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The culture of Chicago, Illinois
Illinois
is known for the invention or significant advancement of several performing arts, including improvisational comedy, house music, blues, hip hop, gospel, jazz,[1] and soul.[2] The city is known for its Chicago
Chicago
School and Prairie School architecture. It continues to cultivate a strong tradition of classical music, popular music, dance, and performing arts, rooted in Western civilization, as well as other traditions carried forward by its African-American, Asian-American, European American, Hispanic American, and Native American citizens. The city is additionally known for various popular culinary dishes, including deep-dish pizza, the Chicago-style hot dog
Chicago-style hot dog
and the Italian beef sandwich.

Contents

1 Food and drink

1.1 Local specialties 1.2 Restaurant scene 1.3 Brewing 1.4 Distilled spirits

2 Music 3 Performing arts 4 Sports 5 Visual arts 6 Architecture 7 Literature 8 Public attractions 9 See also 10 References

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See also: Chicago
Chicago
farmers' markets, Food manufacturers of Chicago, and Cuisine of the Midwestern United States Chicago
Chicago
lays claim to a large number of regional specialties that reflect the city's ethnic and working-class roots. Included among these are its nationally renowned deep-dish pizza; this style is said to have originated at Pizzeria Uno. The Chicago-style thin crust is also popular in the city. A number of well-known chefs have had restaurants in Chicago, including Charlie Trotter, Rick Tramonto, Grant Achatz, and Rick Bayless. In 2003, Robb Report
Robb Report
named Chicago
Chicago
the country's "most exceptional dining destination" and in 2008, Maxim awarded Chicago
Chicago
the title of "Tastiest City." Local specialties[edit]

Chicago-style hot dog

The most popular Chicago-style foods are:

The Chicago-style hot dog, traditionally a steamed or boiled, natural-casing all-beef wiener on a poppy-seed bun, topped with yellow mustard, chopped onion, sliced tomato, neon-green sweet-pickle relish, sport peppers, a dill pickle spear, and a sprinkling of celery salt—but never ketchup.[3][4] Chicago-style pizza
Chicago-style pizza
is deep-dish pizza with a tall outer crust and large amounts of cheese, with chunky tomato sauce on top of the cheese instead of underneath it.[5][6] Similar to this is stuffed pizza, with even more cheese, topped with a second, thinner crust.[7] Thin-crust pizza is also very popular in Chicago.[7] The Italian beef, a sandwich featuring thinly sliced roast beef simmered in a broth (known locally as "gravy") containing Italian-style seasonings and served on an Italian roll soaked in the meat juices. Most beef stands offer a "cheesy beef" option, which is typically the addition of a slice of provolone or mozzarella. A "combo" is a beef sandwich with the addition of grilled Italian sausage. Italian beef
Italian beef
sandwiches are traditionally topped with sweet peppers or spicy giardiniera.[8][9]

Other Chicago-style dishes include:

Chicken Vesuvio, an Italian-American dish made from chicken on the bone and wedges of potato, celery, and carrots; sauteed with garlic, oregano, white wine, and olive oil, then baked until the chicken's skin becomes crisp.[10][11] Shrimp DeJonghe, a casserole of whole peeled shrimp blanketed in soft, garlicky, sherry-laced bread crumbs.[12][13] Maxwell Street
Maxwell Street
Polish, named after Maxwell Street
Maxwell Street
where it was first sold. It's a Polish sausage made with beef and pork, and with garlic and other spices, served on a bun with grilled onions.[14][15][16][17] A francheezie is a variation of the Chicago-style hot dog. The hot dog is wrapped in bacon and deep-fried, and either stuffed or topped with cheese.[18][19] The jibarito is a specialty sandwich that originated in the heart of Chicago's Puerto Rican community. Invented by Borinquen Restaurant in the Humboldt Park neighborhood, a jibarito is made with meat or chicken, and condiments, placed between two pieces of fried and flattened plantain instead of bread.[20][21][22] The mother-in-law is a tamale on a hot dog bun, topped with chili.[21][23] Chicago
Chicago
also has its own unique style of tamale, machine-extruded from cornmeal and wrapped in paper, and typically sold at hot dog stands.[24] Gyros is popular in Chicago. While some restaurants still make their own gyros cones, Chicago
Chicago
is the hometown of mass-produced gyros.[25] Flaming saganaki was popularized by restaurants in the Greektown neighborhood. A square piece of kasseri, kefalotyri, or a similar cheese is fried in a small, two-handled pan, topped with a splash of brandy, and served flambé-style, traditionally with a cry of "Opa!" from the waiter.[26][27][28] A pizza puff is a deep-fried dough pocket filled with cheese, tomato sauce, and other pizza ingredients such as sausage. Indigenous to Chicago, pizza puffs can be found at some hot dog restaurants.[29][30][31][32] A pepper and egg sandwich combines scrambled eggs and grilled bell peppers, served on French bread. Originally eaten during Lent
Lent
by Italian immigrants in Chicago, it now can be found in some casual dining restaurants.[33][34][35]

Less well known are:

The more provincial South Side specialties such as the big baby, a style of double cheeseburger with the cheese in between the hamburger patties, ketchup, mustard, and pickle slices underneath them, and grilled onions on top; said to have originated at Nicky's The Real McCoy in the Gage Park neighborhood.[36][37][38] The breaded-steak sandwich, a specialty particularly found in the Bridgeport neighborhood, which consists of a flattened inexpensive cut of beef that has been breaded, fried Milanesa-style and served on an Italian bread roll with marinara sauce, topped with optional mozzarella cheese and/or green peppers.[39] The gym shoe (sometimes spelled Jim Shoe or Jim Shoo), a submarine sandwich made with a combination of corned beef, gyros, and either roast beef or Italian beef.[40][41][42][43] Aquarium-smoked barbecue, particularly rib tips and hot links. This is barbecue that has been cooked in a rectangular indoor smoker with glass sides and a large compartment for a wood fire under the grill.[44][45][46][47] Barbecued ribs are also very popular in Chicago.[48][49] Atomic cake, featuring banana, yellow, and chocolate cake layers alternating with banana, strawberry, and fudge fillings.[50][51] Chicago
Chicago
mix popcorn, which consists of caramel corn and cheese-flavored popcorn mixed together.[52] Chicago
Chicago
Brick ice cream, a Neapolitan-style three-flavor ice-cream with orange sherbet, vanilla, and caramel flavors.[53]

Restaurant scene[edit] See also: List of Michelin starred restaurants in Chicago Chicago
Chicago
features many restaurants that highlight the city's various ethnic neighborhoods, including Chinatown on the South Side, Greektown on Halsted Street, and Little Italy on Taylor Street and the Heart of Italy. The South Asian community along Devon Avenue hosts many Pakistani and Indian eateries. The predominantly Mexican neighborhoods of Pilsen and Little Village are home to numerous eateries ranging from small taquerías to full scale restaurants. Several restaurants featuring Middle Eastern fare can be found along Lawrence Avenue, while Polish cuisine
Polish cuisine
is well represented along Milwaukee Avenue on the Northwest side and Archer Avenue on the Southwest side. A large concentration of Vietnamese restaurants can be found in the Argyle Street district in Uptown.[54] Chicago
Chicago
has its own local fried-chicken chain, Harold's Chicken Shack. The city is also home to many fried-shrimp shacks.[55][56][57] Along with ethnic fare and fast food, Chicago
Chicago
is home to many steakhouses, as well as a number of upscale dining establishments serving a wide array of cuisine. Some notable destinations include Frontera Grill, a gourmet Mexican restaurant owned by chef and Mexico: One Plate at a Time host, Rick Bayless; Graham Elliot's eponymous restaurant, Graham Elliot; Jean Joho's Everest, a new-French restaurant located on the top floor of the Chicago
Chicago
Stock Exchange building downtown, and Tru from chefs Rick Tramonto and Gale Gand. Chicago
Chicago
has become known for its ventures in molecular gastronomy, with chefs Grant Achatz
Grant Achatz
of Alinea,[58] Homaro Cantu
Homaro Cantu
of Moto,[59] and Michael Carlson
Michael Carlson
of Schwa. Taste of Chicago
Chicago
is a large annual food festival held in early July in Grant Park in downtown Chicago. It features booths from dozens of Chicago-area restaurants, as well as live music.[60] Brewing[edit] Chicago
Chicago
has a long brewing history that dates back to the early days of the city.[61] While its era of mass-scale commercial breweries largely came to an end with Prohibition, the city today has a large number of microbreweries and brewpubs.[62][63] Included among these are craft brewers like Argus, Half Acre, Metropolitan, Off Color, Pipeworks and Revolution Brewing.[64][65] The two largest breweries in Chicago[66] are Lagunitas, based in Petaluma, California
Petaluma, California
and now owned by Heineken International,[67] and Goose Island, founded in Chicago
Chicago
in 1988 and now owned by Anheuser-Busch InBev.[68] Annual events include Illinois
Illinois
Craft Beer Week,[69][70] the Festival of Barrel-Aged Beers (known as FOBAB),[71] the Chicago
Chicago
Beer Festival,[72] and the Chicago
Chicago
Beer Classic.[73][74] In the mid- to late-twentieth century, the most popular beer in Chicago
Chicago
was Old Style, a mass-produced lager that at the time was brewed by G. Heileman in La Crosse, Wisconsin. The Old Style brand is now owned by the Pabst Brewing
Brewing
Company which supervises its production under contract.[75][76][77] Distilled spirits[edit] Jeppson's Malört
Jeppson's Malört
is a brand of bäsk, a Swedish-style liqueur flavored with wormwood. Known for its bitter taste, it can be found in some Chicago-area taverns and liquor stores, but is seldom seen elsewhere in the country. The Carl Jeppson Company was founded in Chicago
Chicago
in the 1930s and is still based there, but the beverage is now distilled in Florida.[78] Koval, Chicago's first distillery to operate within city limits since Prohibition, began operation in 2008. Located in the Andersonville neighborhood on the city's North Side, Koval offers a wide range of spirits and was featured on the Chicago
Chicago
("World's Greenest Beer") episode during the second season of the Esquire Network
Esquire Network
show Brew Dogs in 2014.[79] Music[edit] Main article: Music
Music
of Chicago See also: Chicago
Chicago
record labels and List of musicians from Chicago Chicago
Chicago
has made many significant pop-cultural contributions in the field of music: Chicago
Chicago
blues, Chicago
Chicago
soul, Jazz, Gospel, indie rock, hip hop, industrial music, and punk rock. With the advent of Chicago house in the 1980s, the city is also the birthplace of the house style of music, which helped lead to the development of techno music in Detroit, Michigan. Chicago
Chicago
artists have played an influential role in the R&B–soul genre. Popular R&B artists to hail from Chicago
Chicago
include R. Kelly, Curtis Mayfield, The Impressions, Jerry Butler, The Chi-Lites, Ahmad Jamal, Dave Hollister, Jennifer Hudson, Baby Huey, and Carl Thomas.

