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Donetsk
Donetsk
(Ukrainian: Донецьк [dɔˈnɛtsʲk]; Russian: Доне́цк [dɐˈnʲɛtsk]; former names: Aleksandrovka, Hughesovka, Yuzovka, Stalino (see also: cities' alternative names)) is an industrial city in Ukraine
Ukraine
on the Kalmius
Kalmius
River. The population was estimated at 929,063 (2016 est.)[1] in the city, and over 2,000,000 in the metropolitan area (2011). According to the 2001 Ukrainian Census, Donetsk
Donetsk
was the fifth-largest city in Ukraine.[2] Since April 2014, the city has been controlled by pro-Russian separatists from the self-proclaimed Donetsk
Donetsk
People's Republic. Administratively, it has been the centre of Donetsk
Donetsk
Oblast, while historically, it is the unofficial capital and largest city of the larger economic and cultural Donets Basin
Donets Basin
(Donbass) region. Donetsk
Donetsk
is adjacent to another major city of Makiivka
Makiivka
and along with other surrounding cities forms a major urban sprawl and conurbation in the region. Donetsk
Donetsk
has been a major economic, industrial and scientific centre of Ukraine
Ukraine
with a high concentration of companies and a skilled workforce. The original settlement in the south of the European part of the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
was first mentioned as Aleksandrovka in 1779, under the Russian Empress Catherine the Great. In 1869, Welsh businessman, John Hughes, built a steel plant and several coal mines in the region; the town was named Yuzovka (Юзовка) in recognition of his role ("Yuz" being a Russian-language approximation of Hughes). During Soviet times, the city's steel industry was expanded. In 1924, it was renamed Stalino, and in 1932 the city became the centre of the Donetsk region. Renamed Donetsk
Donetsk
in 1961, the city today remains the centre for coal mining and steel industry. Since April 2014, Donetsk
Donetsk
and its surrounding areas have been one of the major sites of fighting in the ongoing Donbass
Donbass
War, as pro-Russian separatist forces have battled against Ukrainian military forces for control of the city and surrounding areas. Through the majority of the course of this war, the city of Donetsk
Donetsk
has been administered by the pro-Russian separatist forces, with outlying territories of the Donetsk
Donetsk
region being divided between the two sides.[3] On June 27th, 2014, the nation of South Ossetia
South Ossetia
officially recognized the Donetsk People's Republic
Donetsk People's Republic
independence from Ukraine.[4] As of December 2017, the Donetsk People's Republic
Donetsk People's Republic
has full control of the city, with Ukrainian and DPR forces still engaging in combat outside of the city.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Foundation 1.2 Soviet Union 1.3 Independent Ukraine 1.4 2014-Present - Euromaidan, War in Donbass, and Capital of the Donetsk
Donetsk
People's Republic

2 Geography and climate 3 Government and administrative divisions 4 Demographics 5 Economy 6 Sports

6.1 Professional sports teams

7 Culture

7.1 Main sights

7.1.1 First Line Avenue (Artema Street) 7.1.2 Statue of Artem (Fyodor Sergeyev) 7.1.3 Donetsk
Donetsk
Opera and Ballet Theatre 7.1.4 Donbass
Donbass
Palace 7.1.5 Pushkin Boulevard 7.1.6 Monument to John Hughes 7.1.7 Forged Figures Park 7.1.8 Aquapark

7.2 Architecture 7.3 Religion 7.4 Media 7.5 Notable people

8 Museums 9 Transport

9.1 Local transport 9.2 Railways 9.3 Road transport 9.4 Air travel

10 Education 11 Twinnings 12 See also 13 Notes 14 References 15 Sources 16 External links

History Foundation

A building which used to be an English-speaking school for the British in Yuzivka

A market on the main street of Novyi Svet section of Yuzivka. (1887)

The city was founded in 1869 when the Welsh businessman John Hughes built a steel plant and several coal mines at Aleksandrovka, in the south of European part of Russia. It was initially named Hughesovka (Russian: Юзовка).[5] In its early period, it received immigrants from Wales, especially the town of Merthyr Tydfil.[6] By the beginning of the 20th century, Yuzivka had approximately 50,000 inhabitants,[7] and had attained the status of a city in 1917.[8] The main district of "Hughezovka" is named English Colony, and the British origin of the city is reflected in its layout and architecture. Soviet Union

A Monument for the Liberators of Donbass, dedicated to the soldier liberating Donbass
Donbass
from the Nazis during World War II.

When the Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
broke out, on 12 February 1918 Yuzovka was part of the Donetsk-Krivoy Rog Soviet Republic. The Republic was disbanded at the 2nd All-Ukrainian Congress of Soviets on 20 March 1918 when the independence of the Soviet Ukraine
Ukraine
was announced. It failed to achieve recognition, either internationally or by the Russian SFSR, and, in accordance with the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, was abolished. In 1924, under the Soviet rule, the city's name was changed to Stalin. In that year, the city's population totaled 63,708, and in the next year, 80,085. In 1929–31 the city's name was changed to Stalino.[9] The city did not have a drinking water system until 1931, when a 55.3 km (34.4 mi) system was laid underground. In July 1933, the city became the administrative center of the Donetsk Oblast
Donetsk Oblast
of the Ukrainian SSR.[8] In 1933, the first 12 km (7 mi) sewer system was installed, and next year the first exploitation of gas was conducted within the city. In addition, some sources[which?] state that the city was briefly called Trotsk—after Leon Trotsky—for a few months in 1923. At the beginning of World War II, the population of Stalino consisted of 507,000, and after the war, only 175,000. The German invasion during World War II
World War II
almost completely destroyed the city, which was mostly rebuilt on a large scale at the war's end. It was occupied by German forces as part of the Reichskommissariat Ukraine
Ukraine
between 16 October 1941 and 5 September 1943. In 1945, young men and women aged 17 to 35, from the Danube Swabian (Schwowe) communities of Yugoslavia, Hungary
Hungary
and Romania
Romania
(the Batschka and Banat), were forcibly sent to Russia
Russia
as Allied "war reparations", being put to work as slave labour to rebuild Stalino and to work in its mines. The conditions were so poor that many died from disease and malnutrition.[10] During Nikita Khrushchev's second wave of destalinization in November 1961, the city was renamed Donetsk, after the Seversky Donets
Seversky Donets
River, a tributary of the Don[8] in order to distance it from the former leader Joseph Stalin. In 1965, the Donetsk
Donetsk
Academy
Academy
of Sciences was established as part of the Academy
Academy
of Science of the Ukrainian SSR. Independent Ukraine After experiencing a tough time in the 1990s, when it was the center of gang wars for control over industrial enterprises, Donetsk
Donetsk
has modernised quickly in recent years, largely under the influence of big companies. In 1994 a referendum took place in the Donetsk Oblast
Donetsk Oblast
and the Luhansk Oblast, with around 90% supporting the Russian language
Russian language
gaining status of an official language alongside Ukrainian, and for the Russian language to be an official language on a regional level; however, the referendum was annulled by the Kiev
Kiev
government.[11][12][unreliable source?] In the 90s and the 00s coal mine collapses took place in Donetsk
Donetsk
and the region, taking the lives of hundreds; those included the 2008 Ukraine
Ukraine
coal mine collapse, the 2007 Zasyadko mine disaster, and the 2015 Zasyadko mine disaster. Ukraine
Ukraine
has had a series of mining accidents since the collapse of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1991, and one reason being given is the linking of miners' pay to production, which serves as an incentive to ignore safety procedures that would slow production.[13] In a summit in Moscow
Moscow
in 2008, Donetsk
Donetsk
was recognised as the best city in the Commonwealth of Independent States
Commonwealth of Independent States
for its implemented development strategies;[14] in 2012 and 2013 Donetsk
Donetsk
was recognised as the best place for business in Ukraine.[15][16][17] Whilst getting praise for its business potential, Donetsk
Donetsk
also received criticism for the strong mafia connection of its business magnates, and for the increasing poverty rate (alongside a growing number of oligarchs)[18] Some analysts warned of a long-term collapse of the Donetsk
Donetsk
economy, and that it could share Detroit's gloomy fate, due to its failure to combat crime and poverty[19][better source needed] 2014-Present - Euromaidan, War in Donbass, and Capital of the Donetsk People's Republic

