ROTTERDAM (/ˈrɒtərdæm/ or /ˌrɒtərˈdæm/ ; Dutch: (
listen )) is a city in the
Netherlands , in
South Holland within the
Scheldt river delta at the
North Sea . Its history
goes back to 1270 when a dam was constructed in the Rotte river by
people settled around it for safety. In 1340,
Rotterdam was granted
city rights by the
Count of Holland .
A major logistic and economic centre,
Europe 's largest
port and has a population of 633,471 (2017), the second-largest in the
Netherlands, just behind
Rotterdam is known for the
Erasmus University , its riverside
setting, lively cultural life and maritime heritage. The near-complete
destruction of the city centre in the
World War II
World War II
Rotterdam Blitz has
resulted in a varied architectural landscape, including sky-scrapers,
an uncommon sight in other Dutch cities, designed by renowned
Rem Koolhaas ,
Piet Blom and
Ben van Berkel .
Rotterdam's logistic success is based on its strategic location on
North Sea , at the mouth of the
Nieuwe Maas channel leading into
Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta . The rivers
Rhine , Meuse , and
Scheldt give waterway access into the heart of Western Europe,
including the highly industrialized
Ruhr . The extensive distribution
system including rail, roads, and waterways have earned
nicknames "Gateway to Europe" and "Gateway to the World".
* 1 History
* 2 Geography
* 2.1 Climate
* 3 Demographics
* 3.1 Composition
* 3.2 Ethnic make-up
* 3.3 Religion
* 4 Economy
* 4.1 Ports
* 4.2 Shopping
* 5 Education
* 6 Culture
* 6.1 Museums
* 7 Architecture
* 8 Sports
* 8.1 Football
* 8.2 Marathon
* 8.3 Tennis
* 8.4 Tour de
* 8.5 Rowing
* 8.8 Boxing
* 8.9 Swimming
* 8.10 Motor cycle racing
* 8.11 Sportsmen of the year election
* 8.12 Other famous
* 9 Yearly events
* 10 Transport
* 11 International relations
* 11.1 Twin towns – Sister cities
* 11.2 Partner cities
* 11.3 Sister ports
* 11.4 Places named after
* 12 Notable residents
* 13 In popular culture
* 14 See also
* 15 References
* 15.1 Bibliography
* 15.2 Notes
* 16 External links
Timeline of Rotterdam Map of
Rotterdam by Willem and
Joan Blaeu (1652)
The settlement at the lower end of the fen stream Rotte (or Rotta, as
it was then known, from rot, "muddy" and a, "water", thus "muddy
water") dates from at least 900 CE. Around 1150, large floods in the
area ended development, leading to the construction of protective
dikes and dams, including Schielands Hoge Zeedijk ("Schieland’s High
Sea Dike") along the northern banks of the present-day Nieuwe Maas. A
dam on the Rotte was built in the 1260s and was located at the
present-day Hoogstraat ("High Street").
On 7 July 1340, Count Willem IV of Holland granted city rights to
Rotterdam, which then had approximately 2,000 inhabitants. Around the
year 1350, a shipping canal, the Rotterdamse
Schie was completed,
Rotterdam access to the larger towns in the north,
allowing it to become a local trans-shipment centre between the
Germany , and to urbanize . The
Delftsevaart in c. 1890–1905
The port of
Rotterdam grew slowly but steadily into a port of
importance, becoming the seat of one of the six "chambers" of the
Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie (VOC), the Dutch East India Company
The greatest spurt of growth, both in port activity and population,
followed the completion of the
Nieuwe Waterweg in 1872. The city and
harbor started to expand on the south bank of the river. The Witte
Huis or White House skyscraper, inspired by American office buildings
and built in 1898 in the French Château-style, is evidence of
Rotterdam's rapid growth and success. When completed, it was the
tallest office building in Europe, with a height of 45 m (147.64 ft).
Rotterdam centre after the 1940 bombing of
Rotterdam . The ruined
St. Lawrence\' Church has been restored Tower blocks in the Kop
van Zuid neighbourhood
World War I
World War I the city was the world's largest spy centre
because of Dutch neutrality and its strategic location in between
Germany and German-occupied Belgium. Many spies who
were arrested and executed in Britain were led by German secret agents
operating from Rotterdam.
MI6 had its main European office on de
Boompjes. From there the British coordinated espionage in
occupied Belgium. During World War I, an average of 25,000 Belgian
refugees lived in the city, as well as hundreds of German deserters
and escaped Allied prisoners of war.
World War II
World War II , the German army invaded the
Netherlands on 10
Adolf Hitler had hoped to conquer the country in just one
day, but his forces met unexpectedly fierce resistance. The Dutch army
was forced to capitulate on 15 May 1940, following the bombing of
Rotterdam on 14 May and threatening to bomb other Dutch cities. The
Rotterdam was almost completely destroyed by the
Some 80,000 civilians were made homeless and 900 were killed; a
relatively low number due to the fact that many had fled the city
because of the warfare and bombing going on in
Rotterdam since the
start of the invasion three days earlier. The City Hall survived the
Ossip Zadkine later attempted to capture the event with his
statue De Verwoeste Stad ('The Destroyed City'). The statue stands
near the Leuvehaven, not far from the
Erasmusbrug in the centre of the
city, on the north shore of the river Nieuwe Maas.
Rotterdam was gradually rebuilt from the 1950s through to the 1970s.
It remained quite windy and open until the city councils from the
1980s on began developing an active architectural policy. Daring and
new styles of apartments , office buildings and recreation facilities
resulted in a more 'livable ' city centre with a new skyline. In the
Kop van Zuid was built on the south bank of the river as a
new business centre.
Rotterdam was voted 2015 European City of the
Year by the Academy of Urbanism.
Topographic map image of
Rotterdam (city), as of Sept. 2014
'Rotterdam' is divided into a northern and a southern part by the
Nieuwe Maas , connected by (from west to east): the
Beneluxtunnel; the Maastunnel; the
Erasmus Bridge'); a
subway tunnel; the Willemsspoortunnel ('Willems railway tunnel'); the
Willemsbrug ('Willems Bridge'); the Koninginnebrug ('Queen's Bridge');
Van Brienenoordbrug ('Van Brienenoord Bridge'). The former
railway lift bridge De Hef ('the Lift') is preserved as a monument in
lifted position between the Noordereiland ('North Island') and the
south of Rotterdam.
