CINDERELLA, or THE LITTLE GLASS SLIPPER, (Italian : Cenerentola,
French : Cendrillon, ou La petite Pantoufle de Verre, German :
Aschenputtel) is a folk tale embodying a myth -element of unjust
oppression/triumphant reward. Thousands of variants are known
throughout the world. The title character is a young woman living in
unfortunate circumstances, that are suddenly changed to remarkable
fortune. The story of
Rhodopis , recounted by the Greek geographer
Although the story's title and main character's name change in
different languages, in English-language folklore "Cinderella" is the
archetypal name. The word "Cinderella" has, by analogy, come to mean
one whose attributes were unrecognized, or one who unexpectedly
achieves recognition or success after a period of obscurity and
neglect. The still-popular story of "Cinderella" continues to
influence popular culture internationally, lending plot elements,
allusions , and tropes to a wide variety of media. The
Aarne–Thompson system classifies
* 1 Ancient and international versions
* 2 Literary versions
* 2.1 Cenerentola, by Basile * 2.2 Cendrillon, by Perrault * 2.3 Aschenputtel, by the Brothers Grimm
* 3 Plot variations and alternative tellings
* 3.1 Revisionist retellings
* 4 Folkloristics
* 5 Adaptations
* 5.1 Opera and ballet * 5.2 Theatre * 5.3 Films and television * 5.4 Songs * 5.5 Books * 5.6 Others
* 6 Translations * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links
ANCIENT AND INTERNATIONAL VERSIONS
The Aarne–Thompson system classifies
Pair of ancient leather sandals from Egypt Main article: Rhodopis
The oldest known version of the
They tell the fabulous story that, when she was bathing, an eagle snatched one of her sandals from her maid and carried it to Memphis ; and while the king was administering justice in the open air, the eagle, when it arrived above his head, flung the sandal into his lap; and the king, stirred both by the beautiful shape of the sandal and by the strangeness of the occurrence, sent men in all directions into the country in quest of the woman who wore the sandal; and when she was found in the city of Naucratis, she was brought up to Memphis, became the wife of the king ...
The same story is also later reported by the Roman orator Aelian (ca. 175–ca. 235) in his Miscellanious History, which was written entirely in Greek. Aelian's story closely resembles the story told by Strabo, but adds that the name of the pharaoh in question was Psammetichus. Aelian's account indicates that the story of Rhodopis remained popular throughout antiquity .
A version of the story, Ye Xian , appeared in Miscellaneous Morsels from Youyang by Duan Chengshi around 860. Here, the hardworking and lovely girl befriends a fish, the rebirth of her mother. The fish is later killed by her stepmother and sister. Ye Xian saves the bones, which are magic, and they help her dress appropriately for the New Year Festival. When she loses her slipper after being recognized by her stepfamily, the king finds her slipper and falls in love with her (eventually rescuing her from her cruel stepmother). Variants of the story are also found in many ethnic groups in China.
INDONESIA AND MALAYSIA
The Indonesian and Malaysian story Bawang Merah Bawang Putih , are about two girls named Bawang Putih (literally "White Onion", meaning "garlic") and Bawang Merah ("Red Onion"). While the two country's respective versions differ in the exact relationship of the girls and the identity of the protagonist, they have highly similar plot elements. Both have a magical fish as the "fairy godmother" to her daughter, which the antagonist cooks. The heroine then finds the bones and buries them, and over the grave a magical swing appears. The protagonist sits on the swing and sings to make it sway, her song reaching the ears of a passing Prince. The swing is akin to the slipper test, which distinguishes the heroine from her evil sister, and the Prince weds her in the end.
In Indonesia, Bawang Putih is the kind-hearted girl, who suffers at the hands of her evil stepmother, and stepsister Bawang Merah, who is the one that cooks the fish-mother. When the Prince enquires after the singer on the swing, Bawang Merah lies, but is proven false when cannot make the magical swing move. The angry prince forces Bawang Merah and her mother to tell the truth. They then admit that there is another daughter in the house. Bawang Putih comes out and moves the magical swing by her singing. In the end, she and her prince marry and live happily ever after.