Willie Dixon

Prominent figures from Chicago
Chicago
blues include Sunnyland Slim, Howlin' Wolf, Muddy Waters, Sonny Boy Williamson, Willie Dixon, Elmore James, Albert King, Koko Taylor, Bo Diddley, Little Walter, Lonnie Brooks, Junior Wells, Syl Johnson, Buddy Guy, Magic Slim, and Luther Allison. Jazz
Jazz
musicians based in Chicago
Chicago
have included Jelly Roll Morton, Bix Beiderbecke, Benny Goodman, Sun Ra, Von Freeman, and Dinah Washington. The city is the home of the Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians, a group of musical artists who helped pioneer avant-garde jazz. The hip hop scene in Chicago
Chicago
is also very influential, with major artists including Kanye West, Chance the Rapper, Twista, Common, Lupe Fiasco, Crucial Conflict, Psychodrama, Cupcakke, Da Brat, Shawnna, Chief Keef, King Louie, Lil Reese, and Rhymefest. The rock band Chicago
Chicago
was named after the city, although its original name was the Chicago
Chicago
Transit Authority. The band's name was shortened to Chicago
Chicago
after the CTA threatened to sue them for unauthorized use of the original trademark. Popular 1980s band Survivor is from Chicago. Many mainstream rock bands hail from Chicago
Chicago
or were made famous there. Among these are The Blues Brothers, the aforementioned Chicago, Styx, Cheap Trick, REO Speedwagon, Survivor, the Butterfield Blues Band, and the Siegel–Schwall Band. Chicago
Chicago
has also been home to a thriving folk music scene, particularly in the 1960s and 1970s. John Prine, Steve Goodman
Steve Goodman
and Bonnie Koloc were the most prominent folk singer–songwriters of that time. In the late 1970s, local band The Shoes arguably started indie rock with a power pop album recorded in their living room.[citation needed] 1980s and 1990s alternative bands Local H, Eleventh Dream Day, Ministry, Veruca Salt, My Life With the Thrill Kill Kult, Material Issue, Liz Phair, Urge Overkill, and The Smashing Pumpkins
The Smashing Pumpkins
hail from Chicago. Contemporary rock bands The Lawrence Arms, Soil, Kill Hannah and Wilco
Wilco
are also Chicago-based. The 2000s have seen local artists Disturbed, Alkaline Trio, The Academy Is, Rise Against, The Audition, Spitalfield, Chevelle, the Plain White T's, Kanye West, Lupe Fiasco, and Fall Out Boy
Fall Out Boy
also attain success in the U.S. Chicago
Chicago
has become known for indie rockers following in the paths of the Smashing Pumpkins, Urge Overkill, Wilco, and The Jesus Lizard; bands like The Sea and Cake, Califone, OK Go, Andrew Bird
Andrew Bird
and Umphrey's McGee
Umphrey's McGee
hail from the city. Tim and Mike Kinsella, hailing from Chicago, fronted several seminal 90s emo bands: Cap'n Jazz, American Football, Owen, Joan of Arc, and Owls. Matthew and Eleanor Friedberger of The Fiery Furnaces, who now reside in Brooklyn, New York are originally from Oak Park, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago. Chicago
Chicago
is also home to many independent labels like Thrill Jockey, Drag City, and others, and to the popular music-news website Pitchfork Media. A handful of punk rock bands are based in Chicago. Some of the more famous punk rock products of the city are Naked Raygun, The Effigies, Big Black
Big Black
and Shellac
Shellac
(featuring Steve Albini), and Screeching Weasel. Many of these punk and indie bands got their start at noted alternative music venues Metro (originally Cabaret Metro), Lounge Ax, Empty Bottle, Double Door, and The Fireside Bowl. Chicago
Chicago
is also known for being the "birthplace of American Industrial Music",[citation needed] as many bands got their start in Chicago. The city was also home of the now-defunct Wax Trax! Records record label which once had KMFDM, Ministry, Front 242, PIG, Front Line Assembly, My Life With the Thrill Kill Kult, Coil, and more on its roster. The Chicago
Chicago
Symphony Orchestra is one of the nation's oldest and most respected orchestras. It is well regarded throughout the world through tours in both Asia and Europe and also through a large number of recordings widely available. Perhaps because of Chicago's historically large German-American population, the CSO is particularly well known for its performances of pieces by German composers. Chicago
Chicago
also has a thriving and youthful contemporary classical scene. Major venues for new music include concerts by the International Contemporary Ensemble, Ensemble Dal Niente, Third Coast Percussion, Fulcrum Point and the CSO's MusicNOW series. Composers of note include Augusta Read Thomas, Lee Hyla, Marcos Balter, Kirsten Broberg, Hans Thomalla, Jay Alan Yim and Shulamit Ran. While lacking a school of music with the stature of the Juilliard School or the Curtis Institute of Music, the Chicago
Chicago
area does have a number of colleges. The best known outside of the region is the Northwestern University
Northwestern University
Bienen School of Music. The Chicago
Chicago
College of Performing Arts at Roosevelt University
Roosevelt University
and the School of Music
Music
at DePaul University
DePaul University
are both working to expand their reputations. Chicago's colorful history and culture have provided inspiration for a wide variety of musical compositions. In the 19th century, the chain of events surrounding the Great Chicago
Chicago
Fire led Chicago
Chicago
resident Horatio Spafford
Horatio Spafford
to write the hymn "It Is Well With My Soul". Annual music festivals in Chicago
Chicago
with free admission include the Chicago
Chicago
Blues Festival, the Chicago
Chicago
Jazz
Jazz
Festival, the Grant Park Music
Music
Festival, and World Music
Music
Festival Chicago. Annual ticketed festivals in the city include Lollapalooza, Pitchfork Music
Music
Festival, Riot Fest, North Coast Music
Music
Festival, Spring Awakening, and Ruido Fest. Performing arts[edit] Main article: Theatre in Chicago

