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ITV, legally known as Channel 3, is a British
free-to-air Free-to-air (FTA) services are television Television, sometimes shortened to TV or telly, is a telecommunication Media (communication), medium used for transmitting moving images in grayscale, black-and-white or in color, and in two or 3 ...
television network A television network or broadcaster is a telecommunications network for distribution of television program content, where a central operation provides programming to many television stations or multichannel video programming distributor, pay tel ...
. It was launched in 1955 as Independent Television to provide competition to
BBC Television BBC Television is a service of the BBC The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a public service broadcaster, headquartered at Broadcasting House in Westminster, London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban ...
(established in 1932). ITV is the oldest commercial network in the UK. Since the passing of the
Broadcasting Act 1990 The Broadcasting Act 1990 is a law of the British parliament The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the Parliamentary sovereignty in the United Kingdom, supreme Legislature, legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies an ...
, its
legal name A legal name is the name that identifies a person for legal, administrative and other official purposes. A person's first legal name generally is the name of the person that was given for the purpose of Civil registry, registration of the birth and ...
has been ''Channel 3'' to distinguish it from the other analogue channels at the time,
BBC1 BBC One is a British free-to-air Free-to-air (FTA) services are television (TV) and radio services broadcast in clear (unencrypted) form, allowing any person with the FTA Receiver, appropriate receiving equipment to receive the signal and view ...
,
BBC2 BBC Two is a British free-to-air television network owned and operated by the BBC. It covers a wide range of subject matter, with a remit "to broadcast programmes of depth and substance" in contrast to the more mainstream and popular BBC On ...

BBC2
and
Channel 4 Channel 4 is a British free-to-air Free-to-air (FTA) services are television (TV) and radio services broadcast in clear (unencrypted) form, allowing any person with the FTA Receiver, appropriate receiving equipment to receive the signal and ...
. ITV was for four decades a network of separate companies which provided regional television services and also shared programmes between each other to be shown on the entire network. Each franchise was originally owned by a different company. After several mergers, the fifteen regional franchises are now held by two companies:
ITV plc ITV plc is a British media company that holds 13 of the 15 regional television licences that make up the ITV network ITV is a British free-to-air television network with its headquarters in London. It was launched in 1955 as Independent ...
, which runs the ITV channel, and
STV Group STV Group plc (previously known as Scottish Television plc, Scottish Media Group plc and SMG plc) is a media company based in Glasgow, Scotland. Beginning as a television broadcaster in 1957, the company expanded into newspapers, advertising and ...
, which runs the channel STV. The ITV network is a separate entity from ITV plc, the company that resulted from the merger of
Granada plc Granada plc (previously called Granada Ltd, Granada Group plc, and Granada Media plc) was a British conglomerate best known as the parent from 1954 to 2004 of the Manchester-based Granada Television. The company merged with Carlton Communica ...
and
Carlton Communications Carlton was a British media company. It was led by Michael P. Green and listed on the London Stock Exchange from 1983 until 2 February 2004, when it was bought by Granada plc in a Takeover, corporate takeover to form ITV plc. Carlton shareholders ...
in 2004. ITV plc holds the Channel 3 broadcasting licences for every region except for central and northern Scotland, which are held by
STV Group STV Group plc (previously known as Scottish Television plc, Scottish Media Group plc and SMG plc) is a media company based in Glasgow, Scotland. Beginning as a television broadcaster in 1957, the company expanded into newspapers, advertising and ...
. Today ITV plc simply commissions the network schedule centrally – programmes are made by its own subsidiary ITV Studios and independent production companies. Regional programming remains in news and some current affairs series. In Northern Ireland, ITV plc used the brand name UTV as the name of the channel until April 2020. This was the name used by former owner UTV Media (now known as
Wireless Group Wireless Group Limited is a radio and digital broadcasting network with headquarters in Belfast Belfast ( ; , ) is the capital and largest city of , standing on the banks of the on the east coast. It is the 12th-largest city in the an ...
). ITV plc bought UTV in 2016. Although the ITV network's history goes back to 1955, many regional franchisees changed over the years. Some of the most important names in the network's past – notably
Thames The River Thames ( ), known alternatively in parts as the River Isis, is a river that flows through southern England Southern England, or the South of England, also known as the South, is an area of England consisting of its southernm ...
,
ABC ABC are the first three letters of the Latin script known as the alphabet. ABC or abc may also refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Broadcasting * American Broadcasting Company, a commercial U.S. TV broadcaster ** Disney–ABC Television ...
and
ATV ATV may refer to: Broadcasting * Amateur television Television stations and companies * ATV - American University Television * Ràdio i Televisió d'Andorra * ATV (Armenia) * ATV (Aruba), NBC affiliate * ATV (Australia), Melbourne * ATV (Austria) ...
– have no connection with the modern network.


