GOA /ˈɡoʊ.ə/ ( listen ) is a state in
India within the coastal
region known as the
Konkan in India. It is bounded by
the north and
Karnataka to the east and south, with the Arabian Sea
forming its Western coast. It is India's smallest state by area and
the fourth smallest by population .
Goa has the highest GDP per capita
among all Indian states, that is two and a half times that of the
country. It was ranked the best placed state by the "Eleventh Finance
Commission" for its infrastructure and ranked on top for the best
quality of life in
India by the National Commission on Population
based on the 12 Indicators.
Panaji is the state's capital, while Vasco da Gama is its largest
city. The historic city of
Margao still exhibits the cultural
influence of the Portuguese , who first landed in the early 16th
century as merchants and conquered it soon thereafter.
Goa is a former
Portuguese province; the Portuguese overseas territory of Portuguese
India existed for about 450 years until it was annexed by
Goa is visited by large numbers of international and domestic
tourists each year for its beaches, places of worship and world
heritage architecture . It has rich flora and fauna, owing to its
location on the
Western Ghats range, a biodiversity hotspot.
* 1 Etymology
* 2 History
* 3 Geography and climate
* 3.1 Geography
* 3.2 Climate
* 4 Subdivisions
* 5 Government and politics
* 6 Flora and fauna
* 7 Economy
* 8 Population
* 8.1 Demographics
* 8.2 Languages
* 9 Religion
* 10 Tourism
* 10.1 Historic sites and neighbourhoods
* 10.2 Museums and science centre
* 11 Culture
* 11.1 Dance and music
* 11.2 Theatre
* 11.4 Food
* 12 Media and communication
* 13 Sports
* 14 Education
* 15 Transportation
* 15.1 Air
* 15.2 Road
* 15.3 Rail
* 15.4 Sea
* 16 See also
* 17 Citations
* 18 References
* 19 Further reading
* 20 External links
In ancient literature,
Goa was known by many names, such as
Gopakapattana , Gopakapattam, Gopakapuri, Govapuri, Govem,
and Gomantak. In the 3rd century BC,
Goa was known as Aparantha and
is mentioned by the Greek geographer
Ptolemy . In the 13th century,
the Greeks referred to
Goa as Nelkinda. Other historical names for Goa
are Sindapur, Sandabur, and Mahassapatam.
History of Goa Rock cut engraving at Usgalimal
Goa's history goes back 20,000–30,000 years. The rock art
engravings exhibit the earliest traces of human life in India. :p.254
Upper Paleolithic or
Mesolithic rock art engravings have been found on
the bank of the river
Kushavati at Usgalimal . Petroglyphs , cones,
stone-axe, and choppers dating to 10,000 years ago have been found in
many places in Goa, such as Kazur, Mauxim, and the
basin. Evidence of Palaeolithic life is seen at Dabolim, Adkon,
Shigao, Fatorpa, Arli, Maulinguinim, Diwar, Sanguem, Pilerne, and
Aquem-Margaon etc. Difficulty in carbon dating the laterite rock
compounds poses a problem for determining the exact time period.
Gold coins issued by the Kadamba king of Goa, Shivachitta
Paramadideva. Circa 1147–1187 AD.
Early Goan society underwent radical change when Indo-Aryan and
Dravidian migrants amalgamated with the aboriginal locals, forming the
base of early Goan culture.
In the 3rd century BC,
Goa was part of the
Maurya Empire , ruled by
the Buddhist emperor,
Magadha . Buddhist monks laid the
Buddhism in Goa. Between the 2nd century BC and the 6th
Goa was ruled by the
Bhojas of Goa
Bhojas of Goa . Chutus of
ruled some parts as feudatories of the Satavahanas of
century BC to the 2nd century AD),
Western Kshatrapas (around 150 AD),
the Abhiras of Western Maharashtra, Bhojas of the Yadav clans of
Gujarat , and the
Konkan Mauryas as feudatories of the Kalachuris .
The rule later passed to the Chalukyas of
Badami , who controlled it
between 578 and 753, and later the Rashtrakutas of
Malkhed from 753 to
963. From 765 to 1015, the Southern Silharas of
the feudatories of the Chalukyas and the Rashtrakutas. Over the next
Goa was successively ruled by the Kadambas as the
feudatories of the Chalukyas of Kalyani . They patronised
Goa came under the governance of the
Delhi Sultanate . The
kingdom's grip on the region was weak, and by 1370 it was forced to
surrender it to
Harihara I of the
Vijayanagara empire . The
Vijayanagara monarchs held on to the territory until 1469, when it was
appropriated by the Bahmani sultans of
Gulbarga . After that dynasty
crumbled, the area fell into the hands of the Adil Shahis of Bijapur ,
who established as their auxiliary capital the city known under the
Velha Goa (or Old Goa). The
Se Cathedral at Old
Goa , an example of
Portuguese architecture and one of the largest
churches in Asia. The Mahadeva Temple, attributed to the
In 1510, the Portuguese defeated the ruling Bijapur sultan Yousuf
Adil Shah with the help of a local ally,
Timayya . They set up a
permanent settlement in Velha Goa. This was the beginning of
Portuguese rule in
Goa that would last for four and a half centuries,
until its annexation in 1961.
