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EDMONTON /ˈɛdməntən/ ( listen ) is the capital city of the Canadian province of Alberta
Alberta
. Edmonton
Edmonton
is on the North Saskatchewan River and is the centre of the Edmonton Capital Region , which is surrounded by Alberta\'s central region . The city anchors the north end of what Statistics Canada
Canada
defines as the "Calgary–Edmonton Corridor ".

The city had a population of 932,546 in 2016, making it Alberta's second-largest city and Canada's fifth-largest municipality. Also in 2016, Edmonton
Edmonton
had a metropolitan population of 1,321,426, making it the sixth-largest census metropolitan area (CMA) in Canada. Edmonton is North America's northernmost city with a metropolitan population over one million. A resident of Edmonton
Edmonton
is known as an Edmontonian.

Edmonton's historic growth has been facilitated through the absorption of five adjacent urban municipalities (Strathcona , North Edmonton
Edmonton
, West Edmonton
Edmonton
, Beverly and Jasper Place ) and a series of annexations ending in 1982. Known as the "Gateway to the North", the city is a staging point for large-scale oil sands projects occurring in northern Alberta
Alberta
and large-scale diamond mining operations in the Northwest Territories .

Edmonton
Edmonton
is a cultural, governmental and educational centre. It hosts a year-round slate of festivals, reflected in the nickname "Canada's Festival
Festival
City". It is home to North America's largest mall, West Edmonton
Edmonton
Mall (the world's largest mall from 1981 until 2004), and Fort Edmonton Park , Canada's largest living history museum.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 2 Geography

* 2.1 Climate * 2.2 Metropolitan area
Metropolitan area
* 2.3 Neighbourhoods

* 3 Demographics

* 3.1 Religion

* 4 Economy

* 4.1 Retail

* 5 Arts and culture

* 5.1 Performing arts * 5.2 Festivals * 5.3 Music * 5.4 Nightlife

* 6 Attractions

* 6.1 Parkland and environment * 6.2 Museums and galleries

* 7 Sports and recreation

* 8 Government

* 8.1 Municipal politics * 8.2 Provincial politics * 8.3 Crime * 8.4 Military

* 9 Infrastructure

* 9.1 Transportation

* 9.1.1 Aviation * 9.1.2 Rail * 9.1.3 Public transit * 9.1.4 Roads * 9.1.5 Trail system

* 9.2 Electricity and water * 9.3 Waste disposal * 9.4 Health care

* 10 Education

* 10.1 Secondary * 10.2 Post-secondary

* 11 Media * 12 Sister cities * 13 See also

* 14 References

* 14.1 Footnotes

* 15 Further reading * 16 External links

HISTORY

Further information: History of Edmonton
History of Edmonton
and Timeline of Edmonton history

The earliest known inhabitants settled in the area that is now Edmonton
Edmonton
around 3,000 BC and perhaps as early as 12,000 BC, when an ice-free corridor opened as the last glacial period ended and timber, water, and wildlife became available in the region.

In 1754, Anthony Henday , an explorer for the Hudson\'s Bay Company (HBC), may have been the first European to enter the Edmonton
Edmonton
area. His expeditions across the Canadian Prairies
Canadian Prairies
were mainly to seek contact with the aboriginal population for establishing the fur trade , as competition was fierce between the Hudson's Bay Company and the North West Company . By 1795, Fort Edmonton was established on the river's north bank as a major trading post for the Hudson's Bay Company. The new fort's name was suggested by John Peter Pruden
John Peter Pruden
after Edmonton, London
Edmonton, London
, the home town of both the HBC deputy governor Sir James Winter Lake, and Pruden.

In 1876, Treaty 6
Treaty 6
, which includes what is now Edmonton, was signed between the Aboriginal peoples in Canada
Canada
(or First Nations ) and Queen Victoria as Queen of Canada
Canada
, as part of the Numbered Treaties of Canada. The agreement includes the Plains and Woods Cree , Assiniboine , and other band governments of First Nations at Fort Carlton , Fort Pitt and Battle River . The area covered by the treaty represents most of the central area of the current provinces of Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
and Alberta
Alberta
.

The coming of the Canadian Pacific Railway
Canadian Pacific Railway
(CPR) to southern Alberta in 1885 helped the Edmonton
Edmonton
economy, and the 1891 building of the Calgary
Calgary
and Edmonton
Edmonton
(C&E) Railway resulted in the emergence of a railway townsite (South Edmonton/Strathcona) on the river's south side, across from Edmonton. The arrival of the CPR and the C"> Jasper Avenue
Jasper Avenue
in Edmonton, ca.1907

Incorporated as a town in 1892 with a population of 700 and then as a city in 1904 with a population of 8,350, Edmonton
Edmonton
became the capital of Alberta
Alberta
when the province was formed a year later, on September 1, 1905. In November 1905, the Canadian Northern Railway (CNR) arrived in Edmonton, accelerating growth.

During the early 1900s, Edmonton's rapid growth led to speculation in real estate. In 1912, Edmonton
Edmonton
amalgamated with the City of Strathcona, south of the North Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
River; as a result, the city extended south of the North Saskatchewan River for the first time.

Just prior to World War I
World War I
, the boom ended, and the city's population declined from more than 72,000 in 1914 to less than 54,000 only two years later. Many impoverished families moved to subsistence farms outside the city, while others fled to greener pastures in other provinces. Recruitment to the Canadian army during the war also contributed to the drop in population. Afterwards, the city slowly recovered in population and economy during the 1920s and 1930s and took off again during and after World War II
World War II
.

The Edmonton City Centre Airport opened in 1929, becoming Canada's first licensed airfield. Originally named Blatchford Field in honour of former mayor Kenny Blatchford
Kenny Blatchford
, pioneering aviators such as Wilfrid R. "Wop" May and Max Ward used Blatchford Field as a major base for distributing mail, food, and medicine to Northern Canada
Canada
; hence Edmonton's emergence as the "Gateway to the North". World War II
World War II
saw Edmonton
Edmonton
become a major base for the construction of the Alaska Highway and the Northwest Staging Route .

GEOGRAPHY

Edmonton
Edmonton
is located on the North Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
River, and sits at an elevation of 671 metres (2,201 ft). Edmonton
Edmonton
is the most northerly city in North America with a metropolitan population of over one million. It is at the same latitude as Hamburg
Hamburg
( Germany
Germany
), Dublin ( Ireland
Ireland
), Manchester
Manchester
( United Kingdom
United Kingdom
), and Magnitogorsk ( Russia
Russia
). North as it is, it is south of the geographic centre of Alberta, which is located near the Hamlet of Fort Assiniboine . The terrain in and around Edmonton
Edmonton
is generally flat to gently rolling, with ravines and deep river valleys, such as the North Saskatchewan River valley. The Canadian Rockies
Canadian Rockies
are located about 220 km (140 mi) to the southwest.

The North Saskatchewan River originates at the Columbia Icefield in Jasper National Park and bisects the city. Before the construction of two reservoirs near the mountains, it would sometimes flood Edmonton's river valley, most notably in the North Saskatchewan River flood of 1915 . It empties via the Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
River , Lake Winnipeg , and the Nelson River into Hudson Bay . It runs from the southwest to the northeast and is fed by numerous creeks throughout the city, such as Mill Creek , Whitemud Creek and Blackmud Creek ; this creates numerous ravines, some of which are used for urban parkland . Edmonton
Edmonton
is within the Canadian Prairies
Canadian Prairies
Ecozone . Aspen parkland , surrounds the city and, acts a transitional area from the prairie to the south and boreal forest in the north. However, the aspen woods and forests in and around Edmonton
Edmonton
have long since been reduced by farming and other human activities, such as oil and natural gas exploration.