History

The origins of ITV lie in the passing of the
Television Act 1954 The Television Act 1954 was a British law which permitted the creation of the first commercial television Television (TV), sometimes shortened to tele or telly, is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monoch ...
, designed to break the monopoly on television held by the
BBC Television Service BBC Television is a service of the BBC. The corporation has operated in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and ...
. The act created the
Independent Television Authority The Independent Television Authority (ITA) was an agency created by the Television Act 1954 The Television Act 1954 was a British law which permitted the creation of the first commercial television Television (TV), sometimes shortened ...
(ITA, then IBA after the Sound Broadcasting Act) to heavily regulate the industry and to award franchises. The first six franchises were awarded in 1954 for London, the
Midlands The Midlands is the central part of England and a cultural area that broadly corresponds to the early medieval Mercia, Kingdom of Mercia. The Midlands region is bordered by Northern England and Southern England. The Midlands were important in th ...
and the North of England, with separate franchises for Weekdays and Weekends. The first ITV network to launch was London's
Associated-Rediffusion Associated-Rediffusion, later Rediffusion London, was the British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people The British people, or Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Nort ...
on 22 September 1955, with the Midlands and North services launching in February 1956 and May 1956 respectively. Following these launches, the ITA awarded more franchises until the whole country was covered by fourteen regional stations, all launched by 1962. The network has been modified several times through franchise reviews that have taken place in 1963, 1967, 1974, 1980 and 1991, during which broadcast regions have changed and service operators have been replaced. Only one service operator has ever been declared bankrupt, WWN in 1963, with all other operators leaving the network as a result of a franchise review. Separate weekend franchises were removed in 1968 (with the exception of London) and over the years more services were added; these included a national breakfast franchise from 1983 onward—operating between 6:00 am and 9:25 am—and a teletext service. The
Broadcasting Act 1990 The Broadcasting Act 1990 is a law of the British parliament The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the Parliamentary sovereignty in the United Kingdom, supreme Legislature, legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies an ...
changed the nature of ITV; the then regulator the IBA was replaced with a light-touch regulator, the ITC; companies became able to purchase other ITV regional companies and franchises were now being awarded based upon a highest-bidder auction, with few safeguards in place. This heavily criticised part of the review saw four operators replaced, and the operators facing different annual payments to the
Treasury A treasury is either *A government department related to finance and taxation, a Finance minister, finance ministry. *A place or location where treasure, such as currency or precious items are kept. These can be State ownership, state or roy ...
: Central Television, for example, paid only £2,000—despite holding a lucrative and large region—because it was unopposed, while Yorkshire Television paid £37.7 million for a region of the same size and status, owing to heavy competition. Following the 1993 changes, ITV as a network began to consolidate with several companies doing so to save money by ceasing the duplication of services present when they were all separate companies. By 2004, ITV was owned by five companies, of which two, Carlton and
Granada Granada ( , ,, DIN 31635, DIN: ; grc, Ἐλιβύργη, Elibýrgē; la, Illiberis or . ) is the capital city of the province of Granada, in the autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain. Granada is located at the ...
had become major players by owning between them all the franchises in England, Wales, the Scottish borders and the Isle of Man. That same year, the two merged to form ITV plc with the only subsequent acquisitions being the takeover of
Channel Television ITV Channel Television, previously Channel Television, is a British television station which has served as the ITV contractor for the Channel Islands The Channel Islands ( nrf, Îles d'la Manche; french: îles Anglo-Normandes or ''îles ...
, the Channel Islands franchise, in 2011; and UTV, the franchise for Northern Ireland, in 2015.


Organisation (other networks)

The ITV network is not owned or operated by one company, but by a number of licensees, which provide regional services while also broadcasting programmes across the network. Since 2016, the fifteen licences are held by two companies, with the majority held by ITV Broadcasting Limited, part of ITV plc. The network is regulated by the media regulator
Ofcom The Office of Communications ( cy, Y Swyddfa Gyfathrebiadau), commonly known as Ofcom, is the government-approved regulatory and competition authority for the broadcasting, telecommunication Telecommunication is the transmission of info ...
who is responsible for awarding the broadcast licences. The last major review of the Channel 3 franchises was in 1991, with all operators' licences having been renewed between 1999 and 2002 and again from 2014 without a further contest. While this has been the longest period that the ITV Network has gone without a major review of its licence holders, Ofcom announced (following consultation) that it would split the Wales and West licence from 1 January 2014, creating a national licence for Wales and joining the newly separated West region to Westcountry Television, to form a new licence for the enlarged South West of England region. All companies holding a licence were part of the non-profit body ITV Network Limited, which commissioned and scheduled network programming, with compliance previously handled by ITV plc and
Channel Television ITV Channel Television, previously Channel Television, is a British television station which has served as the ITV contractor for the Channel Islands The Channel Islands ( nrf, Îles d'la Manche; french: îles Anglo-Normandes or ''îles ...
. However, due to amalgamation of several of these companies since the creation of ITV Network Limited (and given Channel Television is now owned by ITV plc), it has been replaced by an affiliation system. Approved by Ofcom, this results in ITV plc commissioning and funding the network schedule, with
STV STV may refer to: Television * Satellite television ** Direct-broadcast satellite television (DBSTV) Channels and stations * STV (TV channel), the brand name of ITV broadcasters in central and northern Scotland ** Scottish Television, now legally ...
and UTV paying a fee to broadcast it. All licensees have the right to opt out of network programming (except for the national news bulletins), however many do not due to pressures from the parent company or because of limited resources. Prior to the affiliate system being introduced, STV would frequently (and sometimes controversially) opt out of several popular network programmes – such as the original run of the first series of ''
Downton Abbey ''Downton Abbey'' is a British historical drama television series set in the early 20th century, created and co-written by Julian Fellowes. The series first aired on ITV (TV network), ITV in the United Kingdom on 26 September 2010, and in the U ...
'' – citing the need to provide more Scottish content to its viewers. As a public service broadcaster, the ITV network is obliged to broadcast programming of public importance, including news, current affairs, children's and religious programming as well as party election broadcasts on behalf of the major political parties and political events, such as the Budget. The network also needs to produce accessible output containing subtitles, signing and audio description. In exchange for this programming, the ITV network is available on all platforms free to air and can be found at the top of the
EPG Electronic programming guides (EPGs) and interactive programming guides (IPGs) are menu-based systems that provide users of television, radio and other media applications with continuously updated menus that display scheduling information for ...