The city centre is located on the northern bank of the Nieuwe Maas,
although recent urban development has extended the centre to parts of
Rotterdam known as De
Kop van Zuid ('the Head of South', i.e.
the northern part of southern Rotterdam). From its inland core,
Rotterdam reaches the
North Sea by a swathe of predominantly harbour
Built mostly behind dikes, large parts of the
Rotterdam are below sea
level. For instance, the
Prins Alexander Polder in the northeast of
Rotterdam extends 6 metres (20 ft) below sea level, or rather below
Normaal Amsterdams Peil (NAP) or '
Amsterdam Ordnance Datum'. The
lowest point in the
Netherlands (6.76 metres (22.2 ft) below NAP) is
situated just to the east of Rotterdam, in the municipality of
Nieuwerkerk aan den IJssel . Satellite image of
Rotterdam and its
The Rotte river no longer joins the
Nieuwe Maas directly. Since the
early 1980s, when the construction of Rotterdam’s second subway line
interfered with the Rotte’s course, its waters have been pumped
through a pipe into the
Nieuwe Maas via the Boerengat. The 24
municipalities of the
Rotterdam The Hague Metropolitan Area
Between the summers of 2003 and 2008, an artificial beach was created
at the Boompjeskade along the Nieuwe Maas, between the
and the Willems Bridge. Swimming was not possible, digging pits was
limited to the height of the layer of sand , about 50 cm (20 in).
Alternatively people go the beach of Hoek van Holland (which is a
Rotterdam district) or one of the beaches in
Renesse or the
Zuid Hollandse Eilanden :
Rotterdam forms the centre of the
Rijnmond conurbation, bordering the
The Hague to the north-west. The two
conurbations are close enough to be a single conurbation. They share
Airport and a light rail system called
RandstadRail . Consideration is being given to creating an official
The Hague (Metropoolregio
Haag), which would have a combined population approaching 2.5 million.
On its turn, the
Rijnmond conurbation is part of the southern wing
Zuidvleugel ) of the
Randstad , which is one of the most
important economic and densely populated areas in the north-west of
Europe. Having a population of 7.1 million, the
Randstad is the
sixth-largest urban area in
Europe (after Moscow, London, Paris,
Istanbul, and the Rhein-
Ruhr Area). The Zuidvleugel, situated in the
South Holland , has a population of around 3 million.
Rotterdam experiences a temperate oceanic climate (Köppen climate
classification Cfb) similar to all of the Netherlands. Located near to
the coast, its climate is slightly milder than locations further
CLIMATE DATA FOR ROTTERDAM THE HAGUE AIRPORT
RECORD HIGH °C (°F)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F)
DAILY MEAN °C (°F)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F)
RECORD LOW °C (°F)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 1 MM)
AVERAGE SNOWY DAYS
AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%)
MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS
Source #1: Royal
Netherlands Meteorological Institute (1981–2010
normals, snowy days normals for 1971–2000)
Source #2: Royal
Netherlands Meteorological Institute (1971–2000
Source: Lourens "> considerably more than other city areas. Also
the city centre has a much larger population of people with higher
education and higher income. Nonetheless, 80% of the homes are rented,
not owned. The city centre also has a higher percentage (51% vs 45%)
of foreign-born citizens. The majority (70%) of shops are also run by
On 1 January 2015 (source: Statistics
Netherlands ), the municipality
covered an area of 319 km2 (206.44 km2 of which is land) with a
population of 623,956. It is part of the
Rotterdam The Hague
Metropolitan Area with a total population of approximately 2.3
million. In 1965, the municipal population of
Rotterdam reached its
peak of 731,000, but by 1984 it had decreased to 555,000 as a result
of suburbanization .
Rotterdam consists of 14 submunicipalities: Centrum , Charlois
Delfshaven , Feijenoord ,
Hillegersberg-Schiebroek , Hoek van Holland ,
Hoogvliet , IJsselmonde
Kralingen-Crooswijk , Noord ,
Prins Alexander (the most
populous submunicipality with around 85,000 inhabitants), and
Rozenburg . One other area, Pernis , does have an official
submunicipality status since 3 March 2010.
The current size of the municipality of
Rotterdam is the result of
the amalgamation of the following former municipalities, some of
which now are a submunicipality:
Delfshaven (added on 30 January 1886)
Charlois (added on 28 February 1895)
Kralingen (added on 28 February 1895)
Hoogvliet (added on 1 May 1934)
* Pernis (added on 1 May 1934)
Hillegersberg (added on 1 August 1941)
* IJsselmonde (added on 1 August 1941)
Overschie (added on 1 August 1941)
Schiebroek (added on 1 August 1941)
Rozenburg (added on 18 March 2010)
In the Netherlands,
Rotterdam has the highest percentage of
foreigners from non-industrialised nations. They form a large part of
Rotterdam's multi ethnic and multicultural diversity. 50.3% of the
population are of non Dutch origins or have at least one parent born
outside the country. There are 80,000 Muslims, constituting 13% of the
population. The mayor of Rotterdam,
Ahmed Aboutaleb , is of Moroccan
descent and is a practicing Muslim. The city is home to the largest
Dutch Antillean community. The city also has its own
China Town at the
West-Kruiskade, close to
Irreligion (51.7%) Roman Catholic
(14.7%) Protestant Church in the
Netherlands (9.5%) Other
Christian denominations (6.9%) Islam (13.3%)
Christianity is the largest religion in Rotterdam, with 31.1% of the
population identifying. The second and third largest religions are
Islam (13.3%) and
Hinduism (3.3%), while about half of the population
has no religious affiliation.
Rotterdam has hosted the chief congregation of the liberal
Protestant brotherhood of
Remonstrants . From 1955 it has been the see
of the bishop of
Rotterdam when the
Rotterdam diocese was split from
the Haarlem diocese . Since 2010 the city is home to the largest
mosque in the Netherlands, the Essalam mosque, (capacity 1,500).