Chicago
Chicago
Theatre

Chicago
Chicago
is a major center for theater, and is the birthplace of modern improvisational comedy.[80] The city is home to two renowned comedy troupes: The Second City
The Second City
and iO Theater
Theater
(formerly known as ImprovOlympic). The form itself was invented at the University of Chicago
Chicago
in the 1960s by an undergraduate performance group called the Compass Players, whose members went on to found Second City. It is also home to one of the longest running plays in the country—the Neo-Futurists' Too Much Light Makes the Baby Go Blind, an ensemble of 30 plays in 60 minutes. Many world-famous actors and comedians are Chicagoans or came to study in the area, particularly at Northwestern University in Evanston.[citation needed] Since their foundings in 1925 and 1974, Goodman Theatre, downtown, and Steppenwolf Theatre Company
Steppenwolf Theatre Company
on the city's north side have nurtured generations of actors, directors, and playwrights. They have grown into internationally renowned companies of artists. Many other theatres, from nearly 100 black box performances spaces like the Strawdog Theatre Company in the Lakeview area to landmark downtown houses like the Chicago
Chicago
Theatre on State and Lake Streets, present a wide variety of plays and musicals, including touring shows and original works such as the premiere in December 2004 of Spamalot. The Chicago
Chicago
Shakespeare Theater, Lookingglass Theatre Company, and the Victory Gardens Theater
Theater
have won regional Tony Awards, along with Goodman and Steppenwolf. Broadway In Chicago, created in July 2000, hosts touring productions and Broadway musical previews at: Bank of America Theatre, Cadillac Palace Theatre, Ford Center for the Performing Arts Oriental Theatre. Broadway In Chicago
Chicago
provides over 7,500 jobs and an economic impact of over $635 million.[81] Polish language productions for Chicago's large Polish speaking population can be seen at the historic Gateway Theatre in Jefferson Park. The Lyric Opera
Opera
of Chicago, founded in 1954, performs in the Civic Opera
Opera
House. The Civic Opera House
Civic Opera House
was built in 1929 on the east bank of the Chicago
Chicago
River and is the second-largest opera auditorium in North America
North America
with 3,563 seats. The Lyric Opera
Opera
purchased the Civic Opera
Opera
House from the building's owner in 1993.[citation needed] The Lithuanian Opera
Opera
Company of Chicago
Chicago
was founded by Lithuanian Chicagoans in 1956,[82] and presents operas in Lithuanian. It celebrated fifty years of existence in 2006, and operates as a not-for-profit organization. It is noteworthy for performing the rarely staged Rossini's William Tell (1986) and Ponchielli's I Lituani (1981, 1983 and 1991), and also for contributing experienced chorus singers to the Lyric Opera
Opera
of Chicago.[83] The opera Jūratė and Kastytis by Kazimieras Viktoras Banaitis was presented in Chicago, Illinois
Illinois
in 1996.[84] The Joffrey Ballet
Joffrey Ballet
makes its home in Chicago. Other ballet, modern and jazz dance troupes that are located in the city include Hubbard Street Dance
Dance
Chicago, River North
River North
Chicago
Chicago
Dance
Dance
Company, Gus Giordano Jazz Dance
Dance
Chicago, Chicago
Chicago
Dance
Dance
Crash, Thodos Dance
Dance
Chicago, Chicago Festival Ballet and The Joel Hall Dancers. The city's Uptown neighborhood is reported to be the birthplace of Slam Poetry, a style of spoken word poetry that incorporates elements of hip hop culture, drama, jazz and lyricism. Sports[edit] Main article: Sports in Chicago See also: U.S. cities with teams from four major league sports Chicago
Chicago
is one of 13 metropolitan areas that have major league baseball, football, basketball, and hockey teams. In four of these metropolitan areas the teams from all four sports play their games within the limits of one city — Chicago, Detroit, Philadelphia, and Denver. Four of the metropolitan areas have two baseball teams — Chicago, New York City, Los Angeles, and the San Francisco Bay Area — and of these four, only Chicago
Chicago
has had the same two teams since the American League
American League
was established in 1901. The Chicago
Chicago
White Sox of the American League, who won the World Series in 2005, play at Guaranteed Rate Field, located on the city's South Side in the Armour Square neighborhood.

