding of Calgary Centre
Calgary Centre
during his second stint in Parliament from 2000 to 2004. The Green Party of Canada
Green Party of Canada
has also made inroads in Calgary, exemplified by results of the 2011 federal election where they achieved 7.7% of the vote across the city, ranging from 4.7% in Calgary Northeast
Calgary Northeast
to 13.1% in Calgary
Calgary
Centre-North.[166] Crime[edit] Main article: Calgary
Calgary
Police Service

Members of the Mounted Unit of the Calgary Police Service
Calgary Police Service
on duty at Olympic Plaza

The Calgary
Calgary
census metropolitan area (CMA) had a crime severity index of 60.4 in 2013, which is lower than the national average of 68.7.[167] A slight majority of the other CMAs in Canada
Canada
had crime severity indexes greater than Calgary's 60.4.[167] Calgary
Calgary
had the sixth-most homicides in 2013 at 24.[167] Military[edit] Main article: Military in Calgary

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The presence of the Canadian military has been part of the local economy and culture since the early years of the 20th century, beginning with the assignment of a squadron of Strathcona's Horse. After many failed attempts to create the city's own unit, the 103rd Regiment ( Calgary
Calgary
Rifles) was finally authorized on April 1, 1910. Canadian Forces
Canadian Forces
Base (CFB) Calgary
Calgary
was established as Currie Barracks and Harvie Barracks following the Second World War. The base remained the most significant Department of National Defence (DND) institution in the city until it was decommissioned in 1998, when most of the units moved to CFB Edmonton. Despite this closure there is still a number of Canadian Forces
Canadian Forces
Reserve units, and cadet units garrisoned throughout the city. They include HMCS Tecumseh Naval Reserve unit, The King's Own Calgary
Calgary
Regiment, The Calgary
Calgary
Highlanders, both headquartered at the Mewata Armouries, 746 Communication Squadron, 41 Canadian Brigade Group, headquartered at the former location of CFB Calgary, 14 (Calgary) Service Battalion, 15 (Edmonton) Field Ambulance Detachment Calgary, 14 (Edmonton) Military Police Platoon Calgary, 41 Combat Engineer Regiment detachment Calgary
Calgary
(33 Engineer Squadron), along with a small cadre of Regular Force support. Several units have been granted Freedom of the City. The Calgary Soldiers' Memorial commemorates those who died during wartime or while serving overseas. Along with those from units currently stationed in Calgary
Calgary
it represents the 10th Battalion, CEF and the 50th Battalion, CEF
50th Battalion, CEF
of the Canadian Expeditionary Force. Infrastructure[edit] Transportation[edit] Main articles: Transportation in Calgary
Transportation in Calgary
and C-Train See also: List of airports in the Calgary
Calgary
area

CTrain
CTrain
is Calgary's light-rail public transit system.

Calgary International Airport
Calgary International Airport
(YYC), in the city's northeast, is a transportation hub for much of central and western Canada. In 2013 it was the third busiest in Canada
Canada
by passenger movement,[168] and third busiest by aircraft movements,[169] is a major cargo hub,[citation needed] and is a staging point for people destined for Banff National Park.[170] Non-stop destinations include cities throughout Canada, the United States, Europe, Central America, and Asia. Calgary/Springbank Airport, Canada's eleventh busiest,[169] serves as a reliever for the Calgary
Calgary
International taking the general aviation traffic and is also a base for aerial firefighting aircraft. Calgary's presence on the Trans-Canada Highway
Trans-Canada Highway
and the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) mainline (which includes the CPR Alyth Yard) also make it an important hub for freight. The Rocky Mountaineer
Rocky Mountaineer
and Royal Canadian Pacific
Royal Canadian Pacific
operates railtour service to Calgary; Via Rail no longer provides intercity rail service to Calgary
Calgary
since the company discontinued the Super Continental
Super Continental
via Edmonton
Edmonton
in 1990 and then rerouted The Canadian from Calgary
Calgary
to serve Edmonton.[citation needed]

Calgary's +15 skyway network is one of the world's most extensive pedestrian skywalk systems.