Gebouw Delftse Poort , one of the tallest office buildings in
Rotterdam has always been one of the main centres of the shipping
industry in the Netherlands. From the
Rotterdam Chamber of the VOC ,
the world's first multinational, established in 1602, to the merchant
shipping leader Royal
Nedlloyd established in 1970, with its corporate
headquarters located in the landmark building the 'Willemswerf' in
1988. In 1997,
Nedlloyd merged with the British shipping industry
leader P&O forming the third largest merchant shipping company in the
world. The Anglo-Dutch P&O
Nedlloyd was bought by the Danish giant
corporation 'AP Moller
Maersk ' in 2005 and its Dutch operations are
still headquartered in the 'Willemswerf'.
Nowadays, well-known companies with headquarters in
consumers goods company
Unilever , asset management firm
energy company Eneco , dredging company
Van Oord , oil company Shell
Downstream , terminal operator
Vopak , commodity trading company Vitol
and architecture firm
Office for Metropolitan Architecture . It is
also home to the regional headquarters of chemical company
LyondellBasell , commodities trading company
Glencore , pharmaceutical
Pfizer , logistics companies
Stolt-Nielsen , electrical
ABB Group and consumer goods company Procter ">
The Waalhaven by night Unmanned vehicles handle containers at
Europe Container Terminals (ECT), the largest container terminal
operator in Europe.
Rotterdam is the largest port in
Europe , with the rivers Meuse and
Rhine providing excellent access to the hinterland upstream reaching
Switzerland and into France. In 2004
Shanghai took over as
the world\'s busiest port . In 2006,
Rotterdam was the world's seventh
largest container port in terms of twenty-foot equivalent units (TEU)
The port's main activities are petrochemical industries and general
cargo handling and transshipment . The harbour functions as an
important transit point for bulk materials and between the European
continent and overseas. From
Rotterdam goods are transported by ship,
river barge, train or road. In 2007, the
Betuweroute , a new fast
freight railway from
Germany , was completed.
Well-known streets in
Rotterdam are the Lijnbaan (the first set of
pedestrian streets of the country, opened in 1953), the Hoogstraat,
Coolsingel with the city hall, and the Weena, which runs from the
Central Station to the Hofplein (square). A modern shopping venue is
the Beurstraverse ("Stock Exchange Traverse"), better known by its
informal name 'Koopgoot ' ('Buying/Shopping Gutter', after its
subterranean position), which crosses the
Coolsingel below street
level). The Kruiskade is a more upscale shopping street, with
Michael Kors ,
7 For All Mankind ,
Calvin Klein , Hugo
Tommy Hilfiger and the Dutch well known men's clothier Oger .
Another upscale shopping venue is a flagship store of department store
De Bijenkorf . Located a little more to the east is the Markthal ,
with lots of small retailers inside. This hall is also one of
Rotterdam's famous architectural landmarks.
The main shopping venue in the south of
Rotterdam is Zuidplein, which
lies close to
Rotterdam Ahoy , an accommodation center for shows,
exhibitions, sporting events, concerts and congresses. Another
prominent shopping center, called Alexandrium, lies in the east of
Rotterdam. It includes a large kitchen and furniture center.
Bronze statue of
Erasmus created by
Hendrick de Keyser in 1622
Rotterdam has one major university, the
Erasmus University Rotterdam
(EUR), named after one of the city's famous former inhabitants,
Erasmus . The Woudestein campus houses (among others)
Rotterdam School of Management,
Erasmus University . In Financial
Times ' 2005 rankings it placed 29th globally and 7th in Europe. In
the 2009 rankings of Masters of Management, the school reached first
place with the CEMS Master in Management and a tenth place with its
RSM Master in Management. The university is also home to Europe's
largest student association, STAR Study Association
Erasmus University and the world's largest student
AIESEC , has its international office in the city.
Willem de Kooning Academy Rotterdam's main art school, which is
part of the Hogeschool Rotterdam. It is regarded as one of the most
prestigious art schools in the
Netherlands and the number 1 in
Advertising and Copywriting. Part of the
Willem de Kooning Academy is
Piet Zwart Institute for postgraduate studies and research in Fine
Art, Media Design and Retail Design. The
Piet Zwart Institute boasts a
selective roster of emerging international artists.
The Hoboken campus of EUR houses the Dijkzigt (general) hospital, the
Sophia Hospital (for children) and the Medical Department of the
University. These are known collectively as the
Center. This is ranked third in
Europe by CSIC as a hospital, and is
also ranked within top 50 universities of the world in the field of
medicine (clinical, pre-clinical & health, 2017).
There are also three Hogescholen (Universities of applied sciences)
in Rotterdam. These schools award their students a professional
Bachelor\'s degree and postgraduate or Master\'s degree . The three
Hogeschool Rotterdam , Hogeschool Inholland and
Hogeschool voor Muziek en Dans (uni for music and dance) which is also
known as CodArts.
As there are many international and American schools scattered across
Europe such as ASH (American International School of the Hague)
Rotterdam also has its own international/American school by the name
American International School of Rotterdam ). At AISR children
receive a multicultural education in a culturally diverse community
and it offers the International Baccalaureate (IB) Diploma Program.
Unique to the city is the Shipping ">
Rotterdam waterfront, with
spotlights shining into the air to commemorate the
European Capital of Culture in 2001.
The city has its own orchestra, the
Rotterdam Philharmonic , with its
well-regarded young music director
Yannick Nézet-Séguin ; a large
congress and concert building called
De Doelen ; several theaters
(including the new Luxor) and movie theatres; and the Ahoy Rotterdam
complex in the south of the city, which is used for pop concerts,
exhibitions, tennis tournaments, and other activities. A major zoo
Diergaarde Blijdorp is situated at the northwest side of
Rotterdam, complete with a walkthrough sea aquarium called the
Oceanium . The city is home to the
Willem de Kooning Academy and Piet
Zwart Institute .
Rotterdam features some urban architecture projects, nightlife, and
many summer festivals celebrating the city's multicultural population
and identity, such as the Caribbean-inspired "
Summer Carnival ", the
Rotterdam 666, the Metropolis pop festival and the World
Port days. In the years 2005–2011 the city struggled with venues for
popmusic. Many of the venues suffered severe financial problems. This
resulted in the disappearance of the major music venues Nighttown and
WATT and smaller stages such as Waterfront, Exit, and Heidegger.