In the Malaysian version, it is Bawang Merah and her mother Mak Labu ("Mother Gourd") who are good, while her half sister Bawang Putih and her mother Mak Kundur ("Mother Wintermelon") are evil. Both mothers were the wives of a poor man, and upon his death Mak Kundur seized control of the household and forced Mak Labu and Bawang Merah to do all the chores around the house. One day as Mak Labu was fetching water at the well, Mak Kundur pushed her into it, and Mak Labu turns into a gourami . In this version, Mak Kundur killed the fish and fed it to Bawang Merah who learns of her mother's fishbones in a dream and finds them with the aid of some ants. Bawang Merah gathers the fish bones and buries them in a small grave underneath a tree. When she visits the grave the next day, she is surprised to see that a beautiful swing has appeared from one of the tree's branches. When Bawang Merah sits in the swing and sings an old lullaby, it magically swings back and forth. In this version, Mak Kundur knows the Prince, and lies when a royal guard enquires after the girl on the swing. Bawang Merah sings and it is she whom the Prince marries at the end of the story.
In a version of the story from the Philippines, the girl is named Maria, the daughter of a fisherman Juan dela Costa and his wife Dalida. Juan has an affair with the town harlot Quicay, who has two daughters with different men, the older is named Seraphine while the younger is Felice. Maria's mother dies early, either by sickness or by her father's malicious intentions, and when her father remarries, her stepmother and stepsisters abuse her by forcing her to do menial task and calling her "The Ash Girl". One afternoon, however, a crab appears to Maria and reveals herself to be Dalida. Her cruel family, however, ultimately discovers this and catches the crab, then forces her to serve it for dinner. Maria obeys but her mother instructs her to bury the crab shells near the river, and from the spot sprang a golden grapefruit tree. A few years pass the country where Maria lives is invaded by Moors, but the King Enrico successfully defeats them. To celebrate his victory, the king hosts a ball to which the stepsisters attend. Maria is forbidden to go, and is given impossible tasks, but the Virgin Mary appears and helps her. The grapefruit tree provides her with everything necessary (clothes, carriage), with the warning that she must leave before midnight. The king falls in love with her, and when Maria was about to leave he snatches one of her glass slippers. The story culminates with the search for the owner of the slipper, the discovery of Maria, the marriage with the king, and her stepmother and sisters being put to death.
In the Vietnamese version Tam Cam , Tam is mistreated by both her father's co-wife and half-sister. After her fishing achievements are unjustly stolen by the stepsister, she brings the only remaining fish home and feeds it as a pet. Her jealous step-family kills the fish and eats it, but its bones continue to serve as her protector and guardian, eventually leading her to become the king's bride during a festival. The protagonist takes violent revenge in part two of the story; after being murdered four times by her stepmother and stepsister, she eventually comes back from the dead and boils her stepsister alive, indirectly resulting in the death of her stepmother.
The Korean version of the story, Kongjwi and Patjwi , tells of a kind girl named Kongjwi, who is constantly abused by her stepmother and stepsister Patjwi. The step-family forces Kongjwi to stay at home while they attend the king's festival, asking her to repair a leaking jar. A toad assists with the jar, and an ox brings her clothes for the festival. The story contains the same general motifs as most other versions of the story, including a festival and a king who falls in love with the protagonist.
WEST AND SOUTH ASIA
Several different variants of the story appear in the medieval One Thousand and One Nights , also known as the Arabian Nights, including "The Second Shaykh's Story", "The Eldest Lady's Tale" and "Abdallah ibn Fadil and His Brothers", all dealing with the theme of a younger sibling harassed by two jealous elders. In some of these, the siblings are female, while in others, they are male. One of the tales, "Judar and His Brethren", departs from the happy endings of previous variants and reworks the plot to give it a tragic ending instead, with the younger brother being poisoned by his elder brothers.
