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Sendai
Sendai
(仙台市, Sendai-shi, Japanese: [seꜜndai]) is the capital city of Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, the largest city in the Tōhoku region, and the second largest city north of Tokyo. As of 1 August 2017[update], the city had a population of 1,086,012, and is one of Japan's 20 designated cities. The total area of the city is 786.30 square kilometres (303.59 sq mi). The city was founded in 1600 by the daimyō Date Masamune, and is nicknamed the City of Trees (杜の都, Mori no Miyako); there are about 60 zelkova trees on Jōzenji Street (定禅寺通, Jōzenji dōri) and Aoba Street (青葉通, Aoba dōri). In the summer, the Sendai
Sendai
Tanabata
Tanabata
Festival, the largest Tanabata festival in Japan, is held. In winter, the trees are decorated with thousands of lights for the Pageant of Starlight (光のページェント), lasting through most of December. On March 11, 2011, coastal areas of the city suffered catastrophic damage from a magnitude 9.0 offshore earthquake,[1][2][3] which triggered a destructive tsunami.[4]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Edo
Edo
period 1.2 Modern era

2 Geography

2.1 Climate

3 Demographics 4 Governance 5 Economy 6 Education 7 Transport

7.1 Railway stations 7.2 Highways

8 Culture

8.1 Streets 8.2 Festivals 8.3 Specialties and crafts

9 Sites of interest

9.1 Museums 9.2 Natural sites 9.3 Other sites

10 Religion

10.1 Catholicism

11 Sports 12 International relations

12.1 Twin towns, sister cities, and friendship cities

13 Notable people 14 References 15 External links

History[edit] Edo
Edo
period[edit] Although the Sendai
Sendai
area was inhabited as early as 20,000 years ago, the history of Sendai
Sendai
as a city begins from 1600, when the daimyō Date Masamune
Date Masamune
relocated to Sendai. Masamune was not happy with his previous stronghold, Iwadeyama, which was located in the northern portion of his territories and was difficult to access from Edo (modern-day Tokyo). Sendai
Sendai
was an ideal location, being in the centre of Masamune's newly defined territories, upon a major road from Edo, and near the sea. Tokugawa Ieyasu
Tokugawa Ieyasu
gave Masamune permission to build a new castle in Aobayama after the Battle of Sekigahara. The previous ruler of the Sendai
Sendai
area had used a castle located on Aobayama. At this time Sendai
Sendai
was written as 千代 ("a thousand generations"), because a temple with a thousand Buddha statues (千体, sentai) used to be located in Aobayama. Masamune changed the kanji to 仙臺, which later became 仙台 (literally: "hermit/wizard" plus "platform/plateau" or more figuratively, "hermit on a platform/high ground"). The kanji came from a Chinese poem that praised a palace created by the Emperor Wen of Han China
Emperor Wen of Han China
(reigned 180–157 BCE), comparing it to a mythical palace in the Kunlun Mountains. Tradition says that Masamune chose this kanji so that the castle would prosper as long as a mountain inhabited by an immortal hermit. Masamune ordered the construction of Sendai Castle
Sendai Castle
in December 1600 and the construction of the surrounding castle town in 1601. The grid plan roads in present-day central Sendai
Sendai
are based upon his plans. Modern era[edit]

A city map of 1927, Japanese language edition

The first railway line between Sendai
Sendai
and Tokyo, now the Tōhoku Main Line, opened in 1887, bringing the area within a day's travel from Tokyo
Tokyo
for the first time in history. Tohoku Imperial University, the region's first university, was founded in Sendai
Sendai
in 1907 and became the first Japanese university to admit female students in 1913. Sendai
Sendai
was incorporated as a city on 1 April 1889, with the post-Meiji restoration creation of the modern municipalities system following the abolition of the han system. At the time of incorporation the city's area was 17.45 square kilometres (6.74 sq mi) and its population was 86,000. The city grew, however, through seven annexations that occurred between 1928 and 1988. The city became a designated city on 1 April 1989; the city's population exceeded one million in 1999. Sendai
Sendai
was considered to be one of Japan's greenest cities, mostly because of its great numbers of trees and plants. Sendai
Sendai
became known as The City of Trees before the Meiji Restoration, the feudal Sendai Domain encouraged residents to plant trees in their gardens. As a result, many houses, temples, and shrines in central Sendai
Sendai
had household forests (屋敷林, yashikirin), which were used as resources for wood and other everyday materials. In 1925, the Senseki Line
Senseki Line
to Sendai
Sendai
Station became the first underground railway segment in Japan, preceding the opening of the Tokyo
Tokyo
Metro Ginza Line (Asia's first subway line) by two years. The 2nd Infantry Division was known as the " Sendai
Sendai
Division" as it was based in Sendai, and recruited locally. During the Second World War it was involved in many different campaigns, but one of the most important was the Battle of Guadalcanal. During the bombing of Sendai during World War II by the United States
United States
on 10 July 1945, much of the historic center of the city was burned, with 2,755 inhabitants killed and 11,933 houses destroyed in the city. Following World War II, the city was rebuilt, and Sendai
Sendai
became a vital transportation and logistics hub for the Tōhoku region
Tōhoku region
with the construction of major arteries such as the Tōhoku Expressway
Tōhoku Expressway
and Tōhoku Shinkansen.

