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The Info List - APG System


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The APG SYSTEM (ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP SYSTEM) of plant classification is the first version of a modern, mostly molecular -based, system of plant taxonomy . Published in 1998 by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group , it was replaced by the improved APG II in 2003, APG III system in 2009 and APG IV system in 2016.

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Groups * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links

HISTORY

The original APG system is unusual in being based, not on total evidence, but on the cladistic analysis of the DNA sequences of three genes, two chloroplast genes and one gene coding for ribosomes. Although based on molecular evidence only, its constituent groups prove to be supported by other evidence as well, for example pollen morphology supports the split between the eudicots and the rest of the former dicotyledons .

The system is rather controversial in its decisions at the family level, splitting a number of long-established families and submerging some other families. It also is unusual in not using botanical names above the level of order, that is, an order is the highest rank that will have a formal botanical name in this system. Higher groups are defined only as clades , with names such as monocots , eudicots , rosids , asterids .

The APG system was superseded in 2003 by a revision, the APG II system , and then in 2009 by a further revision, the APG III system .

GROUPS

The main groups in the system (all unranked clades ) are:

* ANGIOSPERMS : MONOCOTS COMMELINOIDS EUDICOTS CORE EUDICOTS ROSIDS EUROSIDS I EUROSIDS II ASTERIDS EUASTERIDS I EUASTERIDS II

Representation in color

The APG system recognises 462 families and 40 orders: these are assigned as follows. In the beginning of each listing some families or orders that are not placed in a further clade:

* clade ANGIOSPERMS family Amborellaceae family Austrobaileyaceae family Canellaceae family Chloranthaceae
Chloranthaceae
family Hydnoraceae family Illiciaceae family Nymphaeaceae
Nymphaeaceae
family Rafflesiaceae family Schisandraceae family Trimeniaceae family Winteraceae
Winteraceae
order Ceratophyllales
Ceratophyllales
family Ceratophyllaceae order Laurales family Atherospermataceae
Atherospermataceae
family Calycanthaceae
Calycanthaceae
family Gomortegaceae family Hernandiaceae family Lauraceae
Lauraceae
family Monimiaceae family Siparunaceae
Siparunaceae
order Magnoliales family Annonaceae family Degeneriaceae family Eupomatiaceae family Himantandraceae family Magnoliaceae family Myristicaceae order Piperales family Aristolochiaceae
Aristolochiaceae
family Lactoridaceae family Piperaceae
Piperaceae
family Saururaceae clade MONOCOTS family Corsiaceae family Japonoliriaceae family Nartheciaceae family Petrosaviaceae family Triuridaceae order Acorales
Acorales
family Acoraceae order Alismatales
Alismatales
family Alismataceae
Alismataceae
family Aponogetonaceae family Araceae family Butomaceae
Butomaceae
family Cymodoceaceae family Hydrocharitaceae family Juncaginaceae family Limnocharitaceae family Posidoniaceae family Potamogetonaceae family Ruppiaceae family Scheuchzeriaceae family Tofieldiaceae family Zosteraceae order Asparagales
Asparagales
family Agapanthaceae family Agavaceae
Agavaceae
family Alliaceae
Alliaceae
family Amaryllidaceae
Amaryllidaceae
family Anemarrhenaceae family Anthericaceae family Aphyllanthaceae
Aphyllanthaceae
family Asparagaceae
Asparagaceae
family Asphodelaceae family Asteliaceae family Behniaceae family Blandfordiaceae family Boryaceae family Convallariaceae family Doryanthaceae family Hemerocallidaceae family Herreriaceae family Hesperocallidaceae family Hyacinthaceae family Hypoxidaceae
Hypoxidaceae
family Iridaceae
Iridaceae
family Ixioliriaceae
Ixioliriaceae
family Lanariaceae family Laxmanniaceae family Orchidaceae
Orchidaceae
family Tecophilaeaceae family Themidaceae family Xanthorrhoeaceae family Xeronemataceae order Dioscoreales family Burmanniaceae
Burmanniaceae
family Dioscoreaceae family Taccaceae family Thismiaceae family Trichopodaceae
Trichopodaceae
order Liliales family Alstroemeriaceae
Alstroemeriaceae
family Campynemataceae family Colchicaceae family Liliaceae
Liliaceae
family Luzuriagaceae family Melanthiaceae family Philesiaceae family Ripogonaceae family Smilacaceae order Pandanales family Cyclanthaceae family Pandanaceae family Stemonaceae family Velloziaceae clade COMMELINOIDS family Abolbodaceae family Bromeliaceae
Bromeliaceae
family Dasypogonaceae family Hanguanaceae family Mayacaceae family Rapateaceae order Arecales
Arecales
family Arecaceae
Arecaceae
order Commelinales family Commelinaceae family Haemodoraceae family Philydraceae family Pontederiaceae order Poales
Poales
family Anarthriaceae family Centrolepidaceae family Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
family Ecdeiocoleaceae family Eriocaulaceae family Flagellariaceae family Hydatellaceae family Joinvilleaceae family Juncaceae family Poaceae
Poaceae
family Prioniaceae family Restionaceae
Restionaceae
family Sparganiaceae family Thurniaceae family Typhaceae
Typhaceae
family Xyridaceae order Zingiberales family Cannaceae
Cannaceae
family Costaceae family Heliconiaceae
Heliconiaceae
family Lowiaceae family Marantaceae family Musaceae family Strelitziaceae family Zingiberaceae clade EUDICOTS family Buxaceae
Buxaceae
family Didymelaceae
Didymelaceae
family Sabiaceae family Trochodendraceae order Proteales family Nelumbonaceae family Platanaceae family Proteaceae
Proteaceae
order Ranunculales family Berberidaceae family Circaeasteraceae family Eupteleaceae family Lardizabalaceae family Menispermaceae family Papaveraceae
Papaveraceae
family Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
clade CORE EUDICOTS family Aextoxicaceae family Berberidopsidaceae family Dilleniaceae
Dilleniaceae
family Gunneraceae family Myrothamnaceae family Vitaceae order Caryophyllales
Caryophyllales
family Achatocarpaceae family Aizoaceae family Amaranthaceae
Amaranthaceae
