Sendai (仙台市, Sendai-shi, Japanese: [seꜜndai]) is the
capital city of Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, the largest city in the
Tōhoku region, and the second largest city north of Tokyo. As of
1 August 2017[update], the city had a population of
1,086,012, and is one of Japan's 20 designated cities. The total area
of the city is 786.30 square kilometres (303.59 sq mi).
The city was founded in 1600 by the daimyō Date Masamune, and is
nicknamed the City of Trees (杜の都, Mori no Miyako); there are
about 60 zelkova trees on Jōzenji Street (定禅寺通, Jōzenji
dōri) and Aoba Street (青葉通, Aoba dōri).
In the summer, the
Tanabata Festival, the largest Tanabata
festival in Japan, is held. In winter, the trees are decorated with
thousands of lights for the Pageant of Starlight
(光のページェント), lasting through most of December.
On March 11, 2011, coastal areas of the city suffered catastrophic
damage from a magnitude 9.0 offshore earthquake, which
triggered a destructive tsunami.
1.2 Modern era
7.1 Railway stations
8.3 Specialties and crafts
9 Sites of interest
9.2 Natural sites
9.3 Other sites
12 International relations
12.1 Twin towns, sister cities, and friendship cities
13 Notable people
15 External links
Sendai area was inhabited as early as 20,000 years ago,
the history of
Sendai as a city begins from 1600, when the daimyō
Date Masamune relocated to Sendai. Masamune was not happy with his
previous stronghold, Iwadeyama, which was located in the northern
portion of his territories and was difficult to access from Edo
Sendai was an ideal location, being in the centre
of Masamune's newly defined territories, upon a major road from Edo,
and near the sea.
Tokugawa Ieyasu gave Masamune permission to build a
new castle in Aobayama after the Battle of Sekigahara. The previous
ruler of the
Sendai area had used a castle located on Aobayama. At
Sendai was written as 千代 ("a thousand generations"),
because a temple with a thousand Buddha statues (千体, sentai) used
to be located in Aobayama. Masamune changed the kanji to 仙臺, which
later became 仙台 (literally: "hermit/wizard" plus
"platform/plateau" or more figuratively, "hermit on a platform/high
ground"). The kanji came from a Chinese poem that praised a palace
created by the
Emperor Wen of Han China
Emperor Wen of Han China (reigned 180–157 BCE),
comparing it to a mythical palace in the Kunlun Mountains. Tradition
says that Masamune chose this kanji so that the castle would prosper
as long as a mountain inhabited by an immortal hermit.
Masamune ordered the construction of
Sendai Castle in December 1600
and the construction of the surrounding castle town in 1601. The grid
plan roads in present-day central
Sendai are based upon his plans.
A city map of 1927, Japanese language edition
The first railway line between
Sendai and Tokyo, now the Tōhoku Main
Line, opened in 1887, bringing the area within a day's travel from
Tokyo for the first time in history. Tohoku Imperial University, the
region's first university, was founded in
Sendai in 1907 and became
the first Japanese university to admit female students in 1913.
Sendai was incorporated as a city on 1 April 1889, with the post-Meiji
restoration creation of the modern municipalities system following the
abolition of the han system. At the time of incorporation the city's
area was 17.45 square kilometres (6.74 sq mi) and its
population was 86,000. The city grew, however, through seven
annexations that occurred between 1928 and 1988. The city became a
designated city on 1 April 1989; the city's population exceeded one
million in 1999.
Sendai was considered to be one of Japan's greenest cities, mostly
because of its great numbers of trees and plants.
Sendai became known
as The City of Trees before the Meiji Restoration, the feudal Sendai
Domain encouraged residents to plant trees in their gardens. As a
result, many houses, temples, and shrines in central
household forests (屋敷林, yashikirin), which were used as
resources for wood and other everyday materials.
In 1925, the
Senseki Line to
Sendai Station became the first
underground railway segment in Japan, preceding the opening of the
Tokyo Metro Ginza Line (Asia's first subway line) by two years.