An aerial view of Sendai
Sendai
harbour after the earthquake, 12 March 2011

Sendai
Sendai
has been subject to several major earthquakes in recent history, including the 1978 Miyagi earthquake, which was a catalyst for the development of Japan's current earthquake resistance standards, and the 2005 Miyagi earthquake. Most recently, the coastal area of Sendai, including Sendai
Sendai
Airport, was severely damaged in the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami.[1][2][3][5][6] The tsunami reportedly reached as far as Wakabayashi Ward Office, 8 kilometers (5.0 mi) from the coastline. Hundreds were killed, and countless more were injured and/or made homeless. Sendai's port was heavily damaged and temporarily closed, but reopened on 16 April 2011.[7] Geography[edit] Sendai
Sendai
is located at lat. 38°16'05" north, long. 140°52'11" east. The city's area is 788.09 km², and stretches from the Pacific Ocean to the Ōu Mountains, which are the east and west borders of Miyagi Prefecture. As a result, the city's geography is quite diverse. Eastern Sendai
Sendai
is a plains area, the center of the city is hilly, and western areas are mountainous. The highest point in the city is Mount Funagata which stands 1,500 metres (4,921 feet) above sea level. The Hirose River (広瀬川, Hirose-gawa) flows 45 kilometres (28 miles) through Sendai. The river is well known as a symbol of Sendai, especially because it appears in the lyrics of Aoba-jō Koi-uta (青葉城恋唄; literally, The Aoba Castle Love Song), a popular song sung by Muneyuki Satō. Sendai Castle
Sendai Castle
was built close to the river to use the river as a natural moat. The river frequently flooded until the 1950s, but dams and levees constructed in the 1960s and 1970s have made such floods rare. Most mountains in Sendai
Sendai
are dormant volcanoes, much older than the more famous Mount Zaō
Mount Zaō
and Naruko volcanoes in nearby municipalities. However, many hot springs can be found in the city, indicating hydrothermal activity. The Miyagi Oki earthquake occurs offshore Sendai
Sendai
once every 25 to 40 years. The 7.2 magnitude 2005 Miyagi earthquake, which occurred on August 16, 2005 had an epicenter close to the Miyagi Oki earthquake area. However, the Headquarters for Earthquake
Earthquake
Research Promotion concluded that it was not the Miyagi Oki earthquake, saying "...the recent event is not thought to be this earthquake. This is because the magnitude of the earthquake was small, and the source area, which was estimated from the aftershock distribution and seismic waves, did not cover the whole expected source region. Although, the recent event ruptured a part of the focal region of the expected earthquake."[8] In 2011, the 9.0 magnitude 2011 Tōhoku earthquake occurred offshore Sendai, resulting in a devastating tsunami. Climate[edit] Sendai
Sendai
has a humid subtropical (Köppen Cfa), climate, with neither the very hot summers of Tokyo
Tokyo
nor the snowbound winters of Sapporo, but retains significant seasonal differences. Winters are cool and relatively dry, with January temperatures averaging 1.5 °C (34.7 °F). Summers are very warm and much of the year's precipitation is delivered at this time, with an August average of 24.1 °C (75.4 °F). The city is rarely hit by typhoons, and experiences only 6 days with more than 10 centimetres (4 in) of rainfall on average. Sendai's rainy season usually begins in late June to early July, which is later than in most cities in Japan. During this season, cold winds from the Okhotsk air mass, called "Yamase", blow in and depress daytime highs.[9] Extremes range from −11.7 to +37.2 °C (11 to 99 °F).

Climate data for Sendai, Miyagi (1981–2010)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 17.9 (64.2) 20.9 (69.6) 24.2 (75.6) 28.4 (83.1) 33.2 (91.8) 34.4 (93.9) 36.6 (97.9) 37.2 (99) 36.0 (96.8) 29.9 (85.8) 24.4 (75.9) 21.8 (71.2) 37.2 (99)

Average high °C (°F) 5.3 (41.5) 5.9 (42.6) 9.2 (48.6) 15.0 (59) 19.4 (66.9) 22.3 (72.1) 25.7 (78.3) 27.9 (82.2) 24.4 (75.9) 19.4 (66.9) 13.7 (56.7) 8.4 (47.1) 16.4 (61.5)

Daily mean °C (°F) 1.6 (34.9) 2.0 (35.6) 4.9 (40.8) 10.3 (50.5) 15.0 (59) 18.5 (65.3) 22.2 (72) 24.2 (75.6) 20.7 (69.3) 15.2 (59.4) 9.4 (48.9) 4.5 (40.1) 12.4 (54.3)

Average low °C (°F) −1.7 (28.9) −1.5 (29.3) 0.9 (33.6) 6.1 (43) 11.1 (52) 15.5 (59.9) 19.5 (67.1) 21.4 (70.5) 17.6 (63.7) 11.2 (52.2) 5.2 (41.4) 0.9 (33.6) 8.9 (48)