EPG
of all providers. Since the launch of the platform in 1998, all of the ITV licensees have received gifted capacity on the
digital terrestrial television Digital terrestrial television (DTTV or DTT, or DTTB with "broadcasting") is a technology for terrestrial television Terrestrial television is a type of television broadcasting Broadcasting is the distribution of sound, audio or video c ...
platform. At present, the companies are able to broadcast additional channels and all choose to broadcast the ITV plc owned
ITV2 ITV2 is a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people The British people, or Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the British Overseas Territories, a ...
,
ITV3 ITV3 is a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people The British people, or Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the British Overseas Territories, an ...

ITV3
,
ITV4 ITV4 is a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people The British people, or Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the British Overseas Territories, an ...

ITV4
and
CITV CITV (short for Children's ITV, also known as the CITV Channel) is a British free-to-air Free-to-air (FTA) services are television (TV) and radio services broadcast in clear (unencrypted) form, allowing any person with the FTA Receiver, appro ...
in their region. UTV and STV (formerly
Scottish Television Scottish Television (now, legally, known as STV Central Limited) is the ITV ITV or iTV may refer to: ITV *Independent Television (ITV), a British television network, consisting of: **ITV (TV network), a free-to-air national commercial televi ...
and
Grampian Television Grampian Television was the original name of the Channel 3 service for the north of Scotland founded in 1961 and now named STV. The northern region's coverage area includes the Northern Isles The Northern Isles ( sco, Northren Isles; gd, Na ...
) previously broadcast their own services – UTV2 in Northern Ireland and S2 in central and northern Scotland – until 2002, when they adopted the ITV plc channels. The broadcasters all make use of the
Digital 3&4 Digital 3&4 is a consortium consisting of ITV plc, STV Group, STV Group plc and the Channel Four Television Corporation, which operates a multiplexing, multiplex broadcasting from a number of transmitter sites in the United Kingdom, carrying televi ...
multiplex, shared with
Channel 4 Channel 4 is a British free-to-air Free-to-air (FTA) services are television (TV) and radio services broadcast in clear (unencrypted) form, allowing any person with the FTA Receiver, appropriate receiving equipment to receive the signal and ...
.
ITV Encore ITV Encore was a British drama television Television, sometimes shortened to TV or telly, is a telecommunication Media (communication), medium used for transmitting moving images in grayscale, black-and-white or in color, and in two or 3D ...
launched in June 2014 and
ITVBe ITVBe (stylized as itvBe.) is a British free-to-air television channel owned by ITV Digital Channels, a division of ITV plc. The channel was first announced on 12 February 2014 and launched on 8 October 2014. ITVBe broadcasts reality and unscri ...
launched in October 2014. ITV Box Office launched in February 2017.


ITV plc

ITV plc owns thirteen of the fifteen franchises and broadcasts to England, Wales, southern Scotland, the Isle of Man, the Channel Islands and Northern Ireland through its subsidiary company ITV Broadcasting Limited. The company also owns the breakfast television licence, which as of January 2020, broadcasts across the network between 6:00 and 10:00am each morning using the '' Good Morning Britain'' (previously '' Daybreak'') and ''
Lorraine Lorraine , also , , ; LorrainLorrain may refer to: * Claude Lorrain (1600–82), a 17th-century French artist of the baroque style * Lorrain language Lorrain is a dialect (often referred to as patois) spoken by a minority of people in Lo ...
'' names. The company broadcasts a centralised service under the
ITV ITV or iTV may refer to: ITV *Independent Television (ITV), a British television network, consisting of: **ITV (TV network), a free-to-air national commercial television network covering the United Kingdom, the Isle of Man, and the Channel Islands ...
brand. In Northern Ireland, ITV used the UTV brand name as the name of the channel until April 2020. The group also owns
ITV Studios ITV Studios is a British multinational television production and distribution company owned by the British television broadcaster ITV plc. It handles production and distribution of programmes broadcast on the ITV (TV network), ITV network and th ...
, the production arm of the company and formed from an amalgamation of all the production departments of the regional licences they own. The company produces a large proportion of ITV's networked programming (around 47%, but previously as high as 66% according to some reports), with the rest coming primarily from independent suppliers (under the Broadcasting Act 1990, at least 25% of ITV's total output must be from independent companies). ITV plc hopes to increase the amount of in-house programming to as close to the 75% limit as possible. The group cut the number of regional news programmes offered from 17 in 2007 to 9 by 2009, resulting several regions being merged to form one programme, including the
Border Television ITV Border, previously Border Television and commonly referred to as simply Border, is the Channel 3 service provided by ITV ITV or iTV may refer to: ITV *Independent Television (ITV), a British television network, consisting of: **ITV (TV n ...

Border Television
and
Tyne Tees Television ITV Tyne Tees, previously known as Tyne Tees, Channel 3 North East and Tyne Tees Television, is the ITV television franchise for North East England North East England is one of nine official regions of England at the First-level NUTS of th ...

Tyne Tees Television
regions, the Westcountry Television and
West 250px, A compass rose with west highlighted in black West or Occident is one of the four cardinal directions or points of the compass The points of the compass are the vectors by which planet-based directions are conventionally defined. A co ...
regions and the removal of sub regional programming, with some regions only represented by pre-recorded segments.