Referendum
Referendum
organized by the rebels. A line to enter a polling place, 11 May 2014

Play media

Russian flag being raised in Donetsk, 1 March 2014

After the disgraced President Yanukovych abandoned Ukraine
Ukraine
for Russia, Russian-backed provocateurs took over the main government building in Donetsk. The police did not offer resistance.[20] Later in the week the authorities of Donetsk
Donetsk
denounced the referendum on the status of the region[21] and the police retook the Donetsk Oblast
Donetsk Oblast
administrative building.[22][23] Donetsk
Donetsk
became one of the centers of the 2014 pro-Russian conflict in Ukraine. On 7 April 2014, pro-Russian activists seized control of Donetsk's government building and declared the " Donetsk
Donetsk
People's Republic",[24] asking for Russian intervention.[25] On 11 May 2014, a controversial referendum was held in Donetsk
Donetsk
in which voters could choose political independence. It was stated by the head of the self-proclaimed Donetsk People's Republic
Donetsk People's Republic
election commission, Roman Lyagin, that almost 90 percent of those who voted in the Donetsk
Donetsk
Region endorsed political independence from Kyiv. Ukraine does not recognize the referendum, while the EU and US said the polls were illegal.[26] Heavy shelling by the Ukrainian Army and paramilitary units have caused civilian fatalities in Donetsk.[27][28][29] Human Rights Watch has called on both warring factions to cease using BM-21 Grad
BM-21 Grad
in populated areas, and has said the use of these weapons systems may be a violation of international humanitarian laws and could constitute war crimes.[30] The 2015 IIHF World Championship Division I
2015 IIHF World Championship Division I
was scheduled for 18 to 24 April 2015 in Donetsk, but Ukraine
Ukraine
withdrew as the tournament hosts due to the ongoing issues in the country.[31] To celebrate the "independence" of the Donetsk
Donetsk
People's Republic, in 2015 Donetsk
Donetsk
was the venue for a major rock concert called Novorossiya-Rock, attracting such notable Russian language
Russian language
artists as Vadim Samoylov (ex-Agatha Christie), Chicherina, and 7B.[32][33][34] Geography and climate

The spoil tips near the Kalmius. On a background – Chervonohvardiyskyi raion of Makiivka

Donetsk
Donetsk
lies in the steppe landscape of Ukraine, surrounded by scattered woodland, hills (spoil tips), rivers and lakes. The northern outskirts are mainly used for agriculture. The Kalmius
Kalmius
River
River
links the city with the Sea of Azov, which is 95 km (59 mi) to the south, and a popular recreational area for those living in Donetsk. A wide belt of farmlands surrounds the city. The city stretches 28 km (17 mi) from north to south and 55 km (34 mi) from east to west. There are 2 nearby reservoirs: Nyzhnekalmius (60 ha), and the " Donetsk
Donetsk
Sea" (206 ha). 5 rivers flow through the city, including the Kalmius, Asmolivka (13 km), Cherepashkyna (23 km), Skomoroshka and Bakhmutka. The city also contains a total of 125 spoil tips.[35] Donetsk's climate is moderate continental[36] (Köppen: Dfb). The average temperatures are−4.1 °C (25 °F) in January and 21.6 °C (71 °F) in July. The average number of rainfall per year totals 162 days and up to 556 millimetres per year.[36]

Climate data for Donetsk
Donetsk
1981–2010

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 12.2 (54) 16.0 (60.8) 21.3 (70.3) 31.0 (87.8) 34.6 (94.3) 38.0 (100.4) 37.8 (100) 39.1 (102.4) 33.9 (93) 32.7 (90.9) 20.5 (68.9) 15.0 (59) 39.1 (102.4)

Average high °C (°F) −1.3 (29.7) −0.9 (30.4) 5.3 (41.5) 14.5 (58.1) 20.9 (69.6) 24.8 (76.6) 27.3 (81.1) 26.8 (80.2) 20.7 (69.3) 13.1 (55.6) 4.7 (40.5) −0.3 (31.5) 13.0 (55.4)

Daily mean °C (°F) −4.1 (24.6) −4.1 (24.6) 1.3 (34.3) 9.4 (48.9) 15.4 (59.7) 19.3 (66.7) 21.6 (70.9) 20.8 (69.4) 15.1 (59.2) 8.5 (47.3) 1.6 (34.9) −2.9 (26.8) 8.5 (47.3)

Average low °C (°F) −6.7 (19.9) −7.0 (19.4) −2.1 (28.2) 4.6 (40.3) 10.0 (50) 13.8 (56.8) 15.9 (60.6) 15.0 (59) 10.0 (50) 4.5 (40.1) −1.1 (30) −5.4 (22.3) 4.3 (39.7)

Record low °C (°F) −32.2 (−26) −31.1 (−24) −21.0 (−5.8) −10.6 (12.9) −2.4 (27.7) 2.1 (35.8) 6.0 (42.8) 2.2 (36) −6.0 (21.2) −10.0 (14) −22.2 (−8) −28.5 (−19.3) −32.2 (−26)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 37 (1.46) 32 (1.26) 34 (1.34) 38 (1.5) 46 (1.81) 65 (2.56) 51 (2.01) 37 (1.46) 36 (1.42) 37 (1.46) 38 (1.5) 41 (1.61) 492 (19.37)

Average rainy days 11 8 10 13 13 14 11 8 11 11 13 11 134

Average snowy days 17 17 10 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 8 16 72

Average relative humidity (%) 87 84 77 66 62 66 64 60 67 76 86 88 73

Source: Pogoda.ru.net[37]

Government and administrative divisions

Raions of Donetsk
Donetsk
on the territory of the Donetsk City
Donetsk City
Municipality:

  Budyonny Raion   Voroshilov Raion   Kalinin Raion    Kiev
Kiev
Raion   Kirov Raion

  Kuibyshev Raion   Lenin Raion   Petrovsky Raion   Proletarian Raion

City centre

While Donetsk
Donetsk
is the administrative centre of the Donetsk
Donetsk
Oblast (province), the city is the capital of the Donetsk City
Donetsk City
Municipality. However, Donetsk
Donetsk
is a city of oblast subordinance, thus being subject directly to the oblast authorities rather to the Donetsk
Donetsk
City Municipality housed in the city itself. Since 7 April 2014 Donetsk
Donetsk
is de facto governed by the Donetsk People's Republic, even though it has only been recognized by the Republic of South Ossetia
South Ossetia
as of October 2014. The territory of Donetsk
Donetsk
is divided into 9 administrative raions (districts). In addition, every raion consists of raion councils, which are subordinate to the Donetsk City
Donetsk City
Council.