CLIMATE

EDMONTON

CLIMATE CHART (EXPLANATION )

J F M A M J J A S O N D

22 −6 −15 12 −3 −13 16 2 −7 29 11 −1 46 18 5 78 21 10 94 23 12 62 23 11 44 17 6 22 10 0 18 0 −8 15 −5 −13

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation
Precipitation
totals in mm

Source: Environment Canada

IMPERIAL CONVERSION

J F M A M J J A S O N D

0.9 21 5 0.5 27 10 0.6 36 19 1.1 52 31 1.8 64 42 3.1 70 50 3.7 74 54 2.4 73 52 1.7 63 42 0.9 51 32 0.7 32 17 0.6 24 8

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation
Precipitation
totals in inches

Edmonton
Edmonton
has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb ) It falls into the NRC Plant Hardiness Zone 4a.

The city has milder winters than either Regina or Winnipeg
Winnipeg
, both further south of Edmonton
Edmonton
in latitude. Its average daily temperatures range from a low of −10.4 °C (13.3 °F) in January to a summer peak of 17.7 °C (63.9 °F) in July. With average maximum of 23.1 °C (73.6 °F) in July, and minimum of −14.8 °C (5.4 °F) in January. Annually, temperatures can exceed 30 °C (86 °F) for an average of four to five days anytime from late April to mid-September and fall below −20 °C (−4 °F) for an average of 28 days. The highest temperature recorded within the City of Edmonton
Edmonton
was 37.2 °C (99.0 °F), on June 29, 1937. On July 2, 2013, a record high humidex of 43 was recorded, due to an unusually humid day with a temperature of 33.9 °C (93.0 °F) and a record high dew point of 23 °C (73.4 °F). The lowest overall temperature ever recorded in Edmonton
Edmonton
was −49.4 °C (−56.9 °F), on January 19 and 21, 1886. On January 26, 1972, the temperature was recorded at −48.3 °C (−54.9 °F) and at -61 with the wind chill , making it the lowest temperature including the wind chill ever recorded in Edmonton.

Typically, summer lasts from late June until early September, and the humidity is seldom uncomfortably high. Winter lasts from November to March, and varies greatly in length and severity. Spring and autumn are both short and highly variable. Edmonton's growing season is from May 9 to September 22; Edmonton
Edmonton
averages 135-140 frost free days a year. At the summer solstice , Edmonton
Edmonton
receives seventeen hours and three minutes of daylight, with an hour and forty-six minutes of civil twilight . On average Edmonton
Edmonton
receives 2,299 hours of bright sunshine per year and is one of Canada's sunniest cities.

The summer of 2006 was a particularly warm one for Edmonton, as temperatures reached 29 °C (84 °F) or higher more than 20 times during the year, from as early as mid-May and again in early September. The winter of 2011–12 was particularly warm; from December 22, 2011, till March 20, 2012, on 53 occasions Edmonton
Edmonton
saw temperatures at or above 0.0 °C (32.0 °F) at the City Centre Airport.

Edmonton
Edmonton
has a fairly dry climate. On average, it receives 476.9 millimetres (18.78 in) of precipitation, of which 365.7 millimetres (14.40 in) is rain and 111.2 millimetres (4.38 in) is the melt from 123.5 centimetres (48.6 in) of snowfall per annum. Precipitation
Precipitation
is heaviest in the late spring, summer, and early autumn. The wettest month is July, while the driest months are February, March, October, and November. In July, the mean precipitation is 91.7 mm (3.61 in). Dry spells are not uncommon and may occur at any time of the year. Extremes do occur, such as the 114 mm (4.49 in) of rainfall that fell on July 31, 1953. Summer thunderstorms can be frequent and occasionally severe enough to produce large hail, damaging winds, funnel clouds, and occasionally tornadoes. Twelve tornadoes had been recorded in Edmonton
Edmonton
between 1890 and 1989, and eight since 1990. A F4 tornado that struck Edmonton
Edmonton
on July 31, 1987, killing 27, was unusual in many respects, including severity, duration, damage, and casualties. It is commonly referred to as Black Friday due both to its aberrant characteristics and the emotional shock it generated. Then-mayor Laurence Decore cited the community's response to the tornado as evidence that Edmonton
Edmonton
was a "city of champions," which later became an unofficial slogan of the city.

A massive cluster of thunderstorms occurred on July 11, 2004, with large hail and over 100 mm (4 in) of rain reported within the space of an hour in many places. This "1-in-200 year event" flooded major intersections and underpasses and damaged both residential and commercial properties. The storm caused extensive damage to West Edmonton
Edmonton
Mall; a small glass section of the roof collapsed under the weight of the rainwater, causing water to drain onto the mall's indoor ice rink. As a result, the mall was forced to undergo an evacuation as a precautionary measure.

CLIMATE DATA FOR EDMONTON (BLATCHFORD FIELD ), 1981−2010 NORMALS, EXTREMES 1880−PRESENT

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH HUMIDEX 10.6 13.8 23.5 29.2 33.4 35.9 43.0 39.6 34.1 28.3 18.9 16.0 43.0

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 13.9 (57) 16.7 (62.1) 23.9 (75) 32.2 (90) 34.4 (93.9) 37.2 (99) 36.7 (98.1) 35.6 (96.1) 33.9 (93) 28.6 (83.5) 23.3 (73.9) 16.7 (62.1) 37.2 (99)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) −6.0 (21.2) −2.7 (27.1) 2.2 (36) 11.2 (52.2) 17.5 (63.5) 21.0 (69.8) 23.1 (73.6) 22.6 (72.7) 17.1 (62.8) 10.4 (50.7) 0.0 (32) −4.5 (23.9) 9.3 (48.7)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) −10.4 (13.3) −7.6 (18.3) −2.5 (27.5) 5.4 (41.7) 11.5 (52.7) 15.5 (59.9) 17.7 (63.9) 16.9 (62.4) 11.4 (52.5) 5.1 (41.2) −4.1 (24.6) −8.8 (16.2) 4.2 (39.6)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) −14.8 (5.4) −12.5 (9.5) −7.2 (19) −0.5 (31.1) 5.4 (41.7) 9.9 (49.8) 12.3 (54.1) 11.3 (52.3) 5.8 (42.4) −0.2 (31.6) −8.2 (17.2) −13.1 (8.4) −1.0 (30.2)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) −49.4 (−56.9) −49.4 (−56.9) −40.0 (−40) −26.1 (−15) −12.2 (10) −3.9 (25) −1.7 (28.9) −3.3 (26.1) −11.7 (10.9) −26.1 (−15) −42.2 (−44) −48.3 (−54.9) −49.4 (−56.9)

RECORD LOW WIND CHILL −52.8 −50.7 −44.6 −37.5 −14.5 0.0 0.0 −3.7 −13.3 −34.3 −50.2 −55.5 −55.5

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 21.7 (0.854) 12.0 (0.472) 15.8 (0.622) 28.8 (1.134) 46.1 (1.815) 77.5 (3.051) 93.8 (3.693) 61.9 (2.437) 43.5 (1.713) 21.7 (0.854) 18.0 (0.709) 15.0 (0.591) 455.7 (17.941)

AVERAGE RAINFALL MM (INCHES) 1.3 (0.051) 0.76 (0.0299) 1.7 (0.067) 14.5 (0.571) 40.7 (1.602) 77.5 (3.051) 93.8 (3.693) 61.8 (2.433) 42.4 (1.669) 10.9 (0.429) 1.6 (0.063) 0.73 (0.0287) 347.8 (13.693)

AVERAGE SNOWFALL CM (INCHES) 24.5 (9.65) 13.4 (5.28) 17.4 (6.85) 15.3 (6.02) 4.9 (1.93) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 0.0 (0) 1.0 (0.39) 11.6 (4.57) 19.1 (7.52) 16.4 (6.46) 123.5 (48.62)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 0.2 MM) 11.0 7.9 8.3 8.8 11.0 14.2 14.6 11.1 9.8 8.0 8.8 9.4 122.9

AVERAGE RAINY DAYS (≥ 0.2 MM) 1.1 0.83 1.4 5.9 10.5 14.2 14.6 11.1 9.6 5.6 1.5 0.75 77.3

AVERAGE SNOWY DAYS (≥ 0.2 CM) 10.7 7.7 7.7 4.2 1.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.50 3.2 7.9 9.3 52.4

AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) (AT 15:00 LST ) 65.2 61.2 56.5 42.9 40.4 48.2 52.6 51.4 50.1 50.5 64.7 65.4 54.1