In 1843 the Portuguese moved the capital to
Panaji from Velha Goa. By
the mid-18th century, Portuguese
Goa had expanded to most of the
present-day state limits. Simultaneously the Portuguese lost other
India until their borders stabilised and formed the
Estado da Índia Portuguesa or State of Portuguese India, of which Goa
was the largest territory.
India gained independence from the British in 1947, India
requested that Portuguese territories on the Indian subcontinent be
ceded to India. Portugal refused to negotiate on the sovereignty of
its Indian enclaves. On 19 December 1961, the Indian Army began
military operations with Operation Vijay resulting in the annexation
of Goa, Daman, and Diu into the Indian union. Goa, along with Daman
and Diu, was organised as a centrally administered union territory of
India. On 30 May 1987, the union territory was split, and
Goa was made
India's twenty-fifth state, with
Daman and Diu remaining a union
GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE
Goa coastline at
Goa encompasses an area of 3,702 km2 (1,429 sq mi). It lies between
the latitudes 14°53′54″ N and 15°40′00″ N and longitudes
73°40′33″ E and 74°20′13″ E.
Goa is a part of the coastal country known as the
Konkan , which is
an escarpment rising up to the
Western Ghats range of mountains, which
separate it from the
Deccan Plateau . The highest point is the
Sonsogor , with an altitude of 1,167 metres (3,829 ft).
Goa has a
coastline of 101 km (63 mi).
Goa's seven major rivers are the
Mandovi , Terekhol , Chapora
, Galgibag, Kumbarjua canal, Talpona and the Sal . The
Zuari and the
Mandovi are the most important rivers, interspaced by the Kumbarjua
canal, forming a major estuarine complex. These rivers are fed by the
Southwest monsoon rain and their basin covers 69% of the state's
geographical area. These rivers are some of the busiest in India. Goa
has more than 40 estuarine, eight marine, and about 90 riverine
islands. The total navigable length of Goa's rivers is 253 km (157
Goa has more than 300 ancient water-tanks built during the rule
of the Kadamba dynasty and over 100 medicinal springs.
Mormugao harbour on the mouth of the River
Zuari is one of the
best natural harbours in South Asia.
Most of Goa's soil cover is made up of laterites rich in
ferric-aluminium oxides and reddish in colour. Further inland and
along the riverbanks, the soil is mostly alluvial and loamy . The soil
is rich in minerals and humus, thus conducive to agriculture. Some of
the oldest rocks in the Indian subcontinent are found in
Anmod on Goa's border with Karnataka. The rocks are
classified as Trondjemeitic
Gneiss estimated to be 3,600 million years
old, dated by rubidium isotope dating. A specimen of the rock is
Dudhsagar Falls on the Goa-
Goa features a tropical monsoon climate under the Köppen climate
classification . Goa, being in the tropical zone and near the Arabian
Sea, has a hot and humid climate for most of the year. The month of
May is usually the hottest, seeing daytime temperatures of over 35 °C
(95 °F) coupled with high humidity. The state's three seasons are:
Southwest monsoon period (June – September), post monsoon period
(October – January) and fair weather period (February – May).
Over 90% of the average annual rainfall (120 inches) is received
during the monsoon season.
CLIMATE DATA FOR GOA
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F)
DAILY MEAN °C (°F)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS
MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS
World Meteorological Organization
Hong Kong Observatory for sunshine and mean
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Talukas of Goa. Talukas in green shades belong to North Goa
district, and orange denote
South Goa district. Main article:
Districts of Goa See also:
List of cities and towns in Goa
The state is divided into two districts :
North Goa and
South Goa .
Each district is administered by a district collector, appointed by
the Indian government.
Panaji is the headquarters of
North Goa district and is also the
capital of Goa.
North Goa is further divided into three subdivisions – Panaji,
Mapusa , and
Bicholim ; and five taluks – Ilhas de
Goa (Tiswadi) ,
Bicholim , and
Margão is the headquarters of
South Goa district.
South Goa is further divided into five subdivisions – Ponda ,
Mormugao (Vasco da Gama ), Margao,
Quepem , and
Dharbandora ; and
seven taluks – Ponda ,
Quepem , and
Sanguem , and
Dharbandora . (Ponda Taluka shifted
North Goa to
South Goa in January 2015).
Goa's major cities include Vasco da Gama , Margão, Panaji, Mapusa
Panaji is the only Municipal Corporation in Goa.
There are thirteen Municipal Councils: Margao,
Vasco da Gama), Pernem, Mapusa, Bicholim,
Sanquelim , Valpoi, Ponda,
Cuncolim , Quepem,
Curchorem , Sanguem, and Canacona.
GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS
Government of Goa
The politics of
Goa are a result of the uniqueness of this region due
to 450 years of Portuguese rule, in comparison to three centuries of
British colonialism experienced by the rest of India. The Indian
National Congress was unable to achieve electoral success in the first
two decades after the State's incorporation into India. Instead, the
state was dominated by the communal politics of the Maharashtrawadi
Gomantak Party and the United
Goans Party .