# Raions Area Population

1 Budyonny Raion 25 km² 100,300

2 Voroshylov Raion 10 km² 97,300

3 Kalinin Raion 19 km² 109,700

4 Kyiv Raion 33 km² 143,700

5 Kirov Raion 68 km² 171,700

6 Kuibyshev Raion 51 km² 120,800

7 Lenin Raion 37 km² 107,800

8 Petrovsky Raion 57 km² 88,600

9 Proletarian Raion 58 km² 102,800

Demographics See article: Russians
Russians
in Ukraine

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1897[38] 28,100 —    

1926[39] 106,000 +277.2%

1939[40] 466,300 +339.9%

1959[41] 699,200 +49.9%

1970[42] 879,000 +25.7%

1979[43] 1,020,800 +16.1%

1989[44] 1,109,100 +8.7%

1998[45] 1,065,400 −3.9%

2006[46] 993,500 −6.7%

2011 975,959 −1.8%

2015 933,795 −4.3%

Victory Day on May 9, 2013

Donetsk
Donetsk
had a population of over 985,000 inhabitants in 2009[47] and over 1,566,000 inhabitants in the metropolitan area in 2004. It is the fifth-largest city in Ukraine.[2] According to the 2001 census, the Donetsk Oblast
Donetsk Oblast
is inhabited by members of more than 130 ethnic groups.[48] The Ukrainian ethnicity is 56.9% of the population (2,744,100 people); the Russian ethnicity is 38.2% of the population (1,844,400 people).[48] The native language of 74.9% of the population of the Donetsk
Donetsk
region is Russian, compared with 24.1% Ukrainian.[49] 58.7% of people of Ukrainian ethnicity considered Russian to be their native language.[49] Out of 4.5 million residents of the Donetsk
Donetsk
region, 550 are Russian citizens.[50] In 1989 there were no Ukrainian language
Ukrainian language
schools in Donetsk.[51] The structure of the Donetsk City
Donetsk City
Municipality by ethnicity is as follows:[52]

Russians: 493,392 people, 48.15% Ukrainians: 478,041 people, 46.65% Belarusians: 11,769 people, 1.15% Pontic Greeks
Pontic Greeks
(including Caucasus Greeks): 10,180 people, 0.99% Jews: 5,087 people, 0.50% Tatars: 4,987 people, 0.49% Armenians: 4,050 people, 0.40% Azerbaijanis: 2,098 people, 0.20% Georgians: 2,073 people, 0.20% Other: 13,001 people, 1.27%

Total: 1,024,678 people, 100.00%

In 1991 one-third of the population identified as Russian, one-third as Ukrainian while the majority of the rest declared themselves Slavs.[51] Smaller minorities include in particular ethnic groups from the South Caucasus
South Caucasus
and northeast Anatolia
Anatolia
region, including Armenians, Georgians, and Pontic Greeks
Pontic Greeks
(including those defined as Caucasus Greeks). Native language of the population of the city of Donetsk
Donetsk
as of the Ukrainian Census of 2001:[53]

Russian 87.8% Ukrainian 11.1% Armenian 0.1% Belarusian 0.1%

Economy

This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (June 2012)

Congress Hall

Donetsk
Donetsk
and the surrounding territories are heavily urbanised and agglomerated into conurbation. The workforce is heavily involved with heavy industry, especially coal mining. The city is an important center of heavy industry and coal mines in the Donets Basin
Donets Basin
(Donbass) and Ukraine. Directly under the city lie coal mines, which have recently seen an increase in mining accidents, the most recent accident being at the Zasyadko mine, which killed over 100 workers.[54] Donetsk's economy consists of about 200 industrial organizations that have a total production output of more than 50 billion hryvnias per year and more than 20,000 medium-small sized organizations.[55] The city's coal mining industry comprises 17 coal mines and two concentrating mills; the metallurgy industry comprises 5 large metallurgical plants located throughout the city; the engineering market comprises 67 organizations, and the food industry — 32 organizations.[55]

Donetsk
Donetsk
Zasyadko coal mine, infamous for its mining accidents.

After the fall of the Soviet Union, Donetsk
Donetsk
and other neighboring cities of the Donbass
Donbass
suffered heavily, as many factories were closed down and many inhabitants lost their jobs.[56] About 412,000 square metres (4,434,731 sq ft) of living space, 7.9 km (4.9 mi) of gas networks, and 15.1 km (9.4 mi) of water supply networks were constructed in the city during 1998–2001.[55] The city also houses the "Donetsk" special economic zone.[55][57] Donetsk
Donetsk
currently has nine sister cities.[58] The German city of Magdeburg
Magdeburg
had economic partnerships with Donetsk
Donetsk
during 1962–1996.[59][60] In 2012, Donetsk
Donetsk
was rated the best city for business in Ukraine
Ukraine
by Forbes. Donetsk
Donetsk
topped the rating in five indicators: human capital, the purchasing power of citizens, investment situation, economic stability, as well as infrastructure and comfort.[61] The shopping areas in the city include the enclosed shopping mall Donetsk
Donetsk
City. Sports Donetsk
Donetsk
is a large sports center, has a developed infrastructure, and has repeatedly held international competitions – Davis Cup, UEFA Champions League. Representatives of the city are state leaders sports such as football, hockey, basketball, boxing, tennis, athletics and others. The most popular sport in Donetsk
Donetsk
is football. Donetsk
Donetsk
is the home to three major professional football clubs: Shakhtar Donetsk, which plays at the Donbass
Donbass
Arena (previously at the Shakhtar Stadium and the RSC Olimpiyskiy), Metalurh Donetsk, which plays at the Metalurh Stadium, and FC Olimpik Donetsk. All three play in the Ukraine
Ukraine
Premier League. Shakhtar Donetsk
Shakhtar Donetsk
won the Ukrainian Championship and Ukrainian Cup multiple times, and in 2009 they became the second team from Ukraine (after FC Dynamo Kyiv) to win a European competition, the UEFA
UEFA
Cup. Donetsk
Donetsk
is also home to the women's football club WFC Donchanka, one of the most successful clubs in the history of the Ukrainian Women's League.

Fans of Shakhtar Donetsk
Shakhtar Donetsk
in the Donbass
Donbass
Arena

Donetsk
Donetsk
is home to the football stadium Donbass
Donbass
Arena, which was opened in 2009. It became the first stadium in Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
designed and constructed according to the UEFA
UEFA
standards for stadiums of "Elite" category. When the joint bid for the UEFA Euro 2012
UEFA Euro 2012
was won by Poland
Poland
and Ukraine, Donetsk's Donbass
Donbass
Arena was chosen as the location for three Group D matches, one quarter-final match, and one semi-final match.[62] The RSK Olimpiyskyi Stadium was chosen as a reserve stadium.[63] Donetsk, together with the nearby Mariupol, were the host towns of the 2009 UEFA
UEFA
European Under-19 Championship. The stadiums hosting the event on behalf of Donetsk
Donetsk
were RSC Olimpiyskiy
RSC Olimpiyskiy
(which hosted the final) and the Metalurh Stadium. Donetsk
Donetsk
is home to the ice hockey club HC Donbass, playing at the Druzhba Arena
Druzhba Arena
since 2011, which won the 2011 Ukrainian national champion, and which is the only elite level team in the country. After playing a single season in the Russian Major League, the club upgraded its arena to Kontinental Hockey League
Kontinental Hockey League
regulations, and joined the league in 2012. When moving to the KHL, the club created a local farm club to play in the Ukrainian Championship under the name HC Donbass-2, which won the 2012 and 2013 national titles. In 2013 Donetsk
Donetsk
was hosting the 2012–13 IIHF Continental Cup ice hockey Super Final, which HC Donbass
Donbass
won, and the 2013 IIHF World Championship Division I – Group B, where Ukraine
Ukraine
finished 1st and earned promotion to Group A (both were hosted at the Druzhba Arena). Donetsk
Donetsk
is also home to the basketball club BC Donetsk, which plays in the Ukrainian Basketball
Basketball
Super League, and won the 2012 champion title. The club is playing at the Druzhba Arena. Donetsk
Donetsk
was chosen as one of the 6 cities to host the FIBA EuroBasket 2015. The city used to be the home of few notable at the time yet now defunct clubs. The M FC Shakhtar Donetsk
FC Shakhtar Donetsk
club won the Ukrainian futsal championship five times, but was dissolved in January 2011 midway through the season due to financial problems (at the time – the most titled club in Ukraine). One of the top Soviet volleyball teams at the time, VC Shakhtar Donetsk, who were the last team to win the Soviet Volleyball
Volleyball
Championship, in 1992. The team also won the first two championships in the independent Ukraine
Ukraine
league, in 1992 and 1993 (the 1992 Ukraine
Ukraine
championship was held in Donetsk), and won the Ukraine Cup in 1993, but after having financial issues, the club was relegated in 1997, and after one season in the second tear it was shut down.

The statue of pole vault legend Serhii Bubka
Serhii Bubka
which stands in Donetsk near the RSC Olimpiyskiy.