Wrigley Field, home of the Chicago
Chicago
Cubs

The Chicago
Chicago
Cubs of the National League, who won the World Series
World Series
in 2016, play at Wrigley Field, located in the North Side neighborhood of Lakeview. The area of Lakeview near the stadium is commonly referred to as "Wrigleyville."

Soldier Field, home of the Chicago
Chicago
Bears

The Chicago
Chicago
Bears of the National Football League
National Football League
play at Soldier Field. The Bears have won nine American Football
American Football
championships (eight NFL Championships and Super Bowl XX) trailing only the Green Bay Packers, who have thirteen. The Chicago
Chicago
Bulls of the National Basketball Association
National Basketball Association
are one of the world's most recognized basketball teams, thanks to their enormous success during the Michael Jordan
Michael Jordan
era, when they won six NBA titles in the 1990s. The Bulls play at the United Center on Chicago's Near West side. The Chicago
Chicago
Blackhawks of the National Hockey League
National Hockey League
also play at the United Center. The Hawks are an Original Six
Original Six
franchise, founded in 1926, and have won six Stanley Cups, including 2010, 2013, and 2015. The Chicago
Chicago
Fire, members of Major League Soccer, won one league and four US Open Cups since 1997. After eight years at Soldier Field, they moved to the new Toyota Park in nearby Bridgeview at 71st and Harlem Avenue during the summer of 2006. The Chicago
Chicago
Red Stars of the National Women's Soccer League
National Women's Soccer League
also play at Toyota Park. The team was founded in 2009. The Chicago
Chicago
Wolves of the American Hockey League
American Hockey League
play at the Allstate Arena in nearby Rosemont. The Wolves won the league championships in 1998, 2000, 2002, and 2008. Their first season was 1994–95. The Chicago
Chicago
Sky of the Women's National Basketball Association
National Basketball Association
also play at the Allstate Arena. The Sky were in the WNBA playoffs in 2013, 2014, and 2015. One NCAA Division I
NCAA Division I
college football team plays in the Chicago
Chicago
area — the Northwestern Wildcats, in nearby Evanston. Chicago-area college basketball teams competing at the Division I level are the Northwestern Wildcats, the DePaul Blue Demons, the Loyola Ramblers, the UIC Flames, and the Chicago
Chicago
State Cougars. Minor league baseball teams that play near Chicago
Chicago
include the Kane County Cougars, the Windy City ThunderBolts, the Schaumburg Boomers, the Joliet Slammers, the Gary SouthShore RailCats, and the Chicago Dogs. The Chicago
Chicago
Bandits, a women's professional softball team, play their home games at Rosemont Stadium. The Chicago
Chicago
Mustangs of the Major Arena Soccer League
Major Arena Soccer League
play at the Sears Centre
Sears Centre
in Hoffman Estates. The city is home to several roller derby leagues, including the Windy City Rollers, the Chicago
Chicago
Outfit, and the Chicago
Chicago
Red Hots. The Chicago
Chicago
Swans are the Australian rules football
Australian rules football
club in the city, competing in the Mid American Australian Football League. Rugby teams in the city include the Chicago
Chicago
Lions and the Chicago Griffins. There are two facilities for auto racing near Chicago, both of them in Joliet. Chicagoland Speedway
Chicagoland Speedway
hosts NASCAR
NASCAR
races, and the Route 66 Raceway is the site of drag racing events. Once a year in early autumn, thousands of long-distance runners from around the world compete in the Chicago
Chicago
Marathon. In most of the U.S., softball is played with a 12-inch ball, but in Chicago
Chicago
16-inch softball
16-inch softball
is more popular.[85][86] Chicago
Chicago
hosted the 1959 Pan American Games, and Gay Games VII
Gay Games VII
in 2006. The city made an unsuccessful bid for the 2016 Summer Olympics, though it was heavily favored.[87][88] Visual arts[edit] Main article: Visual arts of Chicago

