Rotterdam (/ˈrɒtərdæm/ or /ˌrɒtərˈdæm/;
Dutch: [ˌrɔtərˈdɑm] ( listen)) is a city in the
South Holland within the Rhine–Meuse–
delta at the North Sea. Its history goes back to 1270, when a dam was
constructed in the Rotte river, after which people settled around it
for safety. In 1340,
Rotterdam was granted city rights by the Count of
A major logistic and economic centre,
Rotterdam is Europe's largest
port, and has a population of 633,471 (2017), the second-largest in
the Netherlands, just behind Amsterdam.
Rotterdam is known for the
Erasmus University, its riverside setting,
lively cultural life, and maritime heritage. The near-complete
destruction of the city centre in the
World War II
World War II
Rotterdam Blitz has
resulted in a varied architectural landscape, including sky-scrapers
(an uncommon sight in other Dutch cities) designed by renowned
architects such as Rem Koolhaas, Piet Blom, and Ben van
Rotterdam's logistic success is based on its strategic location by the
North Sea, at the mouth of the
Nieuwe Maas channel leading into the
Scheldt delta. The rivers Rhine, Meuse, and Scheldt
give waterway access into the heart of Western Europe, including the
highly industrialized Ruhr. The extensive distribution system
including rail, roads, and waterways have earned
nicknames "Gateway to Europe" and "Gateway to the World".
3.2 Ethnic make-up
8.4 Tour de
8.6 Field hockey
8.10 Motor cycle racing
8.11 Sportsmen of the year election
8.12 Other famous
9 Yearly events
11 International relations
11.1 Twin towns – Sister cities
11.2 Partner cities
11.3 Sister ports
11.4 Places named after Rotterdam
12 Notable residents
13 In popular culture
14 See also
16 External links
See also: Timeline of Rotterdam
Rotterdam by Willem and
Joan Blaeu (1652)
The settlement at the lower end of the fen stream Rotte (or Rotta, as
it was then known, from rot, "muddy" and a, "water", thus "muddy
water") dates from at least 900 CE. Around 1150, large floods in the
area ended development, leading to the construction of protective
dikes and dams, including Schielands Hoge Zeedijk ("Schieland’s High
Sea Dike") along the northern banks of the present-day Nieuwe Maas. A
dam on the Rotte was built in the 1260s and was located at the
present-day Hoogstraat ("High Street").
On 7 July 1340, Count Willem IV of Holland granted city rights to
Rotterdam, whose population then was only a few thousand. Around
the year 1350, a shipping canal, the Rotterdamse
Schie was completed,
Rotterdam access to the larger towns in the north,
allowing it to become a local trans-shipment centre between the
England and Germany, and to urbanize.
The Delftsevaart, c. 1890–1905
The port of
Rotterdam grew slowly but steadily into a port of
importance, becoming the seat of one of the six "chambers" of the
Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie (VOC), the Dutch East India Company.
The greatest spurt of growth, both in port activity and population,
followed the completion of the
Nieuwe Waterweg in 1872. The city and
harbor started to expand on the south bank of the river. The Witte
Huis or White House skyscraper, inspired by American office
buildings and built in 1898 in the French Château-style, is evidence
of Rotterdam's rapid growth and success. When completed, it was the
tallest office building in Europe, with a height of 45 m
Rotterdam centre after the 1940 bombing of Rotterdam. The ruined St.
Lawrence' Church has been restored
Tower blocks in the
Kop van Zuid
Kop van Zuid neighbourhood
World War I
World War I the city was the world's largest spy centre because
of Dutch neutrality and its strategic location in between
Germany and German-occupied Belgium. Many spies who
were arrested and executed in Britain were led by German secret agents
operating from Rotterdam.
MI6 had its main European office on de
Boompjes. From there the British coordinated espionage in
occupied Belgium. During World War I, an average of 25,000 Belgian
refugees lived in the city, as well as hundreds of German deserters
and escaped Allied prisoners of war.
During World War II, the German army invaded the
Netherlands on 10 May
Adolf Hitler had hoped to conquer the country in just one
day, but his forces met unexpectedly fierce resistance. The Dutch army
was forced to capitulate on 15 May 1940, following the bombing of
Rotterdam on 14 May and threatening to bomb other Dutch
cities. The heart of
Rotterdam was almost completely
destroyed by the Luftwaffe. Some 80,000 civilians were made homeless
and 900 were killed; a relatively low number due to the fact that many
had fled the city because of the warfare and bombing going on in
Rotterdam since the start of the invasion three days earlier. The City
Hall survived the bombing.
Ossip Zadkine later attempted to capture
the event with his statue De Verwoeste Stad ('The Destroyed City').
The statue stands near the Leuvehaven, not far from the
the centre of the city, on the north shore of the river Nieuwe Maas.
Rotterdam was gradually rebuilt from the 1950s through to the 1970s.
It remained quite windy and open until the city councils from the
1980s on began developing an active architectural policy. Daring and
new styles of apartments, office buildings and recreation facilities
resulted in a more 'livable' city centre with a new skyline. In the
Kop van Zuid
Kop van Zuid was built on the south bank of the river as a
new business centre.
Rotterdam was voted 2015 European City of the
Year by the Academy of Urbanism.
Topographic map image of
Rotterdam (city), as of Sept. 2014
'Rotterdam' is divided into a northern and a southern part by the
river Nieuwe Maas, connected by (from west to east): the
Beneluxtunnel; the Maastunnel; the
Erasmus Bridge'); a
subway tunnel; the Willemsspoortunnel ('Willems railway tunnel'); the
Willemsbrug ('Willems Bridge'); the Koninginnebrug ('Queen's Bridge');
Van Brienenoordbrug ('Van Brienenoord Bridge'). The former
railway lift bridge De Hef ('the Lift') is preserved as a monument in
lifted position between the Noordereiland ('North Island') and the
south of Rotterdam.
The city centre is located on the northern bank of the Nieuwe Maas,
although recent urban development has extended the centre to parts of
Rotterdam known as De
Kop van Zuid
Kop van Zuid ('the Head of South', i.e.
the northern part of southern Rotterdam). From its inland core,
Rotterdam reaches the
North Sea by a swathe of predominantly harbour
Built mostly behind dikes, large parts of the
Rotterdam are below sea
level. For instance, the
Prins Alexander Polder in the northeast of
Rotterdam extends 6 metres (20 ft) below sea level, or rather
Normaal Amsterdams Peil
Normaal Amsterdams Peil (NAP) or '
Amsterdam Ordnance Datum'. The
lowest point in the
Netherlands (6.76 metres (22.2 ft) below NAP)
is situated just to the east of Rotterdam, in the municipality of
Nieuwerkerk aan den IJssel.
