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Rotterdam
Rotterdam
(/ˈrɒtərdæm/ or /ˌrɒtərˈdæm/;[8][9] Dutch: [ˌrɔtərˈdɑm] ( listen)) is a city in the Netherlands, in South Holland
South Holland
within the Rhine–Meuse– Scheldt
Scheldt
river delta at the North Sea. Its history goes back to 1270, when a dam was constructed in the Rotte river, after which people settled around it for safety. In 1340, Rotterdam
Rotterdam
was granted city rights by the Count of Holland.[10] A major logistic and economic centre, Rotterdam
Rotterdam
is Europe's largest port, and has a population of 633,471 (2017), the second-largest in the Netherlands, just behind Amsterdam.[11] Rotterdam
Rotterdam
is known for the Erasmus
Erasmus
University, its riverside setting, lively cultural life, and maritime heritage. The near-complete destruction of the city centre in the World War II
World War II
Rotterdam Blitz
Rotterdam Blitz
has resulted in a varied architectural landscape, including sky-scrapers (an uncommon sight in other Dutch cities) designed by renowned architects such as Rem Koolhaas, Piet Blom, and Ben van Berkel.[12][13] Rotterdam's logistic success is based on its strategic location by the North Sea, at the mouth of the Nieuwe Maas
Nieuwe Maas
channel leading into the Rhine–Meuse– Scheldt
Scheldt
delta. The rivers Rhine, Meuse, and Scheldt give waterway access into the heart of Western Europe, including the highly industrialized Ruhr. The extensive distribution system including rail, roads, and waterways have earned Rotterdam
Rotterdam
the nicknames "Gateway to Europe" and "Gateway to the World".[14][15][16]

Contents

1 History 2 Geography

2.1 Climate

3 Demographics

3.1 Composition 3.2 Ethnic make-up 3.3 Religion

4 Economy

4.1 Ports 4.2 Shopping

5 Education 6 Culture

6.1 Museums

7 Architecture 8 Sports

8.1 Football 8.2 Marathon 8.3 Tennis 8.4 Tour de France
France
2010 8.5 Rowing 8.6 Field hockey 8.7 Baseball 8.8 Boxing 8.9 Swimming 8.10 Motor cycle racing 8.11 Sportsmen of the year election 8.12 Other famous Rotterdam
Rotterdam
athletes

9 Yearly events 10 Transport 11 International relations

11.1 Twin towns – Sister cities 11.2 Partner cities 11.3 Sister ports 11.4 Places named after Rotterdam

12 Notable residents 13 In popular culture 14 See also 15 References

15.1 Bibliography 15.2 Notes

16 External links

History[edit] See also: Timeline of Rotterdam

Map of Rotterdam
Rotterdam
by Willem and Joan Blaeu
Joan Blaeu
(1652)

The settlement at the lower end of the fen stream Rotte (or Rotta, as it was then known, from rot, "muddy" and a, "water", thus "muddy water") dates from at least 900 CE. Around 1150, large floods in the area ended development, leading to the construction of protective dikes and dams, including Schielands Hoge Zeedijk ("Schieland’s High Sea Dike") along the northern banks of the present-day Nieuwe Maas. A dam on the Rotte was built in the 1260s and was located at the present-day Hoogstraat ("High Street"). On 7 July 1340, Count Willem IV of Holland granted city rights to Rotterdam, whose population then was only a few thousand.[10] Around the year 1350, a shipping canal, the Rotterdamse Schie
Schie
was completed, which provided Rotterdam
Rotterdam
access to the larger towns in the north, allowing it to become a local trans-shipment centre between the Netherlands, England
England
and Germany, and to urbanize.[17]

The Delftsevaart, c. 1890–1905

The port of Rotterdam
Rotterdam
grew slowly but steadily into a port of importance, becoming the seat of one of the six "chambers" of the Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie (VOC), the Dutch East India Company. The greatest spurt of growth, both in port activity and population, followed the completion of the Nieuwe Waterweg
Nieuwe Waterweg
in 1872. The city and harbor started to expand on the south bank of the river. The Witte Huis or White House skyscraper,[18] inspired by American office buildings and built in 1898 in the French Château-style, is evidence of Rotterdam's rapid growth and success. When completed, it was the tallest office building in Europe, with a height of 45 m (147.64 ft).

Rotterdam
Rotterdam
centre after the 1940 bombing of Rotterdam. The ruined St. Lawrence' Church has been restored

Tower blocks in the Kop van Zuid
Kop van Zuid
neighbourhood

During World War I
World War I
the city was the world's largest spy centre because of Dutch neutrality and its strategic location in between Great-Britain, Germany
Germany
and German-occupied Belgium. Many spies who were arrested and executed in Britain were led by German secret agents operating from Rotterdam. MI6
MI6
had its main European office on de Boompjes. From there the British coordinated espionage in Germany
Germany
and occupied Belgium. During World War I, an average of 25,000 Belgian refugees lived in the city, as well as hundreds of German deserters and escaped Allied prisoners of war.[19] During World War II, the German army invaded the Netherlands
Netherlands
on 10 May 1940.[20] Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
had hoped to conquer the country in just one day, but his forces met unexpectedly fierce resistance. The Dutch army was forced to capitulate on 15 May 1940, following the bombing of Rotterdam
Rotterdam
on 14 May and threatening to bomb other Dutch cities.[21][22][23] The heart of Rotterdam
Rotterdam
was almost completely destroyed by the Luftwaffe. Some 80,000 civilians were made homeless and 900 were killed; a relatively low number due to the fact that many had fled the city because of the warfare and bombing going on in Rotterdam
Rotterdam
since the start of the invasion three days earlier. The City Hall survived the bombing. Ossip Zadkine
Ossip Zadkine
later attempted to capture the event with his statue De Verwoeste Stad ('The Destroyed City'). The statue stands near the Leuvehaven, not far from the Erasmusbrug
Erasmusbrug
in the centre of the city, on the north shore of the river Nieuwe Maas. Rotterdam
Rotterdam
was gradually rebuilt from the 1950s through to the 1970s. It remained quite windy and open until the city councils from the 1980s on began developing an active architectural policy. Daring and new styles of apartments, office buildings and recreation facilities resulted in a more 'livable' city centre with a new skyline. In the 1990s, the Kop van Zuid
Kop van Zuid
was built on the south bank of the river as a new business centre. Rotterdam
Rotterdam
was voted 2015 European City of the Year by the Academy of Urbanism.[13] Geography[edit]

Topographic map image of Rotterdam
Rotterdam
(city), as of Sept. 2014

'Rotterdam' is divided into a northern and a southern part by the river Nieuwe Maas, connected by (from west to east): the Beneluxtunnel; the Maastunnel; the Erasmusbrug
Erasmusbrug
(' Erasmus
Erasmus
Bridge'); a subway tunnel; the Willemsspoortunnel ('Willems railway tunnel'); the Willemsbrug
Willemsbrug
('Willems Bridge'); the Koninginnebrug ('Queen's Bridge'); and the Van Brienenoordbrug
Van Brienenoordbrug
('Van Brienenoord Bridge'). The former railway lift bridge De Hef ('the Lift') is preserved as a monument in lifted position between the Noordereiland ('North Island') and the south of Rotterdam. The city centre is located on the northern bank of the Nieuwe Maas, although recent urban development has extended the centre to parts of southern Rotterdam
Rotterdam
known as De Kop van Zuid
Kop van Zuid
('the Head of South', i.e. the northern part of southern Rotterdam). From its inland core, Rotterdam
Rotterdam
reaches the North Sea
North Sea
by a swathe of predominantly harbour area. Built mostly behind dikes, large parts of the Rotterdam
Rotterdam
are below sea level. For instance, the Prins Alexander
Prins Alexander
Polder in the northeast of Rotterdam
Rotterdam
extends 6 metres (20 ft) below sea level, or rather below Normaal Amsterdams Peil
Normaal Amsterdams Peil
(NAP) or ' Amsterdam
Amsterdam
Ordnance Datum'. The lowest point in the Netherlands
Netherlands
(6.76 metres (22.2 ft) below NAP) is situated just to the east of Rotterdam, in the municipality of Nieuwerkerk aan den IJssel.

Satellite image of Rotterdam
Rotterdam
and its port

The Rotte river no longer joins the Nieuwe Maas
Nieuwe Maas
directly. Since the early 1980s, when the construction of Rotterdam’s second subway line interfered with the Rotte’s course, its waters have been pumped through a pipe into the Nieuwe Maas
Nieuwe Maas
via the Boerengat.