The 2nd Infantry Division was known as the "
Sendai Division" as it was
based in Sendai, and recruited locally. During the Second World War it
was involved in many different campaigns, but one of the most
important was the Battle of Guadalcanal. During the bombing of Sendai
during World War II by the
United States on 10 July 1945, much of the
historic center of the city was burned, with 2,755 inhabitants killed
and 11,933 houses destroyed in the city.
Following World War II, the city was rebuilt, and
Sendai became a
vital transportation and logistics hub for the
Tōhoku region with the
construction of major arteries such as the
Tōhoku Expressway and
An aerial view of
Sendai harbour after the earthquake, 12 March 2011
Sendai has been subject to several major earthquakes in recent
history, including the 1978 Miyagi earthquake, which was a catalyst
for the development of Japan's current earthquake resistance
standards, and the 2005 Miyagi earthquake. Most recently, the coastal
area of Sendai, including
Sendai Airport, was severely damaged in the
2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami. The tsunami
reportedly reached as far as Wakabayashi Ward Office, 8 kilometers
(5.0 mi) from the coastline. Hundreds were killed, and countless
more were injured and/or made homeless. Sendai's port was heavily
damaged and temporarily closed, but reopened on 16 April 2011.
Sendai is located at lat. 38°16'05" north, long. 140°52'11" east.
The city's area is 788.09 km², and stretches from the Pacific
Ocean to the Ōu Mountains, which are the east and west borders of
Miyagi Prefecture. As a result, the city's geography is quite diverse.
Sendai is a plains area, the center of the city is hilly, and
western areas are mountainous. The highest point in the city is Mount
Funagata which stands 1,500 metres (4,921 feet) above sea level.
The Hirose River (広瀬川, Hirose-gawa) flows 45 kilometres (28
miles) through Sendai. The river is well known as a symbol of Sendai,
especially because it appears in the lyrics of Aoba-jō Koi-uta
(青葉城恋唄; literally, The Aoba Castle Love Song), a popular
song sung by Muneyuki Satō.
Sendai Castle was built close to the
river to use the river as a natural moat. The river frequently flooded
until the 1950s, but dams and levees constructed in the 1960s and
1970s have made such floods rare.
Most mountains in
Sendai are dormant volcanoes, much older than the
Mount Zaō and Naruko volcanoes in nearby municipalities.
However, many hot springs can be found in the city, indicating
hydrothermal activity. The Miyagi Oki earthquake occurs offshore
Sendai once every 25 to 40 years. The 7.2 magnitude 2005 Miyagi
earthquake, which occurred on August 16, 2005 had an epicenter close
to the Miyagi Oki earthquake area. However, the Headquarters for
Earthquake Research Promotion concluded that it was not the Miyagi Oki
earthquake, saying "...the recent event is not thought to be this
earthquake. This is because the magnitude of the earthquake was small,
and the source area, which was estimated from the aftershock
distribution and seismic waves, did not cover the whole expected
source region. Although, the recent event ruptured a part of the focal
region of the expected earthquake." In 2011, the 9.0 magnitude 2011
Tōhoku earthquake occurred offshore Sendai, resulting in a
Sendai has a humid subtropical (Köppen Cfa), climate, with neither
the very hot summers of
Tokyo nor the snowbound winters of Sapporo,
but retains significant seasonal differences. Winters are cool and
relatively dry, with January temperatures averaging 1.5 °C
(34.7 °F). Summers are very warm and much of the year's
precipitation is delivered at this time, with an August average of
24.1 °C (75.4 °F). The city is rarely hit by typhoons, and
experiences only 6 days with more than 10 centimetres (4 in) of
rainfall on average. Sendai's rainy season usually begins in late June
to early July, which is later than in most cities in Japan. During
this season, cold winds from the Okhotsk air mass, called "Yamase",
blow in and depress daytime highs. Extremes range from −11.7 to
+37.2 °C (11 to 99 °F).