In the Parliament of
Goa has two seats in the Lok Sabha
(House of the People), one representing each district, and one seat in
the Rajya Sabha (Council of the States).
Goa's administrative capital is
Panaji in English, Pangim in
Portuguese, and Ponjê in the local language. It lies on the left bank
of the Mandovi. The seat of the
Goa assembly is in
Porvorim , across
Mandovi from Panaji. As the state comes under the Bombay High
Panaji has a bench of it. Unlike other states, which follow
the British Indian model of civil laws framed for individual
religions, the Portuguese
Goa Civil Code , a uniform code based on the
Napoleonic code , has been retained in Goa.
Goa has a unicameral legislature of 40 members, headed by a Speaker.
The Chief Minister heads the executive, which comprises the party or
coalition elected with a majority in the legislature. The Governor,
the head of the state, is appointed by the President of India. After
having stable governance for nearly thirty years up to 1990,
now notorious for its political instability having seen fourteen
governments in the span of the fifteen years between 1990 and 2005.
In March 2005 the assembly was dissolved by the Governor and
President\'s Rule was declared, which suspended the legislature. A
by-election in June 2005 saw the
Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress coming back
to power after winning three of the five seats that went to polls. The
Congress Party and the
Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) are the two
largest parties in the state. In the assembly poll of 2007, the
INC-led coalition won and formed the government. In the 2012 Vidhan
Sabha Elections, the
Bharatiya Janata Party along with the
Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party won a clear majority, forming the new
Manohar Parrikar as the Chief Minister. Other parties
include the United
Goans Democratic Party , the Nationalist Congress
Party . In the 2017 assembly elections , the Indian National Congress
gained the maximum number of seats with the BJP coming in second.
However, no party was able to gain a majority in the 40 member house.
The BJP was invited to form the Government by Governor
Mridula Sinha .
The Congress claimed the use of money power on the part of the BJP and
moved the Supreme Court. However, the Manohar Parikkar led Government
was able to prove its majority in the Supreme Court mandated floor
FLORA AND FAUNA
Flora and fauna of Goa
Coconut palm trees are
ubiquitous symbol of
Equatorial forest cover in
Goa stands at 1,424 km2 (549.81 sq mi),
most of which is owned by the government. Government owned forest is
estimated at 1,224.38 km2 (472.74 sq mi) whilst private is given as
200 km2 (77.22 sq mi). Most of the forests in the state are located in
the interior eastern regions of the state. The
Western Ghats , which
form most of eastern Goa, have been internationally recognised as one
of the biodiversity hotspots of the world. In the February 1999 issue
of National Geographic Magazine,
Goa was compared with the Amazon and
the Congo basins for its rich tropical biodiversity.
Goa's wildlife sanctuaries boast of more than 1512 documented species
of plants, over 275 species of birds, over 48 kinds of animals and
over 60 genera of reptiles.
Goa is also known for its coconut cultivation. The coconut tree has
been reclassified by the government as a palm (like a grass), enabling
farmers and real estate developers to clear land with fewer
Rice is the main food crop, and pulses (legume), Ragi (Finger Millet)
and other food crops are also grown. Main cash crops are coconut,
cashewnut, arecanut, sugarcane and fruits like pineapple, mango and
banana. Goa's state animal is the
Gaur , the state bird is the Ruby
Throated Yellow Bulbul, which is a variation of
Black-crested Bulbul ,
and the state tree is the Asan .
The important forests products are bamboo canes,
chillar barks and the bhirand .
Coconut trees are ubiquitous and are
present in almost all areas of
Goa barring the elevated regions. A
large number of deciduous trees, such as teak, Sal tree, cashew and
mango trees are present. Fruits include jackfruit, mango, pineapple
and "black-berry" ("podkoam" in
Konkani language). Goa's forests are
rich with medicinal plants. Rice paddies are common in rural Goa.
Foxes, wild boar and migratory birds are found in the jungles of Goa.
The avifauna (bird species) includes kingfisher, myna and parrot.
Numerous types of fish are also caught off the coast of
Goa and in its
rivers. Crab, lobster, shrimp, jellyfish, oysters and catfish are the
basis of the marine fishery.
Goa also has a high snake population. Goa
has many famous "National Parks", including the renowned Salim Ali
Bird Sanctuary on the island of Chorão . Other wildlife sanctuaries
Bondla Wildlife Sanctuary ,
Molem Wildlife Sanctuary ,
Cotigao Wildlife Sanctuary ,
Madei Wildlife Sanctuary
Madei Wildlife Sanctuary , Netravali
Wildlife Sanctuary , and
Mahaveer Wildlife Sanctuary
Mahaveer Wildlife Sanctuary .
Goa has more than 33% of its geographic area under government forests
(1224.38 km²) of which about 62% has been brought under Protected
Areas (PA) of Wildlife Sanctuaries and National Park. Since there is a
substantial area under private forests and a large tract under cashew,
mango, coconut, etc. plantations, the total forest and tree cover
constitutes 56.6% of the geographic area.