Satellite image of
Rotterdam and its port
The Rotte river no longer joins the
Nieuwe Maas directly. Since the
early 1980s, when the construction of Rotterdam’s second subway line
interfered with the Rotte’s course, its waters have been pumped
through a pipe into the
Nieuwe Maas via the Boerengat.
The 24 municipalities of the
The Hague Metropolitan Area
Between the summers of 2003 and 2008, an artificial beach was created
at the Boompjeskade along the Nieuwe Maas, between the
and the Willems Bridge. Swimming was not possible, digging pits was
limited to the height of the layer of sand, about 50 cm
(20 in). Alternatively people go the beach of Hoek van Holland
(which is a
Rotterdam district) or one of the beaches in Zeeland:
Renesse or the Zuid Hollandse Eilanden: Ouddorp, Oostvoorne.
Rotterdam forms the centre of the
Rijnmond conurbation, bordering the
The Hague to the north-west. The two
conurbations are close enough to be a single conurbation. They share
Airport and a light rail system called
RandstadRail. Consideration is being given to creating an official
The Hague (Metropoolregio
Haag), which would have a combined population approaching 2.5 million.
On its turn, the
Rijnmond conurbation is part of the southern wing
(the Zuidvleugel) of the Randstad, which is one of the most important
economic and densely populated areas in the north-west of Europe.
Having a population of 7.1 million, the
Randstad is the sixth-largest
urban area in
Europe (after Moscow, London, Paris, Istanbul, and the
Ruhr Area). The Zuidvleugel, situated in the province of South
Holland, has a population of around 3 million.
Rotterdam experiences a temperate oceanic climate (Köppen climate
classification Cfb) similar to all of the coastal areas in
Netherlands. Located near to the coast, its climate is slightly milder
than locations further inland. Winters are cool with occasional cold
days, while the summers are mild to warm. Temperatures above
30 ºC are not rare during summer, as well as temperatures under
-5 ºC during winter. The following climate box is from the
airport, which is slightly cooler than the city, as the city
Urban heat island
Urban heat island effect, specially the city centre.
Climate data for
The Hague Airport
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm)
Average snowy days
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source #1: Royal
Netherlands Meteorological Institute (1981–2010
normals, snowy days normals for 1971–2000)
Source #2: Royal
Netherlands Meteorological Institute (1971–2000
Source: Lourens & Lucassen 1997, pp. 116–117 (1398–1795)
Rotterdam population by country of origin (2017)
Overall the demographics differ per city area. According to a recent
area analysis, the city centre has a singles population of 70%,
between the ages of 20 and 40, considerably more than
other city areas. Also the city centre has a much larger population of
people with higher education and higher income. Nonetheless, 80% of
the homes are rented, not owned. The city centre also has a higher
percentage (51% vs 45%) of foreign-born citizens. The majority (70%)
of shops are also run by foreign-born citizens.
On 1 January 2015 (source: Statistics Netherlands), the municipality
covered an area of 319 km2 (206.44 km2 of which is land)
with a population of 623,956. It is part of the
Rotterdam The Hague
Metropolitan Area with a total population of approximately 2.3
million. In 1965, the municipal population of
Rotterdam reached its
peak of 731,000, but by 1984 it had decreased to 555,000 as a result
of suburbanization.
Rotterdam consists of 14 submunicipalities: Centrum, Charlois
(including Heijplaat), Delfshaven, Feijenoord,
Hillegersberg-Schiebroek, Hoek van Holland, Hoogvliet, IJsselmonde,
Kralingen-Crooswijk, Noord, Overschie,
Prins Alexander (the most
populous submunicipality with around 85,000 inhabitants), and
Rozenburg. One other area, Pernis, does have an official
submunicipality status since 3 March 2010.
The current size of the municipality of
Rotterdam is the result of the
amalgamation of the following former municipalities, some of which
now are a submunicipality:
Delfshaven (added on 30 January 1886)
Charlois (added on 28 February 1895)
Kralingen (added on 28 February 1895)
Hoogvliet (added on 1 May 1934)
Pernis (added on 1 May 1934)
Hillegersberg (added on 1 August 1941)
IJsselmonde (added on 1 August 1941)
Overschie (added on 1 August 1941)
Schiebroek (added on 1 August 1941)
Rozenburg (added on 18 March 2010)
In the Netherlands,
Rotterdam has the highest percentage of foreigners
from non-industrialised nations. They form a large part of Rotterdam's
multi ethnic and multicultural diversity. 50.3% of the population are
of non Dutch origins or have at least one parent born outside the
country. There are 80,000 Muslims, constituting 13% of the
population. The mayor of Rotterdam, Ahmed Aboutaleb, is of
Moroccan descent and is a practicing Muslim. The city is home to the
largest Dutch Antillean community. The city also has its own China
Town at the West-Kruiskade, close to
Roman Catholic (18.7%)
Protestant Church in the
Other Christian denominations (7.1%)
Christianity is the largest religion in Rotterdam, with 31.1% of the
population identifying. The second and third largest religions are
Islam (13.3%) and
Hinduism (3.3%), while about half of the population
has no religious affiliation.
Rotterdam has hosted the chief congregation of the liberal
Protestant brotherhood of Remonstrants. From 1955 it has been the see
of the bishop of
Rotterdam when the
Rotterdam diocese was split from
the Haarlem diocese. Since 2010 the city is home to the largest mosque
in the Netherlands, the Essalam mosque, (capacity 1,500).
Gebouw Delftse Poort, one of the tallest office buildings in the
Rotterdam has always been one of the main centres of the shipping
industry in the Netherlands. From the
Rotterdam Chamber of the VOC,
the world's first multinational, established in 1602, to the merchant
shipping leader Royal
Nedlloyd established in 1970, with its corporate
headquarters located in the landmark building the 'Willemswerf' in
1988. In 1997,
Nedlloyd merged with the British
shipping industry leader P&O forming the third largest merchant
shipping company in the world. The Anglo-Dutch P&O
bought by the Danish giant corporation 'AP Moller Maersk' in 2005 and
its Dutch operations are still headquartered in the 'Willemswerf'.
