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BATTERSEA is a district of south west London
London
, England, within the London Borough of Wandsworth . It is located on the south bank of the River Thames
River Thames
, 2.9 miles (4.7 km) south west of Charing Cross .

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Agriculture * 1.2 Industry * 1.3 Railway age * 1.4 Housing estates

* 2 Governance

* 3 Geography

* 3.1 Nearby places

* 4 Crime * 5 Demography * 6 Landmarks

* 7 Transport

* 7.1 Railway stations * 7.2 Proposed stations on the London
London
Underground * 7.3 Former railway stations

* 8 In popular culture * 9 Prominent people * 10 See also * 11 References * 12 Further reading * 13 External links

HISTORY

See also: History of London
London

Historically a part of Surrey
Surrey
, Battersea
Battersea
was centred on a church established on an island at the mouth of the Falconbrook ; a small river that rises in Tooting Bec Common and flowed underground through south London
London
to the River Thames
River Thames
.

Battersea
Battersea
is mentioned in Anglo-Saxon times as Badrices īeg = "Badric's Island" and later "Patrisey". As with many former parishes beside major rivers some land was reclaimed by draining marshland and building culverts for streams.

The original village nucleus is marked by St. Mary\'s Church , which is on a site that has featured churches since the 9th century. (The present church, which was completed in 1777, hosted the marriage of William Blake
William Blake
and Catherine Blake
Catherine Blake
née Boucher in 1782; Benedict Arnold , his wife, Peggy Shippen and their daughter were buried in its crypt .)

The settlement appears in the Domesday Book
Domesday Book
as Patricesy, held by St Peter\'s Abbey, Westminster
Westminster
. Its Domesday Assets were: 18 hides and 17 ploughlands of cultivated land; 7 mills worth £42 9s 8d per year, 82 acres (33 ha) of meadow , woodland worth 50 hogs . It rendered (in total): £75 9s 8d.

The former parish of Battersea
Battersea
included, in a detached part , a few hundred acres at Penge
Penge
(and/or Crystal Palace ).

The borough dates from the London
London
Government Act of 1899, and includes the greater part of the original ecclesiastical parish of St. Mary Battersea. Under the same Act Penge, formerly a hamlet of Battersea, was constituted a separate urban district...the curious anomalies of local government led to its formation as a separate urban district and its transfer to the county of Kent in 1900. Penge was a wooded district, over which the tenants of Battersea
Battersea
Manor had common of pasture.

AGRICULTURE

Before the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
, much of the large parish was farmland, providing food for the City of London
London
and surrounding population centres; and with particular specialisms, such as growing lavender on Lavender
Lavender
Hill (nowadays denoted by the road of the same name), asparagus (sold as " Battersea
Battersea
Bundles") or pig breeding on Pig Hill (later the site of the Shaftesbury Park Estate ). At the end of the 18th century, above 300 acres (1.2 km2) of land in the parish of Battersea
Battersea
were occupied by some 20 market gardeners, who rented from five to near 60 acres (24 ha) each. Villages in the wider area: Wandsworth, Earlsfield (hamlet of Garratt), Tooting, Balham
Balham
– were separated by fields; in common with other suburbs the wealthy of London
London
and the traditional manor successors built their homes in Battersea
Battersea
and neighbouring areas.

INDUSTRY

Battersea Power Station

Industry in the area was concentrated to the north west just outside the Battersea- Wandsworth
Wandsworth
boundary, at the confluence of the River Thames, and the River Wandle which gave rise to the village of Wandsworth
Wandsworth
. This was settled from the 16th century by Protestant craftsmen – Huguenots – fleeing religious persecution in Europe, who planted lavender and gardens and established a range of industries such as mills, breweries and dyeing, bleaching and calico printing. Industry developed eastwards along the bank of the Thames during the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
from 1750s onwards; the Thames provided water for transport, for steam engines and for water-intensive industrial processes. Bridges erected across the Thames encouraged growth; Putney Bridge , a mile to the west, was built in 1729, and Battersea
Battersea
Bridge in the centre of the north boundary in 1771. Inland from the river, the rural agricultural community persisted.