The 24 municipalities of the Rotterdam
Rotterdam
The Hague
The Hague
Metropolitan Area

Between the summers of 2003 and 2008, an artificial beach was created at the Boompjeskade along the Nieuwe Maas, between the Erasmus
Erasmus
Bridge and the Willems Bridge. Swimming was not possible, digging pits was limited to the height of the layer of sand, about 50 cm (20 in). Alternatively people go the beach of Hoek van Holland (which is a Rotterdam
Rotterdam
district) or one of the beaches in Zeeland: Renesse
Renesse
or the Zuid Hollandse Eilanden: Ouddorp, Oostvoorne. Rotterdam
Rotterdam
forms the centre of the Rijnmond
Rijnmond
conurbation, bordering the conurbation surrounding The Hague
The Hague
to the north-west. The two conurbations are close enough to be a single conurbation. They share the Rotterdam
Rotterdam
The Hague
The Hague
Airport
Airport
and a light rail system called RandstadRail. Consideration is being given to creating an official Metropolitan region Rotterdam
Rotterdam
The Hague
The Hague
(Metropoolregio Rotterdam
Rotterdam
Den Haag), which would have a combined population approaching 2.5 million. On its turn, the Rijnmond
Rijnmond
conurbation is part of the southern wing (the Zuidvleugel) of the Randstad, which is one of the most important economic and densely populated areas in the north-west of Europe. Having a population of 7.1 million, the Randstad
Randstad
is the sixth-largest urban area in Europe
Europe
(after Moscow, London, Paris, Istanbul, and the Rhein- Ruhr
Ruhr
Area). The Zuidvleugel, situated in the province of South Holland, has a population of around 3 million. Climate[edit] Rotterdam
Rotterdam
experiences a temperate oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification Cfb) similar to all of the coastal areas in Netherlands. Located near to the coast, its climate is slightly milder than locations further inland. Winters are cool with occasional cold days, while the summers are mild to warm. Temperatures above 30 ºC are not rare during summer, as well as temperatures under -5 ºC during winter. The following climate box is from the airport, which is slightly cooler than the city, as the city experiences the Urban heat island
Urban heat island
effect, specially the city centre.

Climate data for Rotterdam
Rotterdam
The Hague
The Hague
Airport

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 14.1 (57.4) 16.7 (62.1) 23.8 (74.8) 27.1 (80.8) 31.3 (88.3) 33.0 (91.4) 35.0 (95) 34.9 (94.8) 32.1 (89.8) 26.0 (78.8) 18.5 (65.3) 15.1 (59.2) 35.0 (95)

Average high °C (°F) 6.0 (42.8) 6.6 (43.9) 9.9 (49.8) 13.5 (56.3) 17.5 (63.5) 19.9 (67.8) 22.2 (72) 22.1 (71.8) 18.9 (66) 14.7 (58.5) 9.9 (49.8) 6.6 (43.9) 14.0 (57.2)

Daily mean °C (°F) 3.6 (38.5) 3.7 (38.7) 6.4 (43.5) 9.1 (48.4) 12.9 (55.2) 15.5 (59.9) 17.8 (64) 17.6 (63.7) 14.8 (58.6) 11.2 (52.2) 7.3 (45.1) 4.2 (39.6) 10.4 (50.7)

Average low °C (°F) 0.8 (33.4) 0.5 (32.9) 2.6 (36.7) 4.3 (39.7) 7.8 (46) 10.6 (51.1) 13.1 (55.6) 12.8 (55) 10.6 (51.1) 7.5 (45.5) 4.2 (39.6) 1.4 (34.5) 6.4 (43.5)

Record low °C (°F) −17.1 (1.2) −16.5 (2.3) −13.4 (7.9) −6.0 (21.2) −1.4 (29.5) 0.5 (32.9) 3.6 (38.5) 4.6 (40.3) 0.4 (32.7) −5.1 (22.8) −9.0 (15.8) −13.3 (8.1) −17.1 (1.2)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 69.1 (2.72) 57.9 (2.28) 64.9 (2.555) 42.6 (1.677) 58.3 (2.295) 65.2 (2.567) 74.0 (2.913) 81.0 (3.189) 87.1 (3.429) 90.1 (3.547) 87.1 (3.429) 78.3 (3.083) 855.6 (33.685)

Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 12 10 12 9 9 10 10 10 12 12 13 13 131

Average snowy days 6 5 4 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 4 22

Average relative humidity (%) 88 85 83 78 77 79 79 80 84 86 89 89 83.1

Mean monthly sunshine hours 62.5 83.8 124.0 174.9 213.9 203.6 213.1 196.6 137.6 106.9 60.4 46.7 1,623.8

Source #1: Royal Netherlands
Netherlands
Meteorological Institute (1981–2010 normals, snowy days normals for 1971–2000)[24]

Source #2: Royal Netherlands
Netherlands
Meteorological Institute (1971–2000 extremes)[25]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population

Year Pop. ±% p.a.

1398 2,500 —    

1477 5,738 +1.06%

1494 4,374 −1.58%

1514 5,116 +0.79%

1622 19,532 +1.25%

1632 29,500 +4.21%

1665 40,000 +0.93%

1732 56,000 +0.50%

1795 53,212 −0.08%

1830 72,300 +0.88%

1849 90,100 +1.17%

1879 148,100 +1.67%

Year Pop. ±% p.a.

1899 318,500 +3.90%

1925 547,900 +2.11%

1965 731,000 +0.72%

1984 555,000 −1.44%

2005 596,407 +0.34%

2006 588,576 −1.31%

2007 584,046 −0.77%

2010 603,425 +1.09%

2011 612,502 +1.50%

2012 617,347 +0.79%

2014 624,799 +0.60%

Source: Lourens & Lucassen 1997, pp. 116–117 (1398–1795)

City of Rotterdam
Rotterdam
population by country of origin (2017)[26]

Country/Territory Population

Netherlands 315,300 (49.7%)

Suriname 52,579 (8.3%)

Turkey 47,772 (7.5%)

Morocco 43,555 (6.9%)

Dutch Caribbean 24,475 (3.9%)

Cape Verde 15,453 (2.4%)

Indonesia 12,124 (1.9%)

Germany 9,580 (1.5%)

Yugoslavia 9,371 (1.5%)

Poland 9,107 (1.4%)

China 7,151 (1.1%)

Other 88,193 (13.9%)

Overall the demographics differ per city area. According to a recent area analysis, the city centre has a singles population of 70%, between the ages of 20 and 40,[citation needed] considerably more than other city areas. Also the city centre has a much larger population of people with higher education and higher income. Nonetheless, 80% of the homes are rented, not owned. The city centre also has a higher percentage (51% vs 45%) of foreign-born citizens. The majority (70%) of shops are also run by foreign-born citizens.[27] Composition[edit] On 1 January 2015 (source: Statistics Netherlands), the municipality covered an area of 319 km2 (206.44 km2 of which is land) with a population of 623,956. It is part of the Rotterdam
Rotterdam
The Hague Metropolitan Area with a total population of approximately 2.3 million. In 1965, the municipal population of Rotterdam
Rotterdam
reached its peak of 731,000, but by 1984 it had decreased to 555,000 as a result of suburbanization.[citation needed] Rotterdam
Rotterdam
consists of 14 submunicipalities: Centrum, Charlois (including Heijplaat), Delfshaven, Feijenoord, Hillegersberg-Schiebroek, Hoek van Holland, Hoogvliet, IJsselmonde, Kralingen-Crooswijk, Noord, Overschie, Prins Alexander
Prins Alexander
(the most populous submunicipality with around 85,000 inhabitants), and Rozenburg. One other area, Pernis, does have an official submunicipality status since 3 March 2010. The current size of the municipality of Rotterdam
Rotterdam
is the result of the amalgamation of the following former municipalities,[28] some of which now are a submunicipality:

Delfshaven
Delfshaven
(added on 30 January 1886) Charlois
Charlois
(added on 28 February 1895) Kralingen
Kralingen
(added on 28 February 1895) Hoogvliet
Hoogvliet
(added on 1 May 1934) Pernis (added on 1 May 1934) Hillegersberg
Hillegersberg
(added on 1 August 1941) IJsselmonde (added on 1 August 1941) Overschie
Overschie
(added on 1 August 1941) Schiebroek
Schiebroek
(added on 1 August 1941) Rozenburg
Rozenburg
(added on 18 March 2010)

Ethnic make-up[edit] In the Netherlands, Rotterdam
Rotterdam
has the highest percentage of foreigners from non-industrialised nations. They form a large part of Rotterdam's multi ethnic and multicultural diversity. 50.3% of the population are of non Dutch origins or have at least one parent born outside the country. There are 80,000 Muslims, constituting 13% of the population.[29] The mayor of Rotterdam, Ahmed Aboutaleb, is of Moroccan descent and is a practicing Muslim. The city is home to the largest Dutch Antillean community. The city also has its own China Town at the West-Kruiskade, close to Rotterdam
Rotterdam
Centraal. Religion[edit]