THE MIDDLE EAST
Variants from Iran and Arabian countries also exist, one titled as
the Maah Pishànih which means "The Girl With The Moon On Her
Forehead". In this version, the
The first written European version of the story was published in Napoli (Naples), Italy, by Giambattista Basile , in his Pentamerone (1634). The story itself was based in the Kingdom of Naples , at that time the most important political and cultural center of Southern Italy and among the most influential capitals in Europe, and written in the Neapolitan dialect . It was later retold, along with other Basile tales, by Charles Perrault in Histoires ou contes du temps passé (1697), and by the Brothers Grimm in their folk tale collection Grimms\' Fairy Tales (1812).
The name "Cenerentola" comes from the Italian word "cenere" – tchenere (ash – cinder). It has to do with the fact that servants and scullions were usually soiled with ash at that time, because of their cleaning work and also because they had to live in cold basements so they usually tried to get warm by sitting close to the fireplace.
CENERENTOLA, BY BASILE
Giambattista Basile , an Italian soldier and government official, assembled a set of oral folk tales into a written collection titled Lo cunto de li cunti (The Story of Stories), or Pentamerone . It included the tale of Cenerentola, which features a wicked stepmother and evil stepsisters, magical transformations, a missing slipper, and a hunt by a monarch for the owner of the slipper. It was published posthumously in 1634.
PLOT: A prince has a daughter, Zezolla (tonnie) (the Cinderella figure), who is tended by a beloved governess. The governess, with Zezolla's help, persuades the prince to marry her. The governess then brings forward six daughters of her own, who abuse Zezolla (tonnie), and send her into the kitchen to work as a servant. The prince goes to the island of Sinia, meets a fairy who gives presents to his daughter, and brings back for her: a golden spade, a golden bucket, a silken napkin, and a date seedling. The girl cultivates the tree, and when the king hosts a ball, Zezolla appears dressed richly by a fairy living in the date tree. The king falls in love with her, but Zezolla runs away before he can find out who she is. Twice Zezolla escapes the king and his servants. The third time, the king's servant captures one of her slippers. The king invites all of the maidens in the land to a ball with a shoe-test, identifies Zezolla (tonnie) after the shoe jumps from his hand to her foot, and eventually marries her.
CENDRILLON, BY PERRAULT
One of the most popular versions of
PLOT: Once upon a time, there was a wealthy widower who married a
proud and haughty woman as his second wife. She had two daughters ,
who were equally vain and selfish. The gentleman had a beautiful young
daughter, a girl of unparalleled kindness and sweet temper. The man's
daughter is forced into servitude, where she was made to work day and
night doing menial chores. After the girl's chores were done for the
day, she would curl up near the fireplace in an effort to stay warm.
She would often arise covered in cinders, giving rise to the mocking
nickname "Cinderella" by her stepsisters.
The first moral of the story is that beauty is a treasure, but graciousness is priceless. Without it, nothing is possible; with it, one can do anything.
However, the second moral of the story mitigates the first one and reveals the criticism that Perrault is aiming at: That "without doubt it is a great advantage to have intelligence, courage, good breeding, and common sense. These, and similar talents come only from heaven, and it is good to have them. However, even these may fail to bring you success, without the blessing of a godfather or a godmother."