The Chicago
Chicago
Picasso

Chicago
Chicago
is home to a lively fine arts community. The highest concentration of contemporary art galleries can be found in the River North neighborhood, though a great amount of arts activity also centers around the area around Wicker Park. Chicago
Chicago
visual art has had a strong individualistic streak, little influenced by outside fashions. "One of the unique characteristics of Chicago," said Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts
Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts
curator Bob Cozzolino, "is there's always been a very pronounced effort to not be derivative, to not follow the status quo",[89] and arts pioneers such as Stanislav Szukalski who were tied to the " Chicago
Chicago
Renaissance" helped to fashion the city into a nexus for new trends in art.[90] Chicago
Chicago
has long had a strong tradition of figurative surrealism, as in the works of Ivan Albright
Ivan Albright
and Ed Paschke. In 1968 and 1969, members of the Chicago
Chicago
Imagists, such as Roger Brown, Leon Golub, Robert Lostutter, Jim Nutt, and Barbara Rossi produced bizarre representational paintings. Today Robert Guinan paints gritty realistic portraits of Chicago
Chicago
people which are popular in Paris, although he is little known in Chicago
Chicago
itself. These same impulses also appeared in Chicago's lively street photography scene, gaining notoriety through artists centered around the Institute of Design such as Harry Callahan, Aaron Siskind, as well as in the work of nanny-savant Vivian Maier. Bob Thall's beautiful, bleak photographs of Chicago-area architecture have also won much acclaim.[91] Chicago
Chicago
has a Percent for Art program of public artworks, although it is notoriously more opaque and secretive than that of most other cities; arts activist such as Paul Klein and attorney Scott Hodes have long criticized its lack of public accountability.[92] Chicago
Chicago
is home to a number of large, outdoor works by well-known artists. These include the Chicago
Chicago
Picasso, Miró's Chicago, Flamingo and Flying Dragon by Alexander Calder, Monument with Standing Beast
Monument with Standing Beast
by Jean Dubuffet, Batcolumn
Batcolumn
by Claes Oldenburg, Cloud Gate
Cloud Gate
by Anish Kapoor, Crown Fountain
Crown Fountain
by Jaume Plensa, Man Enters the Cosmos
Man Enters the Cosmos
by Henry Moore, Agora by Magdalena Abakanowicz, and the Four Seasons mosaic by Marc Chagall. Architecture[edit] Main article: Architecture of Chicago The central part of Chicago
Chicago
was largely destroyed by the Chicago
Chicago
Fire in 1871. Almost all the buildings currently standing in the city's downtown area were built after that, one exception being the Chicago Water Tower.

The Wrigley Building
Wrigley Building
and Tribune Tower

Around the turn of the twentieth century, Chicago
Chicago
was a key location in the development of the skyscraper. This movement was spearheaded by architects promoting the Chicago
Chicago
School design philosophy, including Louis Sullivan
Louis Sullivan
and others. Notable tall buildings and skyscrapers built before the mid-1930s include the Rookery Building, the Auditorium Building, the Chicago
Chicago
Cultural Center, the Monadnock Building, the Reliance Building, the Carson, Pirie, Scott and Company Building, the Marquette Building, the Chicago
Chicago
Building, the Wrigley Building, Tribune Tower, the London Guarantee Building, 333 North Michigan, the Carbide & Carbon Building, the Merchandise Mart, and the Chicago
Chicago
Board of Trade Building. In the 1940s, a modernist Second Chicago
Chicago
School of architecture emerged from the work of Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. Buildings that he designed include 860–880 Lake Shore Drive, Crown Hall, 330 North Wabash, and the Kluczynski Federal Building. The tallest buildings in Chicago
Chicago
are Willis Tower, Trump Tower, the Aon Center, the John Hancock Center, and the Franklin Center. Willis Tower was originally named Sears Tower, and was the tallest building in the world from 1973 to 1998. It is now the second-tallest building in the United States, after One World Trade Center, though the height to the roof of Willis Tower
Willis Tower
is greater than that of One World Trade Center.[93] Other architecturally significant modern and postmodern skyscrapers in Chicago
Chicago
include the Inland Steel Building, Marina City, Lake Point Tower, the CNA Center, 333 Wacker Drive, the Crain Communications Building, the Thompson Center, the Harold Washington Library, and Aqua. The Prairie School
Prairie School
of architecture originated in Chicago, which is home to a number of buildings by Frank Lloyd Wright
Frank Lloyd Wright
and other Prairie School architects. Examples include Robie House
Robie House
and the First Congregational Church of Austin. The Pullman District was the first planned industrial community in the United States. Some neighborhoods in the city have many Chicago
Chicago
bungalow houses. Built mostly between 1910 and 1940, these single-family homes are narrow, ​1 1⁄2-story brick structures, with gables parallel to the street. Literature[edit] Main article: Chicago
Chicago
literature Early writers associated with Chicago
Chicago
include Theodore Drieser, Eugene Field, Hamlin Garland, Edgar Lee Masters, and Frank Norris.[94] Poets have included Gwendolyn Brooks
Gwendolyn Brooks
and Carl Sandburg. Other notable writers often associated with the city's literary tradition include Nelson Algren, Saul Bellow, John Dos Passos, James T. Farrell, Loraine Hansberry, Ernest Hemingway, Upton Sinclair, Studs Terkel, and Richard Wright. Public attractions[edit]

The main hall of the Field Museum of Natural History
Field Museum of Natural History
in 2007, with Sue the T. rex in the foreground

Popular public attractions in Chicago
Chicago
include the Museum of Science and Industry, the Field Museum of Natural History, Adler Planetarium, Shedd Aquarium, Lincoln Park Zoo, the Chicago
Chicago
History Museum, Millennium Park, and Navy Pier. The city has a number of art museums, of which the two largest are the Art Institute and the Museum of Contemporary Art. One weekend each August the city hosts the Chicago
Chicago
Air & Water Show, a free exhibition on the shores of Lake Michigan. See also[edit]

LGBT culture in Chicago List of Chicago
Chicago
Landmarks List of fiction set in Chicago List of museums and cultural institutions in Chicago Tourism in Chicago

References[edit]