GROSS STATE DOMESTIC PRODUCT (IN MILLIONS OF RUPEES)
Train carrying iron ore to
Marmagao Port, Vasco
Commercial area in
Goa's state domestic product for 2007 is estimated at $3 billion at
Goa is one of India's richest states with the highest
GDP per capita
GDP per capita – two and a half times that of the country – with
one of its fastest growth rates: 8.23% (yearly average 1990–2000).
Tourism is Goa's primary industry: it gets 12% of foreign tourist
arrivals in India.
Goa has two main tourist seasons: winter and
summer. In winter, tourists from abroad (mainly Europe) come, and
summer (which, in Goa, is the rainy season) sees tourists from across
The land away from the coast is rich in minerals and ores, and mining
forms the second largest industry. Iron, bauxite, manganese, clays,
limestone and silica are mined. The
Marmagao port handled 31.69
million tonnes of cargo last year, which was 39% of India's total iron
Sesa Goa (now owned by Vedanta Resources) and Dempo are
the lead miners. Rampant mining has been depleting the forest cover as
well as posing a health hazard to the local population. Corporations
are also mining illegally in some areas.
Agriculture, while of shrinking importance to the economy over the
past four decades, offers part-time employment to a sizeable portion
of the populace. Rice is the main agricultural crop, followed by
areca, cashew and coconut. Fishing employs about 40,000 people, though
recent official figures indicate a decline of the importance of this
sector and also a fall in catch, due perhaps, to traditional fishing
giving way to large-scale mechanised trawling.
Medium scale industries include the manufacturing of pesticides,
fertilisers, tyres, tubes, footwear, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, wheat
products, steel rolling, fruits and fish canning, cashew nuts,
textiles, brewery products.
Currently there are 16 planned SEZs in Goa. The
Goa government has
recently decided to not allow any more special economic zones (SEZs)
Goa after strong opposition to them by political parties and the
Goa Catholic Church.
Goa is also notable for its low priced beer, wine and spirits prices
due to its very low excise duty on alcohol. Another source of cash
inflow into the state is remittance from many of its citizens who work
abroad to their families. It is said to have some of the largest bank
savings in the country.
A native of
Goa is called a Goan in English, Goenkar in
goês or goesa in Portuguese and Govekar in Marathi . The local Indian
Christians were called "indiacatos" and the mixed population,
mestiços by the Portuguese.
Goa has a population of 1.459 million
residents, making it India's fourth smallest (after
Sikkim , Mizoram
Arunachal Pradesh ). The population has a growth rate of 8.23% per
decade. There are 394 people for each square kilometre of land which
is higher than national average 382 per km2.
Goa is the state with
highest proportion of urban population with 62.17% of the population
living in urban areas. The sex ratio is 973 females to 1000 males. The
birth rate is 15.70 per 1,000 people in 2007.
Goa also is the state
with lowest proportion of Scheduled Tribes at 0.04%.
Konkani and Marathi
LANGUAGES IN GOA
Daman and Diu Official Language Act, 1987 makes
Devanagari script the sole official language of Goa, but provides
that Marathi may also be used "for all or any of the official
purposes". Portuguese was the sole official language during Portuguese
colonial rule . It is now, however, mostly spoken by only the elderly
Portuguese-educated populations and is no longer an official language.
There is a now a growing interest in Portuguese with the organization
of several contests and programs to promote the same. The Government
also has a policy of replying in Marathi to correspondence received in
Marathi. Whilst there have been demands for according
Konkani in the
Roman script official status in the state, there is widespread support
Konkani as the sole official language of Goa. It is
however notable to mention that the entire liturgy and communication
of the Catholic church in
Goa is done solely in the Roman script of
Konkani is spoken as a native language by about 61% of the people in
the state but almost all
Goans can speak and understand Konkani. Other
linguistic minorities in the state as per the 2001 census are speakers
of Marathi (19%),
Hindi (5%), and
Urdu (4%). With the
exception of Konkani, English, Portuguese and Marathi, all other
mentioned languages are primarily migrant-based languages, natively
spoken in other Indian states.
Christianity Unity Memorial at Miramar Beach.
Other or not religious (0.2%)
According to the 2011 census, in a population of 1,458,545 people,
Hindu , 25.1% were
Christian , and 8.3% were
Smaller minorities of about 0.1% each followed
Buddhism , or
Due to the economic decline of the Estado da
India from the
eighteenth century, there was a large scale migration of Goan
Catholics. The local Indian Christians were called "indiacatos" and
the mixed population, mestiços by the Portuguese. The population
moved from 64.5% Christians and 35% Hindus in 1851 to 50% Christians
and 50% Hindus in 1900, with a steady increase in the
from then onwards.
The Catholics in
Goa state and
Daman and Diu union territory are
served by the Metropolitan Roman Catholic
Archdiocese of Goa and Daman
, the primatial see of India, in which the titular Patriarchate of the
East Indies is vested.