ASCHENPUTTEL, BY THE BROTHERS GRIMM
Another well-known version was recorded by the German brothers Jacob
PLOT: A plague infests a village, and a wealthy gentleman's wife lies on her deathbed. She calls for her only daughter, and tells her to remain good and kind, as God would protect her. She then dies and is buried. The child visits her mother's grave everyday to grieve and a year goes by. The gentleman marries another woman with two older daughters from a previous marriage. They have beautiful faces and fair skin, but their hearts are cruel and wicked. The stepsisters steal the girl's fine clothes and jewels and force her to wear rags. They banish her into the kitchen, and give her the nickname "Aschenputtel" ("Ashfool"). She is forced to do all kinds of hard work from dawn to dusk. The cruel sisters will do nothing but mock her and make her chores harder by creating messes. However, despite all of it, the girl remains good and kind, and will always go to her mother's grave to cry and pray to God that she will see her circumstances improve. One day the gentleman visits a fair, promising his stepdaughters gifts of luxury. The eldest asks for beautiful dresses, while the younger for pearls and diamonds. His own daughter merely begs for the first twig to knock his hat off on the way. The gentleman goes on his way, and acquires presents for his stepdaughters. While passing a forest he gets a hazel twig, and gives it to his daughter. She plants the twig over her mother's grave, waters it with her tears and over the years, it grows into a glowing hazel tree. The girl prays under it three times a day, and a white bird will always comes to her. She will tell her wishes to the bird, and every time the bird will throw down to her what she has wished for. The king decides to ordain a festival that will last for three days and invites all the beautiful maidens in the land to attend so that the prince can select one of them for his bride. The two sisters are also invited, but when Aschenputtel begs them to allow her to go with them into the celebration, the stepmother refuses because she has no decent dress nor shoes to wear. When the girl insists, the woman throws a dish of lentils into the ashes for her to pick up, guaranteeing her permission to attend the festival, if she can clean up the lentils in two hours. When the girl accomplishes the task in less than an hour with the help of a flock of white doves that came when she sings a certain chant, the stepmother only redoubles the task and throws down even a greater quantity of lentils. When Aschenputtel is able to accomplish it in a greater speed, not wanting to spoil her daughters' chances, the stepmother hastens away with her husband and daughters to the celebration and leaves the crying stepdaughter behind. The girl retreats to the graveyard and asks to be clothed in silver and gold. The white bird drops a gold and silver gown and silk shoes. She goes to the feast. The prince dances with her all the time, and when sunset comes she asks to leave. The prince escorts her home, but she eludes him and jumps inside the pigeon coop. The father has come home ahead of time and the prince asks him to chop the pigeon coop down, but Aschenputtel has already escaped. The next day, the girl appears in grander apparel. The prince falls in love with her and dances with her for the whole day, and when sunset comes, the prince tries to accompany her home again. However, she climbs a pear tree to escape him. The Prince calls her father who chops down the tree, wondering if it could be Aschenputtel, but Aschenputtel has disappeared. The third day, she appears dressed in the grandest with slippers of gold. Now the prince is determined to keep her, and has the entire stairway smeared with pitch. Aschenputtel loses track of time, and when she runs away one of her golden slippers sticks on that pitch. The prince proclaims that he will marry the maiden whose foot fits the golden slipper. The next morning, the prince goes to Aschenputtel's house and tries the slipper on the eldest stepsister. The sister was advised by her mother to cut off her toes in order to fit the slipper. While riding with the stepsister, the two doves from Heaven tell the Prince that blood drips from her foot. Appalled by her treachery, he goes back again and tries the slipper on the other stepsister. She cuts off part of her heel in order to get her foot in the slipper, and again the prince is fooled. While riding with her to the king's castle, the doves alert him again about the blood on her foot. He comes back to inquire about another girl. The gentleman tells him that they keep a kitchen-maid in the house – omitting to mention that she is his own daughter – and the prince asks him to let her try on the slipper. Aschenputtel appears after washing herself, and when she puts on the slipper, the prince recognizes her as the stranger with whom he has danced at the ball. In the end, during Aschenputtel's wedding, as she walks down the aisle with her stepsisters as her bridesmaids, (they had hoped to worm their way into her favour), the doves fly down and strike the two stepsisters' eyes, one in the left and the other in the right. When the wedding comes to an end, and Aschenputtel and her prince march out of the church, the doves fly again, striking the remaining eyes of the two evil sisters blind, a punishment they had to endure for the rest of their lives.
Aschenputtel's relationship with her father in this version is ambiguous; Perrault 's version states that the absent father is dominated by his second wife, explaining why he does not prevent the abuse of his daughter. However, the father in this tale plays an active role in several scenes, and it is not explained why he tolerates the mistreatment of his child. He also describes Aschenputtel as his "first wife's child" and not his own.