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 100.8 121.7 176.3 244.2 279.9 285.9 307.5 282.3 192.7 170.8 98.4 84.5 2,344.8

PERCENT POSSIBLE SUNSHINE 40.2 44.1 48.1 58.2 56.8 56.2 60.2 61.5 50.4 52.0 37.8 36.0 50.1

Source: Environment Canada
Canada
, (July record high humidex), Extremes (1880−1943)

Panorama of Edmonton's downtown skyline

METROPOLITAN AREA

Main article: Edmonton Capital Region

Edmonton
Edmonton
is at the centre of Canada's sixth largest census metropolitan area (CMA), which includes Edmonton
Edmonton
and 34 other municipalities in the surrounding area. Larger urban communities include Sherwood Park
Sherwood Park
(an urban service area within Strathcona County ), the cities of St. Albert , Leduc , Spruce Grove and Fort Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
, and the towns of Stony Plain , Beaumont , Morinville
Morinville
, and Devon . Major employment areas outside of Edmonton
Edmonton
but within the CMA include the Nisku Industrial Business Park and the Edmonton International Airport (including a planned inland port logistics support facility in support of the Port Alberta
Alberta
initiative) in Leduc County , the Acheson Industrial Area in Parkland County , Refinery Row in Strathcona County and Alberta's Industrial Heartland within portions of Fort Saskatchewan, Strathcona County and Sturgeon County . Alberta's Industrial Heartland also extends beyond the CMA's northeastern boundary into a portion of Lamont County .

The individual economic development interests and costs of service delivery in certain municipalities within the region has led to intermunicipal competition, strained intermunicipal relationships and overall fragmentation of the region. Although several attempts have been made by the City of Edmonton
Edmonton
to absorb surrounding municipalities or annex portions of its neighbours, the city has not absorbed another municipality since the Town of Jasper Place joined Edmonton
Edmonton
on August 17, 1964, and the city has not annexed land from any of its neighbours since January 1, 1982. After years of mounting pressure in the early 21st century, the Province of Alberta
Alberta
formed the Capital Region Board (CRB) on April 15, 2008. The CRB consists of 24 member municipalities – 22 of which are within the Edmonton
Edmonton
CMA and two of which are outside the CMA. The City of Edmonton
Edmonton
subsequently announced in March 2013 its intent to annex 156 square kilometres of land (including the Edmonton
Edmonton
International Airport) from Leduc County.

On November 30, 2016, the City of Edmonton
Edmonton
and Leduc County
Leduc County
came to an agreement on Edmonton's annexation proposal. The City of Edmonton will annex 29,900 acres (121 km2) of land from Leduc County
Leduc County
and Beaumont , including the Edmonton International Airport
Edmonton International Airport
, as a result.

NEIGHBOURHOODS

See also: List of neighbourhoods in Edmonton
List of neighbourhoods in Edmonton
The Victoria Promenade in Oliver

Edmonton
Edmonton
is divided into 375 neighbourhoods within 7 geographic sectors – a mature area sector, which includes neighbourhoods that were essentially built out prior to 1970, and 6 surrounding suburban sectors.

Edmonton's Downtown is located within the city's mature area or inner city. It and the surrounding Boyle Street , Central McDougall , Cloverdale , Garneau , McCauley , Oliver , Queen Mary Park , Riverdale , Rossdale , Strathcona and University of Alberta
Alberta
form Edmonton's Central Core. Oliver and Garneau are the city's most populated and most densely populated neighbourhoods respectively. The mature area sector also contains the five former urban municipalities annexed by the city over its history – Beverly, Jasper Place, North Edmonton, Strathcona and West Edmonton
Edmonton
(Calder).

Larger residential areas within Edmonton's six suburban sectors, each comprising multiple neighbourhoods, include: Heritage Valley , Kaskitayo , Riverbend , Terwillegar Heights and Windermere (southwest sector); The Grange , Lewis Farms and West Jasper Place (west sector); Big Lake (northwest sector); Castle Downs , Lake District and The Palisades (north sector); Casselman-Steele Heights , Clareview , Hermitage , Londonderry and Pilot Sound (northeast sector); and Ellerslie , The Meadows , Mill Woods
Mill Woods
and Southeast Edmonton
Southeast Edmonton
(southeast sector). Mill Woods
Mill Woods
is divided into a town centre community (Mill Woods Town Centre ) and eight surrounding communities – Burnewood , Knottwood , Lakewood , Millbourne , Millhurst , Ridgewood , Southwood , and Woodvale – each having between two and four neighbourhoods.

Several transit-oriented developments (TOD) have begun to appear along the LRT line at Clareview, with future developments planned at Belvedere (part of the Old Town Fort Road Redevelopment Project). Another TOD, called Century Park, is being constructed at the site of what was once Heritage Mall, at the southern end of the LRT line. Century Park will eventually house up to 5,000 residents.

The Edmonton City Centre Airport is planned to be redeveloped into a sustainable community of 30,000 people comprising a transit-oriented mixed use town centre, townhouses, low, medium and high rise apartments, neighbourhood retail and service uses, and a major park.

Edmonton
Edmonton
has four major industrial districts – the Northwest Industrial District, the Northeast Industrial District, the Southeast Industrial District and the emerging Edmonton
Edmonton
Energy and Technology Park, which is part of Alberta\'s Industrial Heartland . The northwest, northeast and southeast districts each have smaller industrial areas and neighbourhoods within them. The Hull Block in McCauley

The city has established 12 business revitalization zones – 124 Street and Area, Alberta
Alberta
Avenue , Beverly, Downtown, Chinatown and Little Italy , Fort Road and Area, Inglewood, Kingsway, North Edge, Northwest Industrial, Old Strathcona and Stony Plain Road.

DEMOGRAPHICS

Federal census population history

YEAR POP. ±%

1901 2,626 —

1906 11,167 +325.2%

1911 24,900 +123.0%

1916 53,846 +116.2%

1921 58,821 +9.2%

1926 65,163 +10.8%

1931 79,197 +21.5%

1936 85,774 +8.3%

1941 93,817 +9.4%

1946 113,116 +20.6%

1951 159,631 +41.1%

1956 226,002 +41.6%

1961 281,027 +24.3%

1966 376,925 +34.1%

1971 438,152 +16.2%

1976 461,361 +5.3%

1981 532,246 +15.4%

1986 573,982 +7.8%

1991 616,741 +7.4%

1996 616,306 −0.1%

2001 666,104 +8.1%

2006 730,372 +9.6%

2011 812,201 +11.2%

2016 932,546 +14.8%

Source: Statistics Canada
Canada

Main article: Demographics of Edmonton

In the 2016 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada
Canada
, the City of Edmonton
Edmonton
recorded a population of 932,546 living in 360,828 of its 387,950 total private dwellings, a change of 7001148000000000000♠14.8% from its 2011 population of 812,201. With a land area of 685.25 km2 (264.58 sq mi), it had a population density of 1,360.9/km2 (3,524.7/sq mi) in 2016.

The population of the City of Edmonton
Edmonton
according to its 2016 municipal census is 899,447, a change of 7000240000000000000♠2.4% from its 2014 municipal census population of 877,926. The 2016 census captured more detailed demographic information on residents, including age and gender, marital status, employment status, length of residency, prior residence, employment transportation mode, citizenship, school residency, economic diversity, city resource access, highest educational attainment, household language and income, as well as dwellings and properties, including ownership, structure and status. Per its municipal census policy, the city's next municipal census is scheduled for 2018.

In the 2011 Census, the City of Edmonton
Edmonton
had a population of 812,201 living in 324,756 of its 348,672 total dwellings, a change of 11.2% from its 2006 population of 730,372. With a land area of 684.37 km2 (264.24 sq mi), it had a population density of 1,186.8/km2 (3,073.8/sq mi) in 2011. The census also reported that 50.2 percent of the population (407,325) was female while 49.8 percent (404,875) was male. The average age of the city's population was 36.0 years while there was an average 2.5 people per household.