Much of Calgary's street network is on a grid where roads are numbered with avenues running east–west and streets running north–south. Until 1904 the streets were named; after that date, all streets were given numbers radiating outwards from the city centre.[171] Roads in predominantly residential areas as well as freeways and expressways do not generally conform to the grid and are usually not numbered as a result. However, it is a developer and city convention in Calgary
Calgary
that non-numbered streets within a new community have the same name prefix as the community itself so that streets can more easily be located within the city. Calgary Transit
Calgary Transit
provides public transportation services throughout the city with buses and light rail. Calgary's light rail system, known as the C-Train, was one of the first such systems in North America (behind Edmonton
Edmonton
LRT). It consists of four lines (two routes) and 44 stations on 58.2 km (36.2 mi) of track. The Calgary
Calgary
LRT is one of the continent's busiest carrying 270,000 passengers per weekday and approximately half of Calgary
Calgary
downtown workers take the transit to work. The C-Train
C-Train
is also North America's first and only LRT to run on 100% renewable energy.[172] As an alternative to the over 260 km (160 mi) of shared bikeways on streets, the city has a network of multi-use (bicycle, walking, rollerblading, etc.) paths spanning over 635 km (395 mi).[155] The Peace Bridge provides pedestrians and cyclists, access to the downtown core from the north side of the Bow river. The bridge ranked among the top 10 architectural projects in 2012 and among the top 10 public spaces of 2012.[173] In the 1960s, Calgary
Calgary
started to develop a series of pedestrian bridges, connecting many downtown buildings.[174] To connect many of the downtown office buildings, the city also boasts the world's most extensive skyway network (elevated indoor pedestrian bridges), officially called the +15. The name derives from the fact that the bridges are usually 15 ft (4.6 m) above ground.[175] Health care[edit]

Medical centres and hospitals

Main article: Health care in Calgary

Located in Calgary, Alberta
Alberta
Children's Hospital is the largest pediatric hospital in the province.

Calgary
Calgary
has four major adult acute care hospitals and one major pediatric acute care site: the Alberta
Alberta
Children's Hospital, the Foothills Medical Centre, the Peter Lougheed
Peter Lougheed
Centre, the Rockyview General Hospital and the South Health Campus. They are all overseen by the Calgary
Calgary
Zone of the Alberta
Alberta
Health Services, formerly the Calgary Health Region. Calgary
Calgary
is also home to the Tom Baker Cancer Centre (located at the Foothills Medical Centre), the Grace Women's Health Centre, which provides a variety of care, and the Libin Cardiovascular Institute. In addition, the Sheldon M. Chumir Centre
Sheldon M. Chumir Centre
(a large 24-hour assessment clinic), and the Richmond Road Diagnostic and Treatment Centre (RRDTC), as well as hundreds of smaller medical and dental clinics operate in Calgary. The Faculty of Medicine of the University of Calgary
Calgary
also operates in partnership with Alberta
Alberta
Health Services, by researching cancer, cardiovascular, diabetes, joint injury, arthritis and genetics.[176] The Alberta
Alberta
children's hospital, built in 2006, replaced the old Children's Hospital. The four largest Calgary
Calgary
hospitals have a combined total of more than 2,100 beds, and employ over 11,500 people.[177] Education[edit] Primary and secondary[edit]

The head offices for the Calgary Catholic School District
Calgary Catholic School District
is located in Calgary's downtown westend. It is one of four publicly-funded school boards operating in Calgary.