Currently the city has a few venues for pop music like
Poortgebouw and Annabel. The venue WORM focuses on experimental music
and related cutting edge subcultural music. There are also the
International Film Festival in January, the Poetry International
Festival in June, the
North Sea Jazz Festival in July, the Valery
Gergiev Festival in September, September in
Rotterdam and the World of
the Witte de With. In June 1970, The Holland Pop Festival (which
Jefferson Airplane ,
The Byrds ,
Canned Heat , It\'s a
Beautiful Day , and Santana ) was held and filmed at the Stamping
Grounds in Rotterdam.
There is a healthy competition with
Amsterdam , which is often viewed
as the cultural capital of the Netherlands. There is a saying:
Amsterdam to party, Den Haag (The Hague) to live,
Rotterdam to work".
Another one, more popular by Rotterdammers, is "Money is earned in
Rotterdam, distributed in
The Hague and spent in Amsterdam". Another
saying that reflects both the rivalry between
Rotterdam and Amsterdam
Amsterdam has it,
Rotterdam doesn't need it".
It is also the home of
Gabber , a type of hardcore electronic music
popular in the mid-1990s, with hard beats and samples. Groups like
Rotterdam Terror Corps (RTC) started in Rotterdam.
The main cultural organisations in
Amsterdam , such as the
Holland Festival , have joint forces with similar
organisations in Rotterdam, via A'R'dam. In 2007 these organisations
published with plans for co-operation. One of the goals is to
strengthen the international position of culture and art in the
Netherlands in the international context.
Rotterdam has many museums. Well known museums are the Museum
Boijmans Van Beuningen , the
Netherlands Architecture Institute , the
Wereldmuseum , the
Kunsthal , Witte de With Center for Contemporary
Art and the Maritime
Rotterdam . The Historical Museum
Rotterdam has changed into
Rotterdam which aims to exhibit
Rotterdam as a contemporary transnational city, and not a past city.
Other museums include the tax museum and the natural history museum .
At the historical shipyard and museum Scheepswerf 'De Delft', the
reconstruction of ship of the line
Delft can be visited.
List of tallest buildings in Rotterdam The
former headquarters of the
Holland America Line next to modern
residential architecture in 2010
Bridge in 2011
In 1898, the 45-metre (148-foot) high-rise office building the White
House (in Dutch
Witte Huis ) was completed, at that time the tallest
office building in Europe. In the first decades of the 20th century,
some influential architecture in the modern style was built in
Rotterdam. Notable are the Van Nelle fabriek (1929) a monument of
modern factory design by Brinkman en Van der Vlugt , the Jugendstil
clubhouse of the
Royal Maas Yacht Club designed by Hooijkaas jr. en
Brinkman (1909), and
Feyenoord 's football stadium
De Kuip (1936) also
by Brinkman en Van der Vlugt . The architect J. J. P. Oud was a famous
Rotterdammer in those days. The
Van Nelle Factory obtained the status
of UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2014. During the early stages of
World War II
World War II the center of
Rotterdam was bombed by the Germans,
destroying many of the older buildings in the center of the city.
After initial crisis re-construction the center of
become the site of ambitious new architecture. The Cube Houses in
2011 The Markthal as seen from the Binnenrotte, Rotterdam
center . The
Euromast in 2005.
Rotterdam is also famous for its Lijnbaan 1952 by architects Broek en
Bakema, Peperklip by architect Carel Weeber, Kubuswoningen or cube
houses designed by architect
Piet Blom 1984.
The newest landmark in
Rotterdam is the Markthal , designed by
MVRDV . In addition to that there are many
international well known architects based in
Rotterdam like O.M.A (Rem
Koolhaas ), Neutelings in 1970, the
Euromast was extended by 85 metres
(279 ft) to its current height.
Rotterdam has a reputation in being a platform for architectural
development and education through the Berlage Institute, a
postgraduate laboratory of architecture, and the NAi (Netherlands
Architecture Institute ), which is open to the public and has a
variety of good exhibitions on architecture and urban planning issues.
Rotterdam has one of the best European Skylines together with
Moscow . Over 30 new
highrise projects are being developed at the moment.
Highrise buildings that are currently being built:
* Boston ">
Rotterdam calls itself Sportstad (City of Sports). The city annually
organises several world-renowned sporting events. Some examples are
Rotterdam Marathon , the World
Port Tournament , and the Rotterdam
World Tennis Tournament .
Rotterdam also organises one race of the Red
Bull Air Race World Championship and the car racing event Monaco aan
de Maas (Monaco at the Meuse).
The city is also the home of many sports clubs and some historic and
Robin van Persie began his career with
SBV Excelsior and broke
De Kuip ,
Feyenoord home stadium.
Rotterdam is the home of three professional football clubs, being
first tier clubs
Feyenoord , Excelsior and Sparta .
Feyenoord, founded in 1908 and the dominant of the three professional
clubs, has won fifteen national titles since the introduction of
professional football in the Netherlands. It won the European Cup
(current Champions league ) as the first Dutch club in 1970, and won
the World Cup for club teams in the same year. In 1974, they were the
first Dutch club to win the UEFA Cup and in 2002,
Feyenoord won the
UEFA Cup again. In 2008, the year of their 100-year-anniversary,
Feyenoord won the KNVB-cup.
Seating 51,480, its 1931 stadium, called Stadion Feijenoord but
popularly known as
De Kuip ('the Tub'), is the second largest in the
country, after the
Amsterdam Arena . De Kuip, located in the southeast
of the city, has hosted many international football games, including
the final of Euro 2000 and has been awarded a FIFA 5 star ranking.
There are concrete plans to build a new stadium with a capacity of at
least 63,000 seats.
Sparta, founded in 1888 and situated in the northwest of Rotterdam,
won the national title six times; Excelsior (founded 1902), in the
northeast, has never won any.
Rotterdam also has three fourth tier clubs, SC Feijenoord (Feyenoord
Amateurs), PVV DOTO and TOGR.
