A think tank, or policy institute, is a
research institute A research institute, research centre, or research center is an establishment founded for doing research. Research institutes may specialize in basic research or may be oriented to applied research. Although the term often implies natural science ...
that performs
research Research is "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge". It involves the collection, organization and analysis of information to increase understanding of a topic or issue. A research project may be an expa ...

advocacy Advocacy is an activity Activity may refer to: * Action (philosophy), in general * Human activity: human behavior, in sociology behavior may refer to all basic human actions, economics may study human economic activities and along with cybern ...

concerning topics such as
social policy Social policy is policy A policy is a deliberate system of principles to guide decisions and achieve rational outcomes. A policy is a statement of intent, and is implemented as a procedure or protocol. Policies are generally adopted by a gov ...
political strategy A policy is a deliberate system of principles to guide decisions and achieve rational outcomes. A policy is a statement of intent, and is implemented as a procedure or protocol. Policies are generally adopted by a governance Governance comp ...
economics Economics () is a social science Social science is the branch A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a bran ...

military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or pa ...

technology Technology ("science of craft", from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. I ...

, and
culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, Social norm, customs, capabilities, and habits of the individuals i ...

. Most think tanks are
non-governmental organizations upright=1.3, alt=A roomful of people, Europe-Georgia Institute head George Melashvili addresses the audience at the launch of the "Europe in a suitcase" project by two NGOs (the EGI and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation), which aims to increase ...
, but some are semi-autonomous agencies within government or are associated with particular political parties, businesses or the military. Think-tank funding often includes a combination of donations from wealthy individuals and personal contributions, with many also accepting government grants. Think tanks publish articles, studies or even draft
legislation Legislation is the process or product of enrolling, enacting, or promulgating Promulgation is the formal proclamation or the declaration that a new statute, statutory or administrative law is enacted after its final Enactment of a bill, appro ...
on particular matters of policy or society. This information is then readily used by governments, businesses, media organizations,
social movement A social movement is a loosely organized effort by a large group of people to achieve a particular goal, typically a or one. This may be to carry out, resist or undo a . It is a type of and may involve , or both. Definitions of the term are s ...
s or other interest groups. Think tanks range from those associated with highly academic or scholarly activities to those that are overtly ideological and pushing for particular policy, with widely differing quality of research among them. Later generations of think tanks have tended to be more ideologically oriented. Modern think tanks began as a phenomenon in the United States in the 19th and early 20th centuries, with most of the rest being established in other English-speaking countries. Prior to 1945, they tended to focus on the economic issues associated with industrialization and urbanization. During the
Cold War The Cold War was a period of tension between the and the and their respective allies, the and the , which began following . Historians do not fully agree on its starting and ending points, but the period is generally considered to span ...
, many more American and
Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western Junction, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western world, countries that ide ...

think tanks were established, which often guided governmental Cold War policy. Since 1991, more think tanks have been established in non-Western parts of the world. More than half of all think tanks that exist today were established after 1980. This article lists global policy institutes according to continental categories and then sub-categories by country within those areas. These listings are not comprehensive, given that more than 7,500 think tanks exist worldwide.


According to historian
Jacob Soll Jacob Soll (born 1968) is University Professor and Professor of Philosophy, History and Accounting at the University of Southern California. Soll's work examines the mechanics of politics, statecraft and economics by dissecting the various elements ...
, while the term "think tank" is modern, its concept "can be traced to the humanist academies and scholarly networks of the 16th and 17th centuries." Soll writes that "in Europe, the origins of think tanks go back to the 800s when emperors and kings began arguing with the Catholic Church about taxes. A tradition of hiring teams of independent lawyers to advise monarchs about their financial and political prerogatives against the church spans from Charlemagne all the way to the 17th century, when the kings of France were still arguing about whether they had the right to appoint bishops and receive a cut of their income." Soll cites as an early example the , created in Paris around 1620 by the brothers
Pierre Pierre is a masculine given name. It is a French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a ...
and and also known after 1635 as the . The
Club de l'EntresolThe Club de l'Entresol (, ''Mezzanine (architecture), Mezzanine Club'') was a think-tank, club and discussion group founded in 1724 by Pierre-Joseph Alary and Charles-Irénée Castel de Saint-Pierre on the English model for free discussion of politic ...
, active in Paris between 1723 and 1731, was another prominent example of an early independent think tank focusing on public policy and current affairs, especially economics and foreign affairs. Several major current think tanks were founded in the 19th century. The
Royal United Services Institute The Royal United Services Institute for Defence and Security Studies (RUSI), sometimes still referred to by its pre-2004 name, the Royal United Service Institution, is a British defence and security think tank A think tank, or policy institute ...
was founded in 1831 in
London London is the Capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. It stands on the River Thames in south-east England at the head of a estuary down to the North Sea, and has b ...

, and the
Fabian Society The Fabian Society is a British socialist organisation whose purpose is to advance the principles of democratic socialism Democratic socialism is a political philosophy that supports political democracy within a socially owned economy, wi ...
in 1884. The oldest American think tank, the
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (CEIP) is a nonpartisan foreign-policy think tank A think tank, or policy institute, is a research institute A research institute, research centre, or research center is an establishment founded for ...
, was founded in
Washington, D.C. ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the Washington Monument The Washington Monument is an obelisk within the National Mall The National Mall is a Landscape architecture, landscaped ...
, in 1910 by philanthropist
Andrew Carnegie Andrew Carnegie ( , November 25, 1835August 11, 1919) was a Scottish-American Scottish Americans or Scots Americans (Scottish Gaelic language, Scottish Gaelic: ''Ameireaganaich Albannach''; sco, Scots-American) are Americans whose ancestry ...

Andrew Carnegie
. Carnegie charged trustees to use the fund to "hasten the abolition of international war, the foulest blot upon our civilization." The
Brookings Institution The Brookings Institution, often referred to simply as Brookings, is an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States ...
was founded shortly thereafter in 1916 by
Robert S. Brookings Robert Somers Brookings (January 22, 1850November 15, 1932) was an American businessman and philanthropist, known for his involvement with Washington University in St. Louis Washington University in St. Louis (WashU, or WUSTL) is a private re ...