Record low °C (°F) −11.7 (10.9) −11.5 (11.3) −8.9 (16) −5.0 (23) −0.3 (31.5) 5.4 (41.7) 9.0 (48.2) 12.9 (55.2) 5.6 (42.1) −0.1 (31.8) −5.0 (23) −10.8 (12.6) −11.7 (10.9)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 37.0 (1.457) 38.4 (1.512) 68.2 (2.685) 97.6 (3.843) 109.9 (4.327) 145.6 (5.732) 179.4 (7.063) 166.9 (6.571) 187.5 (7.382) 122.0 (4.803) 65.1 (2.563) 36.6 (1.441) 1,254.1 (49.374)

Average snowfall cm (inches) 21 (8.3) 23 (9.1) 14 (5.5) 1 (0.4) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 9 (3.5) 71 (28)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.5 mm) 7.2 7.2 9.4 9.5 10.7 12.9 15.7 12.2 13.4 9.2 8.0 6.7 122.1

Average snowy days 20.8 17.7 11.3 1.5 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.5 12.7 66.5

Average relative humidity (%) 66 64 62 64 71 80 83 81 78 72 68 66 71

Mean monthly sunshine hours 148.1 151.8 177.0 188.5 185.2 133.8 119.5 144.4 121.2 148.6 139.6 138.6 1,796.1

Source: [10]

Demographics[edit] In 2005, the city had an estimated population of 1,028,214 and a population density of 1,304.10 persons per km². The city's total area was 788.09 km². Most people in the city at this time lived in urban areas close to train and subway stations. The 2000 National Census revealed that 88.5% of the city's population (892,252 people) lived in a 129.69 km² area, which is 16.6% of the city's total area. The population density in this area was 6,879.9 persons per km², more than 5 times higher than the city's average population density at that time, 1,286.6 persons per km². Approximately 10,000 people in Sendai
Sendai
were non-Japanese citizens. Sendai
Sendai
had 444,514 households in 2005. The average household had approximately 2.31 members. The average household was becoming smaller every year, because single-member households were increasing. At this time Sendai
Sendai
had more people in their early 50s and in their 20s and early 30s than in other age groups. This is a result of the first and second baby booms in Japan, and university students. The average age in Sendai
Sendai
is 38.4, which makes the city one of the youngest major cities in Japan. Governance[edit]

A map of Sendai's Wards

Sendai
Sendai
City Hall

Sendai's political system is similar to other cities in Japan, because the Local Autonomy Law makes all municipalities uniform in terms of organization and power. However, Sendai
Sendai
is a designated city, so it has the same jurisdiction as prefectures in some areas. Sendai's local government is essentially a mayor-council government. The mayor is elected from a citywide election. Sendai
Sendai
City Assembly members are elected from 5 elective districts, which correspond to the city's 5 wards. The number of assembly members allocated to each ward is based upon population. As of May 2005, the city has 60 assembly members; 17 from Aoba Ward, 11 from Miyagino, 8 from Wakabayashi, 13 from Taihaku, and 11 from Izumi. The City Assembly elects an Assembly Chairperson and Vice Chairperson. Sendai
Sendai
has two vice mayors, who are not elected by the populace. Sendai
Sendai
has five wards ("ku"), which were created when it became a designated city in 1989. The city consciously avoided names that included directions (e.g., north 北, center 中央) when it chose names for the new wards.

Aoba-ku (青葉区) – administrative center Izumi-ku (泉区) Miyagino-ku (宮城野区) Taihaku-ku (太白区) Wakabayashi-ku (若林区)

Economy[edit]

Sendai
Sendai
MEA

Sendai
Sendai
is the center of the Tōhoku region's economy, and is the base of the region's logistics and transportation. The GDP
GDP
in Greater Sendai, Sendai
Sendai
Metropolitan Employment Area (1.6 million people), is US$61.7 billion in 2010.[11][12] The city's economy heavily relies upon retail and services – the two industries provide approximately two thirds of the employment and close to half of the establishments. In Sendai
Sendai
city there are a lot of different types of industries that make up the economy. The largest group is Wholesale and Retail with 28.7% of all business establishments. Followed up by the food service business/accommodation industry with 12.5%. The construction industry is third with 9.1% while fourth place is held by the entertainment industry with 8%.[13] In 2016 the estimated gross production for Sendai
Sendai
is US$45.4 million. Annual item sales in the area add up to around US$73.5 million, while the manufactured goods amount adding up to around US$10 billion.[13] Sendai
Sendai
is frequently called a branch-office economy, because very few major companies are headquartered in the city. Various authorities are cooperating to alleviate this problem, primarily by encouraging high-tech ventures from Tohoku University, which is well known for its science and engineering departments. Tohoku Electric Power, a major regional supplier of electric power, has its headquarters in Sendai. Sendai’s economic growth rate has stabilized since the 2011 Japan earthquake. The growth rate was only 0.4% in 2011 after the quake created economic turmoil in coastal areas. The year after, in 2012 the rate spiked to 10.4% after reconstruction efforts. It has since fallen to a closer trend to what is expected of 3.7% in 2013.[13] Tourism in 2016 has attracted an estimated 2.229 million visitors to Sendai.[13] Education[edit]

Tohoku University
Tohoku University
Kawauchi Campus

Sendai
Sendai
is sometimes called an "Academic City" (学都, gakuto) because the city has many universities relative to its population.[14] Universities located within Sendai
Sendai
include:

Tohoku University Tohoku Gakuin University Miyagi University Miyagi Gakuin Women's University Miyagi University
Miyagi University
of Education Tohoku Fukushi University Tohoku Medical and Pharmaceutical University