Climate data for Sendai, Miyagi (1981–2010)
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average snowfall cm (inches)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.5 mm)
Average snowy days
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
In 2005, the city had an estimated population of 1,028,214 and a
population density of 1,304.10 persons per km². The city's total area
was 788.09 km². Most people in the city at this time lived in
urban areas close to train and subway stations. The 2000 National
Census revealed that 88.5% of the city's population (892,252 people)
lived in a 129.69 km² area, which is 16.6% of the city's total
area. The population density in this area was 6,879.9 persons per
km², more than 5 times higher than the city's average population
density at that time, 1,286.6 persons per km². Approximately 10,000
Sendai were non-Japanese citizens.
Sendai had 444,514 households in 2005. The average household had
approximately 2.31 members. The average household was becoming smaller
every year, because single-member households were increasing. At this
Sendai had more people in their early 50s and in their 20s and
early 30s than in other age groups. This is a result of the first and
second baby booms in Japan, and university students. The average age
Sendai is 38.4, which makes the city one of the youngest major
cities in Japan.
A map of Sendai's Wards
Sendai City Hall
Sendai's political system is similar to other cities in Japan, because
Local Autonomy Law makes all municipalities uniform in terms of
organization and power. However,
Sendai is a designated city, so it
has the same jurisdiction as prefectures in some areas.
Sendai's local government is essentially a mayor-council government.
The mayor is elected from a citywide election.
Sendai City Assembly
members are elected from 5 elective districts, which correspond to the
city's 5 wards. The number of assembly members allocated to each ward
is based upon population. As of May 2005, the city has 60 assembly
members; 17 from Aoba Ward, 11 from Miyagino, 8 from Wakabayashi, 13
from Taihaku, and 11 from Izumi. The City Assembly elects an Assembly
Chairperson and Vice Chairperson.
Sendai has two vice mayors, who are
not elected by the populace.
Sendai has five wards ("ku"), which were created when it became a
designated city in 1989. The city consciously avoided names that
included directions (e.g., north 北, center 中央) when it chose
names for the new wards.
Aoba-ku (青葉区) – administrative center
Sendai is the center of the Tōhoku region's economy, and is the base
of the region's logistics and transportation. The
GDP in Greater
Sendai Metropolitan Employment Area (1.6 million people), is
US$61.7 billion in 2010. The city's economy heavily relies
upon retail and services – the two industries provide approximately
two thirds of the employment and close to half of the establishments.
Sendai city there are a lot of different types of industries that
make up the economy. The largest group is Wholesale and Retail with
28.7% of all business establishments. Followed up by the food service
business/accommodation industry with 12.5%. The construction industry
is third with 9.1% while fourth place is held by the entertainment
industry with 8%.
In 2016 the estimated gross production for
Sendai is US$45.4 million.
Annual item sales in the area add up to around US$73.5 million, while
the manufactured goods amount adding up to around US$10 billion.
Sendai is frequently called a branch-office economy, because very few
major companies are headquartered in the city. Various authorities are
cooperating to alleviate this problem, primarily by encouraging
high-tech ventures from Tohoku University, which is well known for its
science and engineering departments.
Tohoku Electric Power, a major regional supplier of electric power,
has its headquarters in Sendai.
Sendai’s economic growth rate has stabilized since the 2011 Japan
earthquake. The growth rate was only 0.4% in 2011 after the quake
created economic turmoil in coastal areas. The year after, in 2012 the
rate spiked to 10.4% after reconstruction efforts. It has since fallen
to a closer trend to what is expected of 3.7% in 2013.
Tourism in 2016 has attracted an estimated 2.229 million visitors to
Tohoku University Kawauchi Campus
Sendai is sometimes called an "Academic City" (学都, gakuto) because
the city has many universities relative to its population.
Universities located within
Tohoku Gakuin University
Miyagi Gakuin Women's University
Miyagi University of Education
Tohoku Fukushi University
Tohoku Medical and Pharmaceutical University
Schools in the city include Tohoku International School.
Sendai Station is the main transport hub for the city. The
station is served by seven JR lines and is a major station on the
Akita Shinkansen lines. An underground passage connects
the station to the
Sendai Subway. The subway has two lines— Namboku
("north-south") and Tōzai ("east-west").
The city is served by
Sendai Airport (located in neighboring Natori),
which has international flights to several countries, and
A rail link to
Sendai began service on March 18, 2007.