Along the Thames, a number of large and, in their field, pre-eminent firms grew; notably the Morgan Crucible Company , which survives to this day and is listed on the London
London
Stock Exchange ; Price's Candles, which also made cycle lamp oil; and Orlando Jones' Starch Factory. The 1874 Ordnance Survey map of the area shows the following factories, in order, from the site of the as yet unbuilt Wandsworth
Wandsworth
Bridge to Battersea
Battersea
Park: Starch manufacturer; Silk manufacturer; (St. John's College); (St. Mary's Church); Malt house; Corn mill; Oil and grease works (Prices Candles); Chemical works; Plumbago Crucible works (later the Morgan Crucible Company ); Chemical works; Saltpetre works; Foundry. Between these were numerous wharfs for shipping.

In 1929, construction started on Battersea Power Station , being completed in 1939. From the late 18th century to comparatively recent times Battersea, and certainly north Battersea, was established as an industrial area with all of the issues associated with pollution and poor housing affecting it.

Industry declined and moved away from the area in the 1970s, and local government sought to address chronic post-war housing problems with large scale clearances and the establishment of planned housing. Some decades after the end of large scale local industry, resurgent demand among magnates and high income earners for parkside and riverside property close to planned Underground links has led to significant construction. Factories have been demolished and replaced with modern apartment buildings. Some of the council owned properties have been sold off and several traditional working men's pubs have become more fashionable bistros. Battersea
Battersea
neighbourhoods close to the railway have some of the most deprived local authority housing in the Borough of Wandsworth. An area which saw condemned slums after their erection in the Victoria era.

RAILWAY AGE

Aftermath of a V-2 bombing at Battersea, 27 January 1945.

Battersea
Battersea
was radically altered by the coming of railways. The London and Southampton Railway Company engineered their railway line from east to west through Battersea, in 1838, terminating at the original Nine Elms railway station
Nine Elms railway station
at the north west tip of the area. Over the next 22 years five other lines were built, across which all trains from London's Waterloo and Victoria termini would as today travel. An interchange station was built in 1863 towards the north west of the area, at a junction of the railway. Taking the name of a fashionable village a mile and more away, the station was named ' Clapham
Clapham
Junction ': a campaign to rename it " Battersea
Battersea
Junction" fizzled out as late as the early twentieth century. During the latter decades of the nineteenth century Battersea
Battersea
had developed into a major town railway centre with two locomotive works at Nine Elms and Longhedge and three important motive power depots (Nine Elms, Stewarts Lane and Battersea) all situated within a relatively small area in the north of the district. The effect was precipitate: a population of 6,000 people in 1840 was increased to 168,000 by 1910; and save for the green spaces of Battersea Park
Battersea Park
, Clapham Common , Wandsworth
Wandsworth
Common and some smaller isolated pockets, all other farmland was built over, with, from north to south, industrial buildings and vast railway sheds and sidings (much of which remain), slum housing for workers, especially north of the main east–west railway, and gradually more genteel residential terraced housing further south.

The railway station encouraged the government to site its buildings in the area surrounding Clapham Junction
Clapham Junction
, where a cluster of new civic buildings including the town hall, library, police station, court and post office was developed along Lavender
Lavender
Hill in the 1880s and 1890s. The Arding and Hobbs department store, diagonally opposite the station, was the largest of its type at the time of its construction in 1885; and the streets near the station developed as a regional shopping district. The area was served by a vast music hall – The Grand – opposite the station (nowadays serving as a nightclub and venue for smaller bands) as well as a large theatre next to the town hall (the Shakespeare Theatre, later redeveloped following bomb damage). All this building around the station shifted the focus of the area southwards, and marginalised Battersea
Battersea
High Street (the main street of the original village) into no more than an extension of Falcon Road.

HOUSING ESTATES

Doddington and Rollo Estate.

Battersea
Battersea
has a large area of mid-20th century public housing estates, almost all located north of the main railway lines and spanning from Fairfield in the west to Queenstown in the east.