The Edmonton
Edmonton
census metropolitan area (CMA) has the fifth-greatest population of CMAs in Canada
Canada
and the second-greatest in Alberta, but has the largest land area in Canada. It had a population of 1,159,869 in the 2011 Census compared to its 2006 population of 1,034,945. Its five-year population change of 12.1 percent was second only to the Calgary
Calgary
CMA between 2006 and 2011. With a land area of 9,426.73 km2 (3,639.68 sq mi), the Edmonton
Edmonton
CMA had a population density of 123.0/km2 (318.7/sq mi) in 2011. Statistics Canada
Canada
's latest estimate of the Edmonton
Edmonton
CMA population, as of July 1, 2016 is 1,363,300

The Edmonton
Edmonton
population centre is the core of the Edmonton
Edmonton
CMA. This core includes the cities of Edmonton, Fort Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
and St. Albert, the Sherwood Park
Sherwood Park
portion of Strathcona County, and portions of Parkland County and Sturgeon County. The Edmonton
Edmonton
population centre, the fifth-largest in Canada, had a population of 960,015 in 2011, an 11.3 percent increase over its 2006 population of 862,544.

In 2006, people of European ethnicities formed the largest cluster of ethnic groups in Edmonton. These included ethnicities mostly of English , Scottish , German , Irish , Ukrainian , Polish , and French origin. According to the 2006 census, the City of Edmonton
Edmonton
was 71.8 percent White and 5.3 percent Aboriginal, while visible minorities accounted for 22.9 percent of the population.

RELIGION

Sacred Heart Church, on "Church Street" (96 Street) in Edmonton's inner city Main article: Religion in Edmonton

According to the 2001 census, 31.2 percent of Edmonton
Edmonton
residents are Protestant and 29.4 percent are Catholic . 5.5 percent belong to other Christian denominations, 2.9 percent are Muslim
Muslim
, 0.6 percent are Jewish
Jewish
, 5.1 percent are adherents of other religions, and 24.4 percent profess no religion. A Bahá\'í Centre is located in Edmonton. The first mosque established in Canada
Canada
– the Al-Rashid Mosque
Mosque
, founded by Abdullah Yusuf Ali – is situated in Edmonton. The Baitul Hadi Mosque
Mosque
is the only Ahmadiyya
Ahmadiyya
mosque in the city. Edmonton
Edmonton
also hosts a Maronite Catholic church, on 76 Avenue/98 Street, with services in English on Saturdays and Arabic on Sundays. The Lebanese community also has a Druze
Druze
Community Centre on the north side of the city. The Edmonton
Edmonton
Alberta
Alberta
Temple of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was dedicated on December 11, 1999. The Hindu
Hindu
Community in Edmonton
Edmonton
is served by the Hindu
Hindu
Society of Alberta
Alberta
(North Indian Temple) and the Maha Ganapathy Society of Alberta
Alberta
(South Indian Temple). The Sikh
Sikh
community in Edmonton
Edmonton
is served by four gurdwaras . The Jewish
Jewish
Community in Edmonton
Edmonton
is served by Jewish Federation of Edmonton. The region is served by five synagogues. Edmonton
Edmonton
is also home to two of Alberta's five Unitarian Universalist congregations – the Unitarian Church of Edmonton
Edmonton
and the Westwood Unitarian Congregation; the other three are located in Calgary
Calgary
, Lethbridge
Lethbridge
, and Red Deer .

ECONOMY

See also: Economy of Alberta
Alberta

Edmonton
Edmonton
is the major economic centre for northern and central Alberta
Alberta
and a major centre for the oil and gas industry. As of 2014, the estimated value of major projects within the Edmonton
Edmonton
Capital Region was $57.8-billion, of which $34.4-billion are within the oil and gas, oil sands and pipeline sectors.

View of Edmonton's Financial Centre from the south riverbank view over the Walterdale Bridge

Edmonton
Edmonton
traditionally has been a hub for Albertan petrochemical industries, earning it the nickname "Oil Capital of Canada" in the 1940s. Supply and service industries drive the energy extraction engine, while research develops new technologies and supports expanded value-added processing of Alberta's massive oil, gas, and oil sands reserves. These are reported to be the second-largest in the world, after Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
. The National Institute for Nanotechnology

Much of the growth in technology sectors is due to Edmonton's reputation as one of Canada’s premier research and education centres. Research initiatives are anchored by educational institutions such as the University of Alberta
Alberta
(U of A) as well as government initiatives underway at the Alberta
Alberta
Research Council and Edmonton Research Park. The U of A campus is home to the National Institute for Nanotechnology .

During the 1970s and 1980s, Edmonton
Edmonton
became a major financial centre, with both regional offices of Canada's major banks and locally based institutions opening. However, the turmoil of the late-1980s economy radically changed the situation. Locally based operations such as Principal Trust and Canadian Commercial Bank would fail, and some regional offices were moved to other cities. The 1990s saw a solidification of the economy, and Edmonton
Edmonton
is now home to Canadian Western Bank, the only publicly traded Schedule I chartered bank headquarters west of Toronto. Other major financial centres include ATB Financial , Servus Credit Union (formerly Capital City Savings), TD Canada
Canada
Trust and Manulife Financial .

Edmonton
Edmonton
has been the birthplace of several companies that have grown to international stature. The local retail market has also seen the creation of many successful store concepts, such as The Brick , Katz Group , Auto Canada
Canada
, Boston Pizza
Boston Pizza
, Pizza 73 , Liquor Stores GP (which includes Liquor Depot, Liquor Barn, OK Liquor, and Grapes "> West Edmonton
Edmonton
Mall

Edmonton
Edmonton
is home to several shopping malls and the largest mall in North America, West Edmonton Mall
West Edmonton Mall
, which is also considered to be the 10th largest mall in the world. Other mentionable malls include Bonnie Doon Shopping Centre, Edmonton City Centre (a combination of the former Edmonton
Edmonton
Centre and Eaton Centre malls), Southgate Centre
Southgate Centre
, Kingsway Mall , Northgate Centre
Northgate Centre
, Abbottsfield Mall, Londonderry Mall , and Mill Woods
Mill Woods
Town Centre.

Edmonton
Edmonton
also has many big box shopping centres and power centres . Some of the major ones include South Edmonton Common
South Edmonton Common
(North America's largest open air retail development), Skyview Power Centre, Terra Losa Centre, Oliver Square, Southpark Centre, The Meadows, Christy's Corner, and Westpoint. In 2008, construction started on the Windermere power centre.

In contrast to suburban centres, Edmonton
Edmonton
has many urban retail locations. The largest of them all, Old Strathcona, includes many independent stores between 99 Street and 109 Street on Whyte Avenue and area. In around the downtown of Edmonton, there are a small handful of shopping districts, such as previously mentioned Edmonton City Centre mall, Jasper Avenue
Jasper Avenue
and 104 Street. Near Oliver, 124 Street is home to a significant number of retail stores. Edmonton
Edmonton
is the Canadian testing-ground for many American retailers, such as Bath "> The Francis Winspear Centre for Music

The Francis Winspear Centre for Music was opened in 1997 after years of planning and fundraising. Described as one of the most acoustically perfect concert halls in Canada, it is home to the Edmonton Symphony Orchestra and hosts a wide variety of shows every year. It seats 1,932 patrons and houses the $3-million Davis Concert Organ, the largest concert organ in Canada. Across 102 Avenue is the Citadel Theatre
Citadel Theatre
, named after The Salvation Army
The Salvation Army
Citadel in which Joe Shoctor first started the Citadel Theatre
Citadel Theatre
Company in 1965. It is now one of the largest theatre complexes in Canada, with five halls, each specializing in different kinds of productions. In 2015, the Citadel Theatre also became home to Catalyst Theatre . On the University of Alberta
Alberta
grounds is the 2,534-seat Northern Alberta
Alberta
Jubilee Auditorium , which were undertaken over a year of heavy renovations carried out as part of the province's 2005 centennial celebrations. Both it and its southern twin in Calgary
Calgary
were constructed in 1955 for the province's golden jubilee and have hosted many concerts, musicals, and ballets. The Edmonton
Edmonton
Opera uses the Jubilee as its base of operations. On the front of the building is a quote from Suetonius ' Life of Augustus : "He found a city built of brick – left it built of marble."