Tōhoku Expressway runs north-south through western Sendai, and is
connected to other highways, such as the Sendai-Nambu Road,
Sendai-Tobu Road, Sanriku Expressway (Sendai-
Matsushima Road), and
Sendai Hokubu Road.
Tōhoku Shinkansen: Sendai
Tōhoku Main Line: Minami-
Sendai – Nagamachi –
Sendai – Iwakiri
Jōban Line: Minami-
Sendai – Nagamachi – Sendai
Sendai – Tōshōgū – Kita-
Sendai – Kitayama –
Tōhoku-Fukushi-dai-mae – Kunimi –
Kuzuoka Station –
Rikuzen-Ochiai – Ayashi – Rikuzen-Shirasawa – Kumagane –
Sakunami – Yatsumori – Okunikkawa –
Yama-dera – Yamagata
Senseki Line: Aoba-dōri –
Sendai – Tsutsujigaoka – Miyaginohara
– Rikuzen-Haranomachi – Nigatake – Kozurushinden – Fukudamachi
– Rikuzen-Takasago – Nakanosakae
Sendai Subway (All stations)
National Route 4
National Route 6
National Route 45
National Route 47
National Route 48
National Route 286
National Route 346
National Route 457
Sendai Pageant of Starlights
The Miyagi Museum of Art
The most well-known streets in Sendai, Jozenji-Dori (定禅寺通り)
and Aoba-Dori (青葉通り), are both lined with Japanese zelkovas.
These are symbols of "The City of Trees". Jozenji-Dori has a promenade
and a few sculptures. It is a place of relaxation. Many events and
festivals, such as the
Sendai Pageant of Starlight and the Jozenji
Street Jazz Festival, take place on Jozenji-Dori and in Kōtōdai Park
(匂当台公園). Aoba-Dori is the main business road in Sendai.
Other major roads in the city include Hirose-Dori (ginkgo) and
The most famous festival in
Sendai is Tanabata, which attracts more
than 2 million visitors every year and is the largest Tanabata
Festival in Japan. It is relatively quiet compared to other
traditional Japanese festivals, because its main attractions are
The Aoba Matsuri Festival follows more typical Japanese festival
traditions, with a mikoshi, floats, a samurai parade, and traditional
Local people burn their New Year decorations and pray for health in
the new year during the Dontosai Festival, the oldest festival in
Various contemporary festivals also take place in Sendai, such as the
Jōzenji Streetjazz Festival, the Michinoku Yosakoi Festival, and the
Sendai Pageant of Starlight. The Jōzenji Streetjazz Festival is one
of the largest amateur music festivals in Japan. It began as a jazz
festival in 1991, but soon began to accept applications from all
genres. The Michinoku Yosakoi festival is a dance festival, derived
Yosakoi Festival that takes place in Kōchi. Trees in
Sendai are decorated with lights during the
Sendai Pageant of
Starlights. The event provided the idea for the Festival of Lights
annually held in Riverside, Sendai's sister city. In 2005, the streets
were lit up with one million miniature bulbs.
Specialties and crafts
Gyūtan teishoku, a
Table d'hôte of beef tongue
Sendai is the origin of several foods, including gyūtan (beef tongue,
usually grilled), hiyashi chūka (cold Chinese noodles), and
robatayaki (Japanese-style barbecue). However, robatayaki was later
introduced to Kushiro, which developed and popularized the dish. As a
result, many people believe Kushiro is the origin of Robatayaki.
Zundamochi (ずんだ餅, mochi balls with sweet, bright green edamame
paste), and sasakamaboko (笹かまぼこ, kamaboko shaped like bamboo
leaves) are also considered to be
Sendai is also
known for good sashimi, sushi, and sake. This is because
near several major fishing ports, such as Kesennuma, Ishinomaki, and
Shiogama, and the fact that
Miyagi Prefecture is a major producer of
rice. There are many ramen restaurants in Sendai, and the area is
known for a particular spicy miso ramen. Also,
Sendai station offers
the most types of ekiben of any station in Japan. In autumn, many
people organise Imonikai, a sort of picnic by the river which involves
making a potato stew called Imoni.