Schools in the city include Tohoku International School. Transport[edit]

Sendai
Sendai
Airport

Sendai
Sendai
Station

Sendai-Tobu Road

Sendai
Sendai
Port

JR East's Sendai
Sendai
Station is the main transport hub for the city. The station is served by seven JR lines and is a major station on the Tōhoku and Akita Shinkansen
Akita Shinkansen
lines. An underground passage connects the station to the Sendai
Sendai
Subway. The subway has two lines— Namboku ("north-south") and Tōzai ("east-west"). The city is served by Sendai Airport
Sendai Airport
(located in neighboring Natori), which has international flights to several countries, and Sendai
Sendai
Port. A rail link to Sendai
Sendai
began service on March 18, 2007. The Tōhoku Expressway
Tōhoku Expressway
runs north-south through western Sendai, and is connected to other highways, such as the Sendai-Nambu Road, Sendai-Tobu Road, Sanriku Expressway (Sendai- Matsushima
Matsushima
Road), and Sendai
Sendai
Hokubu Road. Railway stations[edit]

JR East

Tōhoku Shinkansen: Sendai Tōhoku Main Line: Minami- Sendai
Sendai
– Nagamachi – Sendai
Sendai
– Higashi- Sendai
Sendai
– Iwakiri Jōban Line: Minami- Sendai
Sendai
– Nagamachi – Sendai Senzan Line: Sendai
Sendai
– Tōshōgū – Kita- Sendai
Sendai
– Kitayama – Tōhoku-Fukushi-dai-mae – Kunimi – Kuzuoka Station
Kuzuoka Station
– Rikuzen-Ochiai – Ayashi – Rikuzen-Shirasawa – Kumagane – Sakunami
Sakunami
– Yatsumori – Okunikkawa – Yama-dera
Yama-dera
– Yamagata Senseki Line: Aoba-dōri – Sendai
Sendai
– Tsutsujigaoka – Miyaginohara – Rikuzen-Haranomachi – Nigatake – Kozurushinden – Fukudamachi – Rikuzen-Takasago – Nakanosakae

Sendai Subway
Sendai Subway
(All stations)

Highways[edit]

Tōhoku Expressway Sanriku Expressway Sendai-Tobu Road Sendai-Nambu Road Sendai-Nishi Road National Route 4 National Route 6 National Route 45 National Route 47 National Route 48 National Route 286 National Route 346 National Route 457

Culture[edit] Streets[edit]

Sendai
Sendai
Tanabata
Tanabata
Festival

Sendai
Sendai
Pageant of Starlights

Dainenji

The Miyagi Museum of Art

The most well-known streets in Sendai, Jozenji-Dori (定禅寺通り) and Aoba-Dori (青葉通り), are both lined with Japanese zelkovas. These are symbols of "The City of Trees". Jozenji-Dori has a promenade and a few sculptures. It is a place of relaxation. Many events and festivals, such as the Sendai
Sendai
Pageant of Starlight and the Jozenji Street Jazz Festival, take place on Jozenji-Dori and in Kōtōdai Park (匂当台公園). Aoba-Dori is the main business road in Sendai. Other major roads in the city include Hirose-Dori (ginkgo) and Higashi-Nibancho-Dori. Festivals[edit] The most famous festival in Sendai
Sendai
is Tanabata, which attracts more than 2 million visitors every year and is the largest Tanabata Festival in Japan. It is relatively quiet compared to other traditional Japanese festivals, because its main attractions are intricate Tanabata
Tanabata
decorations. The Aoba Matsuri Festival follows more typical Japanese festival traditions, with a mikoshi, floats, a samurai parade, and traditional dancing.[15] Local people burn their New Year decorations and pray for health in the new year during the Dontosai Festival, the oldest festival in Miyagi Prefecture. Various contemporary festivals also take place in Sendai, such as the Jōzenji Streetjazz Festival, the Michinoku Yosakoi Festival, and the Sendai
Sendai
Pageant of Starlight. The Jōzenji Streetjazz Festival is one of the largest amateur music festivals in Japan. It began as a jazz festival in 1991, but soon began to accept applications from all genres. The Michinoku Yosakoi festival is a dance festival, derived from the Yosakoi Festival
Yosakoi Festival
that takes place in Kōchi. Trees in downtown Sendai
Sendai
are decorated with lights during the Sendai
Sendai
Pageant of Starlights. The event provided the idea for the Festival of Lights annually held in Riverside, Sendai's sister city. In 2005, the streets were lit up with one million miniature bulbs. Specialties and crafts[edit]