The Old Strathcona neighbourhood is home to the Theatre District, which holds the ATB Financial Arts Barns (headquarters of the Edmonton International Fringe Festival
Festival
), The Walterdale Playhouse , and the Varscona Theatre (base of operations for several theatre companies, including Teatro la Quindicina, Shadow Theatre
Shadow Theatre
, Die-Nasty , Plane Jane Theatre, and Grindstone Theatre!). Edmonton
Edmonton
was named cultural capital of Canada
Canada
in 2007. The Ukrainian Dnipro Ensemble of Edmonton , along with other Ukrainian choirs such as the Ukrainian Male Chorus of Edmonton
Edmonton
, helps preserve the Ukrainian musical culture within the parameters of the Canadian multicultural identity in Edmonton.

FESTIVALS

Main article: List of festivals in Edmonton Edmonton
Edmonton
Folk Music Festival
Festival

Edmonton
Edmonton
plays host to several large festivals each year, contributing to its nickname, "Canada's Festival
Festival
City". Downtown Edmonton's Churchill Square host numerous festivals each summer. The Works Art this is a significant event in Canada's rodeo circuit and second only to the National Finals Rodeo in Las Vegas in prestige.

The Edmonton
Edmonton
International Fringe Festival, held in mid-August, is the largest fringe theatre festival in North America and second only to the Edinburgh Fringe Festival
Festival
worldwide. In August, Edmonton
Edmonton
is also host to the Edmonton
Edmonton
Folk Music Festival
Festival
, one of the most successful and popular folk music festivals in North America. Another major summer festival is the Edmonton
Edmonton
Heritage Festival, which is an ethnocultural festival that takes place in Hawrelak Park on the Heritage Day long weekend. Many other festivals exist, such as Interstellar Rodeo , the Free Will Shakespeare Festival
Festival
, the Dragon Boat Festival
Festival
, the Whyte Avenue Art Walk, and the Edmonton International Film Festival
Festival
.

MUSIC

Further information: List of musicians from Edmonton

In the city's early days, music was performed in churches and community halls. Edmonton
Edmonton
has a history of opera and classical music performance; both genres historically have been supported by a variety of clubs and associations. Edmonton's first major radio station, CKUA , began broadcasting music in 1927. The city is a centre for music instruction; the University of Alberta
Alberta
began its music department in 1945, and MacEwan University opened a jazz and musical theatre program in 1980. Festivals of jazz, folk, and classical music are popular entertainment events in the city.

The Edmonton Symphony Orchestra has existed under various incarnations since 1913. In 1952, the Edmonton
Edmonton
Philharmonic and the Edmonton
Edmonton
Pops orchestras amalgamated to form the 60-member modern version. The Orchestra performs at the Francis Winspear Centre for Music.

The city also has a vibrant popular music scene, across genres including hip-hop, reggae, R it has the highest number of heritage buildings in Edmonton, and the nightlife (bars, clubs, and restaurants) are located throughout, but mostly west of Gateway Boulevard (103 Street). Once the heart of the town of Strathcona (annexed by Edmonton
Edmonton
on February 1, 1912), it fell into disrepair during the middle of the 20th century. Beginning in the 1970s, a coordinated effort to revive the area through the establishment of a business revitalization zone has produced an area rich with restored historical buildings and pleasant streetscapes. Its proximity to the University of Alberta
Alberta
has led to a high number of establishments ranging from restaurants and pubs to trendy clubs while hosting a wide variety of retail and specialty shops during the day. This area also contains two independent movie theatres: the Garneau and Princess theatres, as well as several live theatre, music, and comedy venues.

Downtown Edmonton has undergone a continual process of renewal and growth since the mid-1990s. Many buildings were demolished during the oil boom, starting in the 1960s and continuing into the 1980s, to make way for office towers. As such, there have always been numerous pub-type establishments, as well as many hotel lounges and restaurants. The past decade has seen a strong resurgence in more mainstream venues. Edmonton
Edmonton
also has a high demand for pub crawl tours in the city. Various clubs are also to be found along Edmonton's main street, Jasper Avenue. The Edmonton City Centre mall also houses an Landmark Cinemas movie theatre, featuring nine screens. The nonprofit Metro Cinema shows a variety of alternative or otherwise unreleased films every week.

West Edmonton Mall
West Edmonton Mall
holds several after-hour establishments in addition to its many stores and attractions. Bourbon Street has numerous eating establishments; clubs and casinos can also be found within the complex. Scotiabank Theatre (formerly known as Silver City), at the west end of the mall, is a theatre that features twelve screens and an IMAX
IMAX
.

ATTRACTIONS

PARKLAND AND ENVIRONMENT

See also: North Saskatchewan River valley parks system North Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
River valley

Edmonton's river valley constitutes the longest stretch of connected urban parkland in North America, and Edmonton
Edmonton
has the highest amount of parkland per capita of any Canadian city; the river valley is 22 times larger than New York City's Central Park
Central Park
. The river valley is home to various parks ranging from fully serviced urban parks to campsite-like facilities with few amenities. This main "Ribbon of Green" is supplemented by numerous neighbourhood parks located throughout the city, to give a total of 111 km2 (27,400 acres) of parkland. Within the 7,400 ha (18,000 acres), 25 km (16 mi)-long river valley park system, there are 11 lakes, 14 ravines, and 22 major parks, and most of the city has accessible bike and walking trail connections. These trails are also part of the 235 km (146 mi) Waskahegan walking trail . The City of Edmonton
Edmonton
has named five parks in its River Valley Parks System in honour of each of "The Famous Five ".

Edmonton's streets and parklands also contain one of the largest remaining concentrations of healthy American elm trees in the world, unaffected by Dutch elm disease
Dutch elm disease
, which has wiped out vast numbers of such trees in eastern North America. Jack pine , lodgepole pine , white spruce , white birch , aspen , mountain ash , Amur maple , Russian olive , green ash , basswood , various poplars and willows , flowering crabapple , Mayday tree and Manitoba
Manitoba
maple are also abundant; bur oak , silver maple , hawthorn and Ohio buckeye are increasingly popular. Other introduced tree species include white ash , blue spruce , Norway maple , red oak , sugar maple , common horse-chestnut , McIntosh apple , and Evans cherry . Three walnut species – butternut , Manchurian walnut , and black walnut – have survived in Edmonton.

Several golf courses , both public and private, are also located in the river valley; the long summer daylight hours of this northern city provide for extended play from early morning well into the evening. Golf courses and the park system become a winter recreation area during this season, and cross-country skiing and skating are popular during the long winter. Four downhill ski slopes are located in the river valley as well, two within the city and two immediately outside.

A variety of volunteer opportunities exist for citizens to participate in the stewardship of Edmonton's parkland and river valley. Volunteer programs include River Valley Clean-up, Root for Trees, and Partner in Parks. River Valley Clean-up engages volunteers to pick up hundreds of bags of litter each year.

MUSEUMS AND GALLERIES

Art Gallery of Alberta
Alberta
Buildings on the grounds of the Royal Alberta
Alberta
Museum The main building of the Telus World of Science

There are many museums in Edmonton
Edmonton
of various sizes. The largest is the Royal Alberta
Alberta
Museum (RAM), which was formerly known as the Provincial Museum of Alberta
Alberta
until it was renamed in honour of Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
's 2005 Alberta
Alberta
centennial visit. The RAM houses over 10 million objects in its collection and showcases the culture and practices of the diverse aboriginal tribes of the region. The main building, overlooking the river valley west of the city centre in the Glenora neighbourhood, was opened in 1967 and is now in the early stages of large-scale redevelopment.

The Telus World of Science is located in the Woodcroft neighbourhood northwest of the city centre. It opened in 1984 and has since been expanded several times. It contains five permanent galleries, one additional gallery for temporary exhibits, an IMAX
IMAX
theatre, a planetarium , an observatory , and an amateur radio station . The Edmonton Valley Zoo is in the river valley to the southwest of the city centre.