In the 2011–2012 school year, 100,632 K-12 students enrolled in 221 schools in the English language public school system run by the Calgary
Calgary
Board of Education.[178] With other students enrolled in the associated CBe-learn
CBe-learn
and Chinook Learning Service programs, the school system's total enrolment is 104,182 students.[178] Another 43,000 attend about 95 schools in the separate English language Calgary Catholic School District board.[179] The much smaller Francophone community has their own French language school boards (public and Catholic), which are both based in Calgary, but serve a larger regional district. There are also several public charter schools in the city. Calgary
Calgary
has a number of unique schools, including the country's first high school exclusively designed for Olympic-calibre athletes, the National Sport School.[180] Calgary
Calgary
is also home to many private schools including Mountain View Academy, Rundle College, Rundle Academy, Clear Water Academy, Calgary
Calgary
French and International School, Chinook Winds Adventist Academy, Webber Academy, Delta West Academy, Masters Academy, Calgary
Calgary
Islamic School, Menno Simons Christian School, West Island College, Edge School, Calgary
Calgary
Christian School, Heritage Christian Academy, Bearspaw Christian School. Calgary
Calgary
is also home to what was Western Canada's largest public high school, Lord Beaverbrook High School, with 2,241 students enrolled in the 2005–2006 school year.[181] Currently the student population of Lord Beaverbrook is 1,812 students (September 2012) and several other schools are equally as large; Western Canada High School with 2,035 students (2009) and Sir Winston Churchill High School
Sir Winston Churchill High School
with 1,983 students (2009). Post-secondary[edit]

Taylor Family Digital Library at the University of Calgary. The University is the largest post-secondary institution in the city.

The publicly funded University of Calgary
University of Calgary
(U of C) is Calgary's largest degree-granting facility with an enrolment of 28,464 students in 2011.[182] Mount Royal University, with 13,000 students, grants degrees in a number of fields. SAIT
SAIT
Polytechnic, with over 14,000 students, provides polytechnic and apprentice education, granting certificates, diplomas and applied degrees. Athabasca University provides distance education programs. Other publicly funded post-secondary institutions based in Calgary include the Alberta
Alberta
College of Art and Design, Ambrose University College (associated with the Christian and Missionary Alliance
Christian and Missionary Alliance
and the Church of the Nazarene), Bow Valley College, Mount Royal University, SAIT
SAIT
Polytechnic, St. Mary's University and the U of C.[183] The publicly funded Athabasca University, Northern Alberta
Alberta
Institute of Technology (NAIT), and the University of Lethbridge[183] also have campuses in Calgary.[184][185][186] Several independent private institutions are located in the city. This includes Reeves College, MaKami College, Robertson College, Columbia College, and CDI College. DeVry Institute of Technology announced the closure of its Calgary
Calgary
campus operations on June 30, 2013.[187] Media[edit] Main article: Media in Calgary Calgary's daily newspapers include the Calgary
Calgary
Herald, Calgary Sun
Calgary Sun
and Metro News. Calgary
Calgary
is the sixth largest television market in Canada.[188] Broadcasts stations serving Calgary
Calgary
include CICT 2 (Global), CFCN 4 (CTV), CKAL 5 (City), CBRT 9 (CBC), CKCS 32 (YesTV), and CJCO 38 (Omni). Network affiliate programming from the United States originates from Spokane, Washington. There are a wide range of radio stations, including a station for First Nations
First Nations
and the Asian Canadian community. Notable people[edit] Main article: List of people from Calgary Sister cities[edit] The City of Calgary
City of Calgary
maintains trade development programs, cultural and educational partnerships in twinning agreements with six cities:[189][190]

City Province/State Country Date

Quebec
Quebec
City Quebec Canada 1956

Jaipur Rajasthan India 1973

Naucalpan Mexico State Mexico 1994

Daqing Heilongjiang China 1985

Daejeon Chungnam South Korea 1996

Phoenix[191] Arizona US 1997

Calgary
Calgary
is one of nine Canadian cities, out of the total of 98 cities internationally, that is in the New York City Global Partners, Inc. organization,[192] which was formed in 2006 from the former Sister City program of the City of New York, Inc.[193] See also[edit]

Book: Calgary

Calgary
Calgary
portal Alberta
Alberta
portal

List of cities in Alberta List of communities in Alberta Calgary
Calgary
Awards

References[edit]