There are four particularly large estates. The Winstanley Estate, perhaps being the most renowned of them all, is known as being the birthplace to the garage collective So Solid Crew . Winstanley is close to Clapham Junction railway station
Clapham Junction railway station
in the northern perimeter of Battersea, and is currently being considered for comprehensive redevelopment as one of the London
London
Mayor's new Housing Zones. Further north towards Chelsea is the Surrey
Surrey
Lane Estate, and on Battersea
Battersea
Park Road is the Doddington and Rollo Estate. East, toward Vauxhall, is the Patmore Estate which is in close proximity to the Battersea
Battersea
Power Station.

Other smaller estates include York Road, Somerset, Savona, Badric Court, the Peabody Estate, Wynter Street Estate, Ethelburga Estate, Kambala Estate and Carey Gardens.

GOVERNANCE

See also: History of local government in London
London
Arms granted to the Metropolitan Borough of Battersea in 1955 A map showing the wards of Battersea
Battersea
Metropolitan Borough as they appeared in 1916.

The tradition of local government in England
England
was based on the Parish. Population growth in London
London
during the 19th century demanded new arrangements, and the Metropolitan Borough of Battersea was created in 1899, with the boundaries described above. It was in 1965 combined with the neighbouring Metropolitan Borough of Wandsworth
Wandsworth
to form the London Borough of Wandsworth . The former Battersea
Battersea
Town Hall, opened in 1893, is now the Battersea Arts Centre .

In the period from 1880 onwards, Battersea
Battersea
was known as a centre of radical politics in the United Kingdom. John Burns founded a branch of the Social Democratic Federation , Britain's first organised socialist political party, in the borough and after the turmoil of dock strikes affecting the populace of north Battersea, was elected to represent the borough in the newly formed London
London
County Council . In 1892, he expanded his role, being elected to Parliament for Battersea
Battersea
North as one of the first Independent Labour Party
Independent Labour Party
member of Parliament.

Battersea's radical reputation gave rise to the Brown Dog affair
Brown Dog affair
, when in 1904 the National Anti- Vivisection
Vivisection
Society sought permission to erect a drinking fountain celebrating the life of a dog killed by vivisection . The fountain, forming a plinth for the statue of a brown dog, was installed near in the Latchmere Recreational Grounds, became a cause célèbre, fought over in riots and battles between medical students and the local populace until its removal in 1910.

The borough elected the first black mayor in London
London
in 1913 when John Archer took office, and in 1922 elected the Bombay
Bombay
-born Communist Party member Shapurji Saklatvala as MP for Battersea; one of only two communist members of Parliament.

Battersea
Battersea
is currently divided into five Wandsworth
Wandsworth
wards. The Member of Parliament for the Battersea
Battersea
constituency since 6 May 2010 has been the Conservative Jane Ellison .

In 2009, it was announced that a new US embassy would be constructed at Nine Elms. This development would also see the building of luxury apartments in the area.

GEOGRAPHY

Battersea
Battersea
is part of London
London
on the south bank of the River Thames
River Thames
. A cross between a square and a triangle in shape, its northern boundary is the Thames, as it runs first north-east, and then east, before turning north again to pass Westminster
Westminster
. Its north-eastern corner is one mile (1.6 km) due south of the Palace of Westminster
Palace of Westminster
; the north-western corner is demarcated by Wandsworth
Wandsworth
Bridge and Battersea tapers south to a point roughly three miles (5 km) from the north-eastern corner and two miles (3 km) from the north-west. To the east is Lambeth
Lambeth
and Stockwell ; on the south are Camberwell
Camberwell
and Streatham
Streatham
, on the south-east is Clapham
Clapham
and on the west Wandsworth
Wandsworth
.

NEARBY PLACES

‹ The template below (Geographic location ) is being considered for deletion. See templates for discussion to help reach a consensus. ›

NEIGHBOURING AREAS

Fulham
Fulham
Chelsea Pimlico
Pimlico

Wandsworth
Wandsworth

Nine Elms and Stockwell

BATTERSEA

Wandsworth
Wandsworth
and Balham
Balham
Balham
Balham
and Clapham
Clapham
Clapham
Clapham

CRIME

Some parts of Battersea
Battersea
have become known for drug-dealing. The Winstanley and York Road council estates have developed a reputation for such offences and were included in a zero-tolerance "drug exclusion zone" in 2007.