Donetsk
Donetsk
hosted the USSR Tennis Championship in 1978, 1979 and 1980, and hosted some tennis matches of the 2005 Davis Cup. Donetsk
Donetsk
was home to the Alexander Kolyaskin Memorial, which was held between 2002–2008 and part of the ATP Challenger Series, and Donetsk
Donetsk
is the home of the female Viccourt Cup, which is classified as an ITF Women's Circuit and started in 2012. Donetsk
Donetsk
was always an important athletics centre, and hosted various events. Donetsk
Donetsk
was one of the host towns for the 1978 and 1980 Soviet Athletics Championships, and was the sole host town of the event in 1984. Donetsk
Donetsk
also hosted the 1977 European Athletics Junior Championships. The stadium used for those athletics events was the RSC Olimpiyskiy (at the time called RSC Lokomotiv). Among the different track and field sports, Donetsk
Donetsk
especially has a big name in pole vaulting. Serhii Bubka, regarded by many as the greatest pole vaulter in history, grew up in the city, and also started in 1992 an annual pole vaulting event in Donetsk, called Pole Vault Stars. Bubka himself set the world indoor record at the event three times (1990, 1991, 1993). His indoor world pole vault record of 6.15m, set in the Donetsk
Donetsk
Olympic Stadium on 21 February 1993, was not broken until 2014. The Russian female pole vaulter Yelena Isinbayeva set a new world record at the event every year between 2004–2009. The 2015 IIHF World Championship Division I
2015 IIHF World Championship Division I
ice hockey tournament had been scheduled for 18 to 24 April 2015 in Donetsk
Donetsk
but was later moved to Kraków, Poland
Poland
due to the ongoing war. Professional sports teams The following is a list of existing professional sports teams, and notable (title-winning) defunct clubs:

Club League Sport Venue Established Championships

FC Shakhtar Donetsk Ukrainian Premier League Association football Donbass
Donbass
Arena 1936 9

FC Metalurh Donetsk Ukrainian Premier League Association football Metalurh Stadium 1996 0

FC Olimpik Donetsk Ukrainian Premier League Association football Sports Complex Olimpik 2001 0

WFC Donchanka Ukrainian Women's League Women's association football TsPOR Donchanka Stadium 1992 5

M FC Shakhtar Donetsk
FC Shakhtar Donetsk
(defunct) Ukrainian Futsal
Futsal
Championship Futsal Pavilion 1998 5

Shakhtar-Academiya Ukrainian Handball
Handball
Super League Handball SC Tekstilshik 1983 3

HC Donbass Kontinental Hockey League Ice hockey Druzhba Arena 2005 Ukraine: 4 (2 as affiliate HC Donbass-2)

BC Donetsk
BC Donetsk
(defunct) Ukrainian SuperLeague Basketball Druzhba Arena 2006 1

VC Shakhtar Donetsk
Shakhtar Donetsk
(defunct) Ukrainian Volleyball
Volleyball
Championship Volleyball Druzhba Arena 1983 Soviet Union: 1 Ukraine: 2

Culture Main sights First Line Avenue (Artema Street)

Donetsk
Donetsk
Shevchenko Cinema on Artema Street

First Line Avenue, also known as Artema Street, is considered to be the main part of Donetsk. It generally functions as the foremost place to start for any tourist trip around the city. The street hosts a mix of new and old architecture together with small parks, stylish hotels, shopping centres and restaurants. Noteworthy sites include Lenin Square, the Opera & Ballet Theatre, Monument to Coalminers and Donetsk
Donetsk
Drama Theatre.

Panorama of Artema Street

Statue of Artem (Fyodor Sergeyev) This imposing six-metre statue on Artema Street is a tribute to one of the most celebrated Soviet politicians. After his death in the Donets Basin in 1921, Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
adopted his son. Donetsk
Donetsk
Opera and Ballet Theatre Built in 1936, the Donetsk
Donetsk
Opera and Ballet Theatre, is a gem of a theatre with an elegant exterior and world-class performances inside. Donetsk
Donetsk
is the home to the Donetsk Ballet
Donetsk Ballet
company since 1946.

Donetsk
Donetsk
Opera Theatre, 2002

Donbass
Donbass
Palace This 5-star hotel in the center of Donetsk
Donetsk
is the only Ukrainian hotel to join The Leading Hotels of The World and is Ukraine's leading business hotel according to the World Travel Awards Association. It was built in 1938 upon the project of Shuvalova and Rechanikov. During the Nazi occupation of Donetsk, the Gestapo headquartered in the former hotel; the building was partially destroyed during the war. The hotel was opened after the reconstruction in 2004.

Donbass Palace
Donbass Palace
in 2008

Pushkin Boulevard

Pushkin Boulevard at night

A beautiful green walkway that takes you away from Donetsk
Donetsk
city life for a 2 km (1.24 mi) stroll. Here you can enjoy peaceful fountains, al fresco cafes and a number of interesting statues such as the monument to Taras Shevchenko. Donetsk
Donetsk
is home to the world's perhaps most famous plant forged out of steel, the intricate Mertsalov Palm, located on Pushkin Boulevard. Originally created for an exhibition in 1896 by Aleksei Mertsalov, a local blacksmith, out of a single rail, it represented the skills and power of the heavy industry in Czarist Russia. Monument to John Hughes This 2001 statue located in front of Donetsk
Donetsk
National Technical University
University
honours the hard work of Welsh city founder John James Hughes. He was responsible for the city's Yuzivka Steel Plant that gave Donetsk
Donetsk
its industrial history. Forged Figures Park

Rose – the symbol of Donetsk
Donetsk
City, Forged Figures Park

Forged Figures Park was opened in 2001 and is one-in-a-kind object. International Smithcraft Festival takes place in the park every year. The most impressive masterworks remain in the city as a gift expanding the number of park's "residents" Aquapark Donetsk
Donetsk
Aquapark "Royal Marine" was opened in Scherbakova Park in early winter 2012 and, according to experts' estimates, is one of the top aquaparks in Europe. The free-standing dome, made with OpenAire's exclusive, maintenance-free aluminium truss structure, will be 26 metres (85 ft) high with a diameter of 85 metres (279 ft), and feature a unique retractable design that slides open in a smooth rotating motion, opening up to 50% of the structure to sunlight and fresh air. The 5,700-square-metre (61,000 sq ft) Aquatoria, slated to become the largest retractable aluminium-domed indoor waterpark in the world, is being built by Canadian company OpenAire, Inc., a premier designer, manufacturer and installer of retractable roof enclosures and operable skylights.[64] Architecture

The Velikobritaniya (English: Great Britain) hotel is one of the oldest buildings in Donetsk, constructed in 1883.

Donetsk, at the time Yuzivka, was divided into two parts: north and south. In the southern part were the city's factories, railway stations, telegraph buildings, hospitals and schools. Not far from the factories was the English colony where the engineers and the management lived. After the construction of the residence of John Hughes and the various complexes for the foreign workers, the city's southern portion was constructed mainly in the English style. These buildings used rectangular and triangular shaped façades, green rooftops, large windows, which occupied a large portion of the building, and balconies. In this part of the town, the streets were large and had pavements. A major influence on the formation of architecture in Donetsk
Donetsk
was the official architect of a Novorossiya company — Moldingauyer. Preserved buildings of the southern part of Yuzivka consisted of the residences of John Hughes (1891, partially preserved), Bolfur (1889) and Bosse. In the northern part of Yuzivka, Novyi Svet, lived traders, craftsmen and bureaucrats. Here were located the market hall, the police headquarters and the Cathedral of the Transfiguration of Jesus. The central street of Novyi Svet and the neighbouring streets were mainly edged by one- or two-story residential buildings, as well as markets, restaurants, hotels, offices and banks. A famous preserved building in the northern part of Yuzivka was the Hotel Great Britain. The first general plan of Stalino was made in 1932 in Odessa
Odessa
by the architect P. Golovchenko. In 1937, the project was partly reworked. These projects were the first in the city's construction bureau's history. A large portion of the city's buildings from the second half of the 20th century were designed by the architect Pavel Vigdergauz, which was given the Government award of the USSR for architecture in the city of Donetsk
Donetsk
in 1978. Religion

The reconstructed Cathedral of Transfiguration of Jesus in Donetsk.

