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The APG system ( Angiosperm Phylogeny Group system) of plant classification is the first version of a modern, mostly molecular-based, system of plant taxonomy. Published in 1998 by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, it was replaced by the improved APG II in 2003, APG III system in 2009 and APG IV system
APG IV system
in 2016.

Contents

1 History 2 Groups 3 See also 4 References 5 External links

History[edit] The original APG system is unusual in being based, not on total evidence, but on the cladistic analysis of the DNA sequences of three genes, two chloroplast genes and one gene coding for ribosomes. Although based on molecular evidence only, its constituent groups prove to be supported by other evidence as well, for example pollen morphology supports the split between the eudicots and the rest of the former dicotyledons. The system is rather controversial in its decisions at the family level, splitting a number of long-established families and submerging some other families. It also is unusual in not using botanical names above the level of order, that is, an order is the highest rank that will have a formal botanical name in this system. Higher groups are defined only as clades, with names such as monocots, eudicots, rosids, asterids. The APG system was superseded in 2003 by a revision, the APG II system, and then in 2009 by a further revision, the APG III system. Groups[edit] The main groups in the system (all unranked clades) are:

angiosperms :

monocots

commelinoids

eudicots

core eudicots

rosids

eurosids I eurosids II

asterids

euasterids I euasterids II

Representation in color The APG system recognises 462 families and 40 orders: these are assigned as follows. In the beginning of each listing some families or orders that are not placed in a further clade:

clade angiosperms

family Amborellaceae family Austrobaileyaceae family Canellaceae family Chloranthaceae family Hydnoraceae family Illiciaceae family Nymphaeaceae
Nymphaeaceae
[+ family Cabombaceae] family Rafflesiaceae family Schisandraceae family Trimeniaceae family Winteraceae

order Ceratophyllales

family Ceratophyllaceae

order Laurales

family Atherospermataceae family Calycanthaceae family Gomortegaceae family Hernandiaceae family Lauraceae family Monimiaceae family Siparunaceae

order Magnoliales

family Annonaceae family Degeneriaceae family Eupomatiaceae family Himantandraceae family Magnoliaceae family Myristicaceae

order Piperales

family Aristolochiaceae family Lactoridaceae family Piperaceae family Saururaceae

clade monocots

family Corsiaceae family Japonoliriaceae family Nartheciaceae family Petrosaviaceae family Triuridaceae

order Acorales

family Acoraceae

order Alismatales

family Alismataceae family Aponogetonaceae family Araceae family Butomaceae family Cymodoceaceae family Hydrocharitaceae family Juncaginaceae family Limnocharitaceae family Posidoniaceae family Potamogetonaceae family Ruppiaceae family Scheuchzeriaceae family Tofieldiaceae family Zosteraceae

order Asparagales

family Agapanthaceae family Agavaceae family Alliaceae family Amaryllidaceae family Anemarrhenaceae family Anthericaceae family Aphyllanthaceae family Asparagaceae family Asphodelaceae family Asteliaceae family Behniaceae family Blandfordiaceae family Boryaceae family Convallariaceae family Doryanthaceae family Hemerocallidaceae family Herreriaceae family Hesperocallidaceae family Hyacinthaceae family Hypoxidaceae family Iridaceae family Ixioliriaceae family Lanariaceae family Laxmanniaceae family Orchidaceae family Tecophilaeaceae family Themidaceae family Xanthorrhoeaceae family Xeronemataceae

order Dioscoreales

family Burmanniaceae family Dioscoreaceae family Taccaceae family Thismiaceae family Trichopodaceae

order Liliales

family Alstroemeriaceae family Campynemataceae family Colchicaceae family Liliaceae family Luzuriagaceae family Melanthiaceae family Philesiaceae family Ripogonaceae family Smilacaceae

order Pandanales

family Cyclanthaceae family Pandanaceae family Stemonaceae family Velloziaceae

clade commelinoids

family Abolbodaceae family Bromeliaceae family Dasypogonaceae family Hanguanaceae family Mayacaceae family Rapateaceae

order Arecales

family Arecaceae

order Commelinales

family Commelinaceae family Haemodoraceae family Philydraceae family Pontederiaceae

order Poales

family Anarthriaceae family Centrolepidaceae family Cyperaceae family Ecdeiocoleaceae family Eriocaulaceae family Flagellariaceae family Hydatellaceae family Joinvilleaceae family Juncaceae family Poaceae family Prioniaceae family Restionaceae family Sparganiaceae family Thurniaceae family Typhaceae family Xyridaceae