family Ancistrocladaceae family Asteropeiaceae family Basellaceae family Cactaceae
Cactaceae
family Caryophyllaceae
Caryophyllaceae
family Didiereaceae family Dioncophyllaceae family Droseraceae family Drosophyllaceae family Frankeniaceae family Molluginaceae family Nepenthaceae family Nyctaginaceae family Physenaceae family Phytolaccaceae family Plumbaginaceae family Polygonaceae family Portulacaceae family Rhabdodendraceae family Sarcobataceae family Simmondsiaceae family Stegnospermataceae family Tamaricaceae
Tamaricaceae
order Santalales family Olacaceae family Opiliaceae family Loranthaceae family Misodendraceae family Santalaceae order Saxifragales
Saxifragales
family Altingiaceae family Cercidiphyllaceae family Crassulaceae
Crassulaceae
family Daphniphyllaceae family Grossulariaceae family Haloragaceae family Hamamelidaceae family Iteaceae family Paeoniaceae family Penthoraceae family Pterostemonaceae family Saxifragaceae
Saxifragaceae
family Tetracarpaeaceae clade ROSIDS family Aphloiaceae family Crossosomataceae
Crossosomataceae
family Ixerbaceae family Krameriaceae family Picramniaceae family Podostemaceae
Podostemaceae
family Stachyuraceae
Stachyuraceae
family Staphyleaceae
Staphyleaceae
family Tristichaceae family Zygophyllaceae order Geraniales family Francoaceae family Geraniaceae
Geraniaceae
family Greyiaceae family Ledocarpaceae
Ledocarpaceae
family Melianthaceae
Melianthaceae
family Vivianiaceae clade EUROSIDS I family Celastraceae family Huaceae family Parnassiaceae family Stackhousiaceae order Cucurbitales
Cucurbitales
family Anisophylleaceae family Begoniaceae
Begoniaceae
family Coriariaceae family Corynocarpaceae family Cucurbitaceae
Cucurbitaceae
family Datiscaceae family Tetramelaceae order Fabales
Fabales
family Fabaceae
Fabaceae
family Polygalaceae family Quillajaceae family Surianaceae order Fagales
Fagales
family Betulaceae family Casuarinaceae family Fagaceae
Fagaceae
family Juglandaceae family Myricaceae family Nothofagaceae family Rhoipteleaceae family Ticodendraceae order Malpighiales family Achariaceae family Balanopaceae family Caryocaraceae
Caryocaraceae
family Chrysobalanaceae family Clusiaceae family Dichapetalaceae family Erythroxylaceae family Euphorbiaceae
Euphorbiaceae
family Euphroniaceae family Flacourtiaceae family Goupiaceae family Hugoniaceae family Humiriaceae family Irvingiaceae family Ixonanthaceae family Lacistemaceae family Linaceae family Malesherbiaceae family Malpighiaceae family Medusagynaceae family Ochnaceae family Pandaceae family Passifloraceae family Putranjivaceae family Quiinaceae family Rhizophoraceae
Rhizophoraceae
family Salicaceae family Scyphostegiaceae family Trigoniaceae family Turneraceae family Violaceae order Oxalidales family Cephalotaceae family Connaraceae family Cunoniaceae family Elaeocarpaceae family Oxalidaceae family Tremandraceae order Rosales family Barbeyaceae family Cannabaceae
Cannabaceae
family Cecropiaceae family Celtidaceae family Dirachmaceae family Elaeagnaceae family Moraceae family Rhamnaceae
Rhamnaceae
family Rosaceae
Rosaceae
family Ulmaceae family Urticaceae
Urticaceae
clade EUROSIDS II family Tapisciaceae order Brassicales
Brassicales
family Akaniaceae family Bataceae family Brassicaceae
Brassicaceae
family Caricaceae family Emblingiaceae family Gyrostemonaceae family Koeberliniaceae family Limnanthaceae family Moringaceae family Pentadiplandraceae family Resedaceae
Resedaceae
family Salvadoraceae
Salvadoraceae
family Setchellanthaceae family Tovariaceae family Tropaeolaceae order Malvales
Malvales
family Bixaceae family Cistaceae
Cistaceae
family Cochlospermaceae family Dipterocarpaceae family Malvaceae
Malvaceae
family Muntingiaceae family Neuradaceae family Sarcolaenaceae family Sphaerosepalaceae family Thymelaeaceae
Thymelaeaceae
order Myrtales
Myrtales
family Alzateaceae family Combretaceae family Crypteroniaceae family Heteropyxidaceae family Lythraceae family Melastomataceae family Memecylaceae family Myrtaceae
Myrtaceae
family Oliniaceae family Onagraceae family Penaeaceae family Psiloxylaceae
Psiloxylaceae
family Rhynchocalycaceae family Vochysiaceae order Sapindales
Sapindales