Donetsk's residents belong to religious traditions including the Eastern Orthodox Church[65] Eastern Catholic Churches, Protestantism, and the Roman Catholic Church, as well as Islam
Islam
and Judaism.[66][67] The religious body with the most members is the Ukrainian Orthodox Church ( Moscow
Moscow
Patriarchate) and Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Kyivan Patriarchate. In 2014, a leaflet "signed by Chairman of Donetsk's temporary government Denis Pushilin" was distributed to Jews on the festival of Passover. The leaflet informed Donetsk's Jewish citizen to register themselves, their property, and their family to the pro-Russian authorities. The leaflet claimed that failure to comply with its demands would result in the revocation of citizenship and confiscation of property. The leaflet prompted confusion and fear among Donetsk's Jewish population, who saw echoes of the Holocaust in the leaflet.[68] Media Five television stations operate within Donetsk:

TRK Ukraina (Ukrainian: ТРК Україна)[69] KRT, Kyivska Rus' (Ukrainian: КРТ, Київська Русь)[70] First Municipal
Municipal
(Russian: Первый муниципальный)[71] Kanal 27 (Russian: 27 канал) TRK Donbass
Donbass
(Russian: ТРК Донбасс)

In Donetsk, there is the 360-metre tall TV tower, one of the tallest structures in the city, completed in 1992. Notable people Main article: List of people from Donetsk The citizens of Donetsk
Donetsk
are commonly called Donchyani (Russian: Дончани). The following is a list of famous people that were born or brought up in the city:

Famous science fiction writer Fyodor Berezin, a native of Donetsk, became the Deputy Minister of Defence of the Donetsk
Donetsk
People's Republic in 2014.

Opera singer Anatoliy Solovianenko, People's Artist of the USSR
People's Artist of the USSR
and winner of the Lenin Prize, was a native of the city.

Rinat Akhmetov, Ukraine's wealthiest businessman, founder of System Capital Management, No. 47 in Forbes' The World's Billionaires. Emma Andijewska, Ukrainian poet. Alexander Anoprienko, Professor of Computer Engineering Zalman Aran
Zalman Aran
(Aharonovich), Israeli social-democratic politician, minister of education (1955–1960) and (1963–1969). Serhiy Arbuzov, head of Ukrainian Bank. Polina Astakhova, Ukrainian gymnast. Mykola Azarov, former Prime Minister of Ukraine Fyodor Berezin, Russian-language science fiction writer and Deputy Minister of Defence of the Donetsk
Donetsk
People's Republic. Volodymyr Biletskyy, Ukrainian scientist. Serhii Bubka, Ukrainian pole vault athlete; Olympic Games
Olympic Games
champion: 1988; World Champion: 1983, 1987, 1991, 1995, European Champion: 1986; Champion of the USSR: 1984, 1985. Viktor Burduk, an artist, a blacksmith. Vera Filatova, actress. Yuriy Dehteryov, Soviet goalkeeper. Anatoly Timofeevich Fomenko, Russian Mathematician and lecturer at the Moscow
Moscow
University. Promoter of New Chronology. Yuriy Gavrilov, Volleyball
Volleyball
player, Olympic gold medallist. Dmytro Gnap, journalist, investigating corruption. Yuri Kara, Russian film director and producer. Yevgeny Khaldei, Soviet photographer. Nikita Khrushchev, General Secretary of the CPSU and Premier of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
1953–1964 (born in Kalinovka, Kursk Oblast, Russia
Russia
but grew up in Yuzivka). Valeriy Konovalyuk, an economist and businessman. Tatyana Kravchenko, Soviet and Russian actress. Mikhail Krichevsky, the last surviving World War I veteran who fought for the Russian Empire. Alexander Kuzemsky
Alexander Kuzemsky
- Soviet and Russian theoretical physicist. Aleksandr Lebziak, Russian boxer. Make Me Famous
Make Me Famous
- English language
English language
Metalcore
Metalcore
band. Natalya Mammadova, Azeri volleyball player. Oleksiy Matsuka, corruption investigator, Reporters Without Borders named Matsuka in its list of 100 Information Heroes. Siouzana Melikián, a Russian-Mexican actress. Evgenij Miroshnichenko, Ukrainian chess player. Master SheFF, the leader of Bad Balance and creator of Russian hip hop. Ilya Mate, Olympic champion in 1980. Oleksiy Pecherov, a Ukrainian basketball player. Vadim Pisarev, Ukrainian dancer and art Director of Donetsk
Donetsk
State Academic Opera and Ballet Theatre named after Solovyanenko. Lilia Podkopayeva, a Ukrainian gymnast, and the 1996 Olympic All Around Champion Sergiy Rebrov, footballer. Aleksandr Revva, comedian. Volodymyr Rybak, Mayor of Donetsk
Donetsk
and Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada. Vladislav Adolfovitch Rusanov, Russian-language science fiction writer and chairman of the Donetsk People's Republic
Donetsk People's Republic
Writer's Union. Denis Shaforostov, Ukrainian musician, vocalist for Asking Alexandria Natan Sharansky, former Soviet dissident, anticommunist, Zionist, Israeli politician and writer. Oleg Stefan, Russian actor. Anatoliy Solovyanenko, Soviet opera singer. Viktor Smyrnov, Paralympic swimmer. Viktor Sidyak, fencing, first Soviet individual sabre Olympic gold medal in Munich
Munich
1972, multiple times winner of World Championships and Olympic medalist (1968, 1972, 1976 and 1980). Vasyl Stus, Ukrainian poet and publicist, one of the most active members of Ukrainian dissident movement. Petro Symonenko, head of the Communist Party of Ukraine. Ihor Sorkin, head of the Ukrainian National Bank. Kirill Borisovich Tolpygo, Soviet physicist. Nadezhda Tkachenko, Olympic-gold winning pentathlete. Marina Tsvigun, religious sect leader, new age movement. Oleg Tverdovsky, ice hockey player. Kirill Borisovich Tolpygo, Soviet physicist and a Corresponding Member of the National Academy
Academy
of Sciences of Ukraine. Alexander Yagubkin, boxer. Viktor Yanukovych, former president of Ukraine; deposed due to the Euromaidan
Euromaidan
Revolts of 2013–2014.[72] Oleg Vernyayev, Gymnast, Olympic gold medallist. Pavlo Vigderhaus, Soviet architect, Monument to a Miner creator. Vladimir Grigoryevich Zakharov, Soviet composer.

Museums

Donetsk
Donetsk
Regional Museum of Art

Donetsk
Donetsk
is home to about 140 museums. Among them, two large regional museums – Donetsk
Donetsk
Region History Museum and Donetsk
Donetsk
Regional Art Museum. Donetsk
Donetsk
Region History Museum reveals the city's true identity and covers to the entire local community, diverse as it is. Set up in 1924, it offers an extensive expo with 120,000 exhibits: from archeological findings dating back to pre-historic times to the founding of the city by John Hughes, development of industry and coal mining, World War II
World War II
and the Soviet times. On 21 August 2014, the mayor of Donetsk
Donetsk
reported that the roof and walls of the Donetsk Regional History Museum had been destroyed by shellfire early that morning.[73] FC Shaktar Museum was opened in 2010. This museum is the first Ukrainian museum to be nominated for a European Museum of the Year Award[74] Transport Local transport

A Donetsk
Donetsk
trolley bus with the Cathedral of Transfiguration of Jesus in the background.

Tram LM-2008

The main forms of transport within Donetsk
Donetsk
are: trams, electric trolley buses, buses and marshrutkas (private minibuses). The city's public transport system is controlled by the united Dongorpastrans municipal company. The city has 12 tram lines (~130 km), 17 trolley bus lines (~188 km), and about 115 bus lines.[75] Both the tram and trolley bus systems in the city are served by 2 depots each.[75] Another method of transport within the city is taxicab service, of which there are 32 in Donetsk. The city also contains autostations located within the city and its suburbs: autostation Yuzhny (South), which serves mainly transport lines to the south, hence its name; autostation Tsentr (Centre), which serves transport in the direction of Marinka and Vuhledar
Vuhledar
as well as intercity transport; the autostation Krytyi rynok (Indoor market), which serves mainly transport in the north and east directions; and the autostation Putilovsky, which serves mainly the north and northwest transport directions. The construction of the metro system in the city, begun in 1992, was recently abandoned due to the lack of funding. No lines or stations have been finished.[76] Railways

Donetsk's main railway station, located in the north of the city.