Religions in Rotterdam
Rotterdam
(2013)[30]    Irreligion (46.7%)   Roman Catholic (18.7%)   Protestant Church in the Netherlands
Netherlands
(10.5%)   Other Christian denominations (7.1%)   Islam (13.1%)    Hinduism
Hinduism
(3.3%)    Buddhism
Buddhism
(0.5%)    Judaism
Judaism
(0.1%)

Christianity is the largest religion in Rotterdam, with 31.1% of the population identifying. The second and third largest religions are Islam (13.3%) and Hinduism
Hinduism
(3.3%), while about half of the population has no religious affiliation. Since 1795 Rotterdam
Rotterdam
has hosted the chief congregation of the liberal Protestant brotherhood of Remonstrants. From 1955 it has been the see of the bishop of Rotterdam
Rotterdam
when the Rotterdam
Rotterdam
diocese was split from the Haarlem diocese. Since 2010 the city is home to the largest mosque in the Netherlands, the Essalam mosque, (capacity 1,500). Economy[edit]

Gebouw Delftse Poort, one of the tallest office buildings in the Netherlands

Rotterdam
Rotterdam
has always been one of the main centres of the shipping industry in the Netherlands. From the Rotterdam
Rotterdam
Chamber of the VOC, the world's first multinational, established in 1602, to the merchant shipping leader Royal Nedlloyd
Nedlloyd
established in 1970, with its corporate headquarters located in the landmark building the 'Willemswerf' in 1988.[citation needed] In 1997, Nedlloyd
Nedlloyd
merged with the British shipping industry leader P&O forming the third largest merchant shipping company in the world. The Anglo-Dutch P&O Nedlloyd
Nedlloyd
was bought by the Danish giant corporation 'AP Moller Maersk' in 2005 and its Dutch operations are still headquartered in the 'Willemswerf'. Nowadays, well-known companies with headquarters in Rotterdam
Rotterdam
are consumers goods company Unilever, asset management firm Robeco, energy company Eneco, dredging company Van Oord, oil company Shell Downstream, terminal operator Vopak, commodity trading company Vitol and architecture firm Office for Metropolitan Architecture. It is also home to the regional headquarters of chemical company LyondellBasell, commodities trading company Glencore, pharmaceutical company Pfizer, logistics companies Stolt-Nielsen, electrical equipment company ABB Group and consumer goods company Procter & Gamble. Furthermore, Rotterdam
Rotterdam
has the Dutch headquarters of Allianz, Maersk, Petrobras, Samskip, Louis Dreyfus Group
Louis Dreyfus Group
and Aon. The City of Rotterdam
Rotterdam
makes use of the services of semi-government companies Roteb
Roteb
(to take care of sanitation, waste management and assorted services) and the Port of Rotterdam
Port of Rotterdam
Authority (to maintain the Port
Port
of Rotterdam). Both these companies were once municipal bodies, now they are autonomous entities, owned by the City. Being the largest port and one of the largest cities of the country, Rotterdam
Rotterdam
attracts many people seeking jobs, especially in the cheap labour segment. The city's unemployment rate is 12%, almost twice the national average.[31] Ports[edit] Main article: Port
Port
of Rotterdam

The Waalhaven by night

Unmanned vehicles handle containers at Europe
Europe
Container Terminals (ECT), the largest container terminal operator in Europe.

Rotterdam
Rotterdam
is the largest port in Europe, with the rivers Meuse and Rhine
Rhine
providing excellent access to the hinterland upstream reaching to Basel, Switzerland
Switzerland
and into France. In 2004 Shanghai
Shanghai
took over as the world's busiest port. In 2006, Rotterdam
Rotterdam
was the world's seventh largest container port in terms of twenty-foot equivalent units (TEU) handled.[32] The port's main activities are petrochemical industries and general cargo handling and transshipment. The harbour functions as an important transit point for bulk materials and between the European continent and overseas. From Rotterdam
Rotterdam
goods are transported by ship, river barge, train or road. In 2007, the Betuweroute, a new fast freight railway from Rotterdam
Rotterdam
to Germany, was completed. Shopping[edit] Well-known streets in Rotterdam
Rotterdam
are the Lijnbaan (the first set of pedestrian streets of the country, opened in 1953), the Hoogstraat, the Coolsingel
Coolsingel
with the city hall, and the Weena, which runs from the Central Station to the Hofplein (square). A modern shopping venue is the Beurstraverse ("Stock Exchange Traverse"), better known by its informal name 'Koopgoot' ('Buying/Shopping Gutter', after its subterranean position), which crosses the Coolsingel
Coolsingel
below street level). The Kruiskade is a more upscale shopping street, with retailers like Michael Kors, 7 For All Mankind, Calvin Klein, Hugo Boss, Tommy Hilfiger
Tommy Hilfiger
and the Dutch well known men's clothier Oger. Another upscale shopping venue is a flagship store of department store De Bijenkorf. Located a little more to the east is the Markthal, with lots of small retailers inside. This hall is also one of Rotterdam's famous architectural landmarks. The main shopping venue in the south of Rotterdam
Rotterdam
is Zuidplein, which lies close to Rotterdam
Rotterdam
Ahoy, an accommodation center for shows, exhibitions, sporting events, concerts and congresses. Another prominent shopping center, called Alexandrium, lies in the east of Rotterdam. It includes a large kitchen and furniture center. Education[edit]

Bronze statue of Erasmus
Erasmus
created by Hendrick de Keyser in 1622

Rotterdam
Rotterdam
has one major university, the Erasmus
Erasmus
University Rotterdam (EUR), named after one of the city's famous former inhabitants, Desiderius Erasmus. The Woudestein campus houses (among others) Rotterdam
Rotterdam
School of Management, Erasmus
Erasmus
University. In Financial Times' 2005 rankings it placed 29th globally and 7th in Europe. In the 2009 rankings of Masters of Management, the school reached first place with the CEMS Master in Management and a tenth place with its RSM Master in Management.[33] The university is also home to Europe's largest student association, STAR Study Association Rotterdam
Rotterdam
School of Management, Erasmus
Erasmus
University and the world's largest student association, AIESEC, has its international office in the city. The Willem de Kooning Academy
Willem de Kooning Academy
Rotterdam's main art school, which is part of the Hogeschool Rotterdam. It is regarded as one of the most prestigious art schools in the Netherlands
Netherlands
and the number 1 in Advertising and Copywriting. Part of the Willem de Kooning Academy
Willem de Kooning Academy
is the Piet Zwart Institute for postgraduate studies and research in Fine Art, Media Design and Retail Design. The Piet Zwart Institute boasts a selective roster of emerging international artists. The Hoboken campus of EUR houses the Dijkzigt (general) hospital, the Sophia Hospital (for children) and the Medical Department of the University. These are known collectively as the Erasmus
Erasmus
Medical Center. This is ranked third in Europe
Europe
by CSIC [34] as a hospital, and is also ranked within top 50 universities of the world in the field of medicine (clinical, pre-clinical & health, 2017).[35] There are also three Hogescholen (Universities of applied sciences) in Rotterdam. These schools award their students a professional Bachelor's degree
Bachelor's degree
and postgraduate or Master's degree. The three Hogescholen are Hogeschool Rotterdam, Hogeschool Inholland and Hogeschool voor Muziek en Dans (uni for music and dance) which is also known as CodArts. As there are many international and American schools scattered across Europe
Europe
such as ASH (American International School of the Hague) Rotterdam
Rotterdam
also has its own international/American school by the name AISR (American International School of Rotterdam). At AISR children receive a multicultural education in a culturally diverse community and it offers the International Baccalaureate (IB) Diploma Program. Unique to the city is the Shipping & Transport College which offers masters, bachelors and vocational diplomas on all levels. Culture[edit]

Rotterdam
Rotterdam
waterfront, with spotlights shining into the air to commemorate the Rotterdam
Rotterdam
Blitz