The Alberta
Alberta
Aviation Museum , located in a hangar at the City Centre Airport, was built for the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan . Its collection includes both civilian and military aircraft , the largest of which are a Boeing 737
Boeing 737
and two CF-101 Voodoos . It also has one of only 3 BOMARC
BOMARC
missiles in Canada.

The Prince of Wales
Wales
Armouries Heritage Centre is home to the Loyal Edmonton
Edmonton
Regiment Military Museum . The museum is dedicated to preserving the military heritage and the sacrifices made by the people of Edmonton
Edmonton
and Alberta
Alberta
in general. The museum features two galleries and several smaller exhibits. The collection includes historic firearms, uniforms, souvenirs, memorabilia, military accoutrements, as well as a large photographic and archival collection spanning the pre-World War One period to the present. The museum features an exhibit on the role of the 49th Battalion, CEF in Canada's Hundred Days Offensive .

The Telephone Historical Centre is a telephone museum also located in the Prince of Wales
Wales
Armouries Heritage Centre. In addition to a collection of artifacts tracing the history of the telephone, the museum has its own theatre featuring a brief film led by the robot Xeldon.

The Alberta
Alberta
Railway Museum is located in the rural northeast portion of the city. It contains a variety of locomotives and railroad cars from different periods, and includes a working steam locomotive . Since most of its exhibits are outdoors, it is only open between Victoria Day and Labour Day .

Fort Edmonton Park, Canada's largest living history museum, is located in the river valley southwest of the city centre. Edmonton's heritage is displayed through historical buildings (many of which are originals moved to the park), costumed historical interpreters , and authentic artifacts. In total, it covers the region's history from approximately 1795 to 1929 (represented by Fort Edmonton), followed chronologically by 1885, 1905, and 1920 streets, and a recreation of a 1920s midway . A steam train, streetcars, automobiles and horse-drawn vehicles may be seen in operation (and utilized by the public) around the park. The John Walter Museum and Historical Area (c. 1875 to 1901) is on the Canadian Register of Historic Places. The University of Alberta
Alberta
operates its own internal Museums and Collections service.

The Art Gallery of Alberta
Alberta
(AGA) is the city's largest single gallery. Formerly housed in an iconic 1970s Brutalist
Brutalist
building designed by Don Bittorf, the AGA collection had over 5,000 pieces of art. The former AGA building was demolished in July 2007 to make way for construction of a new facility designed by Randall Stout
Randall Stout
. It was estimated to cost over $88-million and the amount that Edmonton
Edmonton
City Council donated towards its construction was met with some controversy. The AGA officially opened on January 31, 2010. Independent galleries can be found throughout the city, especially along the 124 Street/ Jasper Avenue
Jasper Avenue
corridor, known as the "gallery walk".

SPORTS AND RECREATION

Main article: Sport in Edmonton Commonwealth Stadium Rogers Place

Edmonton
Edmonton
has a number of professional sports teams, including the Edmonton Eskimos
Edmonton Eskimos
of the Canadian Football League
Canadian Football League
, Edmonton Oilers of the National Hockey League
National Hockey League
, and FC Edmonton of the North American Soccer League . Junior sports clubs include the Edmonton Huskies and Edmonton Wildcats of the Canadian Junior Football League and the Edmonton Oil Kings of the Western Hockey League . Venues for Edmonton's professional and junior sports teams include Commonwealth Stadium (Eskimos), Argyll Velodrome , Rogers Place (Oilers and Oil Kings), Edmonton Ballpark (Prospects), the Universiade Pavilion (Energy), and Clarke Stadium (FC Edmonton, Huskies and Wildcats).

Edmonton's teams have rivalries with Calgary's teams and games between Edmonton
Edmonton
and Calgary
Calgary
teams are often referred to as the Battle of Alberta
Alberta
.

Past notable hockey teams in Edmonton
Edmonton
include: the original junior hockey incarnation of the Edmonton Oil Kings , with multiple league and national Memorial Cup
Memorial Cup
championships playing in the Western Hockey League ; the Edmonton Flyers , with multiple Lester Patrick Cups and one national Allan Cup
Allan Cup
, and; the Edmonton Roadrunners of the American Hockey League . Other past notable sports teams include; the Edmonton Grads , a women's basketball team with 108 local, provincial, national, and international titles and the world champions for 17 years in a row; the Edmonton Trappers , a Triple-A level baseball team with multiple division and league titles in the Pacific Coast League , and; the Edmonton Rush
Edmonton Rush
, a box lacrosse team with one league championship.

Local university-level sports teams include the U of A Golden Bears , the U of A Pandas , the NAIT Ooks , and the MacEwan Griffins . Local amateur teams, among others, include the Edmonton Gold of the Rugby Canada
Canada
Super League and two flat track roller derby leagues: Oil City Roller Derby and E-Ville Roller Derby.

From 2005 to 2012, Edmonton
Edmonton
hosted an annual circuit on the Indy Racing League known as the Edmonton Indy . In addition, Castrol Raceway hosts regular sprint car and a national IHRA events at their facility next to Edmonton
Edmonton
International Airport.

Other past sporting events hosted by Edmonton
Edmonton
include the 1978 Commonwealth Games , the 1983 World University Games ( Universiade ), the 2001 World Championships in Athletics , the 2002 World Ringette Championships, the 2005 World Master Games, the 2006 Women\'s Rugby World Cup , the 2007 and 2014 FIFA U-20 Women\'s World Cup , the 2015 FIFA Women\'s World Cup , and the CN Canadian Women\'s Open . Edmonton
Edmonton
shared hosting duties with Calgary
Calgary
for the 2012 World Junior Ice Hockey Championships .

PROFESSIONAL SPORTS TEAMS CLUB TYPE LEAGUE VENUE ESTABLISHED CHAMPIONSHIPS

Edmonton Eskimos
Edmonton Eskimos
Canadian football
Canadian football
Canadian Football League
Canadian Football League
Commonwealth Stadium 1949 14

Edmonton Oilers Ice hockey
Ice hockey
National Hockey League
National Hockey League
Rogers Place 1972 5

FC Edmonton Soccer North American Soccer League Clarke Stadium 2010 0

AMATEUR AND JUNIOR CLUBS CLUB TYPE LEAGUE VENUE ESTABLISHED CHAMPIONSHIPS

Edmonton Huskies Canadian football Canadian Junior Football League Clarke Stadium 1947 5

Edmonton Wildcats Canadian football Canadian Junior Football League Clarke Stadium 1948 2

Edmonton Gold Rugby union Rugby Canada
Canada
Super League Ellerslie Rugby Park 1998 0

Edmonton
Edmonton
WAM! Ringette National Ringette League Callingwood Twin Arena 2001 4

Edmonton
Edmonton
Stallions Canadian football Alberta
Alberta
Football League Foote Field
Foote Field
2001 2

Edmonton Prospects Baseball Western Major Baseball League Edmonton Ballpark 2005 0

Edmonton
Edmonton
Drillers Indoor soccer Canadian Major Indoor Soccer League Servus Credit Union Place (St. Albert) 2006 1

Edmonton Oil Kings Ice hockey Western Hockey League Rogers Place 2007 2

GOVERNMENT

Matthew McCauley, first mayor of Edmonton
Edmonton

In 1892 Edmonton
Edmonton
was incorporated as a town. The first mayor was Matthew McCauley , who established the first school board in Edmonton and Board of Trade (later Chamber of Commerce) and a municipal police service. Due to mayor McCauley's good relationship with the federal Liberals this helped Edmonton
Edmonton
to maintain political prominence over Strathcona, a rival settlement on the south bank of the North Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
River. Edmonton
Edmonton
was incorporated as a city in 1904 and became the capital of Alberta
Alberta
in 1905.

Unions and radical organizations such as the Industrial Workers of the World struggled for progressive social change through the early years, with the first reformer, James East , being elected in 1912, followed by the first official Labour alderman, James Kinney, the following year. Many thousands of workers participated in the Edmonton general strike of 1919 and a strong block of Labour representatives were on council after the next election: James Kinney
James Kinney
, James East, Sam McCoppen, Joe Clarke and Rice Sheppard .