Donetsk's main railway station, which serves about 7 million passengers annually,[75] is located in the northern part of the city. There is a museum near the main station, dealing with the history of the region's railways. Other railway stations are: Rutchenkovo, located in the Kyivskyi Raion; Mandrykino (Petrovskyi Raion), and Mushketovo (Budionivskyi Raion). Some passenger trains avoid Donetsk station and serve the Yasynuvata
Yasynuvata
station, located outside the city limits. Although not used for regular transport, the city also has a children's railway. (As of September 2009) a new railway terminal facility that will comply with UEFA
UEFA
requirements (since Donetsk
Donetsk
is one of the host city's for UEFA
UEFA
EURO 2012) is planned.[77] As the Donetsk Oblast
Donetsk Oblast
is an important transport hub in Ukraine, so is its centre Donetsk. The Donetsk
Donetsk
Railways, based in Donetsk, is one of the largest railway divisions in the country. It serves the farming and industrial businesses of the area, and the populations of the Donetsk
Donetsk
and Luhansk
Luhansk
oblasts and parts of the Dnipropetrovsk, Zaporizhia
Zaporizhia
and Kharkiv
Kharkiv
oblasts. Road transport The highway, part of the International E-road network, runs through the city en route to Rostov-on-Don
Rostov-on-Don
in Russia. In addition, another international road runs through the city: the M 04. Also, three national Ukrainian roads (N 15, N 20, and N 21) pass through the city. The construction of the fourth stage of a circular road bypassing Donetsk
Donetsk
is to be completed in 2014.[78] Air travel In addition to public and rail transport, Donetsk
Donetsk
has an international airport.[79] It was constructed during the early 1940s and early 1950s. It was rebuilt in 1973 and again from 2011 to 2012. Because of fighting the airport has been closed as of 26 May 2014 and the airport has since then largely been destroyed.[80] The airspace above Donetsk has also been closed since the MH17
MH17
disaster. Education

Physics Day in Donetsk
Donetsk
National University, 2006

Donetsk
Donetsk
has several universities, which include five state universities, 11 institutes, three academies, 14 technicums, five private universities, and six colleges. The most important and prominent educational institutions include Donetsk
Donetsk
National Technical University, founded in 1921[81] ("Donetsk Polytechnical Institute" in 1960–1993), as well as the Donetsk National University[82] which was founded in 1937. The National Technical University
University
held close contacts with the University
University
in Magdeburg. Since 1970, more than 100 students from Germany
Germany
(East Germany) have completed their higher education at either one of the two main universities in Donetsk. Donetsk
Donetsk
is also the home of the Donetsk
Donetsk
National Medical University, which was founded in 1930 and became one of the largest medical universities in the Soviet Union. There are also several scientific research institutes and an Islamic University
University
within Donetsk. Donetsk
Donetsk
is also the home of the Prokofiev Donetsk
Donetsk
State Music Academy, a music conservatory founded in 1960. Twinnings Donetsk
Donetsk
participates in international town twinning schemes to foster good international relations. Partners include:

Bochum, Germany, (1987) Charleroi, Belgium Katowice, Poland Kutaisi, Georgia

Moscow, Russia Pittsburgh, USA Rostov-on-Don, Russia Sheffield, United Kingdom

Taranto, Italy
Italy
(1984) Vilnius, Lithuania Baku, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
(2009) Matagalpa, Nicaragua
Nicaragua
(2004)

See also

Ukraine
Ukraine
portal

Donetsk
Donetsk
People's Republic List of airports in Ukraine List of the busiest airports in the former USSR Russians
Russians
in Ukraine

Notes

^ Due to the War in Donbass, Lukyanchenko was forced to move to Kiev.

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Euro 2012. Archived from the original on 3 May 2007. Retrieved 7 May 2007.  ^ "World's largest retractable aluminum-domed waterpark under work in Ukraine". Themeparkpost.com. 14 September 2011. Archived from the original on 10 October 2011. Retrieved 26 March 2013.  ^ Донбасс Православный [Orthodox Donbass] (in Russian). ortodox.donbass.com. Archived from the original on 29 June 2007. Retrieved 12 May 2007.  ^ Соціологічне опитування - Релігія: Віруючим якої церкви, конфесії Ви себе вважаєте? [Sociological survey - Religion: Believers, which churches do you consider yourself to adherents of?]. Razumkov Centre (in Ukrainian). 2006. Retrieved 5 September 2017.  ^ Yarosh, Oleg; Brylov, Denys (2011). "Muslim communities and Islamic network institutions in Ukraine: contesting authorities in shaping Islamic localities". In Katarzyna Górak-Sosnowka. Muslims in Poland and Eastern Europe: Widening the European Discourse on Islam. Katarzyna Górak-Sosnowska. p. 254. ISBN 978-83-903229-5-7. Retrieved 27 May 2016.  ^ Margalit, Michal. " Donetsk
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leaflet: Jews must register or face deportation." Ynetnews. 16 April 2014. ^ "Television channel 'Ukraine' home". TRK Ukraina. Retrieved 16 December 2016.  ^ "Main Page". Kyivska Rus (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2 April 2006.  ^ "Main Page". Pervyi munitsipal'nyi kanal (in Russian). [dead link] ^ "Ukraine: President Viktor Yanukovych
Viktor Yanukovych
says he was forced to flee due to threats; slams 'pro-fascist' forces – ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)". Abc.net.au. Retrieved 2014-08-09.  ^ Kishkovsky, Sophia (14 August 2014). "Eastern Ukraine's museums told to hide their collections". theartnewspaper.com. Archived from the original on 16 August 2014.  ^ "FC Shakhtar Museum nominated for an 'Oscar'". Donbass-arena.com. 19 May 2012. Retrieved 2013-03-26.  ^ a b c Транспорт [Transport]. Partner- Portal
Portal
(in Russian). Archived from the original on 10 May 2007. Retrieved 11 May 2007.  ^ У Донецьку припиняють зводити метро [Metro construction in Donetsk
Donetsk
is stopping]. 1tv.com.ua (in Ukrainian). 18 January 2012. Archived from the original on 2 May 2013. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link) ^ "Construction of railway terminal in Donetsk
Donetsk
for UEFA
UEFA
EURO 2012 worth UAH 414mln". Ukrinform. 23 September 2009. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011.  ^ Building of fourth stage of Donetsk
Donetsk
ring road to end in 2014, Interfax- Ukraine
Ukraine
(11 January 2014) ^ "Service Center, International Airport 'Donetsk'". VIP-Terminal. Archived from the original on 15 June 2006. Retrieved 6 March 2007.  ^ Loiko, Sergei L. (28 October 2014). " Ukraine
Ukraine
fighters, surrounded at wrecked airport, refuse to give up". Los Angeles Times. Donetsk. Archived from the original on 28 October 2014. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link) ^ "About DonNTU". Donetsk
Donetsk
National Technical University
University
(DonNTU). 2016. Retrieved 16 December 2016.  ^ "History of the University". Donetsk
Donetsk
National University. 2015. Retrieved 16 December 2016. 

Sources

Kilesso, S. (1982). Donetsk. Architectural-historical summary. Kyiv: Budivelnyk. p. 152.  "Partner- Portal
Portal
— Everything about Donetsk". Partner- Portal
Portal
(in Russian). Интернет-агентство «Партнер». Archived from the original on 11 August 2006. Retrieved 28 August 2006. 