Tourism in Goa
Tourism in Goa Foreign and Indian tourists at a Goa
Tourism is generally focused on the coastal areas of Goa, with
decreased tourist activity inland. In 2010, there were more than two
million tourists reported to have visited Goa, about 1.2 million of
whom were from abroad. As of 2013
Goa was a destination of choice
for Indian and foreign tourists, particularly Britons and Russians,
with limited means who wanted to party. The state was hopeful that
changes could be made which would attract a more upscale demographic.
Goa also stands 6th in the Top 10 Nightlife cities in the world in a
National Geographic Book. One of the biggest tourist attractions in
Goa is water sports. Beaches like Baga and Calangute offer jet-skiing,
parasailing, banana boat rides, water scooter rides and more.
Over 450 years of Portuguese rule and the influence of the Portuguese
culture presents to visitors to
Goa a different cultural environment
than what is found elsewhere in India.
Goa is often described as a
fusion between Eastern and
Western culture with Portuguese culture
having a dominant position in the state be it in its architectural,
cultural or social settings. The state of
Goa is famous for its
excellent beaches, churches, and temples. The Bom
Fort Aguada and a new wax museum on Indian history, culture and
Old Goa are other tourism destinations. Palolem Beach
HISTORIC SITES AND NEIGHBOURHOODS
Goa has two
World Heritage Sites
World Heritage Sites : the
Bom Jesus Basilica and
churches and convents of
Old Goa . The Basilica holds the mortal
St. Francis Xavier
St. Francis Xavier , regarded by many Catholics as the
patron saint of
Goa (the patron of the
Archdiocese of Goa is actually
Joseph Vaz ). These are both Portuguese-era monuments and
reflect a strong European character. The relics are taken down for
veneration and for public viewing, as per the prerogative of the
Church in Goa, not every ten or twelve years as popularly thought and
propagated. The last exposition was held in 2014.
Goa also has the Sanctuary of Saint
Joseph Vaz in
Sancoale . Pilar
monastery which holds novenas of Venerable Padre Agnelo Gustavo de
Souza from 10 November to 20 November yearly. There is also a claimed
Marian Apparition at the Church of Saints Simon and Jude at Batim
Ganxim , near Pilar , where a number of
Goans and non resident Goans
visit. There is also the statue of the bleeding
Jesus on the Crucifix
Velha Goa . There are a number of
churches (Igorzo), like the Baroque styled Nixkollounk Gorb-Sombhov
Saibinnich Igorz (Church of the
Our Lady of Immaculate Conception ) in
Panaji , the Gothic styled Mater Dei (Dêv Matechi Igorz/ Mother of
God ) church in
Saligao and each church having its own style and
heritage, besides Kopelam/ Irmidi (Chapels). The Velhas Conquistas
regions are also known for its Goa-Portuguese style architecture.
There are many forts in
Goa such as Tiracol , Chapora , Corjuem ,
Reis Magos , Nanus ,
Mormugao , Fort Gaspar Dias and Cabo de
In many parts of Goa, mansions constructed in the Indo-Portuguese
style architecture still stand, though in some villages, most of them
are in a dilapidated condition. Fontainhas in
Panaji has been declared
a cultural quarter, showcasing the life, architecture and culture of
Goa. Some influences from the Portuguese era are visible in some of
Goa's temples, notably the
Shanta Durga Temple , the Mangueshi Temple
Mahalasa Temple, although after 1961, many of these were
demolished and reconstructed in the indigenous Indian style.
MUSEUMS AND SCIENCE CENTRE
Goa also has a few museums, the two important ones being
Museum and the Naval Aviation Museum . The aviation museum is one
among three of its kind in the India, the other two being in
Bengaluru . Also, a place not well known to tourists is the Goa
Science Centre , which is located in Miramar, Panaji. The National
Institute of Oceanography (NIO) is also located in
Goa at Dona Paula.
Culture of Goa
Culture of Goa
Shanta Durga temple at Kavlem .
Having been a Portuguese territory for over 450 years, Goa's culture
is an interesting amalgamation of both Eastern and Western styles,
with the latter having a more dominant role. The tableau of Goa
showcases religious harmony by focusing on the Deepastambha, the Cross
and Ghode Modni followed by a chariot. Western royal attire of kings
is as much part of Goa's cultural heritage as are regional dances
performed depicting a unique blend of different religions and cultures
of this State. Prominent local festivals are
Shigmo , Chavoth , Samvatsar Padvo , Dasara etc.
Carnival and Christmas-new year celebrations are well known
to attract a large number of tourists.
Gomant Vibhushan Award , the highest civilian honour of the State
of Goa, is given annually by
Government of Goa since 2010.
DANCE AND MUSIC
Traditional Goan art forms are
Corridinho , Mando ,
Goan Catholics are fond of social gatherings and
Tiatr (Teatro). As part of its Portuguese history, music is an
integral part of Goan homes. It is often said that "
Goans are born
with music and sport". Western musical instruments like the Piano,
guitars and violins are widely used in most religious and social
functions of the Catholics.
Goan Hindus are very fond of
Kirtan . Many famous
Indian classical singers hail from Goa, including
Mogubai Kurdikar ,
Kishori Amonkar ,
Kesarbai Kerkar ,
Jitendra Abhisheki and Pandit
Prabhakar Karekar .