Robert S. Brookings
and was conceived as a bipartisan "research center modeled on academic institutions and focused on addressing the questions of the federal government." After 1945, the number of policy institutes increased, with many small new ones forming to express various issues and policy agendas. Until the 1940s, most think tanks were known only by the name of the institution. During the Second World War, think tanks were often referred to as "brain boxes" after the slang term for skull. Before the 1950s, the phrase "think tank" did not refer to organizations. From its first appearances in the 1890s up to the 1950s, the phrase was most commonly used in
American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, American English is the most influential form of ...
to colloquially and pejoratively refer to the
human brain The human brain is the central organ Organ may refer to: Biology * Organ (anatomy) An organ is a group of Tissue (biology), tissues with similar functions. Plant life and animal life rely on many organs that co-exist in organ systems. ...

human brain
itself when commenting on an individual's failings (in the sense that something was wrong with that person's "think tank"). Around 1958, the first organization to be regularly described in published writings as "the Think Tank" (note the capitalization and the use of the definite
article Article often refers to: * Article (grammar) An article is any member of a class of dedicated words that are used with noun phrases to mark the identifiability of the referents of the noun phrases. The category of articles constitutes a part of ...
) was the
Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences The Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences (CASBS) is an interdisciplinary research lab at Stanford University that offers a residential postdoctoral fellowship program for scientists and scholars studying "the five core social and ...
. However, the Center does not count itself as and is not perceived to be a think tank in the contemporary sense. During the 1960s, the phrase "think tank" was attached more broadly to meetings of experts,
electronic computers A computer is a machine A machine is a man-made device that uses power to apply forces and control movement to perform an action. Machines can be driven by animals and people A people is a plurality of person A person (plural ...
, and independent military planning organizations. The prototype and most prominent example of the third category was the
RAND Corporation The RAND Corporation ("research and development") is an American nonprofit A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and ope ...
, which was founded in 1946 as an offshoot of
Douglas Aircraft The Douglas Aircraft Company was an American aerospace manufacturer based in Southern California Southern California (popularly known as SoCal; es, Sur de California) is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises the southern p ...
and became an independent corporation in 1948. In the 1970s, the phrase became more specifically defined in terms of RAND and its ilk. During the 1980s and 1990s, the phrase evolved again to arrive at its broader contemporary meaning of an independent public policy research institute. For most of the 20th century, such institutes were found primarily in the United States, along with much smaller numbers in
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its Provinces and territories of Canada, ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, Pacific and northward into the Arctic Oce ...

, the , and
Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical r ...

Western Europe
. Although think tanks had also existed in
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

for some time, they generally lacked independence, having close associations with government ministries or corporations. There has been a veritable proliferation of "think tanks" around the world that began during the 1980s as a result of globalization, the end of the
Cold War The Cold War was a period of tension between the and the and their respective allies, the and the , which began following . Historians do not fully agree on its starting and ending points, but the period is generally considered to span ...
, and the emergence of transnational problems. Two-thirds of all the think tanks that exist today were established after 1970 and more than half were established since 1980. The effect of
globalisation Globalization, or globalisation (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which ha ...

on the proliferation of think tanks is most evident in regions such as Africa, Eastern Europe, Central Asia, and parts of Southeast Asia, where there was a concerted effort by other countries to assist in the creation of independent public policy research organizations. A survey performed by the Foreign Policy Research Institute's
Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program The Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program (TTCSP) is a non-profit program at the University of Pennsylvania The University of Pennsylvania (Penn or UPenn) is a Private university, private Ivy League research university in Philadelphia, Pen ...
underscores the significance of this effort and documents the fact that most of the think tanks in these regions have been established since 1992. , there were more than 4,500 of these institutions worldwide. Many of the more established think tanks, having been created during the Cold War, are focused on international affairs, security studies, and foreign policy.


Think tanks vary by ideological perspectives, sources of funding, topical emphasis and prospective consumers. Funding may also represent who or what the institution wants to influence; in the United States, for example, "Some donors want to influence votes in Congress or shape public opinion, others want to position themselves or the experts they fund for future government jobs, while others want to push specific areas of research or education." A new trend, resulting from
globalization Globalization, or globalisation (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which ha ...

, is collaboration between policy institutes in different countries. For instance, the
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (CEIP) is a nonpartisan foreign-policy think tank A think tank, or policy institute, is a research institute A research institute, research centre, or research center is an establishment founded for ...
operates offices in Washington, D.C., Beijing, Beirut, Brussels and Moscow. The
Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program The Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program (TTCSP) is a non-profit program at the University of Pennsylvania The University of Pennsylvania (Penn or UPenn) is a Private university, private Ivy League research university in Philadelphia, Pen ...
(TTCSP) at the
University of Pennsylvania The University of Pennsylvania (Penn or UPenn) is a in , Pennsylvania. The university, established as the College of Philadelphia in 1740, is one of the nine chartered prior to the . , Penn's founder and first president, advocated an edu ...

University of Pennsylvania
, led by Dr.
James McGann James G. McGann is an American academic who is a Senior Lecturer in International Studies, Founder and Director of the Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program The Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program (TTCSP) is a non-profit program at the Unive ...
, annually rates policy institutes worldwide in a number of categories and presents its findings in the Global Go-To Think Tanks rating index. However, this method of the study and assessment of policy institutes has been criticized by researchers such as Enrique Mendizabal and Goran Buldioski, Director of the Think Tank Fund, assisted by the
Open Society Institute Open Society Foundations (OSF), formerly the Open Society Institute, is a grantmaking network founded by business magnate George Soros George Soros,, (born György Schwartz, August 12, 1930) is a Hungarian-born American billionaire ...
. Several authors have indicated a number of different methods of describing policy institutes in a way that takes into account regional and national variations. For example: * Independent civil society think tanks established as
non-profit organisations A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a collective, public or social benefit, in contrast with an entity that oper ...
—ideologically identifiable or not; * Policy research institutes affiliated with a university; * Governmentally created or state sponsored think tanks; * Corporate created or business affiliated think tanks;Struyk, R. J. (2006). Managing Think Tanks: Paractical Guidance for Maturing Organizations (2 ed.). Budapest: OSI/LGI, Thes Urban Institute. *
Political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a particular country's elections. It is common for the members of a party to hold similar ideas about politics, and parties may promote specific political ideology ...
think tanks and legacy or personal think tanks; * Global (or regional) think tanks (with some of the above). Alternatively, one could use some of the following criteria: * Size and focus: e.g., large and diversified, large and specialized, small and specialized;Weidenbaum, M. (2009). The Competition of Ideas: the world of the washington think tanks. New Jersey: Transaction Publishers. * Evolution of stage of development: e.g., first (small), second (small to large but more complex projects), and third (larger and policy influence) stages; * Strategy, including: Funding sources (individuals, corporations, foundations, donors/governments, endowments, sales/events) and business model (independent research, contract work, advocacy);Ricci, D. M. (1993). The Transformation of American Politics: The new Washington and the rise of think Tanks. New Haven: Yale University Press. The balance between research, consultancy, and advocacy; The source of their arguments: Ideology, values or interests; applied, empirical or synthesis research; or theoretical or academic research (Stephen Yeo); The manner in which the research agenda is developed—by senior members of the think tank or by individual researchers, or by the think tank of their funders; Their influencing approaches and tactics (many researchers but an interesting one comes from Abelson) and the time horizon for their strategies: long term and short term mobilisation; Their various audiences of the think tanks (audiences as consumers and public -this merits another blog; soon) (again, many authors, but Zufeng provides a good framework for China); and Affiliation, which refers to the issue of independence (or autonomy) but also includes think tanks with formal and informal links to political parties, interest groups and other political players.