DEMOGRAPHY

In 2011, Battersea
Battersea
had a population of 73,345. The district was also 52.2% of White British origin, as against an average for Wandsworth of 53.3%.

LANDMARKS

Battersea
Battersea
Dogs home (with gasworks alongside) Clapham Junction station, Battersea
Battersea
Large Asda
Asda
supermarket next to and visible from Clapham Junction
Clapham Junction
Railway Station London
London
Heliport, Battersea
Battersea

Within the bounds of modern Battersea
Battersea
are (from east to west):

* New Covent Garden Market , a major fruit and vegetable wholesale market, resited from Covent Garden
Covent Garden
in 1974. (Also considered by many to be in Nine Elms ). * Battersea Power Station an iconic edifice designed by Sir Giles Gilbert Scott , built between 1929 and 1939 (featured, with flying pig, on the sleeve art of Pink Floyd 's album Animals ). There have been a number of failed regeneration projects since the late 1980s. The current proposals are to convert the disused shell into a mass entertainments and commercial complex, with dedicated transport links (a proposed extension of the Northern line from Kennington could be complete by 2 020
020
). * Battersea Dogs and Cats Home
Battersea Dogs and Cats Home
, formerly Battersea
Battersea
Dogs Home and prior to that the Temporary Home for Lost and Starving Dogs, established in Holloway in 1860 and moved to Battersea
Battersea
in 1871. It is the United Kingdom's most famous refuge for stray dogs. Also the main location for ITV 1's Paul O\'Grady: For the Love of Dogs * Battersea Park
Battersea Park
, an 83 hectare green space laid out by Sir James Pennethorne between 1846 and 1864 and opened in 1858, and home to a zoo and the London
London
Peace Pagoda . * Shaftesbury Park Estate , conservation area consisting of over a thousand Victorian houses preserved in their original style. * Battersea Arts Centre , in the former Battersea
Battersea
Town Hall * Northcote Road , a bustling and famous local shopping street with its own market at the centre of the so-called Nappy Valley . * Clapham Junction railway station
Clapham Junction railway station
, by at least one measure – passenger interchanges — the busiest station in the United Kingdom and named after the neighbouring town of Clapham
Clapham
although it lies in the geographic heart of Battersea, SW11. * Arding now it has been converted into residential flats. * Newton Preparatory School , in an Edwardian building (with modern extension) formerly occupied by Clapham
Clapham
College , Notre Dame School and Raywood Street School.

TRANSPORT

A British Rail
British Rail
blue locomotive 13 March 1982 at Clapham
Clapham
Junction , being one of the British Rail
British Rail
Class 73 electro-diesels.

RAILWAY STATIONS

* Clapham Junction
Clapham Junction
, Europe's busiest railway station. * Battersea Park
Battersea Park
* Queenstown Road

PROPOSED STATIONS ON THE LONDON UNDERGROUND

* Battersea
Battersea
tube station (a station on the Northern line extension to Battersea
Battersea
) * Clapham Junction
Clapham Junction
(suggested Northern Line further extended from Battersea)

FORMER RAILWAY STATIONS

* Battersea
Battersea
(closed 1940) * Battersea Park
Battersea Park
Road (closed 1916)

IN POPULAR CULTURE

Battersea
Battersea
features in the books of Michael de Larrabeiti , who was brought up in the area: A Rose Beyond the Thames recounts the working-class Battersea
Battersea
of the 1940s and 1950s; The Borrible Trilogy presents a fictional Battersea, home to fantasy creatures known as the Borribles. Battersea
Battersea
is also the setting for Penelope Fitzgerald 's 1979 Booker Prize
Booker Prize
-winning novel, Offshore . Kitty Neale's Nobody's Girl is set ina fictional café and the surrounding Battersea
Battersea
High Street Market. Nell Dunn 's 1963 novel Up the Junction (later adapted for both television and cinema) depicts contemporary life in the industrial slums of Battersea
Battersea
near Clapham Junction
Clapham Junction
. Battersea provides the backdrop for the real world scenes in the audio book and app series Rockford\'s Rock Opera .