External links

Find more aboutDonetskat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity

General

donetsk.org.ua — Donetsk
Donetsk
city administration website (in Ukrainian)/(in Russian) stroit.dn.ua — Construction site of Donetsk (in Russian) partner.donetsk.ua — Informational portal about Donetsk Official site of the Donetsk
Donetsk
international airport Shakhtar Donetsk
Shakhtar Donetsk
official website of the Shakhtar football team dntsk.net — old and recent photos of Donetsk
Donetsk
(in Russian)

Historical

geocities.com — History of Donetsk
Donetsk
and the story of the founder John Hughes bfcollection.net — Historic images of Donetsk alldonetsk.info – The history of the city of Donetsk [3] - Language Sandarmokh of Donetchyna, Mariya Oliynyk (UKR)

Maps

citylife.donetsk.ua — City map in English language
English language
for foreigners maps.google.com — Google maps
Google maps
satellite view of Donetsk wikimapia.org — Wikimapia
Wikimapia
view of Donetsk gorod.dn.ua — City map browsable and searchable by address

v t e

Administrative divisions of Donetsk

Administrative center: Donetsk

Raions

Budonivskyi Kalininskyi Kirovskyi Kuibyshevskyi Kyivskyi Leninskyi Petrovsky Proletarskyi Voroshylovskyi

Cities

Regional

Donetsk

District

Mospyne

v t e

Administrative divisions of Donetsk
Donetsk
Oblast

Administrative center: Donetsk

Raions

Amvrosiivka Bakhmut Dobropillia Kostiantynivka Lyman Manhush Marinka Nikolske Novoazovsk Oleksandrivka Pokrovsk Shakhtarsk Sloviansk Starobesheve Telmanove Velyka Novosilka Volnovakha Yasynuvata

Cities

Regional

Avdiivka Bakhmut Debaltseve Dobropillia Dokuchaievsk Donetsk Druzhkivka Horlivka Khartsyzk Kirovske Kostiantynivka Kramatorsk Lyman Makiivka Mariupol Myrnohrad Novohrodivka Pokrovsk Selydove Shakhtarsk Sloviansk Snizhne Toretsk Torez Vuhledar Yasynuvata Yenakiieve Zhdanivka

District

Amvrosiivka Bilozerske Bilytske Chasiv Yar Hirnyk Ilovaisk Komsomolske Krasnohorivka Kurakhove Marinka Mospyne Mykolaivka Novoazovsk Rodynske Siversk Soledar Sviatohirsk Svitlodarsk Ukrainsk Volnovakha Vuhlehirsk Yunokomunarivsk Zalizne Zuhres

Urban-type settlements Category: Donetsk
Donetsk
Oblast

v t e

 Administrative divisions of Ukraine

Capital: Kiev

Oblasts

Cherkasy Chernihiv Chernivtsi Dnipropetrovsk Donetsk Ivano-Frankivsk Kharkiv Kherson Khmelnytskyi Kiev Kirovohrad Luhansk Lviv Mykolaiv Odessa Poltava Rivne Sumy Ternopil Vinnytsia Volyn Zakarpattia Zaporizhia Zhytomyr

Cities with special status

Kiev Sevastopol1

Autonomous republic

Crimea1

Administrative centers

Cherkasy Chernihiv Chernivtsi Dnipro Donetsk Ivano-Frankivsk Kharkiv Kherson Khmelnytskyi Kiev Kropyvnytskyi Luhansk Lutsk Lviv Mykolaiv Odessa Poltava Rivne Sevastopol Simferopol Sumy Ternopil Uzhhorod Vinnytsia Zaporizhia Zhytomyr

1Claimed and controlled by Russia
Russia
as the Republic of Crimea
Republic of Crimea
and the Federal City of Sevastopol

v t e

Cities in Ukraine
Ukraine
(including Crimea) by population

City with special status City of regional significance City of district significance

1,000,000+

Kiev Kharkiv Dnipro Odessa

500,000+

Donetsk Zaporizhia Lviv Kryvyi Rih Mykolaiv

200,000+

Mariupol Luhansk Makiivka Vinnytsia Simferopol Sevastopol Kherson Poltava Chernihiv Cherkasy Sumy Horlivka Zhytomyr Kamianske Kropyvnytskyi Khmelnytskyi Rivne Chernivtsi Kremenchuk Ternopil Ivano-Frankivsk Lutsk Bila Tserkva

100,000+

Kramatorsk Melitopol Kerch Nikopol Sloviansk Berdiansk Sievierodonetsk Alchevsk Pavlohrad Uzhhorod Lysychansk Yevpatoria Yenakiieve

Crimea
Crimea
is the subject of a territorial dispute between Ukraine (Autonomous Republic of Crimea) and Russia
Russia
(Republic of Crimea)

v t e

Capitals of European states and territories

Capitals of dependent territories and states whose sovereignty is disputed shown in italics.

Western

Amsterdam, Netherlands1 Andorra la Vella, Andorra Bern, Switzerland Brussels, Belgium2 Douglas, Isle of Man (UK) Dublin, Ireland London, United Kingdom Luxembourg, Luxembourg Paris, France Saint Helier, Jersey (UK) Saint Peter Port, Guernsey (UK)

Northern

Copenhagen, Denmark Helsinki, Finland Longyearbyen, Svalbard (Norway) Mariehamn, Åland Islands (Finland) Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark) Olonkinbyen, Jan Mayen (Norway) Oslo, Norway Reykjavík, Iceland Stockholm, Sweden Tórshavn, Faroe Islands (Denmark)

Central

Berlin, Germany Bratislava, Slovakia Budapest, Hungary Ljubljana, Slovenia Prague, Czech Republic Vaduz, Liechtenstein Vienna, Austria Warsaw, Poland

Southern

Ankara, Turkey3 Athens, Greece Belgrade, Serbia Bucharest, Romania Gibraltar, Gibraltar (UK) Lisbon, Portugal Madrid, Spain Monaco, Monaco Nicosia, Cyprus4 North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus4, 5 Podgorica, Montenegro Pristina, Kosovo5 Rome, Italy San Marino, San Marino Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina Skopje, Macedonia Sofia, Bulgaria Tirana, Albania Valletta, Malta Vatican City, Vatican City Zagreb, Croatia

Eastern

Astana, Kazakhstan3 Baku, Azerbaijan3 Chișinău, Moldova Kiev, Ukraine Minsk, Belarus Moscow, Russia3 Riga, Latvia Stepanakert, Artsakh4, 5 Sukhumi, Abkhazia3, 5 Tallinn, Estonia Tbilisi, Georgia3 Tiraspol, Transnistria5 Tskhinvali, South Ossetia3, 5 Vilnius, Lithuania Yerevan, Armenia3

1 Also the capital of the Kingdom of the Netherlands 2 Also the seat of the European Union, see Institutional seats of the European Union
European Union
and Brussels
Brussels
and the European Union 3 Transcontinental country 4 Entirely in Southwest Asia but having socio-political connections with Europe 5 Partially recognised country

v t e

Ukrainian crisis

General topics

2013–14 Euromaidan

Timeline RSA occupations Anti-Maidan

2014 Ukrainian revolution 2014 pro-Russian unrest in Ukraine

Timeline Historical background

Russian military intervention

War in Donbass

Annexation of Crimea
Crimea
by the Russian Federation

Timeline Reaction of Russian intelligentsia

Casualties International sanctions

List of sanctioned people

Media portrayal List of Ukrainian aircraft losses Trilateral Contact Group on Ukraine Little green men Ribbon of Saint George Putin khuylo! Russian embargo of Ukrainian goods Do not buy Russian goods!