Advocacy by think tanks

In some cases, corporate interests, military interests and political groups have found it useful to create policy institutes, advocacy organizations, and think tanks. For example, The Advancement of Sound Science Coalition was formed in the mid-1990s to dispute research finding an association between
second-hand smoke Image:Smoke-by-a-window-in-a-pub.jpg, Tobacco smoke in an Irish pub before a smoking ban came into effect on March 29, 2004 Passive smoking is the inhalation of smoke, called secondhand smoke (SHS), or environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), by person ...
cancer Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. These contrast with benign tumor A benign tumor is a mass of cells Cell most often refers to: * Cell (biolo ...

. Military contractors may spend a portion of their tender on funding pro-war think tanks. According to an internal memorandum from Philip Morris Companies referring to the
United States Environmental Protection Agency The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is an Independent agencies of the United States government, independent executive agency of the United States federal government tasked with environmental protection matters. President Richard Nixon pro ...
(EPA), "The credibility of the EPA is defeatable, but not on the basis of ETS /nowiki>environmental_tobacco_smoke.html" ;"title="environmental_tobacco_smoke.html" ;"title="/nowiki>environmental tobacco smoke">/nowiki>environmental tobacco smoke">environmental_tobacco_smoke.html" ;"title="/nowiki>environmental tobacco smoke">/nowiki>environmental tobacco smoke/nowiki> alone,... It must be part of a larger mosaic that concentrates all the EPA's enemies against it at one time." According to the Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting, both left-wing and right-wing policy institutes are often quoted and rarely identified as such. The result is that think tank "experts" are sometimes depicted as neutral sources without any ideological predispositions when, in fact, they represent a particular perspective. In the United States, think tank publications on education are subjected to expert review by the
National Education Policy Center The National Education Policy Center (NEPC) is a non-profit education policy Education policy consists of the principles and government policies in the educational sphere as well as the collection of laws and rules that govern the operation of edu ...
's "Think Twice" think tank review project. A 2014 ''
New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper A newspaper is a periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of Serial (publishing), serial published, publicatio ...
'' report asserted that foreign governments buy influence at many United States think tanks. According to the article: "More than a dozen prominent Washington research groups have received tens of millions of dollars from foreign governments in recent years while pushing United States government officials to adopt policies that often reflect the donors' priorities."

Global think tanks

African think tanks


Ghana's first president, Dr.
Kwame Nkrumah Kwame Nkrumah (21 September 190927 April 1972) was a Ghanaian politician, political theorist, and revolutionary. He was the first Prime Minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: ...
, set up various state-supported think tanks in the 1960s. By the 1990s, a variety of policy research centers sprang up in Africa set up by academics who sought to influence public policy in Ghana. One such think tank was The Institute of Economic Affairs, Ghana, which was founded in 1989 when the country was ruled by the
Provisional National Defence Council The Provisional National Defence Council (PNDC) was the name of the Ghana Ghana (), officially the Republic of Ghana, is a country in West Africa. It spans along the Gulf of Guinea and the Atlantic Ocean, sharing borders with the Ivory Coast ...
. The IEA undertakes and publishes research on a range of economic and governance issues confronting
Ghana Ghana (), officially the Republic of Ghana, is a country in West Africa West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of . The defines Western Africa as the 17 countries of , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , and as well as .Paul R. ...

Sub-Saharan Africa Sub-Saharan Africa (commonly called Black Africa) is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara. According to the United Nations, it consists of all list of sovereign states and dependent territories i ...

Sub-Saharan Africa
. It has also been involved in bringing political parties together to engage in dialogue. In particular it has organised Presidential debates every election year since the Ghanaian presidential election, 1996. Notable think tanks in Ghana include: * IMANI Centre for Policy and Education * The Institute of Economic Affairs, Ghana (IEA)


* AMAQUEN, founded in 2003, is a think tank in the field of education through its publications (rapports), international scientific journal ''The Journal of'' ''Quality in Education,'' and international events (CIMQUSEF). According to '' Marianne Republic'', AMAQUEN is a leading think tank for education-related topics.