Many crafts from
Sendai were originally created under the influence of
the Date family during the
Edo period. Examples are
Sendai Hira, a
hand woven silk fabric, Tsutsumiyaki pottery, and Yanagiu
However, some crafts, such as umoregi zaiku (crafts created from
fossil wood) were developed by low-ranking samurai who needed side
jobs to survive.
Kokeshi dolls were popularized by hot spring resorts
that sold them as gifts. Some relatively recent developments include
Sendai Tsuishu lacquerware and Tamamushinuri lacquerware, both of
which were developed after the Meiji Restoration.
Sendai was also known for its production of Tansu, clothing drawers
made from wood with elaborate ironwork.
Sites of interest
Sendai is home to historical sites related to the Date clan. The ruins
Sendai Castle are close to downtown on Aobayama, which also gives a
panoramic view of the city. The
Zuihōden is the tomb of Date Masamune
and is home to artifacts related to the Date family. It is on a hill
called Kyogamine, which is the traditional resting place for Date
family members. In Aoba-ku, the
Ōsaki Hachiman-gū shaden, built in
1607 by Date Masamune, is designated a National Treasure. Mutsu
Kokubun-ji Yakushidō is the provincial temple of Mutsu Province.
Newer historical sites include the former home of Doi Bansui, a famous
lyricist, and a monument at
Sendai City Museum
Sendai City Museum that commemorates the
Chinese writer Lu Xun. Another statue of
Lu Xun can be found in the
Tohoku University Katahira Campus, where
Lu Xun studied medical
science. Older historical sites include the Tōmizuka Tomb, a tomb
that dates back to the late 4th century or early 5th century, and the
Tomizawa Preserved Forest site, where the excavated remains of a Stone
Age human settlement (
Upper Palaeolithic – roughly 20,000 years ago)
have been protected by a large museum structure, built in 1996. The
Site of Tagajō
Site of Tagajō was an important early fort and administrative
Sendai City Museum
Sendai City Museum displays artifacts related to the Date family and
the history of Sendai. Date Masamune's famous suit of armour and
artifacts related to Hasekura Tsunenaga's visit to Rome (National
Treasures of Japan) are sometimes on display.
Miyagi Museum of Art
Miyagi Museum of Art is Sendai's largest art museum. A total of 24
sculptures have been installed in public locations in
its 'City of Sculptures' project.
The Tomizawa site museum in the southern part of the city preserves a
fossilized forest where the remains of human habitation from 20,000
years ago can be seen.
Sendai City War Reconstruction Memorial Hall is dedicated to
remembering the air raid of July 1945 in which most of
Sendai is home to many sites of natural beauty,[citation
needed] many of them found around Akiu and Sakunami, which are hot
spring resorts. Sites around the Akiu area include the Akiu Great
Falls, sometimes counted as one of Japan's three great waterfalls, and
the Rairai Gorge, known for its autumn colours. The Futakuchi Gorge
contains waterfalls that have been designated as natural monuments and
the Banji Cliffs, an example of columnar basalt.
Sakunami area is also known for its natural environment, with
cherry blossoms in the spring, and autumnal colours. The nearby Hōmei
Shijuhachi Taki Falls is the name of waterfalls found in the higher
reaches of the Hirose River. The origin of the name "Hōmei" (鳳鳴,
"Chinese phoenix cry") is said to come from ancient local inhabitants'
claim that the sound of the waterfalls was similar to the legendary
The Tatsunokuchi Gorge offers a view of a petrified wood next to the
Otamaya-bashi bridge. Nishi Park and Tsutsujigaoka Park are
appreciated for their cherry blossom in the spring. The Hirose River
and the Gamo tideland are home to diverse wildlife.
Matsushima, which is one of the Three Views of Japan, is near Sendai,
Sendai Mediatheque is a multipurpose facility that houses the city
library, galleries, and film studio facilities open for use by the
general public. The building was designed by
Toyo Ito and is known for
its innovative architecture.