Alongside Porto, Rotterdam
Rotterdam
was European Capital of Culture
European Capital of Culture
in 2001. The city has its own orchestra, the Rotterdam
Rotterdam
Philharmonic, with its well-regarded young music director Yannick Nézet-Séguin; a large congress and concert building called De Doelen; several theaters (including the new Luxor) and movie theatres; and the Ahoy Rotterdam complex in the south of the city, which is used for pop concerts, exhibitions, tennis tournaments, and other activities. A major zoo called Diergaarde Blijdorp
Diergaarde Blijdorp
is situated at the northwest side of Rotterdam, complete with a walkthrough sea aquarium called the Oceanium. Rotterdam
Rotterdam
features some urban architecture projects, nightlife, and many summer festivals celebrating the city's multicultural population and identity, such as the Caribbean-inspired "Summer Carnival", the Dance Parade, Rotterdam
Rotterdam
666, the Metropolis pop festival and the World Port
Port
days. In the years 2005–2011 the city struggled with venues for popmusic.[citation needed] Many of the venues suffered severe financial problems. This resulted in the disappearance of the major music venues Nighttown and WATT and smaller stages such as Waterfront, Exit, and Heidegger. Currently the city has a few venues for pop music like Rotown, Poortgebouw
Poortgebouw
and Annabel. The venue WORM focuses on experimental music and related cutting edge subcultural music. There are also the International Film Festival in January, the Poetry International Festival in June, the North Sea
North Sea
Jazz Festival in July, the Valery Gergiev Festival in September, September in Rotterdam
Rotterdam
and the World of the Witte de With. In June 1970, The Holland Pop Festival (which featured Jefferson Airplane, The Byrds, Canned Heat, It's a Beautiful Day, and Santana) was held and filmed at the Stamping Grounds in Rotterdam. There is a healthy competition with Amsterdam, which is often viewed as the cultural capital of the Netherlands. There is a saying: " Amsterdam
Amsterdam
to party, Den Haag (The Hague) to live, Rotterdam
Rotterdam
to work". Another one, more popular by Rotterdammers, is "Money is earned in Rotterdam, distributed in The Hague
The Hague
and spent in Amsterdam". Another saying that reflects both the rivalry between Rotterdam
Rotterdam
and Amsterdam is " Amsterdam
Amsterdam
has it, Rotterdam
Rotterdam
doesn't need it".[citation needed] It is also the home of Gabber, a type of hardcore electronic music popular in the mid-1990s, with hard beats and samples. Groups like Neophyte and Rotterdam Terror Corps (RTC) started in Rotterdam. The main cultural organisations in Amsterdam, such as the Concertgebouw
Concertgebouw
and Holland Festival, have joint forces with similar organisations in Rotterdam, via A'R'dam. In 2007 these organisations published with plans for co-operation.[36] One of the goals is to strengthen the international position of culture and art in the Netherlands
Netherlands
in the international context. Museums[edit] Rotterdam
Rotterdam
has many museums. Well known museums are the Museum
Museum
Boijmans Van Beuningen, the Netherlands
Netherlands
Architecture Institute, the Wereldmuseum, the Kunsthal, Witte de With Center for Contemporary Art[37] and the Maritime Museum
Museum
Rotterdam.[38] The Historical Museum Rotterdam
Rotterdam
has changed into Museum
Museum
Rotterdam
Rotterdam
which aims to exhibit Rotterdam
Rotterdam
as a contemporary transnational city, and not a past city.[39] Other museums include the tax museum and the natural history museum. At the historical shipyard and museum Scheepswerf 'De Delft', the reconstruction of ship of the line Delft
Delft
can be visited.[40] Architecture[edit] See also: List of tallest buildings in Rotterdam

The former headquarters of the Holland America Line
Holland America Line
next to modern residential architecture in 2010

Erasmus
Erasmus
Bridge
Bridge
in 2011

In 1898, the 45-metre (148-foot) high-rise office building the White House (in Dutch Witte Huis) was completed, at that time the tallest office building in Europe. In the first decades of the 20th century, some influential architecture in the modern style was built in Rotterdam. Notable are the Van Nelle fabriek (1929) a monument of modern factory design by Brinkman en Van der Vlugt, the Jugendstil clubhouse of the Royal Maas Yacht Club
Royal Maas Yacht Club
designed by Hooijkaas jr. en Brinkman (1909), and Feyenoord's football stadium De Kuip
De Kuip
(1936) also by Brinkman en Van der Vlugt. The architect J. J. P. Oud was a famous Rotterdammer in those days. The Van Nelle Factory
Van Nelle Factory
obtained the status of UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2014. During the early stages of World War II
World War II
the center of Rotterdam
Rotterdam
was bombed by the Nazis, destroying many of the older buildings in the center of the city. After initial crisis re-construction the center of Rotterdam
Rotterdam
has become the site of ambitious new architecture.

The Cube Houses in 2011

The Markthal as seen from the Binnenrotte, Rotterdam
Rotterdam
center.

The Euromast
Euromast
in 2005.

Rotterdam
Rotterdam
is also famous for its Lijnbaan 1952 by architects Broek en Bakema, Peperklip by architect Carel Weeber, Kubuswoningen or cube houses designed by architect Piet Blom
Piet Blom
1984. The newest landmark in Rotterdam
Rotterdam
is the Markthal, designed by architect firm MVRDV. In addition to that there are many international well known architects based in Rotterdam
Rotterdam
like O.M.A (Rem Koolhaas), Neutelings & Riedijk and Erick van Egeraat
Erick van Egeraat
to name a few. Two architectural landmarks are located in the Lloydkwartier: the STC college building and the Schiecentrale
Schiecentrale
4b. Rotterdam
Rotterdam
also houses several of the tallest structures in the Netherlands.

The Erasmusbrug
Erasmusbrug
(1996) is a 790-meter (2,600 ft) cable stayed bridge linking the north and south of Rotterdam. It is held up by a 138 metres (453 ft) tall pylon with a characteristic bend, earning the bridge its nickname 'De Zwaan' ('the Swan'). Rotterdam
Rotterdam
has the tallest residential building in the Netherlands: the New Orleans Tower (158.35 metres (519.5 ft)). Rotterdam
Rotterdam
is also home to the tallest office building 'Maastoren' (164.75 m or 540.5 ft) which houses Deloitte. This office tower surpassed the 'Delftse Poort' (160 m or 520 ft) which houses Nationale-Nederlanden insurance company, part of ING Group
ING Group
as tallest office tower in 2009.[41][42] The city also houses the 186 metres (610 ft) tall Euromast, which is a major tourist attraction. It was built in 1960, initially reaching a height of 101 metres (331 ft); in 1970, the Euromast was extended by 85 metres (279 ft) to its current height.

Rotterdam
Rotterdam
has a reputation in being a platform for architectural development and education through the Berlage Institute, a postgraduate laboratory of architecture, and the NAi (Netherlands Architecture Institute), which is open to the public and has a variety of good exhibitions on architecture and urban planning issues. Rotterdam
Rotterdam
has one of the best European Skylines together with Frankfurt, London, Madrid, Paris, Warsaw
Warsaw
and Moscow. Over 30 new highrise projects are being developed at the moment. Highrise buildings that are currently being built:

Boston & Seattle,[43] two buildings with a height of 70 metres (230 feet) each are being built at Kop van Zuid. They are expected to be completed in 2017.

Sports[edit] Rotterdam
Rotterdam
calls itself Sportstad (City of Sports). The city annually organises several world-renowned sporting events. Some examples are the Rotterdam
Rotterdam
Marathon, the World Port
Port
Tournament, and the Rotterdam World Tennis Tournament. Rotterdam
Rotterdam
also organises one race of the Red Bull Air Race World Championship and the car racing event Monaco aan de Maas (Monaco at the Meuse). The city is also the home of many sports clubs and some historic and iconic athletes. Football[edit]

Robin van Persie
Robin van Persie
began his career with SBV Excelsior
SBV Excelsior
and broke through in Feyenoord.

De Kuip, Feyenoord
Feyenoord
home stadium.