Rotterdam is and has been the home to
many great football players and coaches, among whom:
Bert van Marwijk
Giovanni van Bronckhorst
John de Wolf
Jon Dahl Tomasson
Louis van Gaal
Pierre van Hooijdonk
Puck van Heel
Robin van Persie
Willem van Hanegem
Runners during the marathon in
Rotterdam has its own annual international marathon , which offers
one of the fastest courses in the world. From 1985 until 1998, the
world record was set in Rotterdam, first by
Carlos Lopes and later in
Belayneh Densamo .
In 1998, the world record for women was set by
Tegla Loroupe , in a
time of 2:20.47. Loroupe won the
Rotterdam Marathon three consecutive
times, from 1997 to 1999.
The current track record for men is held by
Duncan Kibet , who ran a
time of 2:04.27 in 2009. The female record was set in 2012, when Tiki
Gelana finished the race in 2:18.58. Gelana went on to become the 2012
Olympic champion in London, a few months later.
The marathon starts and ends on the
Coolsingel in the heart of
Rotterdam. It attracts a total of 900.000 visitors.
Arthur Ashe at the
1975 ABN World Tennis Tournament
Rotterdam hosts the indoor hard court ABN AMRO World
Tennis Tournament , part of the ATP Tour. The event was first
organised in 1972, when it was won by
Arthur Ashe . Ashe went on to
win the tournament two more times, making him the singles title record
Former Wimbledon winner
Richard Krajicek became the tournament
director after his retirement in 2000. The latest edition of the
tournament attracted a total of 116.354 visitors.
TOUR DE FRANCE 2010
In November 2008
Rotterdam was chosen as the host of the Grand
Départ of the
2010 Tour de France
2010 Tour de France .
Rotterdam won the selection over
the Dutch city of
Utrecht . Germany's Düsseldorf had previously also
expressed interest in hosting. The Amaury Sport Organization (ASO),
organizer of the Tour de France, said in a statement on its web site
that it chose
Rotterdam because, in addition to it being another big
city, like London, to showcase the use of bikes for urban
transportation, it provided a location well positioned considering the
rest of the route envisioned for the 2010 event.
The start in
Rotterdam was the fifth in the Netherlands. The prologue
was a 7 km (4.35 mi) individual time trial crossing the centre of the
city. The first regular stage left the
Erasmusbrug and went south,
Members of the student rowing club Skadi were part of the 'Holland
Acht ', winning a gold medal at the Olympics in 1996 .. Since the
opening in April 2013,
Rotterdam hosts the rowing venue
Willem-Alexander Baan that hosted the 2016 World Rowing Championships
for Seniors, U23 and Juniors.
In field hockey ,
Rotterdam has the largest hockey club in the
HC Rotterdam , with its own stadium in the north of the
city and nearly 2,400 members. The first men's and women's teams both
play on the highest level in the Dutch Hoofdklasse.
Rotterdam is home to the most successful European baseball team,
Rotterdam , winning the most European Cups .
Bep van Klaveren
Rotterdam has a long boxing tradition starting with Bep van Klaveren
(1907–1992), aka 'The Dutch Windmill', Gold medal winner of the 1928
Amsterdam Olympics , followed by professional boxers like Regilio Tuur
and Don Diego Poeder.
Rotterdam's swimming tradition started with
Marie Braun aka Zus
(sister) Braun, who was coached to a Gold medal at the 1928 Amsterdam
Olympics by her mother Ma Braun, and 3 European titles 3 years later
in Paris. In her career as 14 time national champ, she broke 6 world
records. Ma Braun later also coached the
Rotterdam born, three-times
Rie Mastenbroek during the
Berlin Olympics in 1936.
In later years
Inge de Bruijn became a
Rotterdam sport icon as triple
Olympic Gold medal winner in 2000 and triple European Gold medal
winner in 2001.
MOTOR CYCLE RACING
Motor cycle speedway was staged in the
Feyenoord Stadium after the
second world war. The team which raced in a Dutch league was known as
Feyenoord Tigers. The team included Dutch riders and some English
and Australian riders.
SPORTSMEN OF THE YEAR ELECTION
Since 1986, the city has selected its best sportsman, woman and team
Rotterdam Sports Awards Election , held in December.
OTHER FAMOUS ROTTERDAM ATHLETES
Mia Audina , a retired
Indonesia born badminton player, living in
Nelli Cooman , a Surinamese born retired athlete who held the 60 m
dash world record, and was the world and European champion in that
Robert Doornbos , a
Rotterdam born race car driver, who competed
Formula One .
Robert Eenhoorn , a
Rotterdam born retired MLB short stop, who
competed for the
New York Yankees
New York Yankees , the
Anaheim Angels and the New
York Mets .
Dex Elmont , a
Rotterdam born judoka, who finished second in the
European championships in 2009 in the 65 to 73 kg (143 to 161 lb)
Guillaume Elmont , a
Rotterdam born judoka, who became world
champion in 2005 in the 73 to 81 kg (161 to 179 lb) division.
Francisco Elson , a
Rotterdam born basketball player who played in
the NBA, won the NBA finals in 2007 with the
San Antonio Spurs .
Ignisious Gaisah , a Ghanaian born long jumper with a personal
best of 8.43 metres (27.66 feet), residing in
Rotterdam since 2001.
Gaisah is a multiple medal winner in several international events,
both as a citizen of Ghana and the Netherlands.
Francis Hoenselaar , a
Rotterdam born female darts player,
generally recognised as the best Dutch female darts player ever.
Robert Lathouwers , an athlete born in a
specialised in the 800 m. Lathouwers gained international notoriety
when he got disqualified after shoving Irish athlete David McCarthy in
the 2010 European Championships.
Fatima Moreira de Melo , a
Rotterdam born, three-times olympic
champion in field hockey. Moreira de Melo currently is a professional
Piet Roozenburg , a
Rotterdam born draughts player, who was the
world champion from 1948 to 1956 and the 8-time Dutch champion.
Betty Stöve , a
Rotterdam born retired female tennis double
specialist and 10-time Grand Slam winner.
Ingmar Vos , a
Rotterdam born decathlete, with a personal best of
Rotterdam hosts several annual events unique to the city. It hosts
the Zomercarnaval (Summercarnaval), the second largest Caribbean
carnival in Europe, originally called the Antillean carnival. Other
North Sea Jazz Festival, the largest Jazz festival in
Europe, Bavaria City Race, a Formula 1 race inside the city center and
a 3 day long maritime extravaganza called the World
Port of Rotterdam.