STV Group

STV Group plc STV Group plc (previously known as Scottish Television plc, Scottish Media Group plc and SMG plc) is a media company based in Glasgow, Scotland. Beginning as a television broadcaster in 1957, the company expanded into newspapers, advertising and ...
owns two franchises, covering central and northern Scotland, through subsidiary companies STV Central and STV North, broadcasting a central service under the
STV STV may refer to: Television * Satellite television ** Direct-broadcast satellite television (DBSTV) Channels and stations * STV (TV channel), the brand name of ITV broadcasters in central and northern Scotland ** Scottish Television, now legally ...
brand. The company has had several disputes with ITV plc in recent years over network programming. STV aims to broadcast more Scottish programmes at peak times and so removed several key ITV plc programmes from their schedule in July 2009 including ''
The Bill ''The Bill'' is a British police procedural television series, first broadcast on ITV (TV network), ITV from 16 August 1983 until 31 August 2010. The programme originated from a one-off drama, ''Woodentop (The Bill), Woodentop'', broadcast in A ...
'', ''
Midsomer Murders ''Midsomer Murders'' is a British crime drama Crime films, in the broadest sense, is a film genre inspired by and analogous to the crime fiction literary genre. Films of this genre generally involve various aspects of crime and its detection. ...
'' and ''
Lewis Lewis may refer to: Names * Lewis (given name) Lewis () is a masculine English given name, English-language given name. It was coined as an anglicisation of given names in other languages. "Lewis" has been used to anglicise the Irish language, Ir ...
''. Despite STV's explanation of expense, ITV plc were angered by the decision, as a recent schedule change had made ''The Bill'' central to their programming, and broadcast the programmes on
ITV3 ITV3 is a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people The British people, or Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the British Overseas Territories, an ...

ITV3
as well to ensure Scottish viewers could see the programmes. On 23 September ITV was reported to be in the process of suing STV for £20 million, as ITV plc felt dropping the shows constituted a breach of network agreements; STV subsequently counter-sued ITV plc for £35 million. The dispute was ended in 2011 with STV agreeing to pay ITV plc £18 million. The signing of the new affiliation deal has resulted in STV paying a flat fee for all networked programming, and so to drop any programmes is unlikely due to the large costs involved.


Current licensees

There are fifteen regional licences, covering fourteen regions (there are separate weekday and weekend licences for the London region), and one national licence for the breakfast service. All licences listed here were renewed until the end of 2024. Licences in England and Wales were held by the individual regional ITV plc owned companies prior to November 2008. The appointment to provide national news for Channel 3 is also subject to approval by Ofcom. This appointment has been held by
ITN Independent Television News (ITN) is a UK-based television production company. It is made up of two divisions: Broadcast News and ITN Productions. ITN is based in London London is the and of and the . It stands on the in south-east ...

ITN
since the channel's inception, and has also been approved through the end of 2024.


Programming

For over 60 years of ITV, its homegrown programmes have become among the best remembered as well as being extremely successful. Before the 1990s, nearly all of the content for the channel was produced by the fifteen franchise licensees: the regional companies. However, in the last decade, and following legislation in the
Broadcasting Act 1990 The Broadcasting Act 1990 is a law of the British parliament The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the Parliamentary sovereignty in the United Kingdom, supreme Legislature, legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies an ...
imposing a 25% quota for commissioning of independent productions, the number of programmes from independent production companies not connected to the traditional ITV Network, has increased rapidly. Notable examples include
Talkback Thames Talkback Thames (stylised as talkbackTHAMES) was a British television production company, a division of FremantleMedia (part of the RTL Group, which in turn is owned by Bertelsmann Bertelsmann is a German private multinational conglomer ...
(one half of which,
Thames Television Thames Television, commonly simplified to just Thames, was a Broadcast license, franchise holder for a region of the British ITV (TV network), ITV television network serving Greater London, London and surrounding areas from 30 July 1968 until the ...
, was itself a former ITV franchisee), producers of ''
The Bill ''The Bill'' is a British police procedural television series, first broadcast on ITV (TV network), ITV from 16 August 1983 until 31 August 2010. The programme originated from a one-off drama, ''Woodentop (The Bill), Woodentop'', broadcast in A ...
'' and co-producers of ''
The X Factor ''The X Factor'' is a television music competition A music competition is a public event designed to identify and award outstanding musical ensembles, solo (music), soloists, composers, conducting, conductors and musicologists. Pop music compet ...
'', and 2waytraffic (previously
Celador Celador is a British entertainment company originally formed in the United Kingdom in 1981 as an independent television production company. It created and produced a number of popular light entertainment shows and is best known for the TV format '' ...

Celador
), producers of ''
Who Wants to Be a Millionaire? ''Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?'' (abbreviated ''WWTBAM'' and informally known as simply ''Millionaire'') is an international television game show franchise of British origin, created by David Briggs, Mike Whitehill and Steven Knight. In its ...
''. From the late 1990s, ITV's long-standing commitment to strong
current affairsCurrent affairs may refer to: Media * Current Affairs (magazine), ''Current Affairs'' (magazine), a bimonthly magazine of culture and politics. * Current affairs (news format): a genre of broadcast journalism *current affairs Politics * An approxi ...
and documentary programming began to diminish with the ending of productions such as ''
World in Action ''World in Action'' was a British investigative current affairsCurrent affairs may refer to: Media * Current Affairs (magazine), ''Current Affairs'' (magazine), a bimonthly magazine of culture and politics. * Current affairs (news format): a g ...
'' (
Granada Television ITV Granada, formerly known as Granada Television, is the ITV franchisee for the North West of England and Isle of Man. From 1956 to 1968 it broadcast to both the north west and Yorkshire but only on weekdays as ABC Weekend Television ABC ...
), '' This Week'' (
Rediffusion London Associated-Rediffusion, later Rediffusion London, was the British ITV franchise holder for London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The ci ...
/
Thames Television Thames Television, commonly simplified to just Thames, was a Broadcast license, franchise holder for a region of the British ITV (TV network), ITV television network serving Greater London, London and surrounding areas from 30 July 1968 until the ...
), ''First Tuesday'' (
Yorkshire Television ITV Yorkshire, previously known as Yorkshire Television and commonly referred to as just YTV, is the British television service provided by ITV Broadcasting Limited for the Yorkshire franchise area on the ITV network ITV is a British free- ...
), '' Network First'', ''
Survival Survival, or the act of surviving, is the propensity of something to continue existing, particularly when this is done despite conditions that might kill or destroy it. The concept can be applied to humans and other living things (or, hypothetic ...
'' (
Anglia Television ITV Anglia, previously known as Anglia Television or (informally) Anglia, is the ITV (TV network), ITV franchise holder for the East of England. The station is based at Anglia House in Norwich, with regional news bureaux in Cambridge and Northamp ...
), and ''
Weekend World ''Weekend World'' is a British television Regular television broadcasts in the United Kingdom started in 1936 as a public service which was free of advertising, while the introduction of television and the first tests commencing in 1922. Cur ...
'' (
LWT London Weekend Television (LWT) was the ITV ITV or iTV may refer to: ITV *Independent Television (ITV), a British television network, consisting of: **ITV (TV network), a free-to-air national commercial television network covering the United ...