Rotterdam
Rotterdam
is the home of three professional football clubs, being first tier clubs Feyenoord, Excelsior and Sparta. Feyenoord, founded in 1908 and the dominant of the three professional clubs, has won fifteen national titles since the introduction of professional football in the Netherlands. It won the European Cup (current Champions league) as the first Dutch club in 1970, and won the World Cup for club teams in the same year. In 1974, they were the first Dutch club to win the UEFA Cup and in 2002, Feyenoord
Feyenoord
won the UEFA Cup again. In 2008, the year of their 100-year-anniversary, Feyenoord
Feyenoord
won the KNVB-cup. Seating 51,480, its 1931 stadium, called Stadion Feijenoord but popularly known as De Kuip
De Kuip
('the Tub'), is the second largest in the country, after the Amsterdam
Amsterdam
Arena. De Kuip, located in the southeast of the city, has hosted many international football games, including the final of Euro 2000 and has been awarded a FIFA 5 star ranking. There are concrete plans to build a new stadium with a capacity of at least 63,000 seats. Sparta, founded in 1888 and situated in the northwest of Rotterdam, won the national title six times; Excelsior (founded 1902), in the northeast, has never won any. Rotterdam
Rotterdam
also has three fourth tier clubs, SC Feijenoord (Feyenoord Amateurs), PVV DOTO and TOGR. Rotterdam
Rotterdam
is and has been the home to many great football players and coaches, among whom:

Bert van Marwijk Coen Moulijn Dirk Kuyt Ernst Happel Faas Wilkes Giovanni van Bronckhorst Georginio Wijnaldum Henrik Larsson Danny Blind John de Wolf Jon Dahl Tomasson Leo Beenhakker Louis van Gaal Ove Kindvall Kevin Strootman Memphis Depay Pierre van Hooijdonk Pim Doesburg Puck van Heel Rinus Israël Robin van Persie Ronald Koeman Roy Makaay Ruud Gullit Sonny Silooy Willem van Hanegem Wim Jansen Winston Bogarde Włodzimierz Smolarek

Marathon[edit]

Runners during the marathon in Rotterdam

Rotterdam
Rotterdam
has its own annual international marathon, which offers one of the fastest courses in the world. From 1985 until 1998, the world record was set in Rotterdam, first by Carlos Lopes
Carlos Lopes
and later in 1988 by Belayneh Densamo. In 1998, the world record for women was set by Tegla Loroupe, in a time of 2:20.47. Loroupe won the Rotterdam Marathon
Rotterdam Marathon
three consecutive times, from 1997 to 1999. The current track record for men is held by Duncan Kibet, who ran a time of 2:04.27 in 2009. The female record was set in 2012, when Tiki Gelana finished the race in 2:18.58. Gelana went on to become the 2012 Olympic champion in London, a few months later. The marathon starts and ends on the Coolsingel
Coolsingel
in the heart of Rotterdam. It attracts a total of 900.000 visitors. Tennis[edit]

Arthur Ashe
Arthur Ashe
at the 1975 ABN World Tennis Tournament

Since 1972, Rotterdam
Rotterdam
hosts the indoor hard court ABN AMRO World Tennis Tournament, part of the ATP Tour. The event was first organised in 1972, when it was won by Arthur Ashe. Ashe went on to win the tournament two more times, making him the singles title record holder. Former Wimbledon winner Richard Krajicek
Richard Krajicek
became the tournament director after his retirement in 2000. The latest edition of the tournament attracted a total of 116.354 visitors.[44] Tour de France
France
2010[edit] In November 2008 Rotterdam
Rotterdam
was chosen as the host of the Grand Départ of the 2010 Tour de France. Rotterdam
Rotterdam
won the selection over the Dutch city of Utrecht. Germany's Düsseldorf had previously also expressed interest in hosting. The Amaury Sport Organization (ASO), organizer of the Tour de France, said in a statement on its web site that it chose Rotterdam
Rotterdam
because, in addition to it being another big city, like London, to showcase the use of bikes for urban transportation, it provided a location well positioned considering the rest of the route envisioned for the 2010 event. The start in Rotterdam
Rotterdam
was the fifth in the Netherlands. The prologue was a 7 km (4.35 mi) individual time trial crossing the centre of the city. The first regular stage left the Erasmusbrug
Erasmusbrug
and went south, towards Brussels. Rowing[edit] Members of the student rowing club Skadi were part of the 'Holland Acht', winning a gold medal at the Olympics in 1996.[citation needed]. Since the opening in April 2013, Rotterdam
Rotterdam
hosts the rowing venue Willem-Alexander Baan
Willem-Alexander Baan
that hosted the 2016 World Rowing Championships for Seniors, U23 and Juniors. Field hockey[edit] In field hockey, Rotterdam
Rotterdam
has the largest hockey club in the Netherlands, HC Rotterdam, with its own stadium in the north of the city and nearly 2,400 members. The first men's and women's teams both play on the highest level in the Dutch Hoofdklasse. Baseball[edit] Rotterdam
Rotterdam
is home to the most successful European baseball team, Neptunus Rotterdam, winning the most European Cups. Boxing[edit]

Bep van Klaveren

Rotterdam
Rotterdam
has a long boxing tradition starting with Bep van Klaveren (1907–1992), aka 'The Dutch Windmill', Gold medal winner of the 1928 Amsterdam
Amsterdam
Olympics, followed by professional boxers like Regilio Tuur and Don Diego Poeder. Swimming[edit] Rotterdam's swimming tradition started with Marie Braun
Marie Braun
aka Zus (sister) Braun, who was coached to a Gold medal at the 1928 Amsterdam Olympics by her mother Ma Braun, and 3 European titles 3 years later in Paris. In her career as 14 time national champ, she broke 6 world records. Ma Braun later also coached the Rotterdam
Rotterdam
born, three-times Olympic champion Rie Mastenbroek
Rie Mastenbroek
during the Berlin
Berlin
Olympics in 1936. In later years Inge de Bruijn
Inge de Bruijn
became a Rotterdam
Rotterdam
sport icon as triple Olympic Gold medal winner in 2000 and triple European Gold medal winner in 2001. Motor cycle racing[edit] Motor cycle speedway was staged in the Feyenoord
Feyenoord
Stadium after the second world war. The team which raced in a Dutch league was known as the Feyenoord
Feyenoord
Tigers. The team included Dutch riders and some English and Australian riders. Sportsmen of the year election[edit] Since 1986, the city has selected its best sportsman, woman and team at the Rotterdam
Rotterdam
Sports Awards Election, held in December. Other famous Rotterdam
Rotterdam
athletes[edit]

Francisco Elson

Mia Audina, a retired Indonesia
Indonesia
born badminton player, living in Rotterdam. Nelli Cooman, a Surinamese born retired athlete who held the 60 m dash world record, and was the world and European champion in that event. Robert Doornbos, a Rotterdam
Rotterdam
born race car driver, who competed in the Formula One. Robert Eenhoorn, a Rotterdam
Rotterdam
born retired MLB short stop, who competed for the New York Yankees, the Anaheim Angels
Anaheim Angels
and the New York Mets. Dex Elmont, a Rotterdam
Rotterdam
born judoka, who finished second in the European championships in 2009 in the 65 to 73 kg (143 to 161 lb) division. Guillaume Elmont, a Rotterdam
Rotterdam
born judoka, who became world champion in 2005 in the 73 to 81 kg (161 to 179 lb) division. Francisco Elson, a Rotterdam
Rotterdam
born basketball player who played in the NBA, won the NBA finals in 2007 with the San Antonio Spurs. Ignisious Gaisah, a Ghanaian born long jumper with a personal best of 8.43 metres (27.66 feet), residing in Rotterdam
Rotterdam
since 2001. Gaisah is a multiple medal winner in several international events, both as a citizen of Ghana and the Netherlands. Francis Hoenselaar, a Rotterdam
Rotterdam
born female darts player, generally recognised as the best Dutch female darts player ever. Robert Lathouwers, an athlete born in a Rotterdam
Rotterdam
suburb, specialised in the 800 m. Lathouwers gained international notoriety when he got disqualified after shoving Irish athlete David McCarthy in the 2010 European Championships. Fatima Moreira de Melo, a Rotterdam
Rotterdam
born, three-times olympic champion in field hockey. Moreira de Melo currently is a professional poker player. Piet Roozenburg, a Rotterdam
Rotterdam
born draughts player, who was the world champion from 1948 to 1956 and the 8-time Dutch champion. Betty Stöve, a Rotterdam
Rotterdam
born retired female tennis double specialist and 10-time Grand Slam winner. Ingmar Vos, a Rotterdam
Rotterdam
born decathlete, with a personal best of 8224 points.

Yearly events[edit] Rotterdam
Rotterdam
hosts several annual events unique to the city. It hosts the Zomercarnaval (Summercarnaval), the second largest Caribbean carnival in Europe, originally called the Antillean carnival. Other events include: North Sea
North Sea
Jazz Festival, the largest Jazz festival in Europe, Bavaria City Race, a Formula 1 race inside the city center and a 3 day long maritime extravaganza called the World Port
Port
Days celebrating the Port
Port
of Rotterdam.

January: "Zesdaagse van Rotterdam" "(six-day track-cycling race) – Ahoy Rotterdam January: International Film Festival Rotterdam[45] February: Rotterdam Open
Rotterdam Open
ABM AMRO ATP 500 Tennis Tournament – Ahoy Rotterdam April–June:

Rotterdam
Rotterdam
Marathon[46] Koningsdag Festival (27 April)[47]

July:

North Sea
North Sea
Jazz Festival (second weekend of July) Summer Carnival[48]

August:

Bavaria City Race Pleinbioscoop[49] Dag van de Romantische Muziek (Romantic music festival)

September:

The World Port
Port
Days[50]

Transport[edit] Rotterdam
Rotterdam
is well connected by international, national, regional and local public transport systems, as well as by the Dutch motorway network. Motorways There are several motorways to/from Rotterdam. The following four are part of its 'Ring' (ring road):

A20 (Ring North): Hoek van Holland – Rotterdam
Rotterdam
– Gouda A16 (Ring East): Rotterdam
Rotterdam
Breda
Breda
(- Antwerp
Antwerp
– Paris) A15 (Ring South): Europoort
Europoort
Rotterdam
Rotterdam
– Nijmegen A4 (Ring West).