* Heritage Institute for Policy Studies * Puntland Development Research Center

South Africa

Electoral Institute for Sustainable Democracy in AfricaThe Electoral Institute for Sustainable Democracy in Africa (former Electoral Institute of Southern Africa), or EISA, is an organization founded in 1996 in Johannesburg to "promote credible elections, participatory democracy, human rights culture and ...
Free Market Foundation The Free Market Foundation (FMF) is a classic liberal, classical liberal think tank located in Bryanston, Gauteng, Bryanston, Johannesburg, South Africa. Founded in 1975, the FMF was established to further human rights and democracy through the pr ...
FW de Klerk Foundation The FW de Klerk Foundation is a nonpartisan organization that was established in 1999 by the former South African state president, Frederik Willem de Klerk. It promotes activities in "multi-community" countries and seeks to nurture the democracy of ...
Helen Suzman Foundation The Helen Suzman Foundation is an independent, non-partisan think-tank in South Africa dedicated to promoting liberal democracy, liberal democratic values and human rights in post-apartheid South Africa through its research, publications, litigatio ...
* Institute for Democratic Alternatives in South Africa (IDASA) *
Institute for Justice and Reconciliation The Institute for Justice and Reconciliation (IJR) is a non-governmental organisation and think tank based in Cape Town, South Africa. It was forged out of the country's Truth and Reconciliation Commission A truth commission, also known as a t ...
Institute for Security Studies The Institute for Security Studies, also known as ISS or ISS Africa (to distinguish itself from other similarly named institutes in other parts of the world), described itself as follows: "an African organisation which aims to enhance human securi ...
* South African Institute of International Affairs (SAIIA) *
South African Institute of Race Relations Established in 1929,http://www.sairr.org.za/profile/ the South African Institute of Race Relations (SAIRR) is a research and policy organisation in South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernm ...

Asian think tanks


Afghanistan has a number of think tanks that are in the form of governmental, non-governmental, and corporate organizations. *
Afghanistan Analysts Network The Afghanistan Analysts Network (AAN) is an independent non-profit policy research and analysis organization. Founded in 2009, it is registered as an association in Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital ...
* Afghanistan Public Policy Research Organization * Centre for Conflict and Peace Studies


According to the Global Go Think Tank Report 2012, there are 14 think tanks in
Armenia Armenia (; hy, Հայաստան, translit=Hayastan, ), officially the Republic of Armenia,, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is ...

, the majority of which are located in
Yerevan Yerevan ( , , hy, Երևան , sometimes spelled Erevan) is the capital and largest city of Armenia and one of the world's List of oldest continuously inhabited cities, oldest continuously inhabited cities. Situated along the Hrazdan River, Y ...

. Notable think tanks in Armenia include the Economic Development and Research Center (EDRC) and International Center for Human Development (ICHD).


Bangladesh has a number of think tanks that are in the form of governmental, non-governmental, and corporate organizations. * Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies (BIDS) *
Bangladesh Institute of Law and International Affairs The Bangladesh Institute of Law and International Affairs (BILIA) was established in Bangladesh as a government-funded think tank on various affairs of law and foreign policy. A future president of Bangladesh, Abdus Sattar (president), Abdus Satta ...
(BILIA) * Bangladesh Institute of Peace and Security Studies (BIPSS) * Centre for Policy Dialogue (CPD) *
International Growth Centre The International Growth Centre (IGC) is an economic research centre based at the London School of Economics , mottoeng = To understand the causes of things , established = 1895 , type = Public research university , endowment ...
(IGC) * Making Our Economy Right (MOER) *
Bangladesh Institute of Labour Studies The Bangladesh Institute of Labour Studies (BILS) is a think tank for trade union activity and other labour matters in Bangladesh. It was founded in 1995 to support the building of trade unions and their activities and to promote trade union cause ...


In the
People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

People's Republic of China
a number of think tanks are sponsored by governmental agencies like Development Research Center of the State Council, but still retain sufficient non-official status to be able to propose and debate ideas more freely. In January 2012, the first non-official think-tank in China, South Non-Governmental Think-Tank, was established in the Guangdong province. In 2009 the
China Center for International Economic Exchanges The China Center for International Economic Exchanges is a think tank based in Beijing, China. t is an international economic research, exchange and consulting service organization approved by the government of the People's Republic of China. It is ...
was founded.

Hong Kong

In Hong Kong, early think tanks established in the late 1980s and early 1990s focused on political development, including the first direct Legislative Council members election in 1991 and the political framework of "
One Country, Two Systems "One country, two systems" is a constitutional principle of the People's Republic of China describing the governance of :Hong Kong and Macau Macau or Macao (; ; ; ), officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Rep ...
", manifested in the
Sino-British Joint Declaration The Sino-British Joint Declaration is a treaty between the governments of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' ...
. After the transfer of sovereignty to China in 1997, more think tanks were established by various groups of intellectuals and professionals. They have various missions and objectives including promoting civic education; undertaking research on economic, social and political policies; and promoting "public understanding of and participation in the political, economic, and social development of the Hong Kong
Special Administrative Region A special administrative region is a designation for types of administrative territorial entities in Mainland China Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, China mainland, or the Mainland Area of the Republic of China is the geopo ...
". Think tanks in Hong Kong include: * Bauhinia Foundation Research Centre * Business and Professionals Federation of Hong Kong *
Central Policy Unit The Central Policy Unit, established in 1989, was responsible for advising the Chief Executive of Hong Kong, Chief Executive (previously the Governor of Hong Kong, Governor) of Hong Kong. It was replaced with the Policy Innovation and Co-ordina ...
Civic Exchange Civic Exchange is a Hong Kong-based public policy Public policy is an institutionalized proposal to solve relevant and real-world problems, guided by a conception and implemented by programs as a course of action created and/or enacted, typ ...
* The Global Institute for Tomorrow * HKGolden50 *
Hong Kong Christian Industrial Committee The Hong Kong Christian Industrial Committee ( Chinese: 香港基督教工業委員會, also called as HKCIC) is a non-governmental pressure group Advocacy groups, also known as special interest groups, use various forms of advocacy in order ...
Hong Kong Democratic Foundation The Hong Kong Democratic Foundation (; HKDF) is a Hong Kong public policy think tank established initially as a political party on 27 October 1989. The Foundation was founded in the run up to the 1991 Hong Kong legislative election, first Legisla ...
* Hong Kong People's Council on Housing Policy * The Lion Rock Institute *
New Century Forum New Century Forum is a pro-Beijing camp, pro-Beijing middle-class oriented political group in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China. The group comprises professionals, businessmen and academics, and aims t ...
* Our Hong Kong Foundation * One Country Two Systems Research Institute *
Path of Democracy Path of Democracy () is a moderate political group and think tank A think tank, or policy institute, is a research institute A research institute, research centre, or research center is an establishment founded for doing research. Research i ...
* Policy Innovation and Co-ordination Unit *
Professional Commons The Professional Commons is an independent, membership-based, non-profit organisation A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized an ...