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wildfires last year, the flooding in southern Alberta
Alberta
in 2013 was the costliest natural disaster in Canadian history. While we have done great work in the four years since, within the city of Calgary
Calgary
we continue to need assistance in upstream flood mitigation. Calgary
Calgary
is a city that is built at the confluence of two rivers in a place the Blackfoot called Moh-Kins-Tsis, the elbow. We can't move the city. We can't make room for the river. This is where the rivers are. As a result, it is incredibly important that we do the engineering work on the upstream mitigation.  ^ a b Wilkes, Rima; Duong, Aaron; Kesler, Linc; Ramos, Howard (February 21, 2017). "Canadian University Acknowledgment of Indigenous Lands, Treaties, and Peoples". Canadian Review of Sociology. 54: 89–102. doi:10.1111/cars.12140 – via Wiley Online Library.  ^ a b "Guide to Acknowledging First Peoples & Traditional Territory". Canadian Association of University Teachers. November 19, 2017.  ^ "Visit Esker Foundation". Esker Foundation. November 20, 2017. It is important to acknowledge and reflect upon the fact that Esker Foundation is located on the traditional territories of the Niitsitapi (Blackfoot) and the people of the Treaty 7
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Bow River
meets the Elbow
Elbow
River; the traditional Blackfoot name of this place is Mohkinstsis, which we now call the City of Calgary. The City of Calgary
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Recommended Acknowledgements of Traditional Indigenous Territories" (PDF). University of Calgary. November 19, 2017. Welcome to the University of Calgary. I would like to take this opportunity to acknowledge the traditional territories of the Blackfoot and the people of the Treaty 7
Treaty 7
region in Southern Alberta, which includes the Siksika, the Piikuni, the Kainai, the Tsuut’ina, and the Stoney Nakoda First Nations, including Chiniki, Bearspaw, and Wesley First Nation. I would also like to note that the University of Calgary
Calgary
is situated on land adjacent to where the Bow River
Bow River
meets the Elbow
Elbow
River, and that the traditional Blackfoot name of this place is “Mohkinstsis” which we now call the City of Calgary. The City of Calgary
Calgary
is also home to Métis Nation of Alberta, Region III.  ^ " Treaty 7
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Treaty 7
region in Southern Alberta, which includes the Siksika, the Piikani, the Kainai, the Tsuut’ina and the Iyarhe Nakoda. We are situated on land where the Bow River
Bow River
meets the Elbow
Elbow
River, and the traditional Blackfoot name of this place is 'Mohkinstsis' which we now call the City of Calgary. The City of Calgary
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is located in the traditional territories of the Niitsitapi (Blackfoot) and the people of the Treaty 7
Treaty 7
region in southern Alberta, which includes the Siksika, the Piikuni, the Kainai, the Tsuut'ina and the Iyarhe Nakoda. We are situated on land where the Bow River
Bow River
meets the Elbow
Elbow
River. The traditional Blackfoot name of this place is 'Mohkinstsis', which we now call the city of Calgary. The city of Calgary
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Jubilee Auditorium. "Auditoria History". Archived from the original on July 16, 2011. Retrieved September 25, 2007.  ^ Alberta
Alberta
Ballet Company ^ "Grand-Maître: the king of pop ballet". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. August 23, 2012.  ^ DeMello, Jessica. "Ballet Review: The Alberta
Alberta