PLOT VARIATIONS AND ALTERNATIVE TELLINGS
VILLAINS: In some versions, her father plays an active role in the humiliation of his daughter; in others, he is secondary to his new wife, Cinderella's stepmother; in some versions, especially the popular Disney film , Cinderella's father has died and Cinderella's mother has died also.
Although many variants of
In La Cenerentola , Gioachino Rossini inverted the sex roles: Cenerentola is oppressed by her stepfather . (This makes the opera Aarne-Thompson type 510B.) He also made the economic basis for such hostility unusually clear, in that Don Magnifico wishes to make his own daughters' dowries larger, to attract a grander match, which is impossible if he must provide a third dowry. Folklorists often interpret the hostility between the stepmother and stepdaughter as just such a competition for resources, but seldom does the tale make it clear.
BALL, BALLGOWN, AND CURFEW: The number of balls varies, sometimes
one, sometimes two, and sometimes three. The fairy godmother is
Perrault's own addition to the tale. The person who aided Cinderella
(Aschenputtel) in the Grimms 's version is her dead mother.
Aschenputtel requests her aid by praying at her grave, on which a tree
is growing. Helpful doves roosting in the tree shake down the clothing
she needs for the ball. This motif is found in other variants of the
tale as well, such as The Cinder Maid, collected by
Joseph Jacobs ,
and the Finnish
The Wonderful Birch . Playwright James Lapine
incorporated this motif into the
The midnight curfew is also absent in many versions; Cinderella leaves the ball to get home before her stepmother and stepsisters, or she is simply tired. In the Grimms' version, Aschenputtel slips away when she is tired, hiding on her father's estate in a tree, and then the pigeon coop, to elude her pursuers; her father tries to catch her by chopping them down, but she escapes.
In the three-ball version,
THE IDENTIFYING ITEM: The glass slipper is unique to Charles Perrault
's version and its derivatives; in other versions of the tale it may
be made of other materials (in the version recorded by the Brothers
Grimm , German : Aschenbroedel and Aschenputtel, for instance, it is
gold) and in still other tellings, it is not a slipper but an anklet,
a ring, or a bracelet that gives the prince the key to Cinderella's
identity. In Rossini's opera "
La Cenerentola " ("Cinderella"), the
slipper is replaced by twin bracelets to prove her identity. In the
The Wonderful Birch the prince uses tar to gain
something every ball, and so has a ring, a circlet, and a pair of
slippers. Interpreters unaware of the value attached to glass in 17th
century France and perhaps troubled by sartorial impracticalities,
have suggested that Perrault's "glass slipper" (pantoufle de verre)
had been a "squirrel fur slipper" (pantoufle de vair) in some
unidentified earlier version of the tale, and that Perrault or one of
his sources confused the words; however, most scholars believe the
glass slipper was a deliberate piece of poetic invention on Perrault's
part. The 1950 Disney adaptation takes advantage of the slipper being
made of glass to add a twist whereby the slipper is shattered just
Another interpretation of verre/vair (glass/fur) suggested a sexual
element—the Prince was 'trying on' the 'fur slipper' (vagina) of the
maidens in the kingdom, as a '
Droit du seigneur
The translation of the story into cultures with different standards
of beauty has left the significance of Cinderella's shoe size unclear,
and resulted in the implausibility of Cinderella's feet being of a
unique size for no particular reason. Humorous retellings of the story
sometimes use the twist of having the shoes turn out to also fit
somebody completely unsuitable, such as an amorous old crone. In Terry
Witches Abroad , the witches accuse another witch of
manipulating the events because it was a common shoe size, and she
could only ensure that the right woman put it on if she already knew
where she was and went straight to her. In "When the Clock Strikes"
(from Red As Blood ),
Tanith Lee had the sorcerous shoe alter shape
whenever a woman tried to put it on, so it would not fit.