India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

has world's second-largest number of think tanks. Most are based in New Delhi, and a few are government-sponsored. A number of these work on foreign policy and security issues. There are few think tanks that promote environmentally responsible and climate resilient ideas like
Centre for Science and Environment Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) is a not-for-profit A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a collective, ...
Centre for Policy Research The Centre for Policy Research (CPR) is an Indian think tank A think tank, or policy institute, is a research institute A research institute, research centre, or research center is an establishment founded for doing research Resear ...
World Resources Institute The World Resources Institute (WRI) is a global research non-profit organization established in 1982 with funding from the MacArthur Foundation The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation is a private foundation A private foundation i ...
. There are other think tanks like
Observer Research Foundation Observer Research Foundation (ORF) is an independent global think tank A think tank, or policy institute, is a research institute A research institute, research centre, or research center is an establishment founded for doing research ...

Observer Research Foundation
and Centre for Civil Society. In Mumbai,
Strategic Foresight Group Strategic Foresight Group (SFG) is a think tank based in India that works on global issues. It was established in 2002. SFG has worked with governments and national institutions of 60 countries from around the world. It produces scenarios and p ...
is a global think tank that works on issues such as Water Diplomacy, Peace and Conflict and Foresight (futures studies). Think tanks with a development focus include those like the National Centre for Cold-chain Development ('NCCD'), which serve to bring an inclusive policy change by supporting the Planning Commission and related government bodies with industry-specific inputs – in this case, set up at the behest of the government to direct cold chain development. Some think tanks have a fixed set of focus areas and they work towards finding out policy solutions to social problems in the respective areas. Initiatives such as National e-Governance Plan (to automate administrative processes) and National Knowledge Network (NKN) (for data and resource sharing amongst education and research institutions), if implemented properly, should help improve the quality of work done by think tanks.


* Centre for Strategic and International Studies


There are over 50 recently emerged think tanks in Iraq, particularly in the Kurdistan Region. Iraq's leading think tank is the Middle East Research Institute (MERI), based in Erbil. MERI is an independent non-governmental policy research organization, established in 2014 and publishes in English, Kurdish, and Arabic. It was listed in the global ranking by the USA's Lauder Institute of the
University of Pennsylvania The University of Pennsylvania (Penn or UPenn) is a in , Pennsylvania. The university, established as the College of Philadelphia in 1740, is one of the nine chartered prior to the . , Penn's founder and first president, advocated an edu ...

University of Pennsylvania
as 46th in the Middle East.


There are many think tank teams in Israel, including: * Shaharit (NPO), Shaharit - Creating Common Cause * Jerusalem Institute for Market Studies (JIMS) * Reut Institute * Israel Council on Foreign Relations * Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, The Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs * Adva Center * Israel Democracy Institute * Jerusalem Institute for Policy Research * Myers-JDC-Brookdale Institute * Floersheimer Studies at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem * Harry S. Truman Research Institute for the Advancement of Peace, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem * International Institute for Counter-Terrorism – IDC Herziliya * Israel Center for Third Sector Research, Ben Gurion University of the Negev * IPCRI – Israel/Palestine Center for Research and Information * The Milken Institute * Moshe Dayan Center for Middle Eastern and African Studies, Tel Aviv University * The Begin-Sadat Center – Bar Ilan University * The Center for the Study of Philanthropy in Israel at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem * The Institute for Advanced Studies at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem * The Jewish Arab Center (JAC), University of Haifa * The Jewish People Policy Institute (JPPI) * The Shalem Center * Institute for National Security Studies (Israel), Institute for National Security Studies, affiliated with Tel Aviv University.


Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

has over 100 think tanks, most of which cover not only policy research but also economy, technology and so on. Some are government related, but most of the think tanks are sponsored by the private sector.


* Institute of World Economics and Politics (IWEP) at the Foundation of the First President of the Republic of Kazakhstan was created in 2003. IWEP activities aimed at research problems of the world economy, international relations, geopolitics, security, integration and Eurasia, as well as the study of the First President of the Republic of Kazakhstan and its contribution to the establishment and strengthening of Kazakhstan as an independent state, the development of international cooperation and the promotion of peace and stability. * The Kazakhstan Institute for Strategic Studies under the President of the RK (KazISS) was established by the Decree of the President of RK on 16 June 1993. Since its foundation the main mission of the Kazakhstan Institute for Strategic Studies under the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, as a national think tank, is to maintain analytical and research support for the President of Kazakhstan.


Most Malaysian think tanks are related either to the government or a political party. Historically they focused on defense, politics and policy. However, in recent years, think tanks that focus on international trade, economics, and social sciences have also been founded. Notable think tanks in Malaysia include: *Academy of Sciences Malaysia (ASM) *Institute for Democracy and Economic Affairs (IDEAS) *Institute for Pioneering of Education and Economic Excellence (INSPIRE) *Maritime Institute of Malaysia (MIMA) *Jauhar Academy of Social Sciences (JASS) *Jeffrey Cheah Institute on Southeast Asia (JCI) *Malaysian Industry-Government Group for High Technology (MIGHT) *Islamic Renaissance Front (IRF)


Pakistan's think tanks mainly revolve around social policy, internal politics, foreign security issues, and regional geo-politics. Most of these are centered on the capital, Islamabad. One notable think tank is the Sustainable Development Policy Institute (Sustainable Development Policy Institute, SDPI), which focuses on policy advocacy and research particularly in the area of environment and social development. Another notable policy research institute based in Islamabad is the Institute of Social and Policy Sciences (I-SAPS) which works in the fields of education, health, disaster risk reduction, governance, conflict and stabilization.


Think tanks in the Philippines could be generally categorized in terms of their linkages with the national government. Several were set up by the Philippine government for the specific purpose of providing research input into the policy-making process.

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka has a number of think tanks that are in the form of governmental, non-governmental and corporate organizations. *The Lakshman Kadirgamar Institute of International Relations and Strategic Studies is a policy-studies institute that is often referred to as a think tank. *LIRNEasia is a think-tank working across the Asia-Pacific on regulatory and policy issues. Their main focus is the ICT sector, although they do work in other sectors, such as agriculture and health, which can benefit from ICT. *Verité Research is an interdisciplinary think tank in Colombo.