order Zingiberales

family Cannaceae family Costaceae family Heliconiaceae family Lowiaceae family Marantaceae family Musaceae family Strelitziaceae family Zingiberaceae

clade eudicots

family Buxaceae family Didymelaceae family Sabiaceae family Trochodendraceae
Trochodendraceae
[+ family Tetracentraceae]

order Proteales

family Nelumbonaceae family Platanaceae family Proteaceae

order Ranunculales

family Berberidaceae family Circaeasteraceae [+ family Kingdoniaceae] family Eupteleaceae family Lardizabalaceae family Menispermaceae family Papaveraceae
Papaveraceae
[+ family Fumariaceae
Fumariaceae
and family Pteridophyllaceae] family Ranunculaceae

clade core eudicots

family Aextoxicaceae family Berberidopsidaceae family Dilleniaceae family Gunneraceae family Myrothamnaceae family Vitaceae

order Caryophyllales

family Achatocarpaceae family Aizoaceae family Amaranthaceae family Ancistrocladaceae family Asteropeiaceae family Basellaceae family Cactaceae family Caryophyllaceae family Didiereaceae family Dioncophyllaceae family Droseraceae family Drosophyllaceae family Frankeniaceae family Molluginaceae family Nepenthaceae family Nyctaginaceae family Physenaceae family Phytolaccaceae family Plumbaginaceae family Polygonaceae family Portulacaceae family Rhabdodendraceae family Sarcobataceae family Simmondsiaceae family Stegnospermataceae family Tamaricaceae

order Santalales

family Olacaceae family Opiliaceae family Loranthaceae family Misodendraceae family Santalaceae

order Saxifragales

family Altingiaceae family Cercidiphyllaceae family Crassulaceae family Daphniphyllaceae family Grossulariaceae family Haloragaceae family Hamamelidaceae family Iteaceae family Paeoniaceae family Penthoraceae family Pterostemonaceae family Saxifragaceae family Tetracarpaeaceae

clade rosids

family Aphloiaceae family Crossosomataceae family Ixerbaceae family Krameriaceae family Picramniaceae family Podostemaceae family Stachyuraceae family Staphyleaceae family Tristichaceae family Zygophyllaceae

order Geraniales

family Francoaceae family Geraniaceae
Geraniaceae
[+ family Hypseocharitaceae] family Greyiaceae family Ledocarpaceae family Melianthaceae family Vivianiaceae

clade eurosids I

family Celastraceae family Huaceae family Parnassiaceae
Parnassiaceae
[+ family Lepuropetalaceae] family Stackhousiaceae

order Cucurbitales

family Anisophylleaceae family Begoniaceae family Coriariaceae family Corynocarpaceae family Cucurbitaceae family Datiscaceae family Tetramelaceae

order Fabales

family Fabaceae family Polygalaceae family Quillajaceae family Surianaceae

order Fagales

family Betulaceae family Casuarinaceae family Fagaceae family Juglandaceae family Myricaceae family Nothofagaceae family Rhoipteleaceae family Ticodendraceae

order Malpighiales

family Achariaceae family Balanopaceae family Caryocaraceae family Chrysobalanaceae family Clusiaceae family Dichapetalaceae family Erythroxylaceae family Euphorbiaceae family Euphroniaceae family Flacourtiaceae family Goupiaceae family Hugoniaceae family Humiriaceae family Irvingiaceae family Ixonanthaceae family Lacistemaceae family Linaceae family Malesherbiaceae family Malpighiaceae family Medusagynaceae family Ochnaceae family Pandaceae family Passifloraceae family Putranjivaceae family Quiinaceae family Rhizophoraceae family Salicaceae family Scyphostegiaceae family Trigoniaceae family Turneraceae family Violaceae

order Oxalidales

family Cephalotaceae family Connaraceae family Cunoniaceae family Elaeocarpaceae family Oxalidaceae family Tremandraceae

order Rosales

family Barbeyaceae family Cannabaceae family Cecropiaceae family Celtidaceae family Dirachmaceae family Elaeagnaceae family Moraceae family Rhamnaceae family Rosaceae family Ulmaceae family Urticaceae

clade eurosids II

family Tapisciaceae

order Brassicales

family Akaniaceae
Akaniaceae
[+ family Bretschneideraceae] family Bataceae family Brassicaceae family Caricaceae family Emblingiaceae family Gyrostemonaceae family Koeberliniaceae family Limnanthaceae family Moringaceae family Pentadiplandraceae family Resedaceae family Salvadoraceae family Setchellanthaceae family Tovariaceae family Tropaeolaceae