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Chicago
Has the Best Sandwich in the World and Most People Don't Even Know It". USA Today. Retrieved January 19, 2016.  ^ Konkol, Mark (June 5, 2015). "Decadent 'Gym Shoe' at Stony Sub Might Be South Side's Best Sandwich Ever". DNAinfo. Archived from the original on January 24, 2016. Retrieved June 3, 2017.  ^ Kindelsperger, Nick (June 2012). "Standing Room Only: In Search of the Gym Shoe, Chicago's Unsung Sandwich". Serious Eats. Retrieved June 3, 2017.  ^ Chillag, Ian (August 12, 2013). "Sandwich Monday: The Jim Shoe". NPR. Retrieved June 3, 2017.  ^ Nolledo, Michael (April 7, 2017). "The Anatomy of the Gym Shoe, Chicago's Unsung Sandwich Hero". InsideHook. Retrieved June 3, 2017.  ^ Zeldes, Leah A. (2008). "Smoke 'Em If You Got 'Em". Dining Chicago. Archived from the original on May 27, 2012. Retrieved November 1, 2015. On the West and South sides, barbecue joints tend to be strictly take-out places, and the style is typically smokier and chewier, cooked in aquarium smokers. (Developed in the 1950s and unique to Chicago, these rectangular cookers with transparent doors get their name from their resemblance to fish tanks.)  ^ Freeman, Sarah (June 15, 2016). "What Is Chicago-Style Barbecue, Anyway?", Chicago
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Chicago
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Chicago
Still a Rib Town? One Reporter Eats All Over the City to Find Out". Chicago
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Tribune. Retrieved July 22, 2017.  ^ Chu, Louisa (June 12, 2013). " Chicago
Chicago
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Chicago
Mix", Chicago
Chicago
Tribune. Retrieved November 1, 2015. ^ "Dean's Country Fresh Classic Chicago
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Brick Ice Cream". Dean's Dairy. Retrieved February 10, 2018.  ^ Thompson, Aimee (March 16, 2014). "Little Saigon: An Afternoon Exploring Chicago's Vietnamese Neighborhood with Your Family", ChicagoNow. Retrieved November 1, 2015. ^ Ruscitti, Titus (July 2, 2014). "The 10 Best Fried Shrimp Shacks in Chicago", Thrillist. Retrieved January 23, 2016. ^ Dolinsky, Steve (February 10, 2011). "Top 5 Shrimp Shacks in Chicago", WBEZ 91.5. Retrieved January 23, 2016. ^ "The 15 Best Places for a Fried Shrimp in Chicago", Foursquare, January 20, 2016. Retrieved January 23, 2016. ^ "Staff". Alinea Restaurant. Archived from the original on September 10, 2011.  ^ "Review". metromix.com. Archived from the original on July 28, 2011.  ^ "History of the Taste of Chicago", City of Chicago. Retrieved November 1, 2015. ^ Kaplan, Jacob (August 20, 2009). "Bygone Breweries", Forgotten Chicago. Retrieved February 23, 2015. ^ Ori, Ryan (November 21, 2015). " Chicago
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Is the Craft-Brew Capital of the U.S. – By One Measure, at Least". Crain's Chicago
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Business. Retrieved August 29, 2017. Raise a glass, Chicago, to your new title: craft beer capital of the country. Craft brewers in the Chicago
Chicago
area occupy an estimated 1.6 million square feet of commercial real estate, more than any other metro area in the country, according to a report from Seattle-based brokerage Colliers International. The area also has the second-most craft breweries with 144, behind only Portland, Ore.'s 196.  ^ Skotch, Rebecca (June 12, 2017). "With Nearly 200 Breweries and Counting, Here's How Chicago's Crowded Beer Scene Is Adapting". Ad Week. Retrieved August 29, 2017.  ^ " Illinois
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Tribune. Retrieved May 4, 2017.  ^ MacArthur, Kate (March 28, 2011). " Chicago
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Craft-Beer Brewer Goose Island Sells to Anheuser-Busch". Crain's Chicago
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Beer Festival: Does Location Make the Festival?" Archived January 16, 2016, at the Wayback Machine., Chicagoist. Retrieved February 22, 2015. ^ Thiel, Julia (May 15, 2013). "Drinking on Soldier Field: The First American Beer Classic", Chicago
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Beer Classic". PorchDrinking.com. Retrieved March 16, 2018.  ^ Jargon, Julie (August 13, 2005). "New Style for a 103-Year-Old Brand". Crain's Chicago
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Business. Retrieved April 24, 2017. Old Style, once Chicago's best-selling beer, is attempting a comeback with a new marketing campaign aimed at Chicagoans too young to remember its 1970s heyday.... Hip probably has never been used to describe Old Style, a no-frills beer long favored by blue-collar workers. In the '80s, Old Style had more than 30% of the local beer market. But in recent years, internal strife and industry trends have taken their toll on the century-old beer, depressing Old Style's Chicago-area marketshare to less than 5%, according to ACNielsen Corp.  ^ "Old Style: The Q&A". Guys Drinking Beer. July 24, 2014. Retrieved April 1, 2017.  ^ "It May Be a Crap Lager But It's Our Crap Lager". October. March 8, 2017. Retrieved April 1, 2017.  ^ Peters, Mark (November 20, 2012). "In Chicago, a Spirit Rises Despite Bitter Reviews", Wall Street Journal. Retrieved February 22, 2015. ^ "Brew Dogs – Episode Descriptions", Esquire Network, May 20, 2014. Retrieved February 24, 2015. ^ Sawyer, R Keith (September 30, 2002). Improvised Dialogue. Ablex/Greenwood. p. 14. ISBN 1-56750-677-1.  ^ Burghart, Tara (January 16, 2007). "Study Outlines Chicago
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v t e