There are several think tanks in Singapore that advise the government on various policies and as well as private ones for corporations within the region. Many of them are hosted within the local public educational institutions. Among them are the Singapore Institute of International Affairs (SIIA), Institute of Southeast Asian Studies (ISEAS), and the S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies.


In 2017 Taiwan had 58 think tanks, the 25th most in the world. Like in most countries there is a mix of government funded and privately funded Think Tanks. Taiwanese think tanks in alphabetical order: * Chung-Hua Institution for Economic Research * Institute for National Defense and Security Research * Prospect Foundation * Taiwan Asia Exchange Foundation * Taiwan Competitiveness Forum * Taiwan Foundation for Democracy * Taiwan Institute of Economic Research


*Thailand Development Research Institute *iLaw

United Arab Emirates

The UAE has been a center for political oriented think tanks which concentrate on both regional and global policy. Notable think tank have emerged in the global debate on terrorism, education & economical policies in the MENA region. Think tanks include: *Al Mesbar Studies and Research Centre *Dubai Economic Council *Gulf Research Center *Orient Research Centre


* CED – Center for Economic Development (Центр Содействия Экономическому Развитию) is a think-tank whose major tasks are: analytic support in economic reforming and development in Uzbekistan; improving knowledge and skills of the subjects of economic development; assistance in productive dialogue between the government, civil society and private sectors on the economic development matters. Key projects: Preparation of the National human development report for Uzbekistan, Sociological "portrait" of the Uzbek businessman, Preparation of an analytical report on export procedures optimization in Uzbekistan, various industry and marketing researches in Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan.

Oceanian think tanks


Most Australian think-tanks are based at universities – for example, the The Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, Melbourne Institute – or are government-funded – for example, the Productivity Commission or the CSIRO. Private sources fund about 20 to 30 "independent" Australian think tanks. The best-known of these think tanks play a much more limited role in Australian public and business policy-making than do their equivalents in the United States. However, in the past decade the number of think tanks has increased substantially. Prominent Australian conservative think tanks include the Centre for Independent Studies, the Sydney Institute and the Institute of Public Affairs. Prominent leftist Australian think tanks include the McKell Institute, Per Capita, the Australia Institute, the Lowy Institute for International Policy, Lowy Institute and the Centre for Policy Development. In recent years regionally-based independent and non-partisan think tanks have emerged. Some, such as the Illawarra's i-eat-drink-think, engage in discussion, research and advocacy within a broader civics framework. Commercial think-tanks like the Gartner Group, Access Economics, the Helmsman Institute, and others provide additional insight which complements not-for-profit organisations such as Committee for Economic Development of Australia, CEDA, the Australian Strategic Policy Institute, and the Australian Institute of Company Directors to provide more targeted policy in defence, program governance, corporate governance and similar. Listed in alphabetical order, think tanks based in Australia include: * Air Power Australia * Asia Education Foundation * Asialink * The Australia Institute * Australian Fabian Society * Australian Institute of International Affairs * Australian Institute of Policy & Science * Australian Strategic Policy Institute * The Brisbane Institute * Centre for Independent Studies * Centre for Policy Development * Chifley Research Centre * Committee for Economic Development of Australia * Consumer Policy Research Centre (CPRC) * Crowther Centre for Learning and Innovation * Development Policy Centre * Doctors Reform Society of Australia * Evatt Foundation * Grattan Institute * H. R. Nicholls Society * Infrastructure Partnerships Australia * Institute for Economics and Peace * Institute of Public Affairs * International Energy Centre * International WaterCentre * Issues Deliberation Australia/America * Laboratory for Visionary Architecture * Lowy Institute for International Policy * Mannkal Economic Education Foundation * The Green Institute * The McKell Institute * The Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research * Menzies Research Centre * National Civic Council * New South Wales Institute for Educational Research * Per Capita * Samuel Griffith Society * Strategic and Defence Studies Centre * Sydney Institute * Transport and Logistics Centre * United States Studies Centre * Western Australia Policy Forum

New Zealand

Think tanks based in New Zealand include: * Centre for Strategic Studies New Zealand * Child Poverty Action Group (Aotearoa New Zealand) * McGuinness Institute * Maxim Institute * Motu Economic and Public Policy Research * New Zealand Initiative * New Zealand Institute of Economic Research * New Zealand Centre for Global Studies

European think tanks


Brussels hosts most of the European Institutions, hence a large number of international think tanks are based there. Notable think tanks are Bruegel (institution), Bruegel, the Centre for European Policy Studies (CEPS), Centre for the New Europe (CNE), the ECIPE, European Centre of International Political Economy (ECIPE), the European Policy Centre (EPC), the Friends of Europe, the Global Governance Institute (GGI), Liberales, and Sport and Citizenship, among others.


Bulgaria has a number of think tanks providing expertise and shaping policies, including Institute of Modern Politics.

Czech Republic

* The European Values Think-Tank * The Prague Security Studies Institute (PSSI)


* CEPOS is a classical liberal/free-market conservative think-tank in Denmark.


Finland has several small think tanks that provide expertise in very specific fields. Notable think tanks include: * Åland Islands Peace Institute * Demos Helsinki * European Centre of Excellence for Countering Hybrid Threats (Hybrid CoE) * Crisis Management Initiative (CMI) * Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (Etla) * Finnish Institute of International Affairs In addition to specific independent think tanks, the largest political parties have their own think tank organizations. This is mainly due to support granted by state for such activity. The corporate world has focused their efforts to central representative organization Confederation of Finnish Industries, which acts as think tank in addition to negotiating salaries with workers unions. Furthermore, there is the Finnish Business and Policy Forum (''Elinkeinoelämän valtuuskunta'', EVA). Agricultural and regional interests, associated with The Central Union of Agricultural Producers and Forest Owners (''Maa- ja metsätaloustuottajain Keskusliitto'', MTK) and the Centre Party (Finland), Centre Party, are researched by Pellervo Economic Research (''Pellervon taloustutkimus'', PTT). The Central Organisation of Finnish Trade Unions (''Suomen Ammattiliittojen Keskusjärjestö'', SAK) and the Social Democratic Party of Finland, Social Democratic Party are associated with the Labour Institute for Economic Research (''Palkansaajien tutkimuslaitos'', PT). The Finns Party established its own think tank, ''Suomen Perusta'', in 2012. Each of these organizations often release forecasts concerning the national economy.