The following two other motorways also serve Rotterdam:

A13, ( Amsterdam
Amsterdam
-) The Hague
The Hague
– Rotterdam A29, Bergen op Zoom
Bergen op Zoom
– Rotterdam

Airport Much smaller than the international hub Schiphol Airport, Rotterdam The Hague
The Hague
Airport
Airport
(formerly known as Zestienhoven) is the third largest airport in the country, behind Schiphol Airport
Airport
and Eindhoven Airport. Located north of the city, it has shown a very strong growth over the past five years, mostly caused by the growth of the low-cost carrier market. For business travelers, Rotterdam
Rotterdam
The Hague
The Hague
Airport offers advantages in terms of rapid handling of passengers and baggage. Environmental regulations make further growth uncertain. Train

Rotterdam's new Central Station reopened in March 2014, designed to handle up to 320,000 passengers daily.

Rotterdam
Rotterdam
is well connected to the Dutch railway network, and has several international connections:

Southern direction Dordrecht, Breda, Eindhoven, Flushing (Vlissingen) (also international trains to Belgium/France) Western direction Hoek van Holland North-Western direction The Hague, Leiden, Amsterdam Northern direction (high-speed rail) Schiphol, Amsterdam North-Eastern direction Utrecht
Utrecht
and further A fifth alternative train system to the Hague, the Hofplein Line was converted to the light rail system Randstadrail in 2006. The city is often mentioned as the terminus of the Eurasian Land Bridge.

Railway stations

Rotterdam
Rotterdam
Centraal – Rotterdam's main station Rotterdam
Rotterdam
Alexander – Eastern part of Rotterdam Rotterdam
Rotterdam
Blaak – Close to the centre of Rotterdam Rotterdam
Rotterdam
Lombardijen – Most Southern part of Rotterdam Rotterdam
Rotterdam
Noord – Northern part of Rotterdam Rotterdam
Rotterdam
Zuid – Northern part of the Southern part of Rotterdam Rotterdam
Rotterdam
Stadion – A station near the Feyenoord
Feyenoord
stadium, open in connection with football matches and music concerts

The main connections:

Direct international services to Belgium
Belgium
and France
France
via high speed train system: Thalys Frequent international trains to Antwerp
Antwerp
and Brussels, Belgium Frequent services within the Netherlands:

Intercity line to The Hague, Leiden, Schiphol airport and Amsterdam (north) Intercity line to Utrecht
Utrecht
and on to Deventer
Deventer
or Enschede
Enschede
(the east), Leeuwarden
Leeuwarden
(north-west) or Groningen (north-east) Intercity line to Dordrecht, Roosendaal
Roosendaal
and on to Vlissingen (south west) Intercity line to Dordrecht, Breda, Tilburg, Eindhoven
Eindhoven
and Venlo (south east) Night services every hour connecting every day of the week to Delft, The Hague, Leiden, Schiphol airport, Amsterdam, and, with a detour, Utrecht. On Thursday, Friday and Saturday night services (either direct or via a detour) to Den Bosch, Eindhoven, Tilburg, Roosendaal. Several semi-fast services and local trains originate or call at Rotterdam
Rotterdam
Centraal; semi-fast services Amsterdam-Breda.

Detailed information available from the site of the Nederlandse Spoorwegen (Dutch Railways)[51]

In Rotterdam, public transport services are provided by the following companies:

NS (Dutch Railways): national train services RET ( Rotterdam
Rotterdam
Elektrische Tram): Tram, city-bus, metro, randstadrail and ferry-services in Rotterdam
Rotterdam
and surrounding cities Arriva Netherlands: regional bus services Connexxion: regional bus services Veolia: regional bus services.

Metro Main article: Rotterdam
Rotterdam
Metro See also: List of Rotterdam
Rotterdam
metro stations In 1968, Rotterdam
Rotterdam
was the first Dutch city to open a metro system. Currently the metro system consists of three main lines, each of which has its own variants. The metro network has 78.3 km (48.7 mi) of railtracks and there are 62 stations, which makes it the biggest of the Benelux. The system is operated by 5 lines; 3 lines (A, B and C) on the east-west line, and two (D and E) on the north-south line. Line E (Randstadrail) connects Rotterdam
Rotterdam
with The Hague as of December 2011.

Map of Rotterdam
Rotterdam
Metro

Line Southern / western terminus Northern / eastern terminus

Line A Schiedam Centrum Binnenhof

Line B Schiedam Centrum Nesselande

Line C De Akkers De Terp

Line D De Akkers Rotterdam Centraal

Line E Slinge Den Haag Centraal

Rotterdam
Rotterdam
metro

Tram Main article: Trams in Rotterdam The Rotterdam
Rotterdam
tramway network offers 9 regular tram lines and 4 special tram lines with a total length of 93.4 km (58.0 mi). Service Tramlines in Rotterdam
Rotterdam
as of 2016[update]:

2: (Rotterdam) Charlois
Charlois
Rotterdam
Rotterdam
Lombardijen NS – (Rotterdam) Keizerswaard (runs only to the southern part of the city) 4: (Rotterdam) Molenlaan – Rotterdam
Rotterdam
Centraal – (Rotterdam) Marconiplein 7: (Rotterdam) Oostplein – Rotterdam
Rotterdam
Centraal – (Rotterdam) Willemsplein 8: (Rotterdam) Spangen – Rotterdam
Rotterdam
Centraal – (Rotterdam) Kleiweg 20: Rotterdam
Rotterdam
Centraal – Rotterdam
Rotterdam
Lombardijen NS – (Rotterdam) Lombardijen 21: (Schiedam) Woudhoek – Station Schiedam
Schiedam
Centrum – Rotterdam Centraal – (Rotterdam) De Esch 23: (Rotterdam) Marconiplein – Rotterdam
Rotterdam
Centraal – (Rotterdam) Beverwaard 24: (Vlaardingen) Holy – Station Schiedam
Schiedam
Centrum – Rotterdam Centraal – (Rotterdam) De Esch 25: (Rotterdam) Schiebroek
Schiebroek
Rotterdam
Rotterdam
Centraal – (Barendrecht) Carnisselande

A Citadis tram outside the former Rotterdam
Rotterdam
Centraal, 2008

Special
Special
tram lines:

10: Historical tram line, only runs in summer and throughout the whole city for tourist information. Using historical Rotterdam
Rotterdam
Trams from the year 1931. 18: Tramline from Rotterdam
Rotterdam
Central Station towards Park, runs only at the Dunya Festival and during the Rotterdam
Rotterdam
World Port
Port
Days. 12: Rotterdam
Rotterdam
Centraal – Stadion Feyenoord
Feyenoord
or Rotterdam
Rotterdam
Centraal – Het Kasteel ('The Castle', Sparta Stadium). Football tramline, only for big fixtures at Stadion Feyenoord
Feyenoord
or Het Kasteel. Snert-tram: Historical tram, only in winter as a tourist tram through Rotterdam. Passengers are provided with a cup of "snert"; Rotterdam dialect for erwtensoep (pea soup). Rolling stock is a historical Rotterdam
Rotterdam
tram from 1968. IJsjes-tram: Summer version of the snert tram, providing tourists with ijsjes (ice cream) rather than snert.

Water Taxi in Rotterdam

Bus Rotterdam
Rotterdam
offers 55 city bus lines with a total length of 432.7 km (268.9 mi). RET runs buses in the city of Rotterdam
Rotterdam
and surrounding places like Spijkenisse, Barendrecht, Ridderkerk, Rhoon, Poortugaal, Schiedam, Vlaardingen, Delft
Delft
and Capelle aan den IJssel. . Arriva Netherlands, Connexxion and Veolia run buses from other cities to Rotterdam. Waterbus The Waterbus network consists of seven lines. The main line (Line 20) stretches from Rotterdam
Rotterdam
to Dordrecht. The ferry carries about 130 passengers and there is space for 60 bicycles. The stops between Rotterdam
Rotterdam
and Dordrecht
Dordrecht
are:

Rotterdam
Rotterdam
Erasmusbrug
Erasmusbrug
Krimpen aan den IJssel
Krimpen aan den IJssel
Stormpolder – Ridderkerk
Ridderkerk
De Schans – Alblasserdam
Alblasserdam
Kade – Hendrik-Ido-Ambacht Noordeinde – Papendrecht
Papendrecht
Westeind – Dordrecht
Dordrecht
Merwekade.