LWT
) and their replacement with populist shows such as '' Tonight''. '' News at Ten'' was also axed in 1999, although it was reinstated in 2001. In December 2009, the final edition of ITV's long-running arts programme, ''
The South Bank Show ''The South Bank Show'' is a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people The British people, or Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the British Over ...
'' was broadcast. ITV's primetime schedules are dominated by its soap operas, such as the flagship ''
Coronation Street ''Coronation Street'' is a British soap opera A soap opera or ''soap'' for short is a radio or television dealing especially with domestic situations and frequently characterized by , s, and . The term "soap opera" originated from radio d ...
'' and ''
Emmerdale ''Emmerdale'' (known as ''Emmerdale Farm'' until 1989) is a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Crown Dependencies. * ...

Emmerdale
''. At the start of the 21st century, Independent Television faced criticism for including a large amount of "reality TV" programmes in the schedule, such as ''
Celebrity Fit Club ''Celebrity Fit Club'' is a reality television Reality television is a genre of television programming that documents purportedly unscripted real-life situations, often starring unknown individuals rather than professional actors. Reality te ...
'', ''
Celebrity Wrestling ''Celebrity Wrestling'' is a British television programme, broadcast on ITV in 2005. It involved two teams of celebrities, competing against each other in wrestling Wrestling is a combat sport involving grappling-type techniques such as ...
'' and ''
Celebrity Love Island ''Love Island'' (titled ''Celebrity Love Island'' in its first series) is a British reality television programme that was aired on ITV (TV network), ITV in 2005 and 2006. In the show, twelve single celebrities spent five weeks on an island in Fij ...
''. In its defence, ITV does continue to show its major strengths in the fields of sports coverage and drama productions, and it continues to schedule national news in primetime.


Breakfast

Television has been broadcast on ITV at breakfast since 1 February 1983. It was initially run by an independent contractor -
TV-am TV-am was a TV company that broadcast the ITV franchise for breakfast television ''Breakfast Television'' (''BT'') is the branding used for morning shows broadcast by stations of Rogers Media's television network Citytv. As of November 17, 2 ...
, and later GMTV - until
GMTV GMTV (an acronym for Good Morning Television), now legally known as ITV Breakfast Broadcasting Limited, was the name of the national Channel 3 breakfast television contractor/licensee, broadcasting in the United Kingdom from 1 January 1993 ...
Limited became a wholly owned subsidiary of
ITV plc ITV plc is a British media company that holds 13 of the 15 regional television licences that make up the ITV network ITV is a British free-to-air television network with its headquarters in London. It was launched in 1955 as Independent ...
in November 2009. Historically, ITV aired breakfast programmes from 6am until 9.25am but ITV extended this to 10am on weekdays on 6 January 2020. and now broadcasts two breakfast programmes on weekdays - '' Good Morning Britain'' and ''
Lorraine Lorraine , also , , ; LorrainLorrain may refer to: * Claude Lorrain (1600–82), a 17th-century French artist of the baroque style * Lorrain language Lorrain is a dialect (often referred to as patois) spoken by a minority of people in Lo ...
''. ''Good Morning Britain'' keeps viewers up to date with all the latest news, sports, features and weather, whilst ''Lorraine'' predominantly focuses on celebrity interviews, recipes, fashion and showbiz. At weekends, ITV Breakfast airs children's programming, a
simulcast Simulcast (a portmanteau A portmanteau (, ) or portmanteau word (from "portmanteau (luggage) A portmanteau is a piece of luggage Baggage or luggage consists of bags, cases, and containers which hold a travel Travel is the movemen ...
of CITV Breakfast, under the
CITV CITV (short for Children's ITV, also known as the CITV Channel) is a British free-to-air Free-to-air (FTA) services are television (TV) and radio services broadcast in clear (unencrypted) form, allowing any person with the FTA Receiver, appro ...
brand.


Daytime programming

ITV's strong daytime line-up helped by programmes such as '' This Morning'', ''
Loose Women ''Loose Women'' is a British talk show A talk show (or chat show in British English) is a television programming or radio programming genre structured around the act of spontaneous conversation.Bernard M. Timberg, Robert J. Erler'' (2010Tel ...
'', ''
Dickinson's Real Deal ''Dickinson's Real Deal'' is a UK modern antiques and collectables television programme that is broadcast on ITV and presented by David Dickinson David Dickinson Order of the British Empire (MBE), MBE (born David Gulesserian; 16 August 194 ...
'' and game shows '' Tipping Point'' and '' The Chase'' are very popular, achieving the highest audience share during the daytime slot.


Entertainment

In recent years the network has tried to use formats that ITV Studios own out-right (whether they have originated in the UK with their Lifted Entertainment company or have come from production companies they own abroad), though some popular programme formats like ''
The Masked Singer ''The'' () is a grammatical article in English, denoting persons or things already mentioned, under discussion, implied or otherwise presumed familiar to listeners, readers or speakers. It is the definite article An article is any member of ...
'' have still been acquired from other companies abroad. Currently ITV are behind the formats for ''
Dancing on Ice ''Dancing on Ice'' is a British television series presented by Phillip Schofield alongside Holly Willoughby Holly Marie Willoughby (; born 10 February 1981) is an English television presenter, model and author. She is currently the co-prese ...