Labour representation on city council would become a near-majority in 1929, and, during the Great Depression, a full majority from 1932 to 1934. Jan Reimer became the city's first female mayor, when she was elected in 1989. Edmonton City Hall
Edmonton City Hall

MUNICIPAL POLITICS

Edmonton
Edmonton
is represented by a mayor and 12 councillors—one for each of the 12 wards. On July 22, 2009 City Council adopted an electoral system that divides Edmonton
Edmonton
into 12 wards, instead of the previous two for each of six wards. This system came into effect with the following election in October 2010. The most recent election was held in October 2013, and elected members to a four-year term.

PROVINCIAL POLITICS

Provincial Legislature of Alberta
Alberta

Edmonton
Edmonton
is the capital of the province of Alberta
Alberta
and holds all main provincial areas of government such as the Provincial Legislature of Alberta
Alberta
. The Edmonton
Edmonton
region is represented by 20 MLAs , one for each provincial electoral district . Many of these boundaries have been changed, adjusted and renamed while the city has grown. In the current 29th Alberta
Alberta
Legislature all of Edmonton's districts are represented by members from the governing Alberta
Alberta
New Democratic Party . Six of these members are cabinet ministers while one of them is also the Premier of Alberta
Alberta
, Rachel Notley .

CRIME

The city's police force, the Edmonton Police Service , was founded in 1892, and had approximately 1,400 officers in 2012. Edmonton experienced a decrease in crime in the 1990s, an increase in the early 2000s, and another downturn at the end of the decade.

The Edmonton
Edmonton
census metropolitan area (CMA) had a crime severity index of 84.5 in 2013, which is higher than the national average of 68.7. Its crime severity index was the fifth-highest among CMAs in Canada
Canada
behind Regina, Saskatoon, Kelowna and Vancouver. Edmonton
Edmonton
had the fourth-most homicides in 2013 at 27.

MILITARY

Edmonton
Edmonton
is home to 1 Canadian Mechanized Brigade Group
1 Canadian Mechanized Brigade Group
(1 CMBG), the Regular Force army brigade group of Land Force Western Area of the Canadian Army . Units in 1 CMBG include Lord Strathcona\'s Horse (Royal Canadians) , 1 Combat Engineer Regiment , two of the three regular force battalions of Princess Patricia\'s Canadian Light Infantry , and various headquarters, service, and support elements. Although not part of 1 CMBG, 408 Tactical Helicopter Squadron and 1 Field Ambulance are located with the brigade group. All of these units are located at Lancaster Park, immediately north of the city. From 1943, as CFB Namao (now CFB Edmonton/ Edmonton
Edmonton
Garrison), it was a major air force base. In 1996, all fixed-wing aviation units were transferred to CFB Cold Lake .

The Canadian Airborne Training Centre had been located in the city in the 1980s. The move of 1 CMBG and component units from Calgary occurred in 1996 in what was described as a cost-saving measure. The brigade had existed in Calgary
Calgary
since the 1950s, and Lord Strathcona's Horse had traditionally been a Calgary
Calgary
garrison unit dating back to before World War I
World War I
.

Edmonton
Edmonton
also has a large army reserve element from 41 Canadian Brigade Group (41 CBG), including The Loyal Edmonton
Edmonton
Regiment (4th Battalion, Princess Patricia\'s Canadian Light Infantry) ; 41 Combat Engineer Regiment ; HQ Battery, 20th Field Artillery Regiment ; and B Squadron of The South Alberta
Alberta
Light Horse , one of Alberta's oldest army reserve units. Despite being far from Canada's coasts, Edmonton is also the home of HMCS Nonsuch, a naval reserve division. There are numerous cadet corps of the different elements (naval, army and air force) within Edmonton
Edmonton
as well.

INFRASTRUCTURE

TRANSPORTATION

Main article: Transportation in Edmonton

Aviation

See also: List of airports in the Edmonton Capital Region

Edmonton
Edmonton
is a major air transportation gateway to northern Alberta and northern Canada. The Edmonton International Airport
Edmonton International Airport
(EIA) is the main airport serving the city.

The EIA provides passenger service to destinations in the United States , Europe
Europe
, Mexico, and the Caribbean
Caribbean
. The EIA is located within Leduc County, adjacent to the City of Leduc and the Nisku Industrial Business Park. With direct air distances from Edmonton
Edmonton
to places such as London
London
in Europe
Europe
being shorter than to other main airports in western North America, Edmonton Airports is working to establish a major container shipping hub called Port Alberta.

Rail

Edmonton
Edmonton
serves as a major transportation hub for Canadian National Railway , whose North American operations management centre is located at their Edmonton
Edmonton
offices. It is also tied into the Canadian Pacific Railway network, which provides service from Calgary
Calgary
to the south and extends northeast of Edmonton
Edmonton
to serve Alberta's Industrial Heartland.

Inter-city rail passenger rail service is provided by Via Rail 's premier train, the Canadian , as it travels between Vancouver, British Columbia, and Toronto
Toronto
, Ontario. Passenger trains stop at the Edmonton railway station three days a week in both directions. The train connects Edmonton
Edmonton
to multiple stops in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and Ontario.

Public Transit

Bay/Enterprise Square LRT station

The Edmonton Transit System (ETS) is the city's public transit agency, operating the Edmonton Light Rail Transit (LRT) line as well as a fleet of buses. Approximately one-third of people in the Edmonton Capital Region (mostly from Edmonton
Edmonton
proper) use ETS per day (354,440 out of 1,034,945 ). There are approximately 280,000 ETS bus riders on average per day.

From the 1990s to early 2009, Edmonton
Edmonton
was one of two cities in Canada
Canada
still operating trolley buses , along with Vancouver
Vancouver
. On June 18, 2008, City Council decided to abandon the Edmonton
Edmonton
trolley bus system and the last trolley bus ran on May 2, 2009.

Scheduled LRT service began on April 23, 1978, with five extensions of the single line completed since. The original Edmonton
Edmonton
line is considered to be the first "modern" light rail line in North America (i.e., built from scratch, rather than being an upgrade of an old system). It introduced the use of German-designed rolling stock that subsequently became the standard light rail vehicle of the United States. The Edmonton
Edmonton
"proof-of-payment " fare collection system adopted in 1980 – modelled after European ticket systems – became the North American transit industry's preferred approach for subsequent light rail projects. The four-year South LRT extension was opened in full on April 24, 2010, which sees trains travelling to Century Park (located at 23 Avenue and 111 Street), making stops at South Campus and Southgate Centre
Southgate Centre
along the way. A line to the Northern Alberta
Alberta
Institute of Technology in north-central Edmonton using the same high floor technology of the existing system opened September 6, 2015. Edmonton
Edmonton
is also expanding the LRT to Mill Woods (the southeast) by 2020 and to Lewis Farms (the west) thereafter using low floor technology.

Roads

Stony Plain Road
Stony Plain Road
looking towards downtown

A largely gridded system forms most of Edmonton's street and road network. The address system is mostly numbered, with streets running south to north and avenues running east to west. In built-up areas built since the 1950s, local streets and major roadways generally do not conform to the grid system. Major roadways include Kingsway , Yellowhead Trail
Yellowhead Trail
(Highway 16 ), Whitemud Drive
Whitemud Drive
and Anthony Henday Drive , and the city is connected to other communities elsewhere in Alberta, British Columbia, and Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
via the Yellowhead Highway to the west and east and Highway 2 (Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
Highway) to the south.

Trail System

There is an extensive multi-use trail system for bicycles and pedestrians throughout the city; however, most of this is within the river valley parkland system.

ELECTRICITY AND WATER

Edmonton's first power company established itself in 1891 and installed streetlights along the city's main avenue, Jasper Avenue. The power company was bought by the Town of Edmonton
Edmonton
in 1902 and remains under municipal ownership today as EPCOR . Also in charge of water treatment , in 2002 EPCOR installed the world's largest ultraviolet (UV) water treatment or ultraviolet disinfection system at its E.L. Smith Water Treatment Plant.