The AER Building, the Miyagi Prefectural Office, and the SS30 Building
are all relatively high buildings in downtown
Sendai that offer
panoramic views. The
Sendai Daikannon is an approximately 100-meter
high Kannon statue. The statue was built during Japan's bubble economy
by a now defunct company.
Sendai also contains a Peace Pagoda, built by
Nipponzan-Myōhōji-Daisanga in 1974.
City view from the
Sendai Castle on Mount Aoba
The Catholic Church has been associated with
Sendai since 1613, the
year in which Date Masamune, daimyō of Sendai, built a galleon to
send an embassy to the Pope in Rome headed by Hasekura Tsunenaga.
Although the embassy was successful in its aim of establishing
relations with the Holy See, Masamune's plans were frustrated by the
suppression of Christianity in Japan. The diocese of Sendai
(previously the diocese of Hakodate) was established in 1891, only two
years after the promulgation of a new constitution guaranteeing
freedom of religion in Japan, in 1889. The Bishop of
oversees the four northern prefectures of Miyagi, Fukushima, Iwate and
Aomori, serving 11,152 Catholics in 56 parishes. Mototerakoji, the
Cathedral of the diocese, is located a few blocks north of Sendai
Lotte Orions briefly used
Sendai as a temporary home for
the franchise from 1973 to 1977, the city was largely ignored by
professional sports until 1994. In that year, the Tohoku Electric
Power football team was changed into a club team, Brummel Sendai, with
the goal of eventually being promoted into the J. League. The team
achieved this goal when the
J. League expanded in 1999 with the
creation of a second division. The name of the team was simultaneously
changed to Vegalta Sendai. Currently the city also host
semi-professional outfit Sony
In 2005, the number of professional sports teams based in Sendai
suddenly increased to three. The
Tohoku Rakuten Golden Eagles
Tohoku Rakuten Golden Eagles was
introduced as a new
Pacific League baseball franchise after widely
publicized turmoil involving the merger of the
Kintetsu Buffaloes and
Orix Blue Wave
Orix Blue Wave developed into the first strike in Nippon
Professional Baseball. Additionally, the
Japan Basketball League,
which began its inaugural season in November 2005, included the Sendai
89ers among its first six teams.
Annual sporting events include the
Sendai Cup, an international
football tournament for U-18 teams, and the
Sendai International Half
Marathon. In 2006 of the
Sendai International half marathon, Mizuki
Noguchi, who won the women's marathon Gold medal at the 2004 Athens
Olympic Games, took part in and won the race in a surprising course
Various sporting venues can be found in Sendai, such as Miyagi Stadium
(venue of 2002 FIFA World Cup),
Sendai Stadium, Miyagi Baseball
Sendai City Gymnasium
Sendai City Gymnasium and
Sendai Hi-Land Raceway. The city is
also known as the origin of figure skating in Japan, and both 2006
Olympic gold medalist
Shizuka Arakawa and two-time Olympic gold
medalist (2014, 2018)
Yuzuru Hanyu trained in
Sendai during their
Tohoku Fukushi University
Tohoku Fukushi University and
Sendai Ikuei Gakuen High
School are well known for their strong sports programs, the latter for
Sendai hosted some games of the Basketball World Championship
2006. Before that, the city had some experience at hosting
international basketball events such as the 1994 and 2004 editions of
the Asian Basketball Championship for Women.
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Japan
Twin towns, sister cities, and friendship cities
Sendai has a long history of international relationships. Its
affiliation with Riverside, California, on March 9, 1957, is the
second oldest sister city partnership in Japan.