Nowadays, well-known companies with headquarters in
consumers goods company Unilever, asset management firm Robeco, energy
company Eneco, dredging company Van Oord, oil company Shell
Downstream, terminal operator Vopak, commodity trading company Vitol
and architecture firm Office for Metropolitan Architecture. It is also
home to the regional headquarters of chemical company LyondellBasell,
commodities trading company Glencore, pharmaceutical company Pfizer,
logistics companies Stolt-Nielsen, electrical equipment company ABB
Group and consumer goods company Procter & Gamble. Furthermore,
Rotterdam has the Dutch headquarters of Allianz, Maersk, Petrobras,
Louis Dreyfus Group
Louis Dreyfus Group and Aon.
The City of
Rotterdam makes use of the services of semi-government
Roteb (to take care of sanitation, waste management and
assorted services) and the
Port of Rotterdam
Port of Rotterdam Authority (to maintain
Port of Rotterdam). Both these companies were once municipal
bodies, now they are autonomous entities, owned by the City.
Being the largest port and one of the largest cities of the country,
Rotterdam attracts many people seeking jobs, especially in the cheap
labour segment. The city's unemployment rate is 12%, almost twice the
Port of Rotterdam
The Waalhaven by night
Unmanned vehicles handle containers at
Europe Container Terminals
(ECT), the largest container terminal operator in Europe.
Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, with the rivers Meuse and
Rhine providing excellent access to the hinterland upstream reaching
Switzerland and into France. In 2004
Shanghai took over as
the world's busiest port. In 2006,
Rotterdam was the world's seventh
largest container port in terms of twenty-foot equivalent units (TEU)
The port's main activities are petrochemical industries and general
cargo handling and transshipment. The harbour functions as an
important transit point for bulk materials and between the European
continent and overseas. From
Rotterdam goods are transported by ship,
river barge, train or road. In 2007, the Betuweroute, a new fast
freight railway from
Rotterdam to Germany, was completed.
Well-known streets in
Rotterdam are the Lijnbaan (the first set of
pedestrian streets of the country, opened in 1953), the Hoogstraat,
Coolsingel with the city hall, and the Weena, which runs from the
Central Station to the Hofplein (square). A modern shopping venue is
the Beurstraverse ("Stock Exchange Traverse"), better known by its
informal name 'Koopgoot' ('Buying/Shopping Gutter', after its
subterranean position), which crosses the
Coolsingel below street
level). The Kruiskade is a more upscale shopping street, with
retailers like Michael Kors, 7 For All Mankind, Calvin Klein, Hugo
Tommy Hilfiger and the Dutch well known men's clothier Oger.
Another upscale shopping venue is a flagship store of department store
De Bijenkorf. Located a little more to the east is the Markthal, with
lots of small retailers inside. This hall is also one of Rotterdam's
famous architectural landmarks.
The main shopping venue in the south of
Rotterdam is Zuidplein, which
lies close to
Rotterdam Ahoy, an accommodation center for shows,
exhibitions, sporting events, concerts and congresses. Another
prominent shopping center, called Alexandrium, lies in the east of
Rotterdam. It includes a large kitchen and furniture center.
Bronze statue of
Erasmus created by
Hendrick de Keyser in 1622
Rotterdam has one major university, the
Erasmus University Rotterdam
(EUR), named after one of the city's famous former inhabitants,
Desiderius Erasmus. The Woudestein campus houses (among others)
Rotterdam School of Management,
Erasmus University. In Financial
Times' 2005 rankings it placed 29th globally and 7th in Europe. In the
2009 rankings of Masters of Management, the school reached first place
with the CEMS Master in Management and a tenth place with its RSM
Master in Management. The university is also home to Europe's
largest student association, STAR Study Association
Erasmus University and the world's largest student
association, AIESEC, has its international office in the city.
Willem de Kooning Academy
Willem de Kooning Academy Rotterdam's main art school, which is
part of the Hogeschool Rotterdam. It is regarded as one of the most
prestigious art schools in the
Netherlands and the number 1 in
Advertising and Copywriting. Part of the
Willem de Kooning Academy
Willem de Kooning Academy is
Piet Zwart Institute for postgraduate studies and research in Fine
Art, Media Design and Retail Design. The
Piet Zwart Institute boasts a
selective roster of emerging international artists.
The Hoboken campus of EUR houses the Dijkzigt (general) hospital, the
Sophia Hospital (for children) and the Medical Department of the
University. These are known collectively as the
Center. This is ranked third in
Europe by CSIC  as a hospital, and
is also ranked within top 50 universities of the world in the field of
medicine (clinical, pre-clinical & health, 2017).
There are also three Hogescholen (Universities of applied sciences) in
Rotterdam. These schools award their students a professional
Bachelor's degree and postgraduate or Master's degree. The three
Hogescholen are Hogeschool Rotterdam, Hogeschool Inholland and
Hogeschool voor Muziek en Dans (uni for music and dance) which is also
known as CodArts.
As there are many international and American schools scattered across
Europe such as ASH (American International School of the Hague)
Rotterdam also has its own international/American school by the name
AISR (American International School of Rotterdam). At AISR children
receive a multicultural education in a culturally diverse community
and it offers the International Baccalaureate (IB) Diploma Program.
Unique to the city is the Shipping & Transport College which
offers masters, bachelors and vocational diplomas on all levels.
Rotterdam waterfront, with spotlights shining into the air to
European Capital of Culture
European Capital of Culture in 2001.
The city has its own orchestra, the
Rotterdam Philharmonic, with its
well-regarded young music director Yannick Nézet-Séguin; a large
congress and concert building called De Doelen; several theaters
(including the new Luxor) and movie theatres; and the Ahoy Rotterdam
complex in the south of the city, which is used for pop concerts,
exhibitions, tennis tournaments, and other activities. A major zoo
Diergaarde Blijdorp is situated at the northwest side of
Rotterdam, complete with a walkthrough sea aquarium called the
Rotterdam features some urban architecture projects, nightlife, and
many summer festivals celebrating the city's multicultural population
and identity, such as the Caribbean-inspired "Summer Carnival", the
Rotterdam 666, the Metropolis pop festival and the World
Port days. In the years 2005–2011 the city struggled with venues for
popmusic. Many of the venues suffered severe
financial problems. This resulted in the disappearance of the major
music venues Nighttown and WATT and smaller stages such as Waterfront,
Exit, and Heidegger. Currently the city has a few venues for pop music
Poortgebouw and Annabel. The venue WORM focuses on
experimental music and related cutting edge subcultural music. There
are also the International Film Festival in January, the Poetry
International Festival in June, the
North Sea Jazz Festival in July,
the Valery Gergiev Festival in September, September in
the World of the Witte de With. In June 1970, The Holland Pop Festival
(which featured Jefferson Airplane, The Byrds, Canned Heat, It's a
Beautiful Day, and Santana) was held and filmed at the Stamping
Grounds in Rotterdam.