THE REVELATION: Cinderella's stepmother and stepsisters (in some versions just the stepsisters and, in some other versions, a stepfather and stepsisters) conspire to win the prince's hand for one of them. In the German telling, the first stepsister fits into the slipper by cutting off a toe, but the doves in the hazel tree alert the prince to the blood dripping from the slipper, and he returns the false bride to her mother. The second stepsister fits into the slipper by cutting off her heel, but the same doves give her away.
In many variants of the tale, the prince is told that
THE CONCLUSION: In the German version of the story, the evil stepsisters are punished for their deception by having their eyes pecked out by birds. In other versions, they are forgiven, and made ladies-in-waiting with marriages to lesser lords.
In The Thousand Nights and A Night , in a tale called "The Anklet", the stepsisters make a comeback by using twelve magical hairpins to turn the bride into a dove on her wedding night. In The Wonderful Birch , the stepmother, a witch, manages to substitute her daughter for the true bride after she has given birth. Such tales continue the fairy tale into what is in effect a second episode.
In an episode of
Jim Henson 's The Storyteller , writer Anthony
Minghella merged the old folk tale
Donkeyskin (also written by
Many popular new works based on the story feature one step-sister who
is not as cruel to
Ever After (known in promotional material as Ever After: A Cinderella Story) is a 1998 American romantic comedy-drama film inspired by the fairy tale Cinderella, directed by Andy Tennant and starring Drew Barrymore, Anjelica Huston, and Dougray Scott. The usual pantomime and comic/supernatural elements are removed and the story is instead treated as historical fiction, set in Renaissance-era France. It is often seen as a modern, post-feminism interpretation of the Cinderella myth.
There is also
Gregory Maguire 's novel Confessions of an Ugly
Stepsister , which gives the classic story from the view of one of the
ugly stepsisters. In this version, the
Gail Carson Levine wrote Ella Enchanted , a story about how "Ella" is under a fairy curse of obedience (she does whatever someone tells her to). A movie also has been made based on this book.
In his book Dr. Gardner's Fairy Tales for Today's Children, Dr. Richard A. Gardener's story "Cinderelma" has the heroine Cinderelma and the prince re-unite, then mutually decide to separate. Cinderelma then gets a job as a seamstress, later opens her own dress shop, and marries a young printer who owns the shop next door to hers.
In 1995, Richard Conlon's play Anastasia and Drizella was produced at
Chicago's Temporary Theatre. In it, Cinderella's step sister Anastasia
gets a master's degree in finance, and her step sister Drizella gets a
master's degree in chemical engineering. When the prince tries to have
Cinderella's step family beheaded, Anastasia buys the kingdom. The
In the 2005 picture book Ella\'s Big Chance by Shirley Hughes , Ella is a dressmaker in her father's shop, and when the stepsisters arrive they appoint themselves as models. Ella eventually chooses to marry Buttons, an employee in the shop, instead of the prince.
Emily Short 's 2006 interactive fiction short story Glass, it is
In 2014, Bad Wolf Press published a musical version called Cinderella: A Modern Makeover, a fractured interpretation of the story featuring a more positive "blended family" home life as well as a heroine trying to get her dream job at the palace instead of a marriage proposal.
Also in 2014, Rae D. Magdon published an unusual retelling of the story in a novel titled The Second Sister, in which the protagonist, Ellie, is somewhat forced into stopping one of her step-sisters from enchanting the Prince and take over the entire Kingdom. In order to do this, she receives the help of a shy maid, a friendly cook, a talking cat, and her mysterious second sister.
Anne Sexton wrote an adaptation as a poem called "Cinderella" in her collection Transformations (1971), a book in which she re-envisions sixteen of the Grimm's Fairy tales.
Bridget Hodder has written The
Folklorists have long studied variants on this tale across cultures.
Marian Roalfe Cox , commissioned by the
Further morphology studies have continued on this seminal work.