order Malvales

family Bixaceae
Bixaceae
[+ family Diegodendraceae] family Cistaceae family Cochlospermaceae family Dipterocarpaceae family Malvaceae family Muntingiaceae family Neuradaceae family Sarcolaenaceae family Sphaerosepalaceae family Thymelaeaceae

order Myrtales

family Alzateaceae family Combretaceae family Crypteroniaceae family Heteropyxidaceae family Lythraceae family Melastomataceae family Memecylaceae family Myrtaceae family Oliniaceae family Onagraceae family Penaeaceae family Psiloxylaceae family Rhynchocalycaceae family Vochysiaceae

order Sapindales

family Anacardiaceae family Biebersteiniaceae family Burseraceae family Kirkiaceae family Meliaceae family Nitrariaceae
Nitrariaceae
[+ family Peganaceae] family Rutaceae family Sapindaceae family Simaroubaceae

clade asterids

order Cornales

family Cornaceae
Cornaceae
[+ family Nyssaceae] family Grubbiaceae family Hydrangeaceae family Hydrostachyaceae family Loasaceae

order Ericales

family Actinidiaceae family Balsaminaceae family Clethraceae family Cyrillaceae family Diapensiaceae family Ebenaceae family Ericaceae family Fouquieriaceae family Halesiaceae family Lecythidaceae family Marcgraviaceae family Myrsinaceae family Pellicieraceae family Polemoniaceae family Primulaceae family Roridulaceae family Sapotaceae family Sarraceniaceae family Styracaceae family Symplocaceae family Ternstroemiaceae family Tetrameristaceae family Theaceae family Theophrastaceae

clade euasterids I

family Boraginaceae family Plocospermataceae family Vahliaceae

order Garryales

family Aucubaceae family Eucommiaceae family Garryaceae family Oncothecaceae

order Gentianales

family Apocynaceae family Gelsemiaceae family Gentianaceae family Loganiaceae family Rubiaceae

order Lamiales

family Acanthaceae family Avicenniaceae family Bignoniaceae family Buddlejaceae family Byblidaceae family Cyclocheilaceae family Gesneriaceae family Lamiaceae family Lentibulariaceae family Myoporaceae family Oleaceae family Orobanchaceae family Paulowniaceae family Pedaliaceae
Pedaliaceae
[+ family Martyniaceae] family Phrymaceae family Plantaginaceae family Schlegeliaceae family Scrophulariaceae family Stilbaceae family Tetrachondraceae family Verbenaceae

order Solanales

family Convolvulaceae family Hydroleaceae family Montiniaceae family Solanaceae family Sphenocleaceae

clade euasterids II

family Adoxaceae family Bruniaceae family Carlemanniaceae family Columelliaceae
Columelliaceae
[+ family Desfontainiaceae] family Eremosynaceae family Escalloniaceae family Icacinaceae family Polyosmaceae family Sphenostemonaceae family Tribelaceae

order Apiales

family Apiaceae family Araliaceae family Aralidiaceae family Griseliniaceae family Melanophyllaceae family Pittosporaceae family Torricelliaceae

order Aquifoliales

family Aquifoliaceae family Helwingiaceae family Phyllonomaceae

order Asterales

family Alseuosmiaceae family Argophyllaceae family Asteraceae family Calyceraceae family Campanulaceae
Campanulaceae
[+ family Lobeliaceae] family Carpodetaceae family Donatiaceae family Goodeniaceae family Menyanthaceae family Pentaphragmataceae family Phellinaceae family Rousseaceae family Stylidiaceae

order Dipsacales

family Caprifoliaceae family Diervillaceae family Dipsacaceae family Linnaeaceae family Morinaceae family Valerianaceae

Note: "+ ..." = optional seggregrate family, that may be split off from the preceding family.