There is a healthy competition with Amsterdam, which is often viewed
as the cultural capital of the Netherlands. There is a saying:
Amsterdam to party, Den Haag (The Hague) to live,
Rotterdam to work".
Another one, more popular by Rotterdammers, is "Money is earned in
Rotterdam, distributed in
The Hague and spent in Amsterdam". Another
saying that reflects both the rivalry between
Rotterdam and Amsterdam
Amsterdam has it,
Rotterdam doesn't need it".
It is also the home of Gabber, a type of hardcore electronic music
popular in the mid-1990s, with hard beats and samples. Groups like
Rotterdam Terror Corps (RTC) started in Rotterdam.
The main cultural organisations in Amsterdam, such as the
Concertgebouw and Holland Festival, have joint forces with similar
organisations in Rotterdam, via A'R'dam. In 2007 these organisations
published with plans for co-operation. One of the goals is to
strengthen the international position of culture and art in the
Netherlands in the international context.
Rotterdam has many museums. Well known museums are the
Van Beuningen, the
Netherlands Architecture Institute, the
Wereldmuseum, the Kunsthal, Witte de With Center for Contemporary
Art and the Maritime
Museum Rotterdam. The Historical Museum
Rotterdam has changed into
Rotterdam which aims to exhibit
Rotterdam as a contemporary transnational city, and not a past
Other museums include the tax museum and the natural history museum.
At the historical shipyard and museum Scheepswerf 'De Delft', the
reconstruction of ship of the line
Delft can be visited.
See also: List of tallest buildings in Rotterdam
The former headquarters of the
Holland America Line
Holland America Line next to modern
residential architecture in 2010
Bridge in 2011
In 1898, the 45-metre (148-foot) high-rise office building the White
House (in Dutch Witte Huis) was completed, at that time the tallest
office building in Europe. In the first decades of the 20th century,
some influential architecture in the modern style was built in
Rotterdam. Notable are the Van Nelle fabriek (1929) a monument of
modern factory design by Brinkman en Van der Vlugt, the Jugendstil
clubhouse of the
Royal Maas Yacht Club
Royal Maas Yacht Club designed by Hooijkaas jr. en
Brinkman (1909), and Feyenoord's football stadium
De Kuip (1936) also
by Brinkman en Van der Vlugt. The architect J. J. P. Oud was a famous
Rotterdammer in those days. The
Van Nelle Factory
Van Nelle Factory obtained the status
of UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2014. During the early stages of
World War II
World War II the center of
Rotterdam was bombed by the Nazis,
destroying many of the older buildings in the center of the city.
After initial crisis re-construction the center of
become the site of ambitious new architecture.
The Cube Houses in 2011
The Markthal as seen from the Binnenrotte,
Euromast in 2005.
Rotterdam is also famous for its Lijnbaan 1952 by architects Broek en
Bakema, Peperklip by architect Carel Weeber, Kubuswoningen or cube
houses designed by architect
Piet Blom 1984.
The newest landmark in
Rotterdam is the Markthal, designed by
architect firm MVRDV. In addition to that there are many international
well known architects based in
Rotterdam like O.M.A (Rem Koolhaas),
Neutelings & Riedijk and
Erick van Egeraat
Erick van Egeraat to name a few. Two
architectural landmarks are located in the Lloydkwartier: the STC
college building and the
Rotterdam also houses several of the tallest structures in the
Erasmusbrug (1996) is a 790-meter (2,600 ft) cable stayed
bridge linking the north and south of Rotterdam. It is held up by a
138 metres (453 ft) tall pylon with a characteristic bend,
earning the bridge its nickname 'De Zwaan' ('the Swan').
Rotterdam has the tallest residential building in the Netherlands: the
New Orleans Tower (158.35 metres (519.5 ft)).
Rotterdam is also home to the tallest office building 'Maastoren'
(164.75 m or 540.5 ft) which houses Deloitte. This office
tower surpassed the 'Delftse Poort' (160 m or 520 ft) which
houses Nationale-Nederlanden insurance company, part of
ING Group as
tallest office tower in 2009.
The city also houses the 186 metres (610 ft) tall Euromast, which
is a major tourist attraction. It was built in 1960, initially
reaching a height of 101 metres (331 ft); in 1970, the Euromast
was extended by 85 metres (279 ft) to its current height.
Rotterdam has a reputation in being a platform for architectural
development and education through the Berlage Institute, a
postgraduate laboratory of architecture, and the NAi (Netherlands
Architecture Institute), which is open to the public and has a variety
of good exhibitions on architecture and urban planning issues.
Rotterdam has one of the best European Skylines together with
Frankfurt, London, Madrid, Paris,
Warsaw and Moscow. Over 30 new
highrise projects are being developed at the moment.
Highrise buildings that are currently being built:
Boston & Seattle, two buildings with a height of 70 metres
(230 feet) each are being built at Kop van Zuid. They are expected to
be completed in 2017.
Rotterdam calls itself Sportstad (City of Sports). The city annually
organises several world-renowned sporting events. Some examples are
Rotterdam Marathon, the World
Port Tournament, and the Rotterdam
World Tennis Tournament.
Rotterdam also organises one race of the Red
Bull Air Race World Championship and the car racing event Monaco aan
de Maas (Monaco at the Meuse).
The city is also the home of many sports clubs and some historic and
Robin van Persie
Robin van Persie began his career with
SBV Excelsior and broke through
Feyenoord home stadium.
Rotterdam is the home of three professional football clubs, being
first tier clubs Feyenoord, Excelsior and Sparta.
Feyenoord, founded in 1908 and the dominant of the three professional
clubs, has won fifteen national titles since the introduction of
professional football in the Netherlands. It won the European Cup
(current Champions league) as the first Dutch club in 1970, and won
the World Cup for club teams in the same year. In 1974, they were the
first Dutch club to win the UEFA Cup and in 2002,
Feyenoord won the
UEFA Cup again. In 2008, the year of their 100-year-anniversary,
Feyenoord won the KNVB-cup.
Seating 51,480, its 1931 stadium, called Stadion Feijenoord but
popularly known as
De Kuip ('the Tub'), is the second largest in the
country, after the
Amsterdam Arena. De Kuip, located in the southeast
of the city, has hosted many international football games, including
the final of Euro 2000 and has been awarded a FIFA 5 star ranking.
There are concrete plans to build a new stadium with a capacity of at
least 63,000 seats.
Sparta, founded in 1888 and situated in the northwest of Rotterdam,
won the national title six times; Excelsior (founded 1902), in the
northeast, has never won any.