The Aarne–Thompson system classifies
The story of
OPERA AND BALLET
Cendrillon (1749) by Jean-Louis Laruette
Cendrillon (1810) by
Nicolas Isouard , libretto by
* Agatina o La virtù premiata (1814) by
La Cenerentola (1817) by
Aschenbrödel (1845) by Gustav Köckert
Aschenbrödel (1878) by Ferdinand Langer
FILMS AND TELEVISION
Over the decades, hundreds of films have been made that are either
direct adaptations from
* "Cinderella" a track on the 2016 2nd mini album Sting by Korean
girl group Stellar.
Cinderella Rockefella released 1967 by Esther Daye, Stephen
* In the series Dark Parables, fifth game, The Final Cinderella, the
LANGUAGE NAME ROMANISATION
Arabic سندريلا Sinderella
Armenian Մոխրոտիկ Mokhrotik
Basque Mari Errauskin
Belarusian Папялушка Papyalushka
Bulgarian Пепеляшка Pepelyashka
Argentina La Cenicienta
Chinese 灰姑娘 Huīgūniang
Georgian კონკია Konkia
German Aschenputtel (or Aschenbrödel)
Greek Σταχτοπούτα Stachtopoúta
Hebrew סינדרלהלכלוכית Sinderelaa/Lichluchit
Hindi सिंडिरेल्ला Sindirēllā
Indonesian Cinderella/Upik Abu
Japanese シンデレラ Shinderera
Kannada ಸಿಂಡರೆಲ್ಲಾ Siṇḍarellā
Korean 신데렐라 Sinderella
Lao ຊັງດຣີຢົງ or ຊັງດີຢົງ Sangdriyong
Macedonian Пепелашка Pepelashka
Malay Bawang merah
Mongolian Үнсгэлжин Unsgeljin
Norwegian (bokmål) Askepott (originally the name of Askeladden )
Norwegian (nynorsk) Oskepott (originally the name of Oskeladden )
Persian سیندرلا Sinderela
Russian Золушка Zolushka
Serbian Пепeљуга Pepeljuga
Tamil சின்டெரெல்லா Ciṉṭerellā
Thai ซินเดอเรลล่า Cinderella
Ukrainian Попелюшка Popelyushka
Vietnamese Lọ Lem
West Frisian Jiskepûster
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University of Wisconsin Press, 1988.
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2011, ISBN 978-0-14-133822-4 , chapter The Land of Egypt
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* ^ Strabo: "The Geography", book 17, 33
* ^ Aelian: "Various History", book 13, chapter 33
* ^ Anderson, Graham (2000). Fairytale in the Ancient World.
Routledge. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-415-23702-4 . Retrieved 25 March 2010.
* ^ Herodot, "The Histories", book 2, chapters 134-135
* ^ Beauchamp, Fay. "Asian Origins of Cinderella: The Zhuang
Storyteller of Guangxi" (PDF). Oral Tradition. 25 (2): 447–496.
* ^ Booss, Claire, ed. (1984). Scandinavian Folk & Fairy Tales:
Tales from Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland. New York: Avenel Books.
ISBN 978-0-517-43620-2 .
* ^ "
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Macmillan or, The Little Glass Slipper". Pitt.edu. 2003-10-08.
* ^ Aschenputtel, included in Household Stories by the Brothers
Grimm, translated by Lucy Crane, at
* ^ Heidi Anne Heiner, "Tales Similar to Donkeyskin"
Marina Warner , From the Beast to the Blonde: On Fairy Tales
And Their Tellers, p 213-4 ISBN 0-374-15901-7
* ^ Jane Yolen, p 23, Touch Magic ISBN 0-87483-591-7
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company, London, New York, 2004 ISBN 0-393-05848-4
* ^ Maria Tatar, p 28, The Annotated Classic Fairy Tales, ISBN
* ^ Maria Tatar, The Annotated Brothers Grimm, p 126-8 W. W. Norton
Powys Mathers (June 1987). The book of the Thousand Nights and One
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