Boycott Russian Films

Civil volunteer movement ATO zone Cold War II Civil–military administrations Trolls from Olgino Russian language
Russian language
in Ukraine Decommunization in Ukraine

War in Donbass

Timeline

April–June 2014 July–September 2014 October–December 2014 January–March 2015 April–June 2015 July–September 2015 October–December 2015 January–March 2016 April–June 2016 July–September 2016 October–December 2016 January–March 2017 April–June 2017 July–September 2017 October–December 2017 January 2018–present

Battles

Siege of Sloviansk
Sloviansk
(12 April – 5 July 2014) Battle of Kramatorsk
Kramatorsk
(12 April – 5 July 2014) Battle of Mariupol
Mariupol
(6 May – 14 June 2014) 1st Battle of Donetsk Airport
Donetsk Airport
(26–27 May 2014) Siege of the Luhansk
Luhansk
Border Base (2–4 June 2014) Zelenopillya rocket attack (11 July 2014) Battle in Shakhtarsk
Shakhtarsk
Raion (16 July – 26 August 2014) Battle of Horlivka
Horlivka
(20 July – 6 September 2014) Battle of Ilovaisk
Ilovaisk
(10 August – 2 September 2014) Snizhne
Snizhne
incident (13 August 2014) Novosvitlivka refugee convoy attack (18 August 2014) Battle of Novoazovsk
Novoazovsk
(25–28 August 2014) Mariupol
Mariupol
offensive (4–8 September 2014) 2nd Battle of Donetsk Airport
Donetsk Airport
(28 September 2014 – 21 January 2015) Battle of Debaltseve
Debaltseve
(16 January – 20 February 2015) Shyrokyne standoff (10 February – 3 July 2015) Battle of Marinka
Battle of Marinka
(3 June 2015) Battle of Svitlodarsk
Svitlodarsk
(18–23 December 2016) Battle of Avdiivka
Avdiivka
(29 January – 4 February 2017)

Related

Humanitarian situation International reactions

Other events

Crimean status referendum (16 March 2014) Support of Ukraine
Ukraine
Act (3 April 2014) Odessa
Odessa
clashes (2 May 2014) Donbass
Donbass
status referendums (11 May 2014) Ukrainian presidential election (25 May 2014) 40th G7 summit (4–5 June 2014) Ukrainian Air Force Ilyushin Il-76 shoot-down
Ukrainian Air Force Ilyushin Il-76 shoot-down
(14 June 2014) Shelling of Donetsk, Russia
Russia
(13 July 2014) Malaysia Airlines Flight 17
Malaysia Airlines Flight 17
shoot-down (17 July 2014)

reactions

UNSC Resolution 2166 (21 July 2014) NATO summit in Wales
Wales
(4–5 September 2014) Minsk
Minsk
Protocol (5 September 2014) Ukrainian parliamentary election (26 October 2014) Donbass
Donbass
general elections (2 November 2014) 2014 G20 Brisbane summit
2014 G20 Brisbane summit
(15–16 November 2014) Volnovakha
Volnovakha
bus attack (13 January 2015) Donetsk
Donetsk
bus attack (22 January 2015) Mariupol
Mariupol
rocket attack (24 January 2015) Minsk
Minsk
II ceasefire agreement (12 February 2015) Kharkiv
Kharkiv
bombing (22 February 2015) Ukraine
Ukraine
power grid cyberattack (December 2015) 2017 cyberattacks on Ukraine
Ukraine
(27 June 2017)

Proclaimed states

  Republic of Crimea
Republic of Crimea
(17–18 March 2014)   Donetsk People's Republic
Donetsk People's Republic
(since 7 April 2014)   Luhansk
Luhansk
People's Republic (since 27 April 2014)   Novorossiya
Novorossiya
(24 May 2014 – 20 May 2015)

Background

Pre-1917 Novorossiya 1918 Donets-Krivoy Rog Soviet Republic 1918 Taurida Soviet Socialist Republic 1994 Budapest
Budapest
Memorandum 1997 Russian–Ukrainian Friendship Treaty 2004 South-East Ukrainian Autonomous Republic 2012 law on languages 2014 Ukraine– European Union
European Union
Association Agreement

Main places

Cities

Kiev

Maidan Nezalezhnosti Khreshchatyk

Donetsk

International Airport Donbass
Donbass
Arena Druzhba Arena

Luhansk

International Airport Avanhard Stadium

Kharkiv Odessa Simferopol Sevastopol

Donetsk Oblast

Avdiivka Bakhmut Debaltseve Dobropillia Dokuchaievsk Donetsk Druzhkivka Dzerkalne Horlivka Hrabove Ilovaisk Karlivka Khartsyzk Kirovske Komsomolske Kostiantynivka Kramatorsk Krasnohorivka Lyman Makiivka Marinka Mariupol Mykolaivka Novoazovsk Pisky Pokrovsk Savur-Mohyla Shakhtarsk Siversk Sloviansk Snizhne Soledar Staromykhailivka Svitlodarsk Toretsk Torez Volnovakha Vuhledar Vuhlehirsk Yampil Yasynuvata Yenakiieve Zhdanivka Zuhres

Luhansk Oblast

Alchevsk Antratsyt Brianka Chornukhyne Hirske Izvaryne Kirovsk Krasnodon Krasnyi Luch Luhansk Lutuhyne Lysychansk Metalist Miusynsk Novosvitlivka Oleksandrivsk Pervomaisk Pobieda Popasna Rovenky Rubizhne Shchastya Sievierodonetsk Stakhanov Stanytsia Luhanska Sverdlovsk

(Pro-) Russian

Organizations

Russian Armed Forces Wagner Group Separatist forces

List of equipment Army of the South-East Russian Orthodox Army Vostok Battalion Kalmius
Kalmius
Brigade Sparta Battalion Somalia Battalion Prizrak Brigade

Political parties and movements

Donetsk
Donetsk
Republic New Russia
Russia
Party Communist Party of DPR Peace for Lugansk Region Borotba Antifascist Committee of Ukraine Ukrainian Choice Russian-speaking Ukraine The Other Russia Eurasian Youth Union

Night Wolves Don Cossacks

Lead figures

Russian

Vladimir Putin Dmitry Medvedev Vladislav Surkov Sergey Shoygu

Crimean

Sergey Aksyonov Vladimir Konstantinov Natalia Poklonskaya

Donetsk

Vladimir Antyufeyev Eduard Basurin Fyodor Berezin Igor Bezler Alexander Borodai Mikhail Chumachenko Pavel Gubarev Ekaterina Gubareva Igor Kakidzyanov Alexander Khodakovsky Vladimir Kononov Arsen Pavlov† Vyacheslav Ponomarev Andrei Purgin Denis Pushilin Igor Strelkov Mikhail Tolstykh† Alexander Zakharchenko Sergei Zhurikov

Luhansk

Valery Bolotov† Aleksey Karyakin Aleksandr Kharitonov Arsen Klinchaev Sergey Kozlov Aleksey Mozgovoy† Leonid Pasechnik Igor Plotnitsky Gennadiy Tsypkalov†

Others

Aleksandr Dugin Nelya Shtepa Oleg Tsaryov

Ukrainian

Organizations

Government of Ukraine

1st Yatsenyuk 2nd Yatsenyuk Groysman

Ministry of Internal Affairs

National Guard

Azov Donbas

Patrol Police

Dnipro-1 Kharkiv Poltava Sich Svyatyi Mykolai

Armed Forces of Ukraine

Ukrainian Ground Forces

Territorial defense battalions

Aidar Batkivshchyna Dnipro-2 Kharkiv Kryvbas Rukh Oporu

Ukrainian Air Force Ukrainian Airmobile Forces

Security Service of Ukraine

Alpha Group

State Border Guard Service of Ukraine Volunteer battalions

Right Sector Noman Çelebicihan

Lead figures

Petro Poroshenko Oleksandr Turchynov Arseniy Yatsenyuk Volodymyr Groysman Andriy Parubiy Arsen Avakov Vitali Klitschko Oleh Tyahnybok Yuriy Lutsenko Valentyn Nalyvaichenko Valeriy Heletey Stepan Poltorak Mykhailo Koval Mykhailo Kutsyn Oleh Makhnitskyi Viktor Muzhenko Vitaly Yarema Oleh Lyashko Dmytro Yarosh Rinat Akhmetov Ihor Kolomoyskyi Serhiy Taruta Ihor Baluta Semen Semenchenko Hennadiy Moskal Nadiya Savchenko George Tuka Pavlo Zhebrivskyi

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 314807960 GND: 4733006-5 BNF: cb1226

.