The Institut français des relations internationales, French Institute of International Relations (IFRI) was founded in 1979 and is the third oldest think tank of western Europe, after Chatham House (UK, 1920) and the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (Sweden, 1960). The primary goals of IFRI are to develop applied research in the field of public policy related to international issues, and foster interactive and constructive dialogue between researchers, professionals, and opinion leaders. France also hosts the European Union Institute for Security Studies (EUISS), a Paris-based agency of the European Union and think tank researching security issues of relevance for the European Union, EU. There are also a number of pro-business think tanks, notably the Paris-based Fondation Concorde. The foundation focuses on increasing the competitiveness of French SME's and aims to revive entrepreneurship in France. On the left, the main think tanks in France are the Fondation Jean Jaures, which is organizationally linked to the French Socialist Party, and Terra Nova (think tank), Terra Nova. Terra Nova is an independent left-leaning think tank, although it is nevertheless considered to be close to the Socialists. It works on producing reports and analyses of current public policy issues from a progressive point of view, and contributing to the intellectual renewal of social democracy. Only French Think Tank mentioned in the list "Think Tank to watch" of the 2014 2014 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report GenerationLibre is a French think-tank created by Gaspard Koenig in 2013, independent from all political parties, which aims at promoting freedoms in France, in terms of fundamental rights, economics and societal issues. GenerationLibre is described as being able to connect to the right on pro business freedom and regulations issues but also to the left on issues such as basic income, gay marriage and the legalization of marijuana.


In Germany all of the major parties are loosely associated with research foundations that play some role in shaping policy, but generally from the more disinterested role of providing research to support policymakers than explicitly proposing policy. These include the Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung (Christian Democratic Union (Germany), Christian Democratic Union-aligned), the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung (Social Democratic Party of Germany, Social Democratic Party-aligned), the Hanns Seidel Foundation, Hanns-Seidel-Stiftung (Christian Social Union of Bavaria, Christian Social Union-aligned), the Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung (Green Party (Germany), aligned with the Greens), Friedrich Naumann Foundation (Free Democratic Party (Germany), Free Democratic Party-aligned) and the Rosa Luxemburg Foundation (aligned with The Left (Germany), Die Linke). The German Institute for International and Security Affairs is a foreign policy think tank. Atlantic Community is an independent, non-partisan and non-profit organization set up as a joint project of Atlantische Initiative e.V. and Atlantic Initiative United States. The Institute for Media and Communication Policy deals with media-related issues. Transparency International is a think tank on the role of corporate and political corruption in international development.


In Greece there are many think tanks, also called research organisations or institutes.


* The Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI) is an independent research institute in Dublin, Ireland. Its research focuses on Ireland's economic and social development to inform policy-making and societal understanding. * The Institute of International and European Affairs (IIEA) focuses on European and International affairs. * The Iona Institute is a conservative, Catholic think tank. * TASC (think-tank), TASC (Think tank for Action on Social Change) is an Irish left-wing think tank. * Transhuman Corporation is a research think tank that focuses on cyber and technology development.


* Bruno Leoni Institute * Future Italy * ISPI – Italian Institute for International Political Studies * Istituto Affari Internazionali * Trinità dei Monti (think tank), Trinità dei Monti


While think tanks are not widespread in Latvia, as opposed to single issue advocacy organizations, there are several noticeable institutions in the Latvian think tank landscape: * The oldest think tank in Latvia is the Latvian Institute of International Affairs. LIIA is a non governmental and non partisan foundation, established in 1992, and their research and advocacy mainly focuses on Latvian foreign policy; Transatlantic relations; European Union policies, including its neighborhood policy and Eastern Partnership; and multilateral and bilateral relations with Russia. * Centre for Public policy PROVIDUS is a non governmental and non partisan association, established in 2002. Providus focuses their work (both research and advocacy) on topics especially relevant in transition and post-transition environments and Latvia in particular: good governance; criminal justice policy; tolerance and inclusive public policy and European policy. There are several think tanks that are established and operate under the auspices of Universities, such as: * Centre for European and transition studies is a think tank working under the auspices of the University of Latvia, the largest public university in the country. CETS was established in 2000. * or Defense research centre in 1992 under the auspices of the National Academy of Defense.


Vilnius Institute for Policy Analysis (VIPA) is an independent non-governmental, non-profit, non-partisan policy think tank in Lithuania whose mission is to stand for the principles of open society, liberal democracy, rule of law and human rights. VIPA acts via advocacy for strong and safe European Union, analyzing and advocating for anti-authoritarian, transparent, and open governance ideas in Central and Eastern Europe, is an opinion leader offering an alternative opinion to the public versus populism, radicalism, and authoritarian trends, reinforcing active citizens‘ participation in decision making, analyzing fake news, disinformation, and offering media literacy initiatives, putting forward solutions to improve the accountability, transparency, and openness of Lithuania's public sector, building a network of open society values oriented experts, civil activists and NGO's.


All major political parties in the Netherlands have state-sponsored research foundations that play a role in shaping policy. The Dutch government also has its own think tank: the Scientific Council for Government Policy. The Netherlands furthermore hosts the Netherlands Institute of International Relations Clingendael, or Clingendael Institute, an independent think tank and diplomatic academy which studies various aspects of international relations.


There is a large pool of think-tanks in Poland on a wide variety of subjects. The oldest state-sponsored think tank is Western Institute, The Western Institute in Poznań (Polish: ''Instytut Zachodni''). The second oldest is the Polish Institute of International Affairs (PISM) established in 1947. Another notable state-sponsored think tank is the Centre for Eastern Studies (OSW), which specializes in the countries neighboring Poland and in the Baltic Sea region, the Balkans, Turkey, the Caucasus and Central Asia. Among the private think tanks notable organizations include the Institute for Structural Research (IBS) on economic policy, The Casimir Pulaski Foundation on foreign policy, the Institute of Public Affairs, Poland, Institute of Public Affairs (ISP) on social policy, and the Instytut Sobieskiego, Sobieski Institute.


Founded in 1970, the SEDES is one of the oldest Portuguese civic associations and think tanks. Contraditório think tank was founded in 2008. Contraditório is a non-profit, independent and non-partisan think tank.


The Romanian Academic Society (SAR), founded in 1996, is a Romanian think tank for policy research.