family Anacardiaceae family Biebersteiniaceae family Burseraceae
Burseraceae
family Kirkiaceae family Meliaceae
Meliaceae
family Nitrariaceae family Rutaceae family Sapindaceae family Simaroubaceae clade ASTERIDS order Cornales
Cornales
family Cornaceae
Cornaceae
family Grubbiaceae family Hydrangeaceae family Hydrostachyaceae family Loasaceae order Ericales
Ericales
family Actinidiaceae family Balsaminaceae
Balsaminaceae
family Clethraceae
Clethraceae
family Cyrillaceae family Diapensiaceae family Ebenaceae family Ericaceae
Ericaceae
family Fouquieriaceae family Halesiaceae family Lecythidaceae family Marcgraviaceae family Myrsinaceae family Pellicieraceae family Polemoniaceae family Primulaceae family Roridulaceae
Roridulaceae
family Sapotaceae family Sarraceniaceae
Sarraceniaceae
family Styracaceae
Styracaceae
family Symplocaceae family Ternstroemiaceae
Ternstroemiaceae
family Tetrameristaceae family Theaceae family Theophrastaceae clade EUASTERIDS I family Boraginaceae
Boraginaceae
family Plocospermataceae family Vahliaceae order Garryales family Aucubaceae family Eucommiaceae family Garryaceae
Garryaceae
family Oncothecaceae order Gentianales
Gentianales
family Apocynaceae
Apocynaceae
family Gelsemiaceae family Gentianaceae
Gentianaceae
family Loganiaceae family Rubiaceae
Rubiaceae
order Lamiales
Lamiales
family Acanthaceae
Acanthaceae
family Avicenniaceae
Avicenniaceae
family Bignoniaceae family Buddlejaceae family Byblidaceae
Byblidaceae
family Cyclocheilaceae family Gesneriaceae family Lamiaceae
Lamiaceae
family Lentibulariaceae family Myoporaceae family Oleaceae family Orobanchaceae family Paulowniaceae family Pedaliaceae family Phrymaceae
Phrymaceae
family Plantaginaceae
Plantaginaceae
family Schlegeliaceae family Scrophulariaceae family Stilbaceae
Stilbaceae
family Tetrachondraceae family Verbenaceae
Verbenaceae
order Solanales family Convolvulaceae family Hydroleaceae family Montiniaceae family Solanaceae family Sphenocleaceae clade EUASTERIDS II family Adoxaceae family Bruniaceae family Carlemanniaceae family Columelliaceae family Eremosynaceae family Escalloniaceae family Icacinaceae
Icacinaceae
family Polyosmaceae family Sphenostemonaceae family Tribelaceae order Apiales
Apiales
family Apiaceae
Apiaceae
family Araliaceae family Aralidiaceae family Griseliniaceae family Melanophyllaceae family Pittosporaceae
Pittosporaceae
family Torricelliaceae
Torricelliaceae
order Aquifoliales family Aquifoliaceae family Helwingiaceae family Phyllonomaceae
Phyllonomaceae
order Asterales
Asterales
family Alseuosmiaceae family Argophyllaceae family Asteraceae
Asteraceae
family Calyceraceae family Campanulaceae
Campanulaceae
family Carpodetaceae family Donatiaceae family Goodeniaceae family Menyanthaceae family Pentaphragmataceae family Phellinaceae family Rousseaceae family Stylidiaceae order Dipsacales
Dipsacales
family Caprifoliaceae
Caprifoliaceae
family Diervillaceae family Dipsacaceae family Linnaeaceae family Morinaceae family Valerianaceae

Note: "+ ..." = optional seggregrate family, that may be split off from the preceding family.

* Families of uncertain position family Balanophoraceae
Balanophoraceae
family Bonnetiaceae
Bonnetiaceae
family Cardiopteridaceae
Cardiopteridaceae
family Ctenolophonaceae family Cynomoriaceae
Cynomoriaceae
family Cytinaceae family Dipentodontaceae family Elatinaceae
Elatinaceae
family Geissolomataceae family Hoplestigmataceae family Kaliphoraceae family Lepidobotryaceae family Lissocarpaceae family Lophopyxidaceae family Medusandraceae family Metteniusaceae
Metteniusaceae
family Mitrastemonaceae family Paracryphiaceae family Pentaphylacaceae family Peridiscaceae family Plagiopteraceae family Pottingeriaceae family Sladeniaceae family Strasburgeriaceae family Tepuianthaceae

SEE ALSO

* APG II system
APG II system
* APG III system * APG IV system

REFERENCES

* The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (1998). "An ordinal classification for the families of flowering plants". Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 85 (4): 531–553. doi :10.2307/2992015 . JSTOR 2992015 . (Available online:

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