Dancing on Ice
'', ''
The Voice UK ''The Voice UK'' is a British singing Reality competition, competition television series. Created by John de Mol, it premiered on BBC One during the spring television cycle on 24 March 2012. Based on the original ''The Voice of Holland'', and pa ...
'' (the format originally coming from their Dutch production company) and '' I'm a Celebrity...Get Me Out of Here!'', while forthcoming music game show ''Walk The Line'' has been co-developed by Simon Cowell's Syco Entertainment and ITV.


National and international news

Since the network started,
Independent Television News Independent Television News (ITN) is a UK-based television production company. It is made up of two divisions: Broadcast News and ITN Productions. ITN is based in London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the ...

Independent Television News
Limited (ITN) has held the contract to produce news for the ITV Network, with 30-minute national news bulletins currently broadcast at 1:30 pm, 6:30 pm, and 10:00 pm. These bulletins were broadcast under the ITN brand from 1955 until 1999, when a new network identity reinforced the ITV brand, resulting in the new bulletins being broadcast under the ITV News brand. ITN has long been respected in the news industry as a source of reliable information and news, and as a result the service has won many awards for their programmes, the latest being in May 2011 when ''News at Ten'' was named best news programme by the
Royal Television Society The Royal Television Society (RTS) is a British-based educational charity for the discussion, and analysis of television in all its forms, past, present, and future. It is the oldest television society in the world. It currently has fourteen reg ...
and
BAFTA The British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA, ) is an independent charity that supports, develops, and promotes the art forms of the moving image (film, television and games) in the United Kingdom. In addition to its annual awards ...
.


Weather

The ITV National Weather forecast was first broadcast in 1989, using data supplied by the
Met Office The Meteorological Office, abbreviated as the Met Office is the United Kingdom's national weather service. It is an executive agency An executive agency is a part of a government department that is treated as managerially and budgetarily ...
, and was presented by a number of weather forecasters. The forecasts are sponsored in which the sponsors message, would appear prior to and following the forecast. The forecasts are made immediately after the main national news bulletins. Prior to the creation of the national forecast, regional forecast provided by each regional companies were shown in each region only. The regional forecasts today are incorporated into the main regional news bulletins, and in the summer months, includes a Pollen Count.


Late-night programming

Currently only new episodes of long-form news and current affairs programmes like ''Exposure'', ''Peston'' and ''On Assignment'' are being scheduled after ''News at Ten'', with the latter title currently only appearing on a month-by-month basis. As the channel carries a simulcast of the
Ideal World Ideal World is a British free-to-view shopping channel. It is owned by Ideal Shopping Direct Ltd. The channel broadcasts from studios in Peterborough Peterborough () is a cathedral city in Cambridgeshire, England England is a Co ...
shopping network for a couple of hours after midnight, the time between the news and the shopping is usually kept for re-runs, with ITV repeating its primetime entertainment shows or sports programming from ITV4. ITV continues with its regularly scheduled programming after Ideal World at around 3am with showbiz news bulletin ''FYI Extra'' and repeats, many of which have on-screen BSL signing for the deaf community. Replacing the information based '' ITV Nightscreen'' slot in 2021 was ''Unwind With ITV'', programming produced in association with the Campaign Against Living Miserably. At around 4am each night this mindfulness programme shows calming shots of natural landscapes and relaxing animations for around an hour, with versions of the footage also seen on ITV2, ITV3 and ITV4.


Regional programming

The regional ITV companies are required to provide local news as part of their franchise agreement together with local weather forecasts, with the main local bulletin at 6pm and regional bulletins located after each national news programme. In addition to this, traditionally ITV companies would provide other regional programming based on current affairs, entertainment or drama. However, apart from a monthly political programme, most non-news regional programming in the English regions was dropped by ITV plc in 2009, although it continues in Wales and the Channel Islands, as well as on STV and UTV and ITV Border in Scotland from 2014 to cover mainly Scottish politics whilst ITV Border in England broadcast network programming . On 14 January 2013, ITV plc regional news programmes titles were discontinued in favour of more generic branding under the ''
ITV News ''ITV News'' is the branding of news programmes on the British television network ITV (TV network), ITV. ITV has a long tradition of television news. ITN, Independent Television News (ITN) was founded to provide news bulletins for the network i ...
'' title with the region listed as the subheading. However some "heritage" brand names were retained including Calendar, Granada Reports and Lookaround. On 28 June 2014, ITV Cymru Wales News returned to its historic name of Wales at Six.


Current regional news programmes

#Anglia: ''
ITV News Anglia#REDIRECT ITV ITV or iTV may refer to: ITV *Independent Television (ITV), a British television network, consisting of: **ITV (TV network), a free-to-air national commercial television network covering the United Kingdom, the Isle of Man, and the Ch ...
'' (with East and West variations) #Border: '' ITV News Lookaround'' #Central: ''
ITV News Central ''ITV News Central'' is the evening news programme produced by ITV Central and broadcasting to the East and West Midlands. It broadcasts for thirty minutes each Monday to Friday from 18:00, covering regional news stories, features, sport and wea ...
'' (with East and West variations) #Channel: '' ITV News: Channel TV'' #Granada: ''Granada Reports, ITV News: Granada Reports'' #London: ''ITV News London'' #Meridian: ''ITV News Meridian'' (with South variation and a Thames Valley opt-out and South East variation) #STV Central: ''STV News'' (non-ITV plc) (previously with East and West variations) #STV North: ''STV News'' (non-ITV plc) (with a Dundee opt-out) #Tyne Tees: ''ITV News Tyne Tees'' #UTV: ''UTV Live'' #Wales: ''ITV News: Wales at Six'' #West Country: ''ITV News West Country'' (with East and West variations) #Yorkshire: ''Calendar (British TV programme), ITV News: Calendar'' (with East and West variations)