Michael Flanders , half of the 1960s comedy duo Flanders and Swann, often made fun of Donald Swann
Donald Swann
for living in Battersea. Morrissey mentions Battersea
Battersea
in his song "You\'re the One for Me, Fatty ". Babyshambles recorded the song "Bollywood to Battersea" for a 2005 charity album Help!: A Day in the Life .

PROMINENT PEOPLE

The following people have lived, or currently live, in Battersea:

* Ben Adams – musician from the group a1 * James Aldridge – writer * Monie Love – mc and radio personality * L. S. Bevington – anarchist poet and essayist, was born and grew up in a Quaker family on St Johns Hill. * Ronnie Biggs – thief who took part in the Great Train Robbery * Johnny Briggs – actor, best known as Mike Baldwin in Coronation Street * Kathleen Byron – actress * Emma Chambers – actress, known for her role as 'Alice' in "The Vicar of Dibley " * Adrian Chiles – television presenter * Brian Cox – physicist, host of science shows for BBC
BBC
* Colin Douglas – stage and television actor * Nell Dunn – playwright * Howard Eastman – boxer * Pamela Hansford Johnson - writer * Craig Eastmond – footballer * Freddie Foreman – criminal and associate of the Kray Twins
Kray Twins
, born in Sheepcote Lane * Bob Geldof
Bob Geldof
– singer and songwriter * Pixie Geldof – socialite and model * Graham Greene – writer, playwright, critic * Rich Hall
Rich Hall
– comedian * Harry Hill – comedian * G. K. Chesterton
G. K. Chesterton
– writer * Simon Le Bon
Simon Le Bon
– musician * Katie Leung – actress, best known as Cho Chang in Harry Potter films * Kate Maberly – actress * Terry Manning
Terry Manning
– music producer * Noel McKoy – singer and songwriter * Buster Merryfield – actor, best known as Uncle Albert in Only Fools and Horses * Dannii Minogue – musician * Seán O\'Casey – writer * John O\'Farrell – writer * William Henry Page – historian and general editor of the Victoria County History
Victoria County History
* Rick Parfitt – singer with Status Quo * Polly Paulusma – musician * Mervyn Peake
Mervyn Peake
– author * Rupert Penry-Jones
Rupert Penry-Jones
– actor * Debbie "MC Remedee" Pryce and Susan "Susie Q" Banfield of Cookie Crew – rappers * Gordon Ramsay – chef * Joely Richardson
Joely Richardson
– actress * J.K. Rowling – author * Greg Rusedski – tennis player * John Scott – sociologist and Fellow of the British Academy * Peter Serafinowicz – comedian * George Shearing – Jazz pianist * Ed Sheeran
Ed Sheeran
– musician * Timothy Spall – actor * Henry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke
Henry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke
* Donald Swann
Donald Swann
– musician – of Flanders and Swann * Gabriel Thomson – stars in My Family
My Family
* Baroness Trumpington – member of the House of Lords * Paul Joseph Watson – YouTube personality and radio host * Arthur Webb (co-operator) – Building Society Movement * Vivienne Westwood
Vivienne Westwood
– fashion designer * William Wilberforce
William Wilberforce
– prominent campaigner against the slave trade * Edward Adrian Wilson – English physician, polar explorer, natural historian, painter and ornithologist * Bob Marley
Bob Marley
– reggae artist

SEE ALSO

* Nappy Valley * Seax of Beagnoth

REFERENCES

* ^ London
London
Under London: A subterranean guide: Richard Trench and Ellis Hillman: ISBN 0-7195-5288-5 * ^ Domesday Book
Domesday Book
for Surrey
Surrey
Archived 30 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ A B Map Victoria County History
Victoria County History
, London, H.E. Malden (Ed), 1911 * ^ \'Battersea\', The Environs of London: volume 1: County of Surrey
Surrey
(1792), pp. 26–48. * ^ A B C

* Patrick Loobey,