* January: "Zesdaagse van Rotterdam" "(six-day track-cycling race)
– Ahoy Rotterdam
International Film Festival Rotterdam
Rotterdam Open ABM AMRO ATP 500 Tennis Tournament –
North Sea Jazz Festival (second weekend of July)
* Bavaria City Race
* Dag van de Romantische Muziek (Romantic music festival)
* The World
Rotterdam is well connected by international, national, regional and
local public transport systems, as well as by the Dutch motorway
There are several motorways to/from Rotterdam. The following four are
part of its 'Ring' (ring road ):
* A20 (Ring North): Hoek van Holland –
Rotterdam – Gouda
* A16 (Ring East):
* A15 (Ring South):
* A4 (Ring West).
The following two other motorways also serve Rotterdam:
* A13 , (
The Hague – Rotterdam
* A29 ,
Bergen op Zoom
Bergen op Zoom – Rotterdam
Much smaller than the international hub Schiphol
Airport , Rotterdam
Airport (formerly known as Zestienhoven) is the third
largest airport in the country, behind Schiphol
Airport and Eindhoven
Airport . Located north of the city, it has shown a very strong growth
over the past five years, mostly caused by the growth of the low-cost
carrier market. For business travelers,
The Hague Airport
offers advantages in terms of rapid handling of passengers and
baggage. Environmental regulations make further growth uncertain.
Rotterdam's new Central Station reopened in March 2014, designed
to handle up to 320,000 passengers daily.
Rotterdam is well connected to the Dutch railway network, and has
several international connections:
* Southern direction
Eindhoven , Flushing
(Vlissingen) (also international trains to
* Western direction Hoek van Holland
* North-Western direction
The Hague ,
* Northern direction (high-speed rail) Schiphol ,
* North-Eastern direction
Utrecht and further
* A fifth alternative train system to the Hague, the Hofplein Line
was converted to the light rail system Randstadrail in 2006.
* The city is often mentioned as the terminus of the Eurasian Land
Rotterdam Centraal – Rotterdam's main station
Rotterdam Alexander – Eastern part of Rotterdam
Rotterdam Blaak – Close to the centre of Rotterdam
Rotterdam Lombardijen – Most Southern part of Rotterdam
Rotterdam Noord – Northern part of Rotterdam
Rotterdam Zuid – Northern part of the Southern part of Rotterdam
Rotterdam Stadion – A station near the
Feyenoord stadium, open
in connection with football matches and music concerts
The main connections:
* Direct international services to
France via high speed
* Frequent international trains to
Brussels , Belgium
* Frequent services within the Netherlands:
* Intercity line to
The Hague ,
Leiden , Schiphol airport and
* Intercity line to
Utrecht and on to
Leeuwarden (north-west) or Groningen (north-east)
* Intercity line to
Roosendaal and on to Vlissingen
* Intercity line to
Venlo (south east)
* Night services every hour connecting every day of the week to
Delft, The Hague, Leiden, Schiphol airport, Amsterdam, and, with a
detour, Utrecht. On Thursday, Friday and Saturday night services
(either direct or via a detour) to Den Bosch, Eindhoven, Tilburg,
* Several semi-fast services and local trains originate or call at
Rotterdam Centraal; semi-fast services Amsterdam-Breda.
* Detailed information available from the site of the Nederlandse
Spoorwegen (Dutch Railways)
In Rotterdam, public transport services are provided by the following
* NS (Dutch Railways): national train services
* RET (
Rotterdam Elektrische Tram): Tram, city-bus, metro,
randstadrail and ferry-services in
Rotterdam and surrounding cities
* Arriva Netherlands: regional bus services
* Connexxion: regional bus services
* Veolia: regional bus services.
Rotterdam Metro See also: List of
Rotterdam was the first Dutch city to open a metro system.
Currently the metro system consists of three main lines, each of which
has its own variants. The metro network has 78.3 km (48.7 mi) of
railtracks and there are 62 stations, which makes it the biggest of
the Benelux. The system is operated by 5 lines; 3 lines (A, B and C)
on the east-west line, and two (D and E) on the north-south line. Line
E (Randstadrail) connects
The Hague as of December
2011. Map of
SOUTHERN / WESTERN TERMINUS
NORTHERN / EASTERN TERMINUS
Den Haag Centraal
Trams in Rotterdam
Rotterdam tramway network offers 9 regular tram lines and 4
special tram lines with a total length of 93.4 km (58.0 mi). Service
Rotterdam as of 2016 :
* 2: (Rotterdam)
Rotterdam Lombardijen NS –
(Rotterdam) Keizerswaard (runs only to the southern part of the city)
* 4: (Rotterdam) Molenlaan –
Rotterdam Centraal – (Rotterdam)
* 7: (Rotterdam) Oostplein –
Rotterdam Centraal – (Rotterdam)
* 8: (Rotterdam) Spangen –
Rotterdam Centraal – (Rotterdam)
Rotterdam Centraal –
Rotterdam Lombardijen NS –
* 21: (Schiedam) Woudhoek – Station
Schiedam Centrum – Rotterdam
Centraal – (Rotterdam) De Esch
* 23: (Rotterdam) Marconiplein –
Rotterdam Centraal –
* 24: (Vlaardingen) Holy – Station
Schiedam Centrum – Rotterdam
Centraal – (Rotterdam) De Esch
* 25: (Rotterdam)
Rotterdam Centraal –
A Citadis tram outside the former
Rotterdam Centraal , 2008
Special tram lines:
* 10: Historical tram line, only runs in summer and throughout the
whole city for tourist information. Using historical
from the year 1931.
* 18: Tramline from
Rotterdam Central Station towards Park, runs
only at the Dunya Festival and during the
Rotterdam Centraal – Stadion
– Het Kasteel ('The Castle', Sparta Stadium). Football tramline,
only for big fixtures at Stadion
Feyenoord or Het Kasteel.
* Snert-tram: Historical tram, only in winter as a tourist tram
through Rotterdam. Passengers are provided with a cup of "snert";
Rotterdam dialect for erwtensoep (pea soup). Rolling stock is a
Rotterdam tram from 1968.