Museums in Chicago

Art

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Architecture

Charnley-Persky House Chicago
Chicago
Architecture Foundation Clarke House Driehaus Museum Glessner House Noble–Seymour–Crippen House Robie House

Children

Bronzeville Children's Museum Chicago
Chicago
Children's Museum StoryBus

Culture

American Writers Museum Balzekas Museum of Lithuanian Culture Museum of Broadcast Communications

National Radio Hall of Fame

Chicago
Chicago
Cultural Center Chicago
Chicago
Design Museum Chinese American Museum of Chicago DANK Haus German American Cultural Center Irish American Heritage Center Leather Archives and Museum Mitchell Museum of the American Indian National Hellenic Museum National Italian American Sports Hall of Fame National Museum of Puerto Rican Arts and Culture Polish Museum of America Spertus Institute for Jewish Learning and Leadership Swedish American Museum Ukrainian National Museum

History

Chicago
Chicago
History Museum DuSable Museum of African American History Hull House Money Museum Newberry Library Oriental Institute Pritzker Military Museum & Library Pullman National Monument

Science

Adler Planetarium Field Museum of Natural History International Museum of Surgical Science Museum of Science and Industry Peggy Notebaert Nature Museum

Planned

Barack Obama Presidential Center

Former

Col. Wood's Museum Smith Museum of Stained Glass Windows

v t e

Music, theater and performing arts in Chicago

Theater companies

Resident

A Red Orchid American Blues Annoyance Bailiwick Repertory Barrel of Monkeys Black Ensemble Chicago
Chicago
Dramatists Chicago
Chicago
Fusion Chicago
Chicago
Shakespeare Chiesa Nuova Chopin Court Gateway Goodman IO Lifeline Light Opera
Opera
Works Lookingglass Marriott MCA Stage Neo-Futurists Oak Park Festival Opera
Opera
in Focus Oracle Productions Organic The Playground Second City Silk Road Steppenwolf Strawdog Theatre Building Chicago Trap Door Under the Gun Victory Gardens

Itinerant

BoHo Child's Play Collaboraction ETA Creative Arts Foundation Factory First Folio House The Hypocrites Kapoot Clown Les Enfants Terribles LiveWire Chicago Off-Off Campus Oobleck Organic Remy Bumppo StarKid Tantalus TUTA Wicked Good

Former

Bang Bang Spontaneous Compass Players Defiant Ethiopian Art Goat Island Happy Happy Good Show Illinois
Illinois
Theatre Center Improv Institute New Age Vaudeville New Variety Playwrights Theatre Club The Practical Theatre Company Redmoon

Opera

Current

Chicago
Chicago
Opera
Opera
Theater DuPage Opera
Opera
Theatre Light Opera
Opera
Works Lithuanian Opera
Opera
Company of Chicago Lyric Opera
Opera
of Chicago Opera
Opera
in Focus

Former

Chicago
Chicago
City Opera Chicago
Chicago
Civic Opera Chicago
Chicago
Grand Opera Chicago
Chicago
Opera
Opera
Association Chicago
Chicago
Opera
Opera
Company Crosby's Opera
Opera
House San Carlo Opera
Opera
Company

Music
Music
and dance

Dance

Chicago
Chicago
Ballet Chicago
Chicago
Festival Ballet Giordano Jazz
Jazz
Dance
Dance
Chicago Hedwig Dances Hubbard Street Dance
Dance
Chicago Joffrey Ballet Luna Negra Dance
Dance
Theater Ruth Page Center for the Arts

Choruses

Bella Voce Chicago
Chicago
a cappella Chicago
Chicago
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Chicago
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Chicago
Symphony Chorus

Symphonies

Chicago
Chicago
Philharmonic Chicago
Chicago
Sinfonietta Chicago
Chicago
Symphony Orchestra Grant Park Symphony Orchestra

Venues

Theater

Apollo Theater Arie Crown Theater Auditorium Theatre Biograph Theater Briar Street Theater Broadway Playhouse at Water Tower Place Cadillac Palace Theatre Chicago
Chicago
Avenue Pumping Station Chicago
Chicago
Theatre Chopin Theatre CIBC Theatre Congress Theater Gateway Theatre Greenhouse Theater
Theater
Center Harris and Selwyn Theaters Merle Reskin New Regal Theater Oriental Theatre

Opera

Civic Opera
Opera
House DuPage Opera
Opera
Theatre Woodstock Opera
Opera
House

Music

Harris Theater Jay Pritzker Pavilion Metro Park West Petrillo Music
Music
Shell Riviera Theatre Rosemont Theatre Symphony Center The Vic Theatre

Former

Central Music
Music
Hall Chicago
Chicago
Opera
Opera
House Drury Lane Water Tower Place Garrick Theater Iroquois Theatre McVicker's Theater Uptown Theatre

Festivals

List of festivals in Chicago

Cultur

.