International relations[edit] Rotterdam
Rotterdam
has city and port connections throughout the world. In 2008, the city had 13 sister cities, 12 partner cities, and 4 sister ports.[52] Since 2008, the City of Rotterdam
Rotterdam
doesn't forge new sister or partner connections. Sister and partner cities are not a priority in international relations.[53] On 15 March 2017 the Turkish president expressed his wish that Istanbul
Istanbul
should no longer be the twin town of Rotterdam. A speaker of the Rotterdam
Rotterdam
municipality then explained that the two cities have no official partnership. Both authorities do cooperate often.[54] Twin towns – Sister cities[edit] Rotterdam
Rotterdam
is twinned with:

Baltimore
Baltimore
(since 1985)[52][55] Burgas
Burgas
(since 1976)[52][55] Cologne
Cologne
(since 1958)[52][55] Constanța
Constanța
(since 1976)[52][55] Dresden
Dresden
(since 1988)[52][55] Esch-sur-Alzette
Esch-sur-Alzette
(since 1958)[52][55] Gdańsk
Gdańsk
(since 1977)[52][55] Havana
Havana
(since 1983)[52][55] Lille
Lille
(since 1958)[52][55] Liège
Liège
(since 1958)[52][55] Shanghai
Shanghai
(since 1979)[52][55] Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
(since 1984)[52][55] Turin
Turin
(since 1958)[52][55]

Partner cities[edit]

Antwerp
Antwerp
(since 1940)[52] Basel
Basel
(since 1945)[52] Bratislava
Bratislava
(since 1991)[52] Budapest
Budapest
(since 1991)[52] Duisburg
Duisburg
(since 1950)[52] Durban
Durban
(since 1991)[52] Hull (since 1936)[52] Jakarta
Jakarta
(since 1983)[52] Nuremberg
Nuremberg
(since 1961)[52] Osaka Prefecture
Osaka Prefecture
(since 1984)[52] Oslo
Oslo
(since 1945)[52] Prague
Prague
(since 1991)[52]

Sister ports[edit]

Kobe
Kobe
(since 1967)[52] Busan
Busan
(since 1987)[52] Seattle
Seattle
(since 1969)[52] Tokyo
Tokyo
(since 1989)[52]

Places named after Rotterdam[edit]

Nieuw Rotterdam, Nickerie District, Suriname Rotterdam, New York, United States Rotterdam, Limpopo, South Africa

Notable residents[edit] Main article: List of people from Rotterdam

Pierre Bayle, enlightenment philosopher. Leo Beenhakker, football coach. Giovanni van Bronckhorst, former football player and current manager of Feyenoord. Desiderius Erasmus, philosopher and humanist. Pim Fortuyn, politician, assassinated in 2002. Leo Fuld, singer. Colonel Tom Parker, manager of Elvis Presley. Piet Heyn, naval fleet officer. Willem de Kooning, painter. Rem Koolhaas, internationally renowned architect. Coen Moulijn, football player of Feyenoord. Johan van Oldebarnevelt, statesman of the Dutch Revolt. Robin van Persie, Fenerbahçe S.K. forward and Dutch international footballer. Bernard Mandeville, philosopher, political economist and satirist. Marten Toonder, comic writer. Jules Deelder, poet, writer, DJ, night mayor.

In popular culture[edit]

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Rotterdam
Rotterdam
features in Edgar Allan Poe's short story ‘The Unparalleled Adventure of One Hans Pfaall’ (1835), as well as J.T. Sheridan Le Fanu's 'Strange Event in the Life of Schalken the Painter' (1839).[56] Part of Jackie Chan's 1998 film Who am I? is set in Rotterdam. Ender's Shadow, part of the series Ender's Game is partially set in Rotterdam. In season 1, episode 2 of The Golden Girls ("Guess Who's Coming to the Wedding?"), Dorothy reminisces how her ex-husband, Stan, would buy her tulips after they had a fight. "Towards the end, our house looked like Easter in Rotterdam." In 1996, the British band The Beautiful South
The Beautiful South
recorded a song named after this region titled Rotterdam
Rotterdam
(or Anywhere).[57] In the 2004 video game Hitman: Contracts, the levels "Rendezvous in Rotterdam" and "Deadly Cargo" both take place in Rotterdam. The 2017 Olivier award winning play, Rotterdam, written by Jon Brittain, is set in the city. See also[edit]

Government of Rotterdam

References[edit] Bibliography[edit] See also: Bibliography of the history of Rotterdam

Amersfoort, H; et al. (2005), Mei 1940 – Strijd op Nederlands grondgebied (in Dutch), SDU, ISBN 90-12-08959-X  Brongers, E.H. (2004), Opmars naar Rotterdam
Rotterdam
(in Dutch), Aspect, ISBN 90-5911-269-5  Evans, Richard J. (2008). The Third Reich at War. London: Allen Lane. ISBN 978-0-7139-9742-2.  Götzel, H (1980), Generaloberst Kurt Student und seine Fallschirmjäger (in German), Podzun-Pallas Verlag, ISBN 3-7909-0131-8, OCLC 7863989  Lourens, Piet; Lucassen, Jan (1997). Inwonertallen van Nederlandse steden ca. 1300–1800. Amsterdam: NEHA. ISBN 9057420082. 

Notes[edit]