Gyūtan
Gyūtan
teishoku, a Table d'hôte
Table d'hôte
of beef tongue

Sendai
Sendai
is the origin of several foods, including gyūtan (beef tongue, usually grilled), hiyashi chūka (cold Chinese noodles), and robatayaki (Japanese-style barbecue). However, robatayaki was later introduced to Kushiro, which developed and popularized the dish. As a result, many people believe Kushiro is the origin of Robatayaki. Zundamochi (ずんだ餅, mochi balls with sweet, bright green edamame paste), and sasakamaboko (笹かまぼこ, kamaboko shaped like bamboo leaves) are also considered to be Sendai
Sendai
specialties. Sendai
Sendai
is also known for good sashimi, sushi, and sake. This is because Sendai
Sendai
is near several major fishing ports, such as Kesennuma, Ishinomaki, and Shiogama, and the fact that Miyagi Prefecture
Miyagi Prefecture
is a major producer of rice. There are many ramen restaurants in Sendai, and the area is known for a particular spicy miso ramen. Also, Sendai
Sendai
station offers the most types of ekiben of any station in Japan. In autumn, many people organise Imonikai, a sort of picnic by the river which involves making a potato stew called Imoni. Many crafts from Sendai
Sendai
were originally created under the influence of the Date family during the Edo
Edo
period. Examples are Sendai
Sendai
Hira, a hand woven silk fabric, Tsutsumiyaki pottery, and Yanagiu Washi
Washi
paper. However, some crafts, such as umoregi zaiku (crafts created from fossil wood) were developed by low-ranking samurai who needed side jobs to survive. Kokeshi
Kokeshi
dolls were popularized by hot spring resorts that sold them as gifts. Some relatively recent developments include Sendai
Sendai
Tsuishu lacquerware and Tamamushinuri lacquerware, both of which were developed after the Meiji Restoration. Sendai
Sendai
was also known for its production of Tansu, clothing drawers made from wood with elaborate ironwork. Sites of interest[edit]

Zuihōden

Sendai
Sendai
is home to historical sites related to the Date clan. The ruins of Sendai Castle
Sendai Castle
are close to downtown on Aobayama, which also gives a panoramic view of the city. The Zuihōden
Zuihōden
is the tomb of Date Masamune and is home to artifacts related to the Date family. It is on a hill called Kyogamine, which is the traditional resting place for Date family members. In Aoba-ku, the Ōsaki Hachiman-gū
Ōsaki Hachiman-gū
shaden, built in 1607 by Date Masamune, is designated a National Treasure. Mutsu Kokubun-ji Yakushidō is the provincial temple of Mutsu Province.

Sendai
Sendai
Castle

Newer historical sites include the former home of Doi Bansui, a famous lyricist, and a monument at Sendai City Museum
Sendai City Museum
that commemorates the Chinese writer Lu Xun. Another statue of Lu Xun
Lu Xun
can be found in the Tohoku University
Tohoku University
Katahira Campus, where Lu Xun
Lu Xun
studied medical science. Older historical sites include the Tōmizuka Tomb, a tomb that dates back to the late 4th century or early 5th century, and the Tomizawa Preserved Forest site, where the excavated remains of a Stone Age human settlement ( Upper Palaeolithic
Upper Palaeolithic
– roughly 20,000 years ago) have been protected by a large museum structure, built in 1996. The nearby Site of Tagajō
Site of Tagajō
was an important early fort and administrative centre. Museums[edit] Sendai City Museum
Sendai City Museum
displays artifacts related to the Date family and the history of Sendai. Date Masamune's famous suit of armour and artifacts related to Hasekura Tsunenaga's visit to Rome (National Treasures of Japan) are sometimes on display. The Miyagi Museum of Art
Miyagi Museum of Art
is Sendai's largest art museum. A total of 24 sculptures have been installed in public locations in Sendai
Sendai
through its 'City of Sculptures' project. The Tomizawa site museum in the southern part of the city preserves a fossilized forest where the remains of human habitation from 20,000 years ago can be seen.[16] The Sendai
Sendai
City War Reconstruction Memorial Hall is dedicated to remembering the air raid of July 1945 in which most of Sendai
Sendai
was destroyed. Natural sites[edit]

Saikachi Gawa

Western Sendai
Sendai
is home to many sites of natural beauty,[citation needed] many of them found around Akiu and Sakunami, which are hot spring resorts. Sites around the Akiu area include the Akiu Great Falls, sometimes counted as one of Japan's three great waterfalls, and the Rairai Gorge, known for its autumn colours. The Futakuchi Gorge contains waterfalls that have been designated as natural monuments and the Banji Cliffs, an example of columnar basalt.[17] The Sakunami
Sakunami
area is also known for its natural environment, with cherry blossoms in the spring, and autumnal colours. The nearby Hōmei Shijuhachi Taki Falls is the name of waterfalls found in the higher reaches of the Hirose River. The origin of the name "Hōmei" (鳳鳴, "Chinese phoenix cry") is said to come from ancient local inhabitants' claim that the sound of the waterfalls was similar to the legendary bird's call.

Matsushima

The Tatsunokuchi Gorge offers a view of a petrified wood next to the Otamaya-bashi bridge. Nishi Park and Tsutsujigaoka Park are appreciated for their cherry blossom in the spring. The Hirose River and the Gamo tideland are home to diverse wildlife. Matsushima, which is one of the Three Views of Japan, is near Sendai, in Matsushima. Other sites[edit] Sendai Mediatheque
Sendai Mediatheque
is a multipurpose facility that houses the city library, galleries, and film studio facilities open for use by the general public. The building was designed by Toyo Ito
Toyo Ito
and is known for its innovative architecture.[18] The AER Building, the Miyagi Prefectural Office, and the SS30 Building are all relatively high buildings in downtown Sendai
Sendai
that offer panoramic views. The Sendai Daikannon
Sendai Daikannon
is an approximately 100-meter high Kannon statue. The statue was built during Japan's bubble economy by a now defunct company. Sendai
Sendai
also contains a Peace Pagoda, built by Nipponzan-Myōhōji-Daisanga
Nipponzan-Myōhōji-Daisanga
in 1974.