Former programmes

*ATV: ''ATV Midlands News'', ''ATV Today'' *Anglia: ''About Anglia'', ''Anglia News'', ''Anglia News Tonight'', ''Anglia Tonight'' *Carlton: ''London Tonight'' *Central / Carlton (Central): ''ITV News Central, Central News'', ''Central News at Six'', ''Central Tonight'' *Channel: ''Channel Report'' *Grampian: ''North Tonight'' *Granada: ''Northern Newscast'', ''Scene at Six Thirty'', ''Granada Tonight'' *HTV Wales / ITV Wales: ''Report Wales/Y Dydd'', ''Wales Tonight'', ''HTV West, HTV News'', ''ITV Wales News'' *HTV West / ITV West: ''Report West'', ''HTV West, HTV News'', ''The West Tonight'', ''ITV West News'', ''West Country Tonight'' *London Weekend Television / LWT: ''LWT News'', ''London Tonight'' *Meridian: ''Meridian Tonight'' *Scottish Television / STV: ''Scotland Today'' *Southern: ''Southern Television#Programming, Day by Day'' / ''Scene South East'' (Dover Transmitter) *Television South West / TSW: ''Today South West'', ''TSW Today'' *Television South / TVS: ''Coast to Coast (UK TV series), Coast to Coast'' *Thames: ''Thames News'' *Thames Valley: ''Thames Valley Tonight'' *Tyne Tees: ''Northern Life (TV series), Northern Life'', ''Tyne Tees Today'' / ''Network North'' (Bilsdale Transmitter), ''North East Tonight'' *Ulster Television / UTV: ''Good Evening Ulster'', ''Six Tonight'' *Westward: ''Westward Diary'' *Westcountry / Carlton (Westcountry): ''Westcountry Live''


Sports

*Football **ITV holds joint rights for the FIFA World Cup and the UEFA European Championship with the BBC and has shown every World Cup live since 1966, on a shared basis with the BBC. This arrangement has been in place since the 1960s. Since 2008 ITV has covered every England international home friendlies and qualifiers for the European Championship and World Cup, the deal was extended to include away friendlies in 2009 and qualifiers from 2010. This has since been extended until 2022 as well as highlights of the new UEFA Nations League tournament. ITV shared the rights for the FA Cup with the BBC from 1955 to 1988 and will again from 2021–22. ITV also held the live rights to the competition from 1998 to 2001 and from 2008 until 2014. *Horse Racing **ITV's other flagship sporting coverage is as the exclusive free to air home of British Horse Racing. ITV's deal, which began on 1 January 2017, encompasses Horse Racing every Saturday Afternoon on ITV or ITV4. *Boxing **ITV Sport has broadcast many boxing matches over the years under the ''The Big Fight Live, Big Fight Live'' banner and the sport was a regular fixture on ITV screens until the mid 1990s when ITV lost its two premier contracts to Sky Sports In 2005, ITV returned to the ring when it reached an agreement to broadcast the main share of Frank Warren (promoter), Frank Warren's Sports Network fights. This continued until 2008, and in 2010 ITV decided to stop covering the sport as ITV thought that boxing was no longer commercially viable. In the late 2010s ITV showed some boxing on a pay-per-view channel ITV Box Office. However ITV's boxing coverage is now restricted to Premier Boxing Champions which it shows on ITV4, having closed ITV Box Office at the start of 2020. *Cycling **ITV has shown the Tour de France in 2002. Initially, live coverage was only broadcast at the weekend but since the 2010 Tour de France,
ITV4 ITV4 is a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people The British people, or Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the British Overseas Territories, an ...

ITV4
has broadcast daily live coverage of every stage. ITV also covers the Women's Tour, Tour of Britain and Tour de Yorkshire live. *Darts **ITV4 covers six tournaments each year, including the UK Open, The Masters (darts), The Masters and the World Series of Darts (tour), World Series of Darts. ITV had previously extensively covered the sport and did so from 1972 until it decided to drop the sport in 1988. ITV resumed coverage of darts in 2007 and since then it has gradually increased the number of events it shows. *Motorsport **ITV's flagship motorsport coverage is of the British Touring Car Championship and has shown the event extensively and in full since 2002. ITV also broadcasts highlights of the World Superbike Championship and the British Superbike Championship. ITV had previously covered Formula One and did so for 12 seasons, from 1997 to 2008. *Rugby Union **ITV has broadcast every Rugby World Cup live since 1991 and will show the 2023 tournament. ITV also broadcasts the Women's Rugby World Cup for the first time and the Under 20 World Cup. Since 2017, ITV has shared coverage of the Six Nations Championship with the BBC. ITV broadcasts all England, Ireland and Italy home matches live, while BBC shows all France, Scotland and Wales home matches live. *Snooker **Snooker is another sport which ITV dropped but has subsequently restarted to show. In the 1980s and early 1990s, ITV broadcast four tournaments per season. ITV dropped snooker after the 1993 British Open and the sport was mostly absent from ITV screens until the 2010s. In summer 2014 ITV and Barry Hearn announced they had signed a 5-year deal to cover 2 Snooker Tournaments per year, keeping coverage of the Champion of Champions (snooker), Champion of Champions and a new tournament called the World Grand Prix. ITV now shows four tournaments each year, including the Champion of Champions (snooker), Champion of Champions and the World Grand Prix (snooker), World Grand Prix. *Tennis **In 2011, ITV Sport won the rights from the BBC to show the French Open and has shown the event since 2012. The bulk of the daily coverage is broadcast on ITV4 although both singles finals plus other weekend matches are shown on ITV. ITV renewed its deal to show the tournament in 2014 and ITV Sport will now show the French Open until 2021.