Riverside, California, USA
Gwangju, South Korea
Dallas, Texas, USA
Changchun, People's Republic of China
Tainan, Republic of China
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help
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Miho Arakawa, voice actress
Hirohiko Araki, manga artist; creator of JoJo's Bizarre Adventure
Mika Doi, voice actress
Mimori Yusa, singer-songwriter
Yuzuru Hanyu, figure skater
Eugen Herrigel lectured at Tohoku Imperial University from 1924 until
1929[full citation needed]
Kanata Hongō, actor and model
Karen Iwata, member of girl-group AKB48
Monkey Majik, band, formed and based in Sendai
Yūsei Oda, voice actor
Minene Sakurano, manga artist; creator of Mamotte Shugogetten
Kimi Sato, composer
Somei Satoh, composer
Satomi Satō, voice actress
Shizuka Arakawa, figure skater
Yoko Kanno, composer
Ayumi Ishida, member of girl-group Morning Musume '17
Fukuhara Ai, table tennis player
^ a b US Geological Survey 9.0 assessment
^ a b UK Foreign Office 9.0 assessment
^ a b The Telegraph 9.0 assessment "
Japan earthquake: timeline of the
disaster, from tsunami to nuclear crisis" 15 March 2011
^ Sydney Morning Herald earthquake report
^ Fackler, Martin (13 March 2011). "At
Sendai City Hall, a Relief
Center, Thousands Wait and Wonder What's Next". The New York
Sendai BBC report
^ Kyodo News, "
Sendai port reopens for business", The
Japan Times, 17
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Earthquake Off-shore of
Miyagi Prefecture on August 16, 2005".
Earthquake Research Promotion. August 17, 2005.
Retrieved March 18, 2011.
^ "Classification of the
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northeastern Japan) based upon its air-mass vertical
^ "気象庁 / 平年値（年・月ごとの値）". Japan
Meteorological Agency. December 2016.
^ Yoshitsugu Kanemoto. "Metropolitan Employment Area (MEA) Data".
Center for Spatial Information Science, The University of Tokyo.
^ Conversion rates - Exchange rates - OECD Data
^ a b c d "Industry in
Sendai 2016" (PDF).
Sendai City. 2016.
Retrieved November 11, 2016.
^ A History of
Sendai Aoba Matsuri
^ General Information
Sendai Hotels & Travel Guide
^ SMT.jp, about
^ Charles Ralph Boxer, The Christian Century in Japan, 1549–1650,
(Berkeley: University of California Press, 1967), p.314
^ "Twin towns and Sister cities of
Minsk [via WaybackMachine.com]" (in
Russian). The department of protocol and international relations of
Minsk City Executive Committee. Archived from the original on 2 May
2013. Retrieved 2013-07-21.
Gwangju Sister Cities
^ "Sister Cities". Dallas-ecodev.org. Retrieved May 23, 2010.
^ "Partneri- ja kummikaupungit (Partnership and twinning cities)".
Oulun kaupunki (City of Oulu) (in Finnish). Retrieved
Tainan City Government (in Chinese).
Archived from the original on 2013-07-01. Retrieved 2013-08-01.
^ Shoji Yamada Shots in the Dark
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sendai, Miyagi.
Sendai travel guide from Wikivoyage
Official Website (in Japanese)
Mass transit in the greater
JR East lines
■ Tohoku (Rifu)
Sendai Subway lines
Rail transport in Japan
Japan transit: Tokyo
Hakone Fuji Izu
aerial lifts (list)
Wards of Sendai
List of mergers in Miyagi Prefecture
Metropolitan cities of Japan
Special wards of Tokyo※
Note: ※ also a prefectural capital
2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami
North American Plate
Taro sea wall
Fukushima Daiichi plant
Sequence of events
Project Sunshine for Japan
Sayonara Nuclear Power Plants
Fukushima Daini plant
Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant
Japan (7.1, 7 April 2011)
Japan (6.6, 11 April 2011)
Japan (7.3, 7 December 2012)
Katsunobu Sakurai (fr; ja)
Operation Pacific Assist
Artistes 311 Love Beyond Borders
Download to Donate:
Fight and Smile
Songs for Japan
Pray for Japan
Side by Side
Pray for Japan
Tsunami - My Atomic Aunt
Tsunami and the Cherry Blossom
Land of Hope
Side by Side
Songs for Japan
Anata ga Irukara
Strong in the Rain
Impact on video game industry
Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project
869 Sanriku earthquake
2011 local elections
Miracle pine (ja; fr)
See also: Japanese earthquakes
Seismicity of the Sanriku coast
List of historical tsunamis
Nuclear power in Japan, section Seismicity
Nuclear and radioactive incidents
Metropolitan areas in
Japan with a population of over a million
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