Ballet's Fumbling Towards Ecstacy". Archived from the original on May 6, 2013. Retrieved March 21, 2015.  ^ "About Us Festival of Animated Objects". www.puppetfestival.ca. Retrieved 2017-03-17.  ^ 17 Avenue Business Revitalisation Zone. "Hip to Haute". Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. Retrieved May 22, 2007.  ^ "Calgary's Design District". Design Quarterly. Archived from the original on May 26, 2013. Retrieved April 18, 2013.  ^ Calgary
Calgary
Marching Bands: Round-Up Band, Stetson Show Band, Calgary Stampede Showband, World Association for Marching Show Bands ^ " Calgary
Calgary
Spoken Word Festival". calgaryspokenwordfestival.com. Retrieved August 29, 2011.  ^ Calgary Stampede
Calgary Stampede
(2006). "History of the Stampede". Archived from the original on June 13, 2006. Retrieved May 8, 2006.  ^ Calgary
Calgary
Kiosk (2006). "Glenbow Museum". Archived from the original on July 2, 2012. Retrieved June 28, 2007.  ^ " Calgary
Calgary
Chinese Cultural Centre". Where. 2007. Archived from the original on October 6, 2006. Retrieved June 28, 2007.  ^ "Calgary's Film Industry". Calgary
Calgary
Economic Development. Archived from the original on September 7, 2014. Retrieved September 6, 2014.  ^ City of Calgary. "Devonian Gardens". Retrieved September 25, 2007. [dead link] ^ "Airdrie Regional Air Show to fly high this summer". Calgary.  ^ "2011 Airdrie Regional Air Show Photos". James Emery Photography.  ^ "The Bow". Emporis GMBH. 2012. Retrieved March 29, 2012.  ^ a b Parks (March 7, 2011). " Calgary
Calgary
Parks". www.calgary.ca. Retrieved November 14, 2016.  ^ Parks (January 11, 2011). "Nose Hill Park". www.calgary.ca. Retrieved November 14, 2016.  ^ Parks (November 15, 2010). " Nose Hill Park
Nose Hill Park
Trail and Pathway improvement plan". www.calgary.ca. Retrieved November 14, 2016.  ^ Parks (November 3, 2010). "Parks history". www.calgary.ca. Retrieved November 14, 2016.  ^ a b City of Calgary. " Calgary
Calgary
Pathways & Bikeways Map" (PDF). Retrieved January 25, 2011.  ^ a b "Stu Hart". WWE.  ^ University of Calgary
University of Calgary
(1997). "Calgary's Politics 1971–1991". Archived from the original on June 1, 2007. Retrieved June 28, 2007.  ^ Alberta
Alberta
Queen's Printer. "Municipal Government Act". Retrieved August 15, 2011.  ^ "Election and Information Services". City of Calgary. Retrieved September 1, 2011.  ^ "Download MLA Information". Legislative Assembly of Alberta. Retrieved June 1, 2015.  ^ "Two new Liberal MPs in Calgary
Calgary
are the first carrying the red banner in cowtown since 1968". National Post. Retrieved October 26, 2015.  ^ "Election Night Results - Major Centres". enr.elections.ca. Retrieved October 26, 2015.  ^ "PARLINFO – Parliamentarian File
File
– Federal Experience – EDWARDS, Manley Justin, LL.B." parl.gc.ca. Archived from the original on December 20, 2013.  ^ "PARLINFO – Parliamentarian File
File
– Complete File
File
– HAYS, The Hon. Harry William, P.C." parl.gc.ca.  ^ "PARLINFO – Parliamentarian File
File
– Complete File
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– MAHONEY, The Hon. Patrick Morgan, P.C., Q.C., B.A., LL.B." parl.gc.ca.  ^ Event results from Elections Canada ^ a b c Jillian Boyce, Adam Cotter and Samuel Perreault (July 23, 2014). "Police-reported crime statistics in Canada, 2013" (PDF). Statistics Canada, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics. pp. 13 & 30. Retrieved May 3, 2015. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ "Air Carrier Traffic at Canadian Airports: Table 1-1 – Passengers enplaned and deplaned on selected services – Top 50 airports". statcan.gc.ca.  ^ a b "Aircraft movement Statistics: NAV CANADA Towers and Flight Service Stations: Annual Report (TP 577): Table 2-1 – Total aircraft movements by class of operation – NAV CANADA towers". statcan.gc.ca.  ^ "Getting to Banff". Town of Banff. Archived from the original on March 31, 2010. Retrieved September 22, 2011.  ^ "The Odd History of Calgary's City Streets". SmartCalgaryHomes.com. Retrieved June 23, 2009.  ^ "Eco-conscious commuting (page 2) – Canadian Geographic". canadiangeographic.ca. Archived from the original on September 3, 2014.  ^ "designboom 2012 top ten: public spaces". designboom – architecture & design magazine.  ^ "Calgary's +15 Skywalk". City of Calgary. 2013. Archived from the original on December 25, 2014. Retrieved November 28, 2013. The first +15 bridge was installed on January 21, 1970, connecting Calgary