Children's programming

The network broadcasts children's programming under the CITV (Children's ITV) strand. Children's programming was originally provided during weekday afternoons and weekend mornings, however following the launch of the CITV Channel in 2006, all children's programming, with the exception of the weekend ITV Breakfast slot, were relocated from the ITV line-up to the CITV channel in 2007, a move which was challenged by Ofcom in April 2007.


Schools programming

Schools programming on the network began in 1957 in some regions and expanded as more regions began broadcasting. It was a contractual obligation for some ITV companies to broadcast schools programming, and this was initially broadcast as part of the normal scheduling. The programmes were moved into a segment for broadcast during the day in the 1960s, under the banner ''Independent Television for Schools and Colleges'' and from 1987 were broadcast on
Channel 4 Channel 4 is a British free-to-air Free-to-air (FTA) services are television (TV) and radio services broadcast in clear (unencrypted) form, allowing any person with the FTA Receiver, appropriate receiving equipment to receive the signal and ...
in the ''ITV Schools on Channel 4'' segment. In 1993, this segment became ''Channel 4 Schools'' and later in 2000 ''4Learning''. These strands of programming consisted of schools programming from all the ITV companies or from independent sources. The schools strand itself is now defunct, with no particular branding segment used.


Teletext provider

The Public Teletext Licence allows the holder to broadcast a text-based information service around the clock on Channel 3 (as well as
Channel 4 Channel 4 is a British free-to-air Free-to-air (FTA) services are television (TV) and radio services broadcast in clear (unencrypted) form, allowing any person with the FTA Receiver, appropriate receiving equipment to receive the signal and ...
and S4C) frequencies. Teletext on ITV was provided by ORACLE (teletext), ORACLE from 1974 until 1993 and from 1993 to 2010 by Teletext Ltd., whose news, sport and TV listings pages rivalled the BBC's offering, Ceefax on terrestrial and BBC Red Button on digital. Teletext Ltd. also provided digital teletext for the Channel 3 services, as well as the text output for both
Channel 4 Channel 4 is a British free-to-air Free-to-air (FTA) services are television (TV) and radio services broadcast in clear (unencrypted) form, allowing any person with the FTA Receiver, appropriate receiving equipment to receive the signal and ...
and S4C under the same licence and Channel 5 (UK), Channel 5. However, the licence was revoked by Ofcom on 29 January 2010 for failing to provide news and local non-news information on ITV and there is currently no teletext licence holder for ITV.


Availability outside the UK

ITV (as UTV) is widely available in Republic of Ireland, Ireland, where it is received directly in areas bordering Northern Ireland, or in coastal areas from Wales (as ITV Cymru Wales). Until 2015, it was also carried on Cable television in the Republic of Ireland, cable, when it was replaced by UTV Ireland, which was itself replaced by be3, now Virgin Media Three. ITV programming is also available to Irish viewers on Virgin Media One (including soap operas ''
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Emmerdale
'' and ''
Coronation Street ''Coronation Street'' is a British soap opera A soap opera or ''soap'' for short is a radio or television dealing especially with domestic situations and frequently characterized by , s, and . The term "soap opera" originated from radio d ...
''). ITV is also available on cable and IPTV in Switzerland and Liechtenstein. Since 27 March 2013, it has been offered by the BFBS, British Forces Broadcasting Service (BFBS) to members of HM Forces and their families around the world, replacing the BFBS#BFBS Television, BFBS3 TV channel, which already carried a selection of ITV programmes.


Criticism

Since the launch of ITV, there have been concerns from politicians and the press that ITV faced a conflict concerning programme audiences and advertisers. As advertisers are reluctant to buy advertising space around low viewing programmes, there is a pressure on ITV to broadcast more popular programmes in peak times. This has become more profound in recent years following a relaxation in regulation and significantly more competition in the advertising market following the huge increase in commercial channels. In recent years, programmes have started to dominate from the reality television genre including the celebrity and talent show subgenres. This has led to accusations of ITV 'dumbing down' their programmes and appealing to the 'lowest common denominator', accusations that are at odds with the network's status as a Public broadcasting, public service broadcaster. ITV was/is also heavily criticised for scaling back its regional programmes, including regional news, also ITV has been criticised (since 2010) for showing ''
Emmerdale ''Emmerdale'' (known as ''Emmerdale Farm'' until 1989) is a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Crown Dependencies. * ...

Emmerdale
'' and ''
Coronation Street ''Coronation Street'' is a British soap opera A soap opera or ''soap'' for short is a radio or television dealing especially with domestic situations and frequently characterized by , s, and . The term "soap opera" originated from radio d ...
'' at the 8:30 weekday slot (except Tuesdays).


Awards and nominations


On-air identity

On-screen branding, in the ITV-branded regions only: File:ITV logo 1989.svg, First logo (1989–1998) File:ITV logo 1998 - 2006.svg, Second logo (1998–2006) File:ITV logo.svg, Third logo (2006–2013) File:ITV logo 2013.svg, Fourth logo (2013–2019)


See also

* List of ITV channels * List of ITV journalists and newsreaders * List of television programmes broadcast by ITV * List of television stations in the United Kingdom


Notes


References


External links


ITV – www.itv.com

STV – www.stv.tv
*
STV
on Twitter


Parent companies


ITV plc

STV Group plc
{{DEFAULTSORT:Itv ITV (TV network), 1955 establishments in the United Kingdom Television broadcasting companies of the United Kingdom Television channels and stations established in 1955