* IJsjes-tram: Summer version of the snert tram, providing tourists
with ijsjes (ice cream) rather than snert.
Water Taxi in
Rotterdam offers 55 city bus lines with a total length of 432.7 km
RET runs buses in the city of
Rotterdam and surrounding places like
Spijkenisse, Barendrecht, Ridderkerk, Rhoon, Poortugaal, Schiedam,
Delft and Capelle aan den IJssel. .
Arriva Netherlands, Connexxion and Veolia run buses from other cities
The Waterbus network consists of seven lines. The main line (Line 20)
Rotterdam to Dordrecht. The ferry carries about 130
passengers and there is space for 60 bicycles . The stops between
Krimpen aan den IJssel Stormpolder –
Ridderkerk De Schans –
Alblasserdam Kade – Hendrik-Ido-Ambacht
Papendrecht Westeind –
Rotterdam has city and port connections throughout the world. In
2008, the city had 13 sister cities , 12 partner cities, and 4 sister
ports. Since 2008, the City of
Rotterdam doesn't forge new sister or
partner connections. Sister and partner cities are not a priority in
On March 15, 2017 the Turkish president expressed his wish that
Istanbul should no longer be the twin town of Rotterdam. A speaker of
Rotterdam municipality then explained that the two cities have no
official partnership. Both authorities do cooperate often.
TWIN TOWNS – SISTER CITIES
Rotterdam is twinned with:
Baltimore (since 1985)
Burgas (since 1976)
Cologne (since 1958)
Constanța (since 1976)
Dresden (since 1988)
Esch-sur-Alzette (since 1958)
Gdańsk (since 1977)
Havana (since 1983)
Lille (since 1958)
Liège (since 1958)
Shanghai (since 1979)
Saint Petersburg (since 1984)
Turin (since 1958)
Antwerp (since 1940)
Basel (since 1945)
Bratislava (since 1991)
Budapest (since 1991)
Duisburg (since 1950)
Durban (since 1991)
* Hull (since 1936)
Jakarta (since 1983)
Nuremberg (since 1961)
Osaka Prefecture (since 1984)
Oslo (since 1945)
Prague (since 1991)
Kobe (since 1967)
Busan (since 1987)
Seattle (since 1969)
Tokyo (since 1989)
PLACES NAMED AFTER ROTTERDAM
Nieuw Rotterdam ,
Nickerie District ,
Rotterdam, New York , United States
Rotterdam, Limpopo , South Africa
List of people from Rotterdam
Pierre Bayle , enlightenment philosopher.
Leo Beenhakker , football coach.
Giovanni van Bronckhorst , former football player and current
Erasmus , philosopher and humanist.
Pim Fortuyn , politician, assassinated in 2002.
Leo Fuld , singer.
Colonel Tom Parker
Colonel Tom Parker , manager of Elvis Presley.
* Piet Heyn , naval fleet officer.
Willem de Kooning , painter.
Rem Koolhaas , internationally renowned architect.
Coen Moulijn , football player of
* Johan van Oldebarnevelt , statesman of the Dutch Revolt.
Robin van Persie , Fenerbahçe S.K. forward and Dutch
Bernard Mandeville , philosopher, political economist and
Marten Toonder , comic writer.
Jules Deelder , poet, writer, DJ, night mayor.
IN POPULAR CULTURE
Rotterdam features in
Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Allan Poe 's short story ‘The
Unparalleled Adventure of One Hans Pfaall ’ (1835), as well as J.T.
Sheridan Le Fanu 's 'Strange Event in the Life of Schalken the
Jackie Chan 's 1998 film 'Who am I? ' is set in Rotterdam.
Ender\'s Shadow , part of the series Ender\'s Game is partially set
In season 1, episode 2 of The Golden Girls ("Guess Who's Coming to
the Wedding?"), Dorothy reminisces how her ex-husband, Stan, would buy
her tulips after they had a fight. "Towards the end, our house looked
like Easter in Rotterdam."
In 1996, the British band
The Beautiful South recorded a song named
after this region titled
Rotterdam (or Anywhere) .,
The 2017 Olivier award winning play , Rotterdam, written by Jon
Brittain , is set in the city.
Government of Rotterdam
See also: Bibliography of the history of
* Amersfoort, H; et al. (2005), Mei 1940 – Strijd op Nederlands
grondgebied (in Dutch), SDU, ISBN 90-12-08959-X
* Brongers, E.H. (2004), Opmars naar
Rotterdam (in Dutch), Aspect,
* Evans, Richard J. (2008).
The Third Reich at War . London: Allen
Lane . ISBN 978-0-7139-9742-2 .
* Götzel, H (1980), Generaloberst Kurt Student und seine
Fallschirmjäger (in German), Podzun-Pallas Verlag, ISBN 3-7909-0131-8
* Lourens, Piet; Lucassen, Jan (1997). Inwonertallen van Nederlandse
steden ca. 1300–1800. Amsterdam: NEHA. ISBN 9057420082 .
* ^ "College van b en w" (in Dutch). Gemeente Rotterdam. Retrieved
10 December 2014.
* ^ "Kerncijfers wijken en buurten" . CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS
. 2 July 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
* ^ A B Anita Bouman–Eijs; Thijmen van Bree; Wouter Jonkhoff;
Olaf Koops; Walter Manshanden; Elmer Rietveld (17 December 2012). De
Top 20 van Europese grootstedelijke regio\'s 1995–2011; Randstad
Holland in internationaal perspectief (PDF) (Technical report) (in
Dutch). Delft: TNO . Retrieved 25 July 2013.
* ^ "Postcodetool for 3011AD". Actueel Hoogtebestand Nederland (in
Dutch). Het Waterschapshuis. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
* ^ "Bevolkingsontwikkeling; regio per maand" . CBS Statline (in
Dutch). CBS . 7 April 2017. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
* ^ "Bevolkingsontwikkeling; regio per maand" . CBS Statline (in
Dutch). CBS . 26 June 2014. Retrieved 24 July 2014.
* ^ "Over de Metropoolregio
Rotterdam Den Haag". MRDH.nl. 2014.