^ "College van b en w" [Board of mayor and aldermen] (in Dutch). Gemeente Rotterdam. Retrieved 10 December 2014.  ^ "Kerncijfers wijken en buurten" [Key figures for neighbourhoods]. CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 2 July 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2014.  ^ a b Anita Bouman–Eijs; Thijmen van Bree; Wouter Jonkhoff; Olaf Koops; Walter Manshanden; Elmer Rietveld (17 December 2012). De Top 20 van Europese grootstedelijke regio's 1995–2011; Randstad
Randstad
Holland in internationaal perspectief [Top 20 of European metropolitan regions 1995–2011; Randstad
Randstad
Holland compared internationally] (PDF) (Technical report) (in Dutch). Delft: TNO. Retrieved 25 July 2013.  ^ "Postcodetool for 3011AD". Actueel Hoogtebestand Nederland (in Dutch). Het Waterschapshuis. Retrieved 20 August 2013.  ^ "Bevolkingsontwikkeling; regio per maand" [Population growth; regions per month]. CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 27 October 2017. Retrieved 27 October 2017.  ^ "Bevolkingsontwikkeling; regio per maand" [Population growth; regions per month]. CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 26 June 2014. Retrieved 24 July 2014.  ^ "Over de Metropoolregio Rotterdam
Rotterdam
Den Haag". MRDH.nl. 2014. Retrieved 7 October 2014. De Metropoolregio Rotterdam
Rotterdam
Den Haag is het gebied dat nu de huidige stadregio’s Rotterdam
Rotterdam
en Haaglanden omvat. Binnen dat gebied gaan de 24 gemeenten hun krachten bundelen in het samenwerkingsverband Metropoolregio Rotterdam
Rotterdam
Den Haag om de internationale concurrentiepositie van de regio te versterken. De Metropoolregio regio heeft 2,2 miljoen inwoners.  ^ Wells, John C. (2008), Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.), Longman, ISBN 9781405881180  ^ Roach, Peter (2011), Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary (18th ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9780521152532  ^ a b "Geschiedenis van Rotterdam". Gemeente Rotterdam. 9 March 2015. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016.  ^ Population growth; regions per month, CBS StatLine, 2015 1,404,963 Greater Rijnmond
Rijnmond
(CR) 1,173,272 Rotterdam Metro
Rotterdam Metro
(SG) 1,033,629 Rotterdam
Rotterdam
Urban (GA)    633,471 Rotterdam
Rotterdam
Municipality
Municipality
(G) ^ "Top 10 Cities : The Rough Guide to 2014". Rough Guides. 9 March 2015.  ^ a b "Urbanism Awards: Rotterdam
Rotterdam
takes top prize". Academy of Urbanism. 14 November 2014.  ^ Jan Walburg (1 August 1984). The port of Rotterdam: Gateway to Europe.  ^ Royal van Gorcum (1998). Dutch Culture in a European Perspective: 1950, prosperity and welfare. " Rotterdam
Rotterdam
port: Gateway to Europe" (p.151)  ^ European Parliament (2014). Gateway to the World "Gateway to the world: how the EU helped Rotterdam
Rotterdam
to become Europe's largest port" Check url= value (help).  ^ " Rotterdam
Rotterdam
- City, Port, History, & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 1 March 2018.  ^ "The Witte Huis
Witte Huis
or White House,". Archived from the original on 20 December 2004. Retrieved 15 May 2008.  ^ Ruis, Edwin. Spynest.British and German Espionage from Neutral Holland 1914–1918. Brimscombe: The History Press, 2016. ^ Evans 2008, pp. 122–3. ^ Brongers 2004, (ONR Part III), p. 235 ^ Amersfoort 2005, p. 369. ^ Götzel 1980, pp. 149, 150. ^ "Klimaattabel Rotterdam, langjarige gemiddelden, tijdvak 1981–2010" (PDF) (in Dutch). Royal Netherlands
Netherlands
Meteorological Institute. Retrieved 10 September 2013.  ^ "Klimaattabel Rotterdam, langjarige extremen, tijdvak 1971–2000" (PDF) (in Dutch). Royal Netherlands
Netherlands
Meteorological Institute. Retrieved 10 September 2013. [dead link] ^ "CBS StatLine – Bevolking; leeftijd, herkomstgroepering, geslacht en regio, 1 januari".  ^ Gebiedsanalyse 2006, Centrumgebied, Gemeente Rotterdam. Page 7 and 9. ^ Ad van der Meer and Onno Boonstra, Repertorium van Nederlandse gemeenten, KNAW, 2006. ^ Kim Jansen (2010). Muslims in Rotterdam
Rotterdam
(PDF) (Report). Open Society Institute.  ^ "Kerkelijkheid en kerkbezoek, 2010/2013". Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek.  ^ "Werkloosheid in Rotterdam
Rotterdam
KNSexamen: Weblog Inburgering, NT2, examen". Knsexamen.nl. 23 April 2009. Retrieved 12 April 2011.  ^ "Home". Port
Port
of Rotterdam. Archived from the original on 15 April 2009. Retrieved 6 May 2009.  ^ "Business School Ranking of the Financial Times
Financial Times
2009". Rankings.ft.com. Archived from the original on 24 March 2009. Retrieved 12 April 2011.  ^ " Europe
Europe
Ranking Web of Hospitals". hospitals.webometrics.info. Retrieved 14 July 2017.  ^ " Erasmus
Erasmus
University Rotterdam". Times Higher Education (THE). Retrieved 14 July 2017.  ^ " Concertgebouw
Concertgebouw
and Holland Festival
Holland Festival
manifesto". Archived from the original on 18 May 2008. Retrieved 15 May 2008.  ^ "Witte de With museum". Retrieved 15 May 2008.  ^ "Maritiem Museum
Museum
official site". Retrieved 15 May 2008.  ^ Museum
Museum
Rotterdam, retrieved 25 April 2016. ^ "Scheepswerf 'De Delft' official site". Retrieved 15 May 2008.  ^ "ING building brief". Archived from the original on 8 March 2005. Retrieved 15 May 2008.  ^ "Emporis Maastoren". Retrieved 3 April 2010.  ^ "Boston en Seattle
Seattle
woontorens Rotterdam
Rotterdam
Wilhelminapier". Retrieved 5 October 2014.  ^ ABN Amro WTT. "Laatste nieuws · 40e ABN AMRO World Tennis Tournament". Archived from the original on 20 February 2013.  ^ "International Film Festival official website". Archived from the original on 22 October 2006. Retrieved 15 May 2008.  ^ " Rotterdam Marathon
Rotterdam Marathon
official website". Retrieved 15 May 2008.  ^ "KoninginnedagFestival official website". Retrieved 15 May 2008.  ^ "Zomer Carnival official website". Archived from the original on 22 July 2003. Retrieved 15 May 2008.  ^ "Pleinbioscoop official website". Retrieved 15 May 2008.  ^ "World Port
Port
Day (Rotterdam) official website (in Dutch and English)". Retrieved 15 May 2008.  ^ "Dutch Railway website". Retrieved 15 May 2008.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad Rotterdam. Een sterk internationaal merk "ROTTERDAM: EEN STERKINTERNATIONAAL MERK" Check url= value (help) (PDF) (in Dutch). Rotterdam, The Netherlands: City of Rotterdam. 2008. p. 37. Retrieved 20 March 2015.  ^ " Rotterdam
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Wereldstad: Vaste koers, nieuwe ambitities" Gemeente Rotterdam, 2009. Blz. 33 ^ "Erdogan wil af van niet bestaande stedenband met Rotterdam" [Erdogan will not continue twin town relationship with Rotterdam]. Algemeen Dagblad
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(in Dutch). 15 March 2017. Retrieved 15 March 2016.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Eric Vrijsen (23 September 2008). "De schaamte voorbij: Gaza als zusterstad". Elsevier (in Dutch). Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Archived from the original on 29 June 2015. Retrieved 24 July 2014.  ^ Tretsch, John. "Extra! Extra! Poe invents science fiction!" as collected in The Cambridge Companion to Edgar Allan Poe, edited by Kevin J. Hayes. Cambridge University Press, 2002: 117. ISBN 0-521-79727-6 ^ "everyHit.com – UK Top 40 Chart Archive, British Singles & Album Charts". everyhit.com. Retrieved 17 March 2016. 

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Preceded by Event created World Gymnaestrada
World Gymnaestrada
host city 1953 Succeeded by Zagreb, Yugoslavia
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(1957)

Places adjacent to Rotterdam

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North Sea

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Capelle aan den IJssel Krimpen aan den IJssel

Westvoorne, Brielle, Bernisse Spijkenisse, Albrandswaard, Barendrecht Ridderkerk

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Municipalities of South Holland

Alblasserdam Albrandswaard Alphen aan den Rijn Barendrecht Binnenmaas Bodegraven-Reeuwijk Brielle Capelle aan den IJssel Cromstrijen Delft Dordrecht Giessenlanden Goeree-Overflakkee Gorinchem Gouda Hardinxveld-Giessendam Hellevoetsluis Hendrik-Ido-Ambacht Hillegom Kaag en Braassem Katwijk Korendijk Krimpen aan den IJssel Krimpenerwaard Lansingerland Leerdam Leiden Leiderdorp Leidschendam-Voorburg Lisse Maassluis Midden-Delfland Molenwaard Nieuwkoop Nissewaard Noordwijk Noordwijkerhout Oegstgeest Oud-Beijerland Papendrecht Pijnacker-Nootdorp Ridderkerk Rijswijk Rotterdam Schiedam Sliedrecht Strijen Teylingen The Hague Vlaardingen Voorschoten Waddinxveen Wassenaar Westland Westvoorne Zederik Zoetermeer Zoeterwoude Zuidplas Zwijndrecht

See also Netherlands Provinces Municipalities

v t e

European Capitals of Culture

1985 Athens 1986 Florence 1987 Amsterdam 1988 West Berlin 1989 Paris 1990 Glasgow 1991 Dublin 1992 Madrid 1993 Antwerp 1994 Lisbon 1995 Luxembourg
Luxembourg
City 1996 Copenhagen 1997 Thessaloniki 1998 Stockholm 1999 Weimar 2000 Reykjavík Bergen Helsinki Brussels Prague Kraków Santiago de Compostela Avignon Bologna 2001 Rotterdam Porto 2002 Bruges Salamanca 2003 Graz Plovdiv 2004 Genoa Lille 2005 Cork 2006 Patras 2007 Luxembourg
Luxembourg
City and Greater Region Sibiu 2008 Liverpool Stavanger 2009 Linz Vilnius 2010 Ruhr Istanbul Pécs 2011 Turku Tallinn 2012 Maribor Guimarães 2013 Košice Marseille 2014 Umeå Riga 2015 Mons Plzeň 2016 San Sebastián Wrocław 2017 Aarhus Paphos 2018 Valletta Leeuwarden 2019 Plovdiv Matera 2020 Rijeka Galway 2021 Timișoara Elefsina Novi Sad 2022 Kaunas Esch-sur-Alzette

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European Capitals of Sport

2001 Madrid 2002 Stockholm 2003 Glasgow 2004 Alicante 2005 Rotterdam 2006 Copenhagen 2007 Stuttgart 2008 Warsaw 2009 Milan 2010 Dublin 2011 Valencia 2012 Istanbul 2013 Antwerp 2014 Cardiff 2015 Turin 2016 Prague 2017 Marseille 2018 Sofia 2019 Budapest 2020 Málaga 2021 Lisboa 2022 The Hague

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European Youth Capitals

2009 Rotterdam 2010 Turin 2011 Antwerp 2012 Braga 2013 Maribor 2014 Thessaloniki 2015 Cluj-Napoca 2016 Ganja 2017 Varna 2018 Cascais 2019 Novi Sad 2020 Amiens

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 123139768 LCCN: n79015636 GND: 4050739-7 SELIBR: 15

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