Goa is also known as the origin of
Goa trance .
Tiatr (most popular) and Jagor are the chief forms of Goa's
traditional performance arts. Other forms are Ranmale, Dashavatari,
Kalo, Goulankala, Lalit, Kala and Rathkala. Stories from the Ramayana
Mahabharata along with more modern social subjects are
narrated with song and dance.
"Jagor", the traditional folk dance-drama, is performed by the Hindu
Christian Gauda community of Goa, to seek the Devine Grace
for protection and prosperity of the crop. Literal meaning of Jagor is
“jagran” or wakeful nights. The strong belief is that the night
long performance, awakens the deities once a year and they continue to
remain awake throughout the year guarding the village.
Perni Jagor is the ancient mask dance – drama of Goa, performed by
Perni families, using well crafted and painted wooden masks, depicting
various animals, birds, super natural power, deities, demons and
Gauda Jagor, is an impression of social life, that displays all the
existing moods and modes of human characters. It is predominantly
based on three main characters, Gharasher, Nikhandar and Parpati
wearing shining dress and headgears. The performance is accompanied by
vibrant tunes of Goan folk instruments like Nagara/Dobe, Ghumat,
Madale and Kansale.
In some places, Jagor performances are held with participation of
both Hindus and
Christian community, whereby, characters are played by
Hindus and musical support is provided by
Tiatr (Teatro) and its artists play a major role in keeping the
Konkani language "> It is one of Goa's few art forms that is renowned
across the world with performances popular among
Goans in the
Middle-East, Americas and Europe.
Konkani cinema is an
Indian film industry, where films are made in
Konkani language , which is spoken mainly in the Indian states of
Karnataka and to a smaller extent in
Konkani films have been produced in Goa,
The first full length
Konkani film was
Mogacho Anvddo , released on
24 April 1950, and was produced and directed by A. L.Jerry Braganza, a
Mapusa , under the banner of ETICA Pictures. Hence, 24
April is celebrated as
Konkani film Paltadcho manis has been included in the world's best
films of 2009 list.
Konkani films are eligible for the National
Film Award for Best
Konkani . The most commercially successful Konkani
film (as of June 2011) is
O Maria directed by Rajendra Talak.
In 2012, the whole new change adopted in
Konkani Cinema by
introducing Digital Theatrical
Film "The Victim " directed by Milroy
Konkani films are Sukhachem Sopon,
Amchem Noxib ,
Mhoji Ghorkarn, Kortubancho Sonvsar, Jivit Amchem Oxem, Mog ani
Bhuierantlo Munis , Suzanne, Boglantt , Padri and Bhogsonne.
Ujwadu is a 2011
Konkani film directed by Kasargod Chinna and produced
by KJ Dhananjaya and Anuradha Padiyar.
Rice with fish curry (xit koddi in
Konkani ) is the staple diet in
Goan cuisine is famous for its rich variety of fish dishes cooked
with elaborate recipes.
Coconut and coconut oil are widely used in
Goan cooking along with chili peppers , spices , and vinegar is used
in the Catholic cuisine, giving the food a unique flavour. The Goan
cuisine is heavily influenced by
Portuguese cuisine .
Goan food may be divided into Goan Catholic and Goan
with each showing very distinct tastes, characteristics, and cooking
Pork dishes such as Vindalho ,
Xacuti , chouriço , and
Sorpotel are cooked for major occasions among the
Goan Catholics . An
exotic Goan vegetable stew, known as
Khatkhate , is a very popular
dish during the celebrations of festivals,
Khatkhate contains at least five vegetables, fresh coconut, and
special Goan spices that add to the aroma.
Sannas , Hitt, are variants of idli and Polle, Amboli, and Kailoleo
are variants of dosa ; all are native to Goa. A rich egg -based,
multi-layered sweet dish known as bebinca is a favourite at Christmas.
There are some places in
Goa which are famous for Goa's traditional
cashew feni is made from the fermentation of the fruit of the cashew
tree, while coconut feni is made from the sap of toddy palms. Goa
also has a rich wine culture. See also:
Goan cuisine , Music of Goa
The House of the Seven Gables in
The architecture of
Goa is a combination of Indian , Islamic and
Portuguese styles. Since the Portuguese ruled for four centuries, many
churches and houses bear a striking element of the Portuguese style of
Hindu houses do not show any Portuguese influence,
though the modern temple architecture is an amalgam of original Goan
temple style with Dravidian ,
Hemadpanthi , Islamic, and Portuguese
architecture. The original Goan temple architecture fell into disuse
as the temples were demolished by the Portuguese and the Sthapati
known as Thavayi in
Konkani were converted to
Christianity though the
wooden work and the Kavi murals can still be seen. (see:Goa:Hindu
temples and deities by Rui Gomes Pereira).
MEDIA AND COMMUNICATION
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Media in Goa
Goa is served by almost all television channels available in India.
Channels are received through cable in most parts of Goa. In the
interior regions, channels are received via satellite dishes .
Doordarshan , the national television broadcaster, has two free
terrestrial channels on air.