Families of uncertain position

family Balanophoraceae family Bonnetiaceae family Cardiopteridaceae family Ctenolophonaceae family Cynomoriaceae family Cytinaceae family Dipentodontaceae family Elatinaceae family Geissolomataceae family Hoplestigmataceae family Kaliphoraceae family Lepidobotryaceae family Lissocarpaceae family Lophopyxidaceae family Medusandraceae family Metteniusaceae family Mitrastemonaceae family Paracryphiaceae family Pentaphylacaceae family Peridiscaceae family Plagiopteraceae family Pottingeriaceae family Sladeniaceae family Strasburgeriaceae family Tepuianthaceae

See also[edit]

APG II system APG III system APG IV system

References[edit]

The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (1998). "An ordinal classification for the families of flowering plants". Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 85 (4): 531–553. doi:10.2307/2992015. JSTOR 2992015.  (Available online: (PDF))

External links[edit]

Comparison with other systems at CSDL, Texas APG on the Hamburg server

v t e

List of systems of plant taxonomy

Pre-Linnaean

John Ray
John Ray
system (1686–1704)

A discourse on the seeds of plants Methodus plantarum nova De Variis Plantarum Methodis Dissertatio Brevis Methodus plantarum emendata et aucta

Pre-Darwinian

Linnaean system (1735–51)

Systema Naturae Species Plantarum Genera Plantarum Philosophia Botanica

Adanson system (1763)

Familles naturelles des plantes

De Jussieu system (1789)

Genera Plantarum, secundum ordines naturales disposita juxta methodum in Horto Regio Parisiensi exaratam

De Candolle system (1819–24)

Théorie élémentaire de la botanique, ou exposition des principes de la classification naturelle et de l'art de décrire et d'etudier les végétaux Prodromus systemati naturalis regni vegetabilis sive enumeratio contracta ordinum, generum specierumque plantarum huc usque cognitarum, juxta methodi naturalis normas digesta

Berchtold and Presl system (1820–1823)

O Prirozenosti Rostlin

Agardh system (1825)

Classes Plantarum

Gray system (1821)

The Natural Arrangement of British Plants

Dumortier
Dumortier
system (1829)

Analyse des familles des plantes

Lindley system (1830–45)

An Introduction to the Natural System of Botany The Vegetable Kingdom

Don system (1834)

General History of Dichlamydious Plants.

Bentham & Hooker system (1862–83)

Genera plantarum ad exemplaria imprimis in herbariis kewensibus servata definita.

Baillon system (1867–94)

Histoire des plantes

Post- Darwinian
Darwinian
(Phyletic)

Nineteenth century

Eichler system (1875–1886)

Blüthendiagramme: construirt und erläutert Syllabus der Vorlesungen über Phanerogamenkunde

Engler system
Engler system
(1886–1924)

Führer durch den Königlich botanischen Garten der Universität zu Breslau Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien Das Pflanzenreich

van Tieghem system (1891)

Traité de botanique

Twentieth century

Dalla Torre & Harms system (1900–07)

Genera Siphonogamarum, ad systema Englerianum conscripta

Warming system (1912)

Haandbog i den systematiske botanik

Hallier system (1912)

L'origine et le système phylétique des angiospermes

Bessey system (1915)

The phylogenetic taxonomy of flowering plants

Wettstein system (1901–35)

Handbuch der systematischen Botanik

Lotsy system (1907–11)

Vorträge über botanische Stammesgeschichte, gehalten an der Reichsuniversität zu Leiden. Ein Lehrbuch der Pflanzensystematik.

Hutchinson system (1926–73)

The families of flowering plants, arranged according to a new system based on their probable phylogeny

Calestani system (1933)

Le origini e la classificazione delle Angiosperme

Kimura system (1956)

Système et phylogénie des monocotyledones

Emberger system (1960)

Traité de Botanique systématique

Melchior system (1964)

Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien

Takhtajan system (1966–97)

A system and phylogeny of the flowering plants Flowering plants: origin and dispersal Diversity and classification of flowering plants

Cronquist system
Cronquist system
(1968–81)

The evolution and classification of flowering plants An integrated system of classification of flowering plants

Goldberg system (1986–89

Classification, Evolution and Phylogeny of the Families of Dicotyledons

Dahlgren system (1975–85)

The families of the monocotyledons: structure, evolution, and taxonomy

Thorne system (1968–2000)

An updated phylogenetic classification of the flowering plants

Kubitzki system (1990–)

The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants

Reveal system (1999)

Reveal System of Angiosperm Classification

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group System (1998–2009)

An ordinal classification for the families of flowering plants (APG I) An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV Angiosperm Phylogeny Website

See also

Plantae at Wikispecies

Note: This is a selected list of the more influential systems. There are many other systems, for instance a review of earlier systems, published by Lindley in his 1853 edition, and Dahlgren (1982). Examples include the works of Scopoli, Bat

.