Rotterdam also has three fourth tier clubs, SC Feijenoord (Feyenoord
Amateurs), PVV DOTO and TOGR.
Rotterdam is and has been the home to
many great football players and coaches, among whom:
Bert van Marwijk
Giovanni van Bronckhorst
John de Wolf
Jon Dahl Tomasson
Louis van Gaal
Pierre van Hooijdonk
Puck van Heel
Robin van Persie
Willem van Hanegem
Runners during the marathon in Rotterdam
Rotterdam has its own annual international marathon, which offers one
of the fastest courses in the world. From 1985 until 1998, the world
record was set in Rotterdam, first by
Carlos Lopes and later in 1988
by Belayneh Densamo.
In 1998, the world record for women was set by Tegla Loroupe, in a
time of 2:20.47. Loroupe won the
Rotterdam Marathon three consecutive
times, from 1997 to 1999.
The current track record for men is held by Duncan Kibet, who ran a
time of 2:04.27 in 2009. The female record was set in 2012, when Tiki
Gelana finished the race in 2:18.58. Gelana went on to become the 2012
Olympic champion in London, a few months later.
The marathon starts and ends on the
Coolsingel in the heart of
Rotterdam. It attracts a total of 900.000 visitors.
Arthur Ashe at the 1975 ABN World Tennis Tournament
Rotterdam hosts the indoor hard court ABN AMRO World
Tennis Tournament, part of the ATP Tour. The event was first organised
in 1972, when it was won by Arthur Ashe. Ashe went on to win the
tournament two more times, making him the singles title record holder.
Former Wimbledon winner
Richard Krajicek became the tournament
director after his retirement in 2000. The latest edition of the
tournament attracted a total of 116.354 visitors.
In November 2008
Rotterdam was chosen as the host of the Grand Départ
of the 2010 Tour de France.
Rotterdam won the selection over the Dutch
city of Utrecht. Germany's Düsseldorf had previously also expressed
interest in hosting. The Amaury Sport Organization (ASO), organizer of
the Tour de France, said in a statement on its web site that it chose
Rotterdam because, in addition to it being another big city, like
London, to showcase the use of bikes for urban transportation, it
provided a location well positioned considering the rest of the route
envisioned for the 2010 event.
The start in
Rotterdam was the fifth in the Netherlands. The prologue
was a 7 km (4.35 mi) individual time trial crossing the
centre of the city. The first regular stage left the
went south, towards Brussels.
Members of the student rowing club Skadi were part of the 'Holland
Acht', winning a gold medal at the Olympics in 1996..
Since the opening in April 2013,
Rotterdam hosts the rowing venue
Willem-Alexander Baan that hosted the 2016 World Rowing Championships
for Seniors, U23 and Juniors.
In field hockey,
Rotterdam has the largest hockey club in the
Netherlands, HC Rotterdam, with its own stadium in the north of the
city and nearly 2,400 members. The first men's and women's teams both
play on the highest level in the Dutch Hoofdklasse.
Rotterdam is home to the most successful European baseball team,
Neptunus Rotterdam, winning the most European Cups.
Bep van Klaveren
Rotterdam has a long boxing tradition starting with Bep van Klaveren
(1907–1992), aka 'The Dutch Windmill', Gold medal winner of the 1928
Amsterdam Olympics, followed by professional boxers like Regilio Tuur
and Don Diego Poeder.
Rotterdam's swimming tradition started with
Marie Braun aka Zus
(sister) Braun, who was coached to a Gold medal at the 1928 Amsterdam
Olympics by her mother Ma Braun, and 3 European titles 3 years later
in Paris. In her career as 14 time national champ, she broke 6 world
records. Ma Braun later also coached the
Rotterdam born, three-times
Rie Mastenbroek during the
Berlin Olympics in 1936.
In later years
Inge de Bruijn
Inge de Bruijn became a
Rotterdam sport icon as triple
Olympic Gold medal winner in 2000 and triple European Gold medal
winner in 2001.
Motor cycle racing
Motor cycle speedway was staged in the
Feyenoord Stadium after the
second world war. The team which raced in a Dutch league was known as
Feyenoord Tigers. The team included Dutch riders and some English
and Australian riders.
Sportsmen of the year election
Since 1986, the city has selected its best sportsman, woman and team
Rotterdam Sports Awards Election, held in December.
Mia Audina, a retired
Indonesia born badminton player, living in
Nelli Cooman, a Surinamese born retired athlete who held the 60 m dash
world record, and was the world and European champion in that event.
Robert Doornbos, a
Rotterdam born race car driver, who competed in the
Robert Eenhoorn, a
Rotterdam born retired MLB short stop, who competed
for the New York Yankees, the
Anaheim Angels and the New York Mets.
Dex Elmont, a
Rotterdam born judoka, who finished second in the
European championships in 2009 in the 65 to 73 kg (143 to
161 lb) division.
Guillaume Elmont, a
Rotterdam born judoka, who became world champion
in 2005 in the 73 to 81 kg (161 to 179 lb) division.
Francisco Elson, a
Rotterdam born basketball player who played in the
NBA, won the NBA finals in 2007 with the San Antonio Spurs.
Ignisious Gaisah, a Ghanaian born long jumper with a personal best of
8.43 metres (27.66 feet), residing in
Rotterdam since 2001. Gaisah is
a multiple medal winner in several international events, both as a
citizen of Ghana and the Netherlands.
Francis Hoenselaar, a
Rotterdam born female darts player, generally
recognised as the best Dutch female darts player ever.
Robert Lathouwers, an athlete born in a
Rotterdam suburb, specialised
in the 800 m. Lathouwers gained international notoriety when he got
disqualified after shoving Irish athlete David McCarthy in the 2010
Fatima Moreira de Melo, a
Rotterdam born, three-times olympic champion
in field hockey. Moreira de Melo currently is a professional poker
Piet Roozenburg, a
Rotterdam born draughts player, who was the world
champion from 1948 to 1956 and the 8-time Dutch champion.
Betty Stöve, a
Rotterdam born retired female tennis double specialist
and 10-time Grand Slam winner.
Ingmar Vos, a
Rotterdam born decathlete, with a personal best of 8224
Rotterdam hosts several annual events unique to the city. It hosts the
Zomercarnaval (Summercarnaval), the second largest Caribbean carnival
in Europe, originally called the Antillean carnival. Other events
North Sea Jazz Festival, the largest Jazz festival in Europe,
Bavaria City Race, a Formula 1 race inside the city center and a 3 day
long maritime extravaganza called the World
Port Days celebrating the
Port of Rotterdam.