City view from the Sendai Castle
Sendai Castle
on Mount Aoba

Religion[edit] Catholicism[edit] The Catholic Church has been associated with Sendai
Sendai
since 1613, the year in which Date Masamune, daimyō of Sendai, built a galleon to send an embassy to the Pope in Rome headed by Hasekura Tsunenaga.[19] Although the embassy was successful in its aim of establishing relations with the Holy See, Masamune's plans were frustrated by the suppression of Christianity in Japan. The diocese of Sendai (previously the diocese of Hakodate) was established in 1891, only two years after the promulgation of a new constitution guaranteeing freedom of religion in Japan, in 1889. The Bishop of Sendai
Sendai
currently oversees the four northern prefectures of Miyagi, Fukushima, Iwate and Aomori, serving 11,152 Catholics in 56 parishes. Mototerakoji, the Cathedral of the diocese, is located a few blocks north of Sendai Station. Sports[edit] Although the Lotte Orions
Lotte Orions
briefly used Sendai
Sendai
as a temporary home for the franchise from 1973 to 1977, the city was largely ignored by professional sports until 1994. In that year, the Tohoku Electric Power football team was changed into a club team, Brummel Sendai, with the goal of eventually being promoted into the J. League. The team achieved this goal when the J. League
J. League
expanded in 1999 with the creation of a second division. The name of the team was simultaneously changed to Vegalta Sendai. Currently the city also host semi-professional outfit Sony Sendai
Sendai
F.C.. In 2005, the number of professional sports teams based in Sendai suddenly increased to three. The Tohoku Rakuten Golden Eagles
Tohoku Rakuten Golden Eagles
was introduced as a new Pacific League baseball franchise after widely publicized turmoil involving the merger of the Kintetsu Buffaloes and the Orix Blue Wave
Orix Blue Wave
developed into the first strike in Nippon Professional Baseball. Additionally, the Japan
Japan
Basketball League, which began its inaugural season in November 2005, included the Sendai 89ers among its first six teams. Annual sporting events include the Sendai
Sendai
Cup, an international football tournament for U-18 teams, and the Sendai
Sendai
International Half Marathon. In 2006 of the Sendai
Sendai
International half marathon, Mizuki Noguchi, who won the women's marathon Gold medal at the 2004 Athens Olympic Games, took part in and won the race in a surprising course record. Various sporting venues can be found in Sendai, such as Miyagi Stadium (venue of 2002 FIFA World Cup), Sendai
Sendai
Stadium, Miyagi Baseball Stadium, Sendai City Gymnasium
Sendai City Gymnasium
and Sendai
Sendai
Hi-Land Raceway. The city is also known as the origin of figure skating in Japan, and both 2006 Olympic gold medalist Shizuka Arakawa
Shizuka Arakawa
and two-time Olympic gold medalist (2014, 2018) Yuzuru Hanyu
Yuzuru Hanyu
trained in Sendai
Sendai
during their childhood. Tohoku Fukushi University
Tohoku Fukushi University
and Sendai
Sendai
Ikuei Gakuen High School are well known for their strong sports programs, the latter for baseball. In 2006, Sendai
Sendai
hosted some games of the Basketball World Championship 2006. Before that, the city had some experience at hosting international basketball events such as the 1994 and 2004 editions of the Asian Basketball Championship for Women. International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Japan Twin towns, sister cities, and friendship cities[edit] Sendai
Sendai
has a long history of international relationships. Its affiliation with Riverside, California, on March 9, 1957, is the second oldest sister city partnership in Japan.[citation needed]

Riverside, California, USA Rennes, France Acapulco, Mexico Minsk, Belarus[20] Gwangju, South Korea[21] Dallas, Texas, USA[22] Changchun, People's Republic of China Oulu, Finland[23] Tainan, Republic of China[24]

Notable people[edit]

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Miho Arakawa, voice actress Hirohiko Araki, manga artist; creator of JoJo's Bizarre Adventure Mika Doi, voice actress Mimori Yusa, singer-songwriter Yuzuru Hanyu, figure skater Eugen Herrigel lectured at Tohoku Imperial University from 1924 until 1929[25][full citation needed] Kanata Hongō, actor and model Karen Iwata, member of girl-group AKB48 Monkey Majik, band, formed and based in Sendai Yūsei Oda, voice actor Minene Sakurano, manga artist; creator of Mamotte Shugogetten Kimi Sato, composer Somei Satoh, composer Satomi Satō, voice actress Shizuka Arakawa, figure skater Yoko Kanno, composer Ayumi Ishida, member of girl-group Morning Musume '17 Fukuhara Ai, table tennis player

References[edit]