Retrieved 7 October 2014. De Metropoolregio
Rotterdam Den Haag is het
gebied dat nu de huidige stadregio’s
Rotterdam en Haaglanden omvat.
Binnen dat gebied gaan de 24 gemeenten hun krachten bundelen in het
Rotterdam Den Haag om de
internationale concurrentiepositie van de regio te versterken. De
Metropoolregio regio heeft 2,2 miljoen inwoners.
* ^ Wells, John C. (2008), Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd
ed.), Longman, ISBN 9781405881180
* ^ Roach, Peter (2011), Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary
(18th ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9780521152532
* ^ "Geschiedenis van Rotterdam". Gemeente Rotterdam. March 9,
* ^ Population growth; regions per month, CBS StatLine , 2015
Rotterdam Metro (SG)
Rotterdam Urban (GA)
Municipality (G) * ^ "Top 10 Cities : The Rough
Guide to 2014". Rough Guides. March 9, 2015.
* ^ A B "Urbanism Awards:
Rotterdam takes top prize". Academy of
Urbanism. November 14, 2014.
* ^ Jan Walburg (1 August 1984). The port of Rotterdam: Gateway to
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Perspective: 1950, prosperity and welfare. "
Rotterdam port: Gateway to
* ^ European Parliament (2014). Gateway to the World "Gateway to
the world: how the EU helped
Rotterdam to become Europe\'s largest
port" Check url= value (help ).
* ^ "The
Witte Huis or White House,". Archived from the original on
2004-12-20. Retrieved 15 May 2008.
* ^ Ruis, Edwin. Spynest.British and German Espionage from Neutral
Holland 1914–1918. Brimscombe: The History Press, 2016.
* ^ Evans 2008 , pp. 122–3.
* ^ Brongers 2004 , (ONR Part III), p. 235
* ^ Amersfoort 2005 , p. 369.
* ^ Götzel 1980 , pp. 149, 150.
* ^ "Klimaattabel Rotterdam, langjarige gemiddelden, tijdvak
1981–2010" (PDF) (in Dutch). Royal
Institute . Retrieved 10 September 2013.
* ^ "Klimaattabel Rotterdam, langjarige extremen, tijdvak
1971–2000" (PDF) (in Dutch). Royal
Institute. Retrieved 10 September 2013.
* ^ "CBS StatLine – Bevolking; leeftijd, herkomstgroepering,
geslacht en regio, 1 januari".
* ^ Gebiedsanalyse 2006, Centrumgebied, Gemeente Rotterdam. Page 7
* ^ Ad van der Meer and Onno Boonstra, Repertorium van Nederlandse
gemeenten, KNAW, 2006.
* ^ Kim Jansen (2010). Muslims in
Rotterdam (PDF) (Report). Open
Society Institute .
* ^ "Kerkelijkheid en kerkbezoek, 2010/2013". Centraal Bureau voor
* ^ "Werkloosheid in
Rotterdam KNSexamen: Weblog Inburgering, NT2,
examen". Knsexamen.nl. 23 April 2009. Retrieved 12 April 2011.
* ^ "Over Brainport". brainport.nl. Retrieved 19 February 2014.
* ^ "Home".
Port of Rotterdam. Archived from the original on 15
April 2009. Retrieved 6 May 2009.
* ^ "Business School Ranking of the
Financial Times 2009".
Rankings.ft.com. Archived from the original on 2009-03-24. Retrieved
12 April 2011.
* ^ "
Europe Ranking Web of Hospitals".
hospitals.webometrics.info. Retrieved 2017-07-14.
* ^ "
Erasmus University Rotterdam". Times Higher Education (THE).
* ^ "
Holland Festival manifesto". Archived from
the original on 18 May 2008. Retrieved 15 May 2008.
* ^ "Witte de With museum". Retrieved 15 May 2008.
* ^ "Maritiem
Museum official site". Retrieved 15 May 2008.
Museum Rotterdam, retrieved 25 April 2016.
* ^ "Scheepswerf \'De Delft\' official site". Retrieved 15 May
* ^ "ING building brief". Archived from the original on 2005-03-08.
Retrieved 15 May 2008.
* ^ "Emporis Maastoren". Retrieved 3 April 2010.
* ^ "Boston en
Retrieved 5 October 2014.
* ^ ABN Amro WTT. "Laatste nieuws · 40e ABN AMRO World Tennis
Tournament". Archived from the original on 2013-02-20.
* ^ "International Film Festival official website". Archived from
the original on 22 October 2006. Retrieved 15 May 2008.
* ^ "
Rotterdam Marathon official website". Retrieved 15 May 2008.
* ^ "KoninginnedagFestival official website". Retrieved 15 May
* ^ "Zomer Carnival official website". Archived from the original
on 2003-07-22. Retrieved 15 May 2008.
* ^ "Pleinbioscoop official website". Retrieved 15 May 2008.
* ^ "World
Port Day (Rotterdam) official website (in Dutch and
English)". Retrieved 15 May 2008.
* ^ "Dutch Railway website". Retrieved 15 May 2008.
* ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z AA AB AC AD
Rotterdam. Een sterk internationaal merk "ROTTERDAM: EEN
STERKINTERNATIONAAL MERK" Check url= value (help ) (PDF) (PDF) (in
Dutch). Rotterdam, The Netherlands: City of Rotterdam. 2008. p. 37.
* ^ "
Rotterdam Wereldstad: Vaste koers, nieuwe ambitities" Gemeente
Rotterdam, 2009. Blz. 33
* ^ "Erdogan wil af van niet bestaande stedenband met Rotterdam" .
Algemeen Dagblad (in Dutch). 15 March 2017. Retrieved 15 March 2016.
* ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M Eric Vrijsen (23 September 2008). "De
schaamte voorbij: Gaza als zusterstad". Elsevier (in Dutch).
Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Archived from the original on 2015-06-29.
* ^ Tretsch, John. "Extra! Extra! Poe invents science fiction!" as
collected in The Cambridge Companion to Edgar Allan Poe, edited by
Kevin J. Hayes. Cambridge University Press, 2002: 117. ISBN
* ^ "everyHit.com – UK Top 40 Chart Archive, British Singles &
Album Charts". everyhit.com. Retrieved 2016-03-17.
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