Calgary
Place to the Calgary
Calgary
Inn (now the Westin Hotel). By 1984, Calgary's +15 Skywalk consisted of 38 bridges, 8 km (5 mi) of walkways and numerous public spaces. Today there are more than 62 bridges and 18 km (11 mi) of walkways.  ^ The City of Calgary
City of Calgary
(February 2007). "Plus 15". Archived from the original on August 21, 2007. Retrieved September 25, 2007.  ^ Faculty of Medicine of the University of Calgary
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(2011). "Faculty of Medicine Quick Facts". Archived from the original on June 22, 2014. Retrieved January 26, 2007.  ^ Calgary
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Economic Development (2006). " Calgary
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Hospitals". Archived from the original on February 8, 2009. Retrieved March 13, 2007.  ^ a b "Quick Facts". Calgary
Calgary
Board of Education. January 11, 2012. Archived from the original on January 31, 2012. Retrieved March 10, 2012.  ^ Calgary
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Catholic District School Board. " Calgary
Calgary
Schools". Archived from the original on January 11, 2006. Retrieved January 7, 2006.  ^ "National Sport School". nationalsportschool.ca.  ^ Calgary Board of Education
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(2007). "Lord Beaverbrook High School". Archived from the original on April 17, 2007. Retrieved May 10, 2007.  ^ University of Calgary
University of Calgary
(2011–2012). "U of C fact book—page 8" (PDF). Retrieved November 19, 2012. [dead link] ^ a b "Publicly Funded Institutions". Alberta
Alberta
Enterprise and Advanced Education. Retrieved November 21, 2012.  ^ "UA Locations". Athabasca University. Retrieved November 21, 2012.  ^ "NAIT Calgary". Northern Alberta
Alberta
Institute of Technology. Archived from the original on December 4, 2012. Retrieved December 3, 2012.  ^ "Faculty of Management Edmonton
Edmonton
Campus". University of Lethbridge. Retrieved November 21, 2012.  ^ "Devry Calgary
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Campus closure". Retrieved May 2, 2013.  ^ "Television Bureau of Canada: TV Basics 2014–2015" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 10, 2015.  ^ Calgary
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Economic Development. "Sister Cities". Archived from the original on July 22, 2011. Retrieved January 6, 2007.  ^ City of Calgary. "Welcome to Calgary". Archived from the original on June 1, 2008. Retrieved July 4, 2009.  ^ "Phoenix Sister Cities". Phoenix Sister Cities. Archived from the original on July 24, 2013. Retrieved August 6, 2013.  ^ "NYC's Partner Cities". Government of New York City. Archived from the original on February 1, 2013. Retrieved March 14, 2013.  ^ "New York City Global Partners". Government of New York City. Retrieved March 14, 2013. 

Further reading[edit]

Janz, Darrel (2001). Calgary – Heart of the New West. Memphis, Tennessee: Towery Pub. ISBN 1-881096-93-9.  Kozub, Mark; Kozub, Janice (2001). A Calgary
Calgary
Album: Glimpses of the Way We Were. Dundurn Press. ISBN 0-88882-224-3. Retrieved April 6, 2011.  Martin, James (2002). Calgary – The Unknown City (revised ed.). Arsenal Pulp Press. ISBN 1-55152-111-3. Retrieved April 6, 2011.  McMorran, Jennifer; Brodeur, François (1999). Calgary. Éditions Ulysse. ISBN 2-89464-171-0. Retrieved April 6, 2011. 

External links[edit]

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