^ a b US Geological Survey 9.0 assessment ^ a b UK Foreign Office 9.0 assessment ^ a b The Telegraph 9.0 assessment " Japan
Japan
earthquake: timeline of the disaster, from tsunami to nuclear crisis" 15 March 2011 ^ Sydney Morning Herald earthquake report ^ Fackler, Martin (13 March 2011). "At Sendai
Sendai
City Hall, a Relief Center, Thousands Wait and Wonder What's Next". The New York Times.  ^ Sendai
Sendai
BBC report ^ Kyodo News, " Sendai
Sendai
port reopens for business", The Japan
Japan
Times, 17 April 2011, p. 1. ^ " Earthquake
Earthquake
Off-shore of Miyagi Prefecture
Miyagi Prefecture
on August 16, 2005". Headquarters for Earthquake
Earthquake
Research Promotion. August 17, 2005. Retrieved March 18, 2011.  ^ "Classification of the Yamase (cold northeasterly wind around northeastern Japan) based upon its air-mass vertical structures".  ^ "気象庁 / 平年値(年・月ごとの値)". Japan Meteorological Agency. December 2016.  ^ Yoshitsugu Kanemoto. "Metropolitan Employment Area (MEA) Data". Center for Spatial Information Science, The University of Tokyo.  ^ Conversion rates - Exchange rates - OECD Data ^ a b c d "Industry in Sendai
Sendai
2016" (PDF). Sendai
Sendai
City. 2016. Retrieved November 11, 2016.  ^ Profile ^ A History of Sendai
Sendai
Aoba Matsuri ^ General Information ^ Sendai
Sendai
Hotels & Travel Guide ^ SMT.jp, about Sendai
Sendai
mediatheque ^ Charles Ralph Boxer, The Christian Century in Japan, 1549–1650, (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1967), p.314 ^ "Twin towns and Sister cities of Minsk
Minsk
[via WaybackMachine.com]" (in Russian). The department of protocol and international relations of Minsk
Minsk
City Executive Committee. Archived from the original on 2 May 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-21.  ^ Gwangju
Gwangju
Sister Cities ^ "Sister Cities". Dallas-ecodev.org. Retrieved May 23, 2010.  ^ "Partneri- ja kummikaupungit (Partnership and twinning cities)". Oulun kaupunki (City of Oulu) (in Finnish). Retrieved 2013-07-27.  ^ "姊妹市暨友誼市". Tainan
Tainan
City Government (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2013-07-01. Retrieved 2013-08-01.  ^ Shoji Yamada Shots in the Dark

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sendai, Miyagi.

Sendai
Sendai
travel guide from Wikivoyage Official Website (in Japanese)

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Mass transit in the greater Sendai
Sendai
area

JR East
JR East
lines

■ Tohoku (Rifu) ■ Joban ■ Senzan ■ Senseki ■ Senseki-Tohoku

Sendai Subway
Sendai Subway
lines

■ Namboku ■ Tozai

Other rail

Sendai
Sendai
Airport Abukuma Express

Terminals

Rail

Sendai Izumi-Chuo Aoba-dori Natori Iwanuma

Ports

Ishinomaki

Sendai
Sendai
Airport

Miscellaneous

Suica Rail transport in Japan

Japan
Japan
transit: Tokyo Osaka Nagoya Fukuoka Hakone Fuji Izu Hokkaido Sendai Niigata Toyama Nagano Okayama Hiroshima Shikoku Metro systems Shinkansen trams (list) aerial lifts (list)

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Miyagi Prefecture

Sendai
Sendai
(capital)

Wards of Sendai

Aoba Izumi Miyagino Taihaku Wakabayashi

Cities

Higashimatsushima Ishinomaki Iwanuma Kakuda Kesennuma Kurihara Natori Ōsaki Shiogama Shiroishi Tagajō Tome Tomiya

Igu District

Marumori

Kami District

Kami Shikama

Katta District

Shichikashuku Zaō

Kurokawa District

Ōsato Taiwa Ōhira

Miyagi District

Matsushima Rifu Shichigahama

Motoyoshi District

Minamisanriku

Oshika District

Onagawa

Shibata District

Kawasaki Murata Ōgawara Shibata

Tōda District

Misato Wakuya

Watari District

Watari Yamamoto

List of mergers in Miyagi Prefecture

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Metropolitan cities of Japan

Tokyo
Tokyo
Metropolis

Special
Special
wards of Tokyo※ (Adachi Arakawa Bunkyo Chiyoda Chūō Edogawa Itabashi Katsushika Kita Koto Meguro Minato Nakano Nerima Ōta Setagaya Shibuya Shinagawa Shinjuku Suginami Sumida Toshima Taitō)

Designated cities

Chiba※ Fukuoka※ Hamamatsu Hiroshima※ Kawasaki Kitakyushu Kobe※ Kumamoto※ Kyoto※ Nagoya※ Niigata※ Okayama※ Osaka※ Sagamihara Saitama※ Sakai Sapporo※ Sendai※ Shizuoka※ Yokohama※

Core cities

Akita※ Amagasaki Aomori※ Asahikawa Fukuyama Funabashi Gifu※ Hachinohe Hachiōji Hakodate Higashiōsaka Himeji Hirakata Iwaki Kagoshima※ Kanazawa※ Kashiwa Kawagoe Kōchi※ Kōriyama Koshigaya Kurashiki Kure Kurume Maebashi※ Matsuyama※ Miyazaki※ Morioka※ Naha Nagano※ Nagasaki※ Nara※ Nishinomiya Ōita※ Okazaki Ōtsu※ Sasebo Shimonoseki Takamatsu※ Takasaki Takatsuki Toyama※ Toyohashi Toyonaka Toyota Utsunomiya※ Wakayama※ Yokosuka