January: "Zesdaagse van Rotterdam" "(six-day track-cycling race) –
January: International Film Festival Rotterdam
Rotterdam Open ABM AMRO ATP 500 Tennis Tournament – Ahoy
Koningsdag Festival (27 April)
North Sea Jazz Festival (second weekend of July)
Bavaria City Race
Dag van de Romantische Muziek (Romantic music festival)
Rotterdam is well connected by international, national, regional and
local public transport systems, as well as by the Dutch motorway
There are several motorways to/from Rotterdam. The following four are
part of its 'Ring' (ring road):
A20 (Ring North): Hoek van Holland –
Rotterdam – Gouda
A16 (Ring East):
Antwerp – Paris)
A15 (Ring South):
Rotterdam – Nijmegen
A4 (Ring West).
The following two other motorways also serve Rotterdam:
The Hague – Rotterdam
Bergen op Zoom
Bergen op Zoom – Rotterdam
Much smaller than the international hub Schiphol Airport, Rotterdam
Airport (formerly known as Zestienhoven) is the third
largest airport in the country, behind Schiphol
Airport and Eindhoven
Airport. Located north of the city, it has shown a very strong growth
over the past five years, mostly caused by the growth of the low-cost
carrier market. For business travelers,
The Hague Airport
offers advantages in terms of rapid handling of passengers and
baggage. Environmental regulations make further growth uncertain.
Rotterdam's new Central Station reopened in March 2014, designed to
handle up to 320,000 passengers daily.
Rotterdam is well connected to the Dutch railway network, and has
several international connections:
Southern direction Dordrecht, Breda, Eindhoven, Flushing (Vlissingen)
(also international trains to Belgium/France)
Western direction Hoek van Holland
North-Western direction The Hague, Leiden, Amsterdam
Northern direction (high-speed rail) Schiphol, Amsterdam
Utrecht and further
A fifth alternative train system to the Hague, the Hofplein Line was
converted to the light rail system Randstadrail in 2006.
The city is often mentioned as the terminus of the Eurasian Land
Rotterdam Centraal – Rotterdam's main station
Rotterdam Alexander – Eastern part of Rotterdam
Rotterdam Blaak – Close to the centre of Rotterdam
Rotterdam Lombardijen – Most Southern part of Rotterdam
Rotterdam Noord – Northern part of Rotterdam
Rotterdam Zuid – Northern part of the Southern part of Rotterdam
Rotterdam Stadion – A station near the
Feyenoord stadium, open in
connection with football matches and music concerts
The main connections:
Direct international services to
France via high speed
train system: Thalys
Frequent international trains to
Antwerp and Brussels, Belgium
Frequent services within the Netherlands:
Intercity line to The Hague, Leiden, Schiphol airport and Amsterdam
Intercity line to
Utrecht and on to
Enschede (the east),
Leeuwarden (north-west) or Groningen (north-east)
Intercity line to Dordrecht,
Roosendaal and on to Vlissingen (south
Intercity line to Dordrecht, Breda, Tilburg,
Eindhoven and Venlo
Night services every hour connecting every day of the week to Delft,
The Hague, Leiden, Schiphol airport, Amsterdam, and, with a detour,
Utrecht. On Thursday, Friday and Saturday night services (either
direct or via a detour) to Den Bosch, Eindhoven, Tilburg, Roosendaal.
Several semi-fast services and local trains originate or call at
Rotterdam Centraal; semi-fast services Amsterdam-Breda.
Detailed information available from the site of the Nederlandse
Spoorwegen (Dutch Railways)
In Rotterdam, public transport services are provided by the following
NS (Dutch Railways): national train services
Rotterdam Elektrische Tram): Tram, city-bus, metro, randstadrail
and ferry-services in
Rotterdam and surrounding cities
Arriva Netherlands: regional bus services
Connexxion: regional bus services
Veolia: regional bus services.
See also: List of
Rotterdam metro stations
Rotterdam was the first Dutch city to open a metro system.
Currently the metro system consists of three main lines, each of which
has its own variants. The metro network has 78.3 km
(48.7 mi) of railtracks and there are 62 stations, which makes it
the biggest of the Benelux. The system is operated by 5 lines; 3 lines
(A, B and C) on the east-west line, and two (D and E) on the
north-south line. Line E (Randstadrail) connects
Rotterdam with The
Hague as of December 2011.
Southern / western terminus
Northern / eastern terminus
Den Haag Centraal
Main article: Trams in Rotterdam
Rotterdam tramway network offers 9 regular tram lines and 4
special tram lines with a total length of 93.4 km (58.0 mi).
Service Tramlines in
Rotterdam as of 2016[update]:
Rotterdam Lombardijen NS – (Rotterdam)
Keizerswaard (runs only to the southern part of the city)
4: (Rotterdam) Molenlaan –
Rotterdam Centraal – (Rotterdam)
7: (Rotterdam) Oostplein –
Rotterdam Centraal – (Rotterdam)
8: (Rotterdam) Spangen –
Rotterdam Centraal – (Rotterdam) Kleiweg
Rotterdam Centraal –
Rotterdam Lombardijen NS – (Rotterdam)
21: (Schiedam) Woudhoek – Station
Schiedam Centrum – Rotterdam
Centraal – (Rotterdam) De Esch
23: (Rotterdam) Marconiplein –
Rotterdam Centraal – (Rotterdam)
24: (Vlaardingen) Holy – Station
Schiedam Centrum – Rotterdam
Centraal – (Rotterdam) De Esch
Rotterdam Centraal – (Barendrecht)
A Citadis tram outside the former
Rotterdam Centraal, 2008
Special tram lines:
10: Historical tram line, only runs in summer and throughout the whole
city for tourist information. Using historical
Rotterdam Trams from
the year 1931.
18: Tramline from
Rotterdam Central Station towards Park, runs only at
the Dunya Festival and during the
Rotterdam Centraal – Stadion
Rotterdam Centraal –
Het Kasteel ('The Castle', Sparta Stadium). Football tramline, only
for big fixtures at Stadion
Feyenoord or Het Kasteel.
Snert-tram: Historical tram, only in winter as a tourist tram through
Rotterdam. Passengers are provided with a cup of "snert"; Rotterdam
dialect for erwtensoep (pea soup). Rolling stock is a historical
Rotterdam tram from 1968.
IJsjes-tram: Summer version of the snert tram, providing tourists with
ijsjes (ice cream) rather than snert.