Direct To Home
Direct To Home ) TV services are available from
Dish TV ,
Videocon D2H ,
Tata Sky ">
Major cellular service operators include
Bharti Airtel , Vodafone
Idea Cellular ,
Reliance Infocomm ,
Tata DoCoMo and
Local publications include the
O Heraldo (Goa's
oldest, once a
Portuguese language paper), The Gomantak Times and The
Navhind Times . In addition to these, The Times of
India and The
Indian Express are also received from
Mumbai and Bangalore in the
urban areas. The Times of
India has recently started publication from
Goa itself, serving the local population news directly from the state
capital. Among the list of officially accredited newspapers are O
The Navhind Times and The Gomantak Times in English; Bhaangar
Devanagari script); and
Tarun Bharat , Gomantak,
Goa Times, Sanatan Prabhat, Govadoot and Lokmat (all in
Marathi). All are dailies. Other publications in the state include
Goa (English, monthly),
Goa Today (English, monthly), Goan
Observer (English, weekly),
Vauraddeancho Ixtt (Roman-script
Goa Messenger, Vasco Watch, Gulab (Konkani, monthly), Bimb
Unlike the rest of India, association football is the most popular
Goa and is embedded in Goan culture as a result of the
Portuguese influence. Its origins in the state are traced back to
1883 when the visiting Irish priest Fr. William Robert Lyons
established the sport as part of a "
Christian education". On 22
December 1959 the Associação de Futebol de
Goa was formed, which
continues to administer the game in the state under the new name Goa
Football Association . Goa, along with
West Bengal and
the locus of football in
India and is home to many football clubs in
I-League . The state's football powerhouses include
Salgaocar Sports Club
Salgaocar Sports Club ,
Dempo Sports Club
Dempo Sports Club , Churchill Brothers , Vasco
Sports Club and
Sporting Clube de Goa . The first
Unity World Cup was
Goa in 2014. The state's main football stadium, Fatorda
Stadium , is located at
Margao and also hosts cricket matches.
A number of
Goans have represented
India in football and six of them,
namely Samir Naik ,
Climax Lawrence ,
Brahmanand Sankhwalkar , Bruno
Mauricio Afonso and Roberto Fernandes have all captained
the national team.
Goa has its own state football team and league, the
Goa Professional League . It is probably the only state in
cricket is not considered the most important of all sports.
Goa also has its own cricket team .
Dilip Sardesai remains the only
Goan to date to play international cricket for
The Indian Olympic Association (IOA) has won the right to host the
Asian Beach Games in 2018. For more details on this topic, see Goans
in sports .
Education in Goa See also: List of institutions of
higher education in
Goa had India's earliest educational institutions built with European
support. The Portuguese set up seminaries for religious education and
parish schools for elementary education. Founded circa 1542 by saint
Francis Xavier, Saint Paul\'s College,
Goa was a Jesuit school in Old
Goa, which later became a college. St Paul's was once the main Jesuit
institution in the whole of Asia. It housed the first printing press
India and published the first books in 1556.
Medical education began in 1801 with the offering of regular medical
courses at the Royal and Military Hospital in the old City of Goa.
Built in 1842 as the Escola Médico-Cirúrgica de (Nova) Goa
(Medical-Surgical School of Goa),
Goa Medical College is one of Asia's
oldest medical colleges and has one of the oldest medical libraries
(since 1845). It houses the largest hospital in
Goa and continues to
provide medical training to this day.
According to the 2011 census,
Goa has a literacy rate of 87%, with
90% of males and 84% of females being literate. Each taluka is made
up of villages, each having a school run by the government. Private
schools are preferred over government run schools. All schools come
Goa Board of Secondary "> Carmel College for Women is
Goa University . It was established more than 50 years
to aid in closing the education gender gap.
The best known schools in
Sharada Mandir School in
Miramar , St Mary Angels
Convent High School in
Chinchinim , Perpetual
Convent High school, Navelim, Our Lady of the Rosary High
School at Dona Paula, Vidya Prabhodini at Porvorim, K.B. Hedgewar High
School, the Progress High School, Don Bosco High School, People's High
School, Mushtifund High School in Panaji, Saraswat Vidyalaya High
School in Mapusa, Sunshine Worldwide school in Old Goa, Shiksha
Niketan and Nisha's Playschool in Torda, A. J. de Almeida High School
in Ponda , S.S. Samiti's I.V.B.D. High School in Dhawali–Ponda,
Vidya Bharati, Mahila And Nutan English High School in
Manovikas in Margao, Loyola High School in Margao, St. Joseph's
Institute, Deepvihar High School in Vasco da Gama and Rosary High
School in Navelim. Lourdes
Convent High School in Saligao. Goa
Medical College , previously called Escola Médico–Cirúrgica de Goa
After ten years of schooling, students join a Higher Secondary
school, which offers courses in popular streams such as
Science , Arts
Commerce . A student may also opt for a course in vocational
studies. Additionally, they may join three-year diploma courses. Two
years of college is followed by a professional degree programme. Goa
University , the sole university in Goa, is located in
most Goan colleges are affiliated to it.
There are six engineering colleges in the state.