Special
Special
cities

Akashi Atsugi Chigasaki Fuji Fukui※ Hiratsuka Ibaraki Ichinomiya Isesaki Jōetsu Kakogawa Kasugai Kasukabe Kawaguchi Kishiwada Kōfu※ Kumagaya Matsue※ Matsumoto Mito※ Nagaoka Neyagawa Numazu Odawara Ōta Saga※ Sōka Suita Takarazuka Tokorozawa Tottori※ Tsukuba Yamagata※ Yamato Yao Yokkaichi

Prefectural capitals

Fukushima Tsu Tokushima Yamaguchi

Note: ※ also a prefectural capital

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2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami

Aftermath

Geology

Japan
Japan
Trench Pacific Plate North American Plate Okhotsk Plate Honshu
Honshu
Island Oshika Peninsula Pacific Ocean

Affected areas

Areas severely damaged

Hokkaido

Hokkaido Oshima Subprefecture Hakodate

Tōhoku Region

Iwate Prefecture Kamaishi Miyako Ōfunato Ōtsuchi Rikuzentakata Yamada

Miyagi Prefecture East- Matsushima
Matsushima
(Naruse) Ishinomaki Kesennuma Kurihara Natori Onagawa Sendai South-Sanriku (Shizugawa) Yamamoto

Fukushima Prefecture Iwaki Ōkuma Sōma South-Sōma (Haranomachi) Tomioka

Kantō Region

Ibaraki Prefecture Hitachinaka Itako Kashima North-Ibaraki (Isohara) Ōarai

Chiba Prefecture Asahi Chōshi Ichihara Urayasu

Affected infrastructure

Ichihara refinery Fujinuma Dam Sendai
Sendai
Airport Taro sea wall

Rail lines

Ōarai-Kashima Line Tōhoku Shinkansen Joban Line

Shinchi Station Tomioka Station

Senseki Line

Nobiru Station

Kesennuma Line

Nuclear Accidents and Incidents

Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster

Accident reactors

Fukushima Daiichi plant

Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Units 4-6

Sequence of events

Timeline reactions

International Japanese

Radiation effects

Topics

Casualties Cleanup

Fukushima 50

Investigation

National Diet Government

Comparison Accident Rating

Movements

Project Sunshine for Japan Safecast (organization) Sayonara Nuclear Power Plants

Others

Reactors/Facilities

Fukushima Daini plant Tōkai plant Onagawa plant Higashidori plant Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

Foreshocks, Aftershocks

Miyagi, Japan
Japan
(7.1, 7 April 2011) Fukushima, Japan
Japan
(6.6, 11 April 2011) Miyagi, Japan
Japan
(7.3, 7 December 2012)

People

Naoto Kan Yukio Edano Katsuhiko Ishibashi Kiyoo Mogi Masao Yoshida Miki Endo Takashi Shimokawara Hideaki Akaiwa Katsunobu Sakurai (fr; ja)

Relief and Recovery

Efforts

Humanitarian response

Operation Pacific Assist Operation Tomodachi

Reconstruction Agency

Fundraisers

All Together Artistes 311 Love Beyond Borders Download to Donate: Tsunami
Tsunami
Relief Fight and Smile Songs for Japan Pray for Japan Side by Side Reunion

Media

Documentaries

Pray for Japan Surviving Japan Surviving the Tsunami
Tsunami
- My Atomic Aunt The Tsunami
Tsunami
and the Cherry Blossom

Movies

Himizu Homeland Land of Hope Reunion

Drama

Amachan

Songs

Side by Side Songs for Japan Anata ga Irukara

Books

Strong in the Rain

Other

Impact on video game industry No.18 Kyotoku-maru Tsunami
Tsunami
fish Japan
Japan
Trench Fast Drilling Project Ryou-Un Maru 869 Sanriku earthquake 2011 local elections Miracle pine (ja; fr) Shinkansen Relay

See also: Japanese earthquakes Seismicity of the Sanriku coast List of historical tsunamis Nuclear power in Japan, section Seismicity Nuclear and radioactive incidents

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Metropolitan areas in Japan
Japan
with a population of over a million

Hokkaido
Hokkaido
region

Sapporo(ja)

Ishikari Shiribeshi Sorachi

Tōhoku region

Sendai(ja)

Miyagi

Kantō region

Utsunomiya(ja)

Tochigi

Maebashi(ja)

Gunma

Tokyo(ja)

Saitama Chiba Tokyo Kanangawa Ibaraki Yamanashi

Chūbu region

Niigata(ja)

Niigata

Shizuoka(ja)

Shizuoka

Hamamatsu(ja)

Shizuoka

Nagoya(ja)

Gifu Aichi Mie

Kinki region

Kyoto(ja)

Shiga Kyoto

Osaka(ja)

Kyoto Osaka Hyogo Nara Wakayama

Kobe(ja)

Hyogo

Chūgoku region

Okayama(ja)

Okayama

Hiroshima(ja)

Hiroshima

Kyushu
Kyushu
region

Kitakyushu(ja)

Fukuoka

Fukuoka(ja)

Fukuoka Saga

Kumamoto(ja)

Kumamoto

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 153551372 LCCN: n80022922 ISNI: 0000 0004 0403 2157 GND: 10290

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