Water Taxi in Rotterdam
Rotterdam offers 55 city bus lines with a total length of
432.7 km (268.9 mi).
RET runs buses in the city of
Rotterdam and surrounding places like
Spijkenisse, Barendrecht, Ridderkerk, Rhoon, Poortugaal, Schiedam,
Delft and Capelle aan den IJssel. .
Arriva Netherlands, Connexxion and Veolia run buses from other cities
The Waterbus network consists of seven lines. The main line (Line 20)
Rotterdam to Dordrecht. The ferry carries about 130
passengers and there is space for 60 bicycles. The stops between
Krimpen aan den IJssel
Krimpen aan den IJssel Stormpolder –
Ridderkerk De Schans –
Alblasserdam Kade – Hendrik-Ido-Ambacht
Papendrecht Westeind –
Rotterdam has city and port connections throughout the world. In 2008,
the city had 13 sister cities, 12 partner cities, and 4 sister
ports. Since 2008, the City of
Rotterdam doesn't forge new sister
or partner connections. Sister and partner cities are not a priority
in international relations.
On 15 March 2017 the Turkish president expressed his wish that
Istanbul should no longer be the twin town of Rotterdam. A speaker of
Rotterdam municipality then explained that the two cities have no
official partnership. Both authorities do cooperate often.
Twin towns – Sister cities
Rotterdam is twinned with:
Baltimore (since 1985)
Burgas (since 1976)
Cologne (since 1958)
Constanța (since 1976)
Dresden (since 1988)
Esch-sur-Alzette (since 1958)
Gdańsk (since 1977)
Havana (since 1983)
Lille (since 1958)
Liège (since 1958)
Shanghai (since 1979)
Saint Petersburg (since 1984)
Turin (since 1958)
Antwerp (since 1940)
Basel (since 1945)
Bratislava (since 1991)
Budapest (since 1991)
Duisburg (since 1950)
Durban (since 1991)
Hull (since 1936)
Jakarta (since 1983)
Nuremberg (since 1961)
Osaka Prefecture (since 1984)
Oslo (since 1945)
Prague (since 1991)
Kobe (since 1967)
Busan (since 1987)
Seattle (since 1969)
Tokyo (since 1989)
Places named after Rotterdam
Nieuw Rotterdam, Nickerie District, Suriname
Rotterdam, New York, United States
Rotterdam, Limpopo, South Africa
Main article: List of people from Rotterdam
Pierre Bayle, enlightenment philosopher.
Leo Beenhakker, football coach.
Giovanni van Bronckhorst, former football player and current manager
Desiderius Erasmus, philosopher and humanist.
Pim Fortuyn, politician, assassinated in 2002.
Leo Fuld, singer.
Colonel Tom Parker, manager of Elvis Presley.
Piet Heyn, naval fleet officer.
Willem de Kooning, painter.
Rem Koolhaas, internationally renowned architect.
Coen Moulijn, football player of Feyenoord.
Johan van Oldebarnevelt, statesman of the Dutch Revolt.
Robin van Persie, Fenerbahçe S.K. forward and Dutch international
Bernard Mandeville, philosopher, political economist and satirist.
Marten Toonder, comic writer.
Jules Deelder, poet, writer, DJ, night mayor.
In popular culture
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help
improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2017)
(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Rotterdam features in Edgar Allan Poe's short story ‘The
Unparalleled Adventure of One Hans Pfaall’ (1835), as well as J.T.
Sheridan Le Fanu's 'Strange Event in the Life of Schalken the Painter'
Part of Jackie Chan's 1998 film Who am I? is set in Rotterdam.
Ender's Shadow, part of the series
Ender's Game is partially set in
In season 1, episode 2 of The Golden Girls ("Guess Who's Coming to the
Wedding?"), Dorothy reminisces how her ex-husband, Stan, would buy her
tulips after they had a fight. "Towards the end, our house looked like
Easter in Rotterdam."
In 1996, the British band
The Beautiful South
The Beautiful South recorded a song named
after this region titled
Rotterdam (or Anywhere).
In the 2004 video game Hitman: Contracts, the levels "Rendezvous in
Rotterdam" and "Deadly Cargo" both take place in Rotterdam.
The 2017 Olivier award winning play, Rotterdam, written by Jon
Brittain, is set in the city.
Government of Rotterdam
See also: Bibliography of the history of Rotterdam
Amersfoort, H; et al. (2005), Mei 1940 – Strijd op Nederlands
grondgebied (in Dutch), SDU, ISBN 90-12-08959-X
Brongers, E.H. (2004), Opmars naar
Rotterdam (in Dutch), Aspect,
Evans, Richard J. (2008). The Third Reich at War. London: Allen Lane.
Götzel, H (1980), Generaloberst Kurt Student und seine
Fallschirmjäger (in German), Podzun-Pallas Verlag,
ISBN 3-7909-0131-8, OCLC 7863989
Lourens, Piet; Lucassen, Jan (1997). Inwonertallen van Nederlandse
steden ca. 1300–1800. Amsterdam: NEHA. ISBN 9057420082.
^ "College van b en w" [Board of mayor and aldermen] (in Dutch).
Gemeente Rotterdam. Retrieved 10 December 2014.
^ "Kerncijfers wijken en buurten" [Key figures for neighbourhoods].
CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 2 July 2013. Retrieved 12 March
^ a b Anita Bouman–Eijs; Thijmen van Bree; Wouter Jonkhoff; Olaf
Koops; Walter Manshanden; Elmer Rietveld (17 December 2012). De Top 20
van Europese grootstedelijke regio's 1995–2011;
Randstad Holland in
internationaal perspectief [Top 20 of European metropolitan regions
Randstad Holland compared internationally] (PDF)
(Technical report) (in Dutch). Delft: TNO. Retrieved 25 July
^ "Postcodetool for 3011AD". Actueel Hoogtebestand Nederland (in
Dutch). Het Waterschapshuis. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
^ "Bevolkingsontwikkeling; regio per maand" [Population growth;
regions per month]. CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 27 October 2017.
Retrieved 27 October 2017.
^ "Bevolkingsontwikkeling; regio per maand" [Population growth;
regions per month]. CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 26 June 2014.
Retrieved 24 July 2014.
^ "Over de Metropoolregio
Rotterdam Den Haag". MRDH.nl. 2014.
Retrieved 7 October 2014. De Metropoolregio
Rotterdam Den Haag is het
gebied dat nu de huidige stadregio’s
Rotterdam en Haaglanden omvat.
Binnen dat gebied gaan de 24 gemeenten hun krachten bundelen in het
Rotterdam Den Haag om de
internationale concurrentiepositie van de regio te versterken. De
Metropoolregio regio heeft 2,2 miljoen inwoners.