National Institute of Technology Goa are government funded
colleges whereas the private engineering colleges include Don Bosco
Engineering at Fatorda, Shree Rayeshwar Institute of
Engineering and Information Technology at Shiroda, Agnel Institute of
Technology and Design (AITD),Assagao,
Bardez and Padre Conceicao
Engineering at Verna. In 2004, BITS Pilani one of the
premier institutes in India, inaugurated its second campus, the BITS
Goa Campus , at Zuarinagar near
Dabolim . The Indian Institute
Goa (IIT Goa) began functioning from its temporary
campus, located in
Engineering College since 2016. The site for
permanent campus is yet to be finalised.
There are colleges offering pharmacy , architecture and dentistry
along with numerous private colleges offering law , arts , commerce
and science . There are also two National Oceanographic Science
related centres: the National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research
in Vasco da Gama and the National Institute of Oceanography in Dona
Goa Institute of Management
Goa Institute of Management located at Sanquelim, near
Panaji is one
of India's premier business schools.
In addition to the engineering colleges, there are government
polytechnic institutions in
Curchorem , and
aided institutions like Father Agnel Polytechnic in Verna and the
Institute of Shipbuilding Technology in Vasco da Gama which impart
technical and vocational training.
Other colleges in
Goa include Shri Damodar College of
Economics, V.V.M's R.M. Salgaocar Higher Secondary School in
G.V.M's S.N.J.A higher secondary school, Don Bosco College, D.M.'s
College of Arts,
Science and Commerce, St Xavier's College, Carmel
The Parvatibai Chowgule College , Dhempe College, Damodar
College, MES College, S. S. Samiti's Higher Secondary School of
Science and Rosary College of
Airport,new terminal building
Goa International Airport
Goa International Airport , is a civil enclave at
INS Hansa , a Naval
airfield located at
Dabolim near Vasco da Gama . The airport caters to
scheduled domestic and international air services.
Goa has scheduled
international connections to
Dubai , Muscat , Sharjah and
Kuwait in the
Middle East by airlines like
Air Arabia , Air
Oman Air ,
Jet Airways , JetKonnect and
Qatar Airways . The proposed greenfield
Mopa Airport will be built at
Goa is well connected by roads. Government-run
Kadamba buses at a bus station in
Goa's public transport largely consists of privately operated buses
linking the major towns to rural areas. Government-run buses,
maintained by the
Kadamba Transport Corporation , link major routes
(like the Panaji–
Margao route) and some remote parts of the state.
The Corporation owns 15 bus stands, 4 depots and one Central workshop
Porvorim and a Head Office at Porvorim. In large towns such as
Panajiand Margao, intra-city buses operate. However, public transport
Goa is less developed, and residents depend heavily on their own
transportation, usually motorised two-wheelers and small family cars.
Motorcycle Taxi or "Pilots"
Goa has four National Highways passing through it. NH-66 (ex NH-17 )
runs along India's west coast and links
Mumbai in the north and
Mangalore to the south. NH-4A running across the state connects the
Belgaum in east, linking
Goa to cities in the Deccan
. The NH-366 (ex NH-17A ) connects NH-66 to
Mormugao Port from
Cortalim. The new NH-566 (ex NH-17B) is a four-lane highway connecting
Mormugao Port to NH-66 at Verna via
Dabolim Airport , primarily built
to ease pressure on the NH-366 for traffic to
Dabolim Airport and
Vasco da Gama. NH-768 (ex NH-4A) links
Panaji and Ponda to
Goa has a total of 224 km (139 mi) of national highways, 232 km
(144 mi) of state highway and 815 kilometres (506 miles) of district
highway. National Highways in
Goa are among the narrowest in the
country and will remain so for the foreseeable future, as the state
government has received an exemption that allows narrow national
highways. In Kerala, highways are 45 metres (148 feet) wide. In other
states National Highways are grade separated highways 60 metres (200
feet) wide with a minimum of four lanes, as well as 6 or 8 lane
Hired forms of transport include unmetered taxis and, in urban areas,
auto rickshaws . Another form of transportation in
Goa is the
motorcycle taxi , operated by drivers who are locally called "pilots".
These vehicles transport a single pillion rider, at fares that are
usually negotiated. Other than buses, "pilots" tend to be the cheapest
mode of transport. River crossings in
Goa are serviced by
flat-bottomed ferry boats, operated by the river navigation
Margao railway station
Goa has two rail lines – one run by the South Western Railway and
the other by the
Konkan Railway . The line run by the South Western
Railway was built during the colonial era linking the port town of
Vasco da Gama, Goa with
Margao . The
Konkan Railway line, which was built during the 1990s, runs parallel
to the coast connecting major cities on the western coast.
Mormugao harbour near the city of Vasco handles mineral ore,
petroleum, coal, and international containers. Much of the shipments
consist of minerals and ores from Goa's hinterland. Panaji, which is
on the banks of the Mandovi, has a minor port, which used to handle
passenger steamers between
Mumbai till the late 1980s. There
was also a short-lived catamaran service linking
Mumbai and Panaji
operated by Damania Shipping in the 1990s.
Outline of Goa
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