WASTE DISPOSAL

The Edmonton Composting Facility , the largest of its type in the world, is also the largest stainless steel building in North America. By 2016, the city anticipates that it will divert more than 90 percent of the city's household waste from the landfills . Among the innovative uses for the city's waste includes a Christmas tree recycling program. The trees are collected each January and put through a woodchipper ; this material is used as an addition to the composting process. In addition, the wood chips absorb much of the odour produced by the compost by providing a biofilter element to trap odour causing gaseous results of the process.

Together, the Waste Management Centre and Wastewater Treatment plant are known as the Edmonton
Edmonton
Waste Management Centre of Excellence. Research partners include the University of Alberta, the Alberta Research Council, the Northern Alberta
Alberta
Institute of Technology, and Olds College .

HEALTH CARE

University Hospital complex at the University of Alberta
Alberta

There are four main hospitals serving Edmonton: University of Alberta Hospital , Royal Alexandra Hospital , Misericordia Community Hospital , and Grey Nuns Community Hospital . Other area hospitals include Sturgeon Community Hospital
Sturgeon Community Hospital
in St. Albert, Leduc Community Hospital in Leduc, Westview Health Centre in Stony Plain, and Fort Saskatchewan Community Hospital in Fort Saskatchewan. Dedicated psychiatric care is provided at the Alberta
Alberta
Hospital . The Northeast Community Health Centre offers a 24-hour emergency room with no inpatient ward services. The University of Alberta
Alberta
Hospital is the centre of a larger complex of hospitals and clinics located adjacent to the university campus which comprises the Stollery Children\'s Hospital , Mazankowski Alberta
Alberta
Heart Institute, Cross Cancer Institute, Zeidler Gastrointestinal Health Centre, Ledcor Clinical Training Centre, and Edmonton
Edmonton
Clinic. Several health research institutes, including the Heritage Medical Research Centre, Medical Sciences Building, Katz Group Centre for Pharmacy and Health Research, and Li Ka Shing Centre for Health Research Innovation, are also located at this site. A similar set-up is also evident at the Royal Alexandra Hospital, which is connected to the Lois Hole Hospital for Women and Orthopaedic Surgery Centre. All hospitals are under the administration of Alberta Health Services , although Misericordia and Grey Nuns are run separately by Covenant Health.

EDUCATION

Entryway to MacEwan University's downtown campus

SECONDARY

Edmonton
Edmonton
has three publicly funded school boards (districts) that provide kindergarten and grades 1–12. The vast majority of students attend schools in the two large English language boards: Edmonton Public Schools , and the separate Edmonton Catholic School District
Edmonton Catholic School District
. Also, since 1994, the Francophone
Francophone
minority community has had their own school board based in Edmonton, the Greater North Central Francophone Education Region No. 2 , which includes surrounding communities. The city also has a number of public charter schools that are independent of any board. All three school boards and public charter schools are funded through provincial grants and property taxes .

Some private schools exist as well, including Edmonton
Edmonton
Academy, Progressive Academy and Tempo School. The Edmonton
Edmonton
Society for Christian Education and Millwoods Christian School (not part of the former) used to be private schools; however, both have become part of Edmonton Public Schools
Edmonton Public Schools
as alternative programs.

Both the Edmonton Public Schools
Edmonton Public Schools
and the Edmonton
Edmonton
Catholic School District provide support and resources for those wishing to homeschool their children.

POST-SECONDARY

Those post-secondary institutions based in Edmonton
Edmonton
that are publicly funded include Concordia University College of Alberta
Alberta
, MacEwan University , The King\'s University College , NorQuest College , the Northern Alberta
Alberta
Institute of Technology (NAIT) and the University of Alberta
Alberta
(U of A). The publicly funded Athabasca University and the University of Lethbridge
Lethbridge
also have campuses in Edmonton.

The U of A is a board-governed institution that has an annual revenue of over one billion dollars. In 2011/12, the university had over 38,000 students enrolled within nearly 400 undergraduate, graduate and professional programs, as well as over 15,000 students enrolled in its faculty of extension. The U of A is also home to the second-largest research library system in Canada.

In 2010/11, MacEwan University had a total student population of over 43,000 students, including nearly 14,000 full-time students, enrolled in programs offering bachelor's degrees, university transfers, diplomas and certificates. NAIT has an approximate total of 61,200 students enrolled in more than 200 programs while NorQuest College has approximately 8,500 students enrolled in various full-time, part-time and continuing education programs.

Other post-secondary institutions within Edmonton
Edmonton
include Taylor University College and Seminary and Yellowhead Tribal College , a First Nations college.

MEDIA

Main article: Media in Edmonton

Edmonton
Edmonton
has seven local broadcast television stations shown on basic cable TV or over-the-air , with the oldest broadcasters in the city being CTV (1961) and CBC (1954). Most of Edmonton's conventional television stations have made the switch to over-the-air digital broadcasting. The cable television providers in Edmonton
Edmonton
are Telus (for IPTV
IPTV
) and Shaw Cable . Twenty-one FM and eight AM radio stations are based in Edmonton.

Edmonton
Edmonton
has two large-circulation daily newspapers, the Edmonton Journal and the Edmonton Sun . The Journal, established in 1903 and owned by the Postmedia Network , has a daily circulation of 112,000, while the Sun, established in 1978 and owned by Sun Media , has a circulation of 55,000. The Journal no longer publishes a Sunday edition as of July 2012.

There is one free daily newspaper in the city, Metro . The magazine Vue Weekly is published on a weekly basis and focuses on alternative news . The Edmonton
Edmonton
Examiner is a citywide community based paper also published weekly. There are also a number of smaller weekly and community newspapers.

SISTER CITIES

See also: List of sister cities in Canada
Canada

Edmonton
Edmonton
has five sister cities , with one American city listed by Sister Cities International .

* Gatineau
Gatineau
, Quebec
Quebec
, Canada, since 1967 * Harbin
Harbin
, China, since 1985 * Nashville , Tennessee
Tennessee
, United States, since 1990 * Wonju , South Korea, since 1998 * Bergen op Zoom , the Netherlands, since 2013

SEE ALSO

* Edmonton
Edmonton
portal * Alberta
Alberta
portal * Canada
Canada
portal

* List of cities in Alberta
Alberta
* List of communities in Alberta
Alberta
* List of mayors of Edmonton
List of mayors of Edmonton
* List of people from Edmonton * List of tallest buildings in Edmonton

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FOOTNOTES

* ^ Based on station coordinates provided by Environment Canada, climate data was collected near downtown Edmonton
Edmonton
from July 1880 to June 1943, and at Blatchford Field from October 1937 to present. * ^ Originally named Hull, Quebec
Quebec
until January 1, 2002 See:2000–06 municipal reorganization in Quebec
Quebec

FURTHER READING

* Aubrey, Merrily K (2004). Naming Edmonton
Edmonton
: from Ada to Zoie. ( Edmonton
Edmonton
Historical Board. Heritage Sites Committee) University of Alberta
Alberta
Press. ISBN 0-88864-423-X . ASIN 088864423X. Retrieved April 13, 2017. * Cashman, Tony (2002). Edmonton: stories from the river city. University of Alberta
Alberta
Press. ISBN 0-88864-392-6 . ASIN 0888643926. Retrieved May 10, 2012. * Merrett, Kathryn Chase (2001). A history of the Edmonton
Edmonton
City Market, 1900–2000. University of Calgary
Calgary
Press. ISBN 1-55238-052-1 . ASIN 1552380521. Retrieved May 10, 2012. * Rooke, Charlene (2001). Edmonton: secrets of the city. Arsenal Pulp Press. ISBN 1-55152-103-2 . ASIN 1551521032. Retrieved April 13, 2017. * Walls, Martha (2007). Edmonton
Edmonton
Book of Everything. Maclntyre Purcell Publishing Inc. ISBN 978-0-9738063-4-2 . ASIN 0973806346. Retrieved May 3, 2014. * MacGregor, James G. (1975). Edmonton:a history. Hurtig. ISBN 0-888301-00-6 . ASIN 0888301006. Retrieved April 13, 2017.

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