^ Wells, John C. (2008), Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.),
Longman, ISBN 9781405881180
^ Roach, Peter (2011), Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary (18th
ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
^ a b "Geschiedenis van Rotterdam". Gemeente Rotterdam. 9 March 2015.
Archived from the original on 5 March 2016.
^ Population growth; regions per month, CBS StatLine, 2015
Rotterdam Metro (SG)
Rotterdam Urban (GA)
^ "Top 10 Cities : The Rough Guide to 2014". Rough Guides. 9
^ a b "Urbanism Awards:
Rotterdam takes top prize". Academy of
Urbanism. 14 November 2014.
^ Jan Walburg (1 August 1984). The port of Rotterdam: Gateway to
^ Royal van Gorcum (1998). Dutch Culture in a European Perspective:
1950, prosperity and welfare. "
Rotterdam port: Gateway to Europe"
^ European Parliament (2014). Gateway to the World "Gateway to the
world: how the EU helped
Rotterdam to become Europe's largest port"
Check url= value (help).
Rotterdam - City, Port, History, & Facts". Encyclopedia
Britannica. Retrieved 1 March 2018.
Witte Huis or White House,". Archived from the original on 20
December 2004. Retrieved 15 May 2008.
^ Ruis, Edwin. Spynest.British and German Espionage from Neutral
Holland 1914–1918. Brimscombe: The History Press, 2016.
^ Evans 2008, pp. 122–3.
^ Brongers 2004, (ONR Part III), p. 235
^ Amersfoort 2005, p. 369.
^ Götzel 1980, pp. 149, 150.
^ "Klimaattabel Rotterdam, langjarige gemiddelden, tijdvak
1981–2010" (PDF) (in Dutch). Royal
Institute. Retrieved 10 September 2013.
^ "Klimaattabel Rotterdam, langjarige extremen, tijdvak 1971–2000"
(PDF) (in Dutch). Royal
Netherlands Meteorological Institute.
Retrieved 10 September 2013. [dead link]
^ "CBS StatLine – Bevolking; leeftijd, herkomstgroepering, geslacht
en regio, 1 januari".
^ Gebiedsanalyse 2006, Centrumgebied, Gemeente Rotterdam. Page 7 and
^ Ad van der Meer and Onno Boonstra, Repertorium van Nederlandse
gemeenten, KNAW, 2006.
^ Kim Jansen (2010). Muslims in
Rotterdam (PDF) (Report). Open Society
^ "Kerkelijkheid en kerkbezoek, 2010/2013". Centraal Bureau voor de
^ "Werkloosheid in
Rotterdam KNSexamen: Weblog Inburgering, NT2,
examen". Knsexamen.nl. 23 April 2009. Retrieved 12 April 2011.
Port of Rotterdam. Archived from the original on 15 April
2009. Retrieved 6 May 2009.
^ "Business School Ranking of the
Financial Times 2009".
Rankings.ft.com. Archived from the original on 24 March 2009.
Retrieved 12 April 2011.
Europe Ranking Web of Hospitals". hospitals.webometrics.info.
Retrieved 14 July 2017.
Erasmus University Rotterdam". Times Higher Education (THE).
Retrieved 14 July 2017.
Holland Festival manifesto". Archived from the
original on 18 May 2008. Retrieved 15 May 2008.
^ "Witte de With museum". Retrieved 15 May 2008.
Museum official site". Retrieved 15 May 2008.
Museum Rotterdam, retrieved 25 April 2016.
^ "Scheepswerf 'De Delft' official site". Retrieved 15 May 2008.
^ "ING building brief". Archived from the original on 8 March 2005.
Retrieved 15 May 2008.
^ "Emporis Maastoren". Retrieved 3 April 2010.
^ "Boston en
Rotterdam Wilhelminapier". Retrieved 5
^ ABN Amro WTT. "Laatste nieuws · 40e ABN AMRO World Tennis
Tournament". Archived from the original on 20 February 2013.
^ "International Film Festival official website". Archived from the
original on 22 October 2006. Retrieved 15 May 2008.
Rotterdam Marathon official website". Retrieved 15 May 2008.
^ "KoninginnedagFestival official website". Retrieved 15 May
^ "Zomer Carnival official website". Archived from the original on 22
July 2003. Retrieved 15 May 2008.
^ "Pleinbioscoop official website". Retrieved 15 May 2008.
Port Day (Rotterdam) official website (in Dutch and
English)". Retrieved 15 May 2008.
^ "Dutch Railway website". Retrieved 15 May 2008.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad
Rotterdam. Een sterk internationaal merk "ROTTERDAM: EEN
STERKINTERNATIONAAL MERK" Check url= value (help) (PDF) (in Dutch).
Rotterdam, The Netherlands: City of Rotterdam. 2008. p. 37.
Retrieved 20 March 2015.
Rotterdam Wereldstad: Vaste koers, nieuwe ambitities" Gemeente
Rotterdam, 2009. Blz. 33
^ "Erdogan wil af van niet bestaande stedenband met Rotterdam"
[Erdogan will not continue twin town relationship with Rotterdam].
Algemeen Dagblad (in Dutch). 15 March 2017. Retrieved 15 March
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Eric Vrijsen (23 September 2008). "De
schaamte voorbij: Gaza als zusterstad". Elsevier (in Dutch).
Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Archived from the original on 29 June
2015. Retrieved 24 July 2014.
^ Tretsch, John. "Extra! Extra! Poe invents science fiction!" as
collected in The Cambridge Companion to Edgar Allan Poe, edited by
Kevin J. Hayes. Cambridge University Press, 2002: 117.
^ "everyHit.com – UK Top 40 Chart Archive, British Singles &
Album Charts". everyhit.com. Retrieved 17 March 2016.
Find more aboutRotterdamat's sister projects
Media from Wikimedia Commons
Travel guide from Wikivoyage
World Gymnaestrada host city
Places adjacent to Rotterdam
Westland, Maassluis, Vlaardingen, Schiedam, Delft
Capelle aan den IJssel
Krimpen aan den IJssel
Westvoorne, Brielle, Bernisse
Spijkenisse, Albrandswaard, Barendrecht
Municipalities of South Holland
Alphen aan den Rijn
Capelle aan den IJssel
Kaag en Braassem
Krimpen aan den IJssel
European Capitals of Culture
Santiago de Compostela
Luxembourg City and Greater Region
European Capitals of Sport
2022 The Hague
European Youth Capitals
2019 Novi Sad