The Foundation for the Advancement of Economics (FREN) was founded in 2005 by the University of Belgrade, Belgrade University's University of Belgrade Faculty of Economics, Faculty of Economics.


Besides the international think tanks present in the surrounding countries as well (with Open Society Foundations being the most notable one) Slovakia has a host of its own think tanks as well. Some of the think tanks in Slovakia focus on public policy issues, such as Institute of Public Affairs (''Inštitút pre verejné otázky'' or ''IVO'' in Slovak language, Slovak) or Central European Labour Studies Institute (''Stredoeurópsky inštitút pre výskum práce'' or ''CELSI'' in Slovak language, Slovak). Others specialize on human rights issues such as minority protection, for example Forum Minority Research Institute (''Fórum Kisebbségkutató Intézet'' or ''Fórum Intézet'' in Hungarian language, Hungarian and ''Fórum inštitút pre výskum menšín'' or ''Fórum inštitút'' in Slovak language, Slovak). Since some of the Slovak think tanks are perceived to be associated with right-wing and Liberalism, liberal parties of Slovakia (with the perception being particularly strong among Slovak nationalism, nationalists), findings and proposals made by these organizations are generally resented or ignored by left-wing supporters and nationalists.


The Elcano Royal Institute was created in 2001 following the example of the Royal Institute of International Affairs (Chatham House) in the UK, although it is closely linked to (and receives funding from) the government in power. More independent but clearly to the left of the political spectrum are the Centro de Investigaciones de Relaciones Internacionales y Desarrollo (CIDOB) founded in 1973; and the Fundación para las Relaciones Internacionales y el Diálogo Exterior (FRIDE) established in 1999 by Diego Hidalgo and main driving force behind projects such as the Club de Madrid, a group of democratic former heads of state and government, the Foreign Policy Spanish Edition and DARA (international organization), DARA. Former Prime Minister José Maria Aznar presides over the Fundación para el Analisis y los Estudios Sociales (FAES), a policy institute that is associated with the conservative Popular Party (PP). Also linked to the PP is the Grupo de Estudios Estratégicos (GEES), which is known for its defense- and security-related research and analysis. For its part, the Fundación Alternativas is independent but close to left-wing ideas. The Socialist Partido Socialista Obrero Español (PSOE) created Fundación Ideas in 2009 and dissolved it in January 2014. Also in 2009, the centrist Union, Progress and Democracy (UPyD) created Fundación Progreso y Democracia (FPyD).


Timbro is a free market think tank and book publisher based in Stockholm.


Think tanks based within Switzerland include: *Avenir Suisse, founded in 1999 by fifteen of the largest Swiss companies. It is supported by over 130 companies to date. *DCAF, the Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces, founded in 2000 to research security sector governance and reform. *Gottlieb Duttweiler Institute (GDI), conceived by the Migros-founder Gottlieb Duttweiler in 1946. *Horasis, which hosts the annual Horasis Global Meeting *Liberales Institut, Liberal Institute, founded in 1979.


There are more than 100 registered think tanks in Ukraine. For example: * Centre of Policy and Legal Reform (CPLR) * Razumkov Centre is a non-governmental think tank founded in 1994. It carries out research of public policy in the following spheres: domestic policy; state administration; economic policy; energy; land relations; foreign policy; social policy; international and regional security; national security and defense.

United Kingdom

In Britain, think tanks play a similar role to the United States, attempting to shape policy, and indeed there is some cooperation between British and American think tanks. For example, the London-based think tank Chatham House and the Council on Foreign Relations were both conceived at the Paris Peace Conference, 1919 and have remained sister organisations. The Bow Group, founded in 1951, is the oldest centre-right think tank and many of its members have gone on to serve as Members of Parliament or Members of the European Parliament. Past chairmen have included Conservative Party (UK), Conservative Party leader Michael Howard, Margaret Thatcher's longest-serving Cabinet Minister Geoffrey Howe, Chancellor of the Exchequer Norman Lamont, Baron Lamont of Lerwick, Norman Lamont and former British Telecom chairman Christopher Bland. Since 2000, a number of influential centre right think tanks have emerged including Policy Exchange, Centre for Social Justice and most recently Onward (think tank), Onward]

Transcontinental countries (Asia-Europe)


According to research done by the University of Pennsylvania, there are a total of 12 think tanks in Azerbaijan. The Center for Economic and Social Development, or CESD; in Azeri, Azeri, Azerbaijan, İqtisadi və Sosial İnkişaf Mərkəzi (İSİM) is an Azeri think tank, non-profit organization, NGO based in Baku, Azerbaijan. The center was established in 2005. CESD focuses on policy advocacy and reform, and is involved with policy research and capacity building. The Economic Research Center (ERC) is a policy-research oriented non-profit think tank established in 1999 with a mission to facilitate sustainable economic development and good governance in the new public management system of Azerbaijan. It seeks to do this by building favorable interactions between the public, private and civil society and working with different networks both in local (EITI NGO Coalition, National Budget Group, Public Coalition Against Poverty, etc.) and international levels (PWYP, IBP, ENTO, ALDA, PASOS, WTO NGO Network etc.). The Center for Strategic Studies under the President of Azerbaijan is a governmental, non-profit think tank founded in 2007. It focusses on domestic and foreign policy.


According to the Foreign Policy Research Institute, Russia has 112 think tanks, while Russian think tanks claimed four of the top ten spots in 2011's "Top Thirty Think Tanks in Central and Eastern Europe". Notable Russian think tanks include: * Analytical Center for the Government of the Russian Federation * Carnegie Moscow Center *Institute for US and Canadian Studies *Institute of World Economy and International Relations *Moscow State Institute of International Relations


Turkish think tanks are relatively new. There are at least 20 think tanks in the country, both independent and supported by government. Many of them are sister organizations of political parties, universities or companies some are independent and others are supported by government. Most Turkish think tanks provide research and ideas, yet they play less important roles in policy making than American think tanks. Turksam, Tasam and the ''Journal of Turkish Weekly'' are the leading information sources. The oldest and most influential think tank in Turkey is ESAM (The Center for Economic and Social Research; tr, Ekonomik ve Sosyal Araştırmalar Merkezi) which was established in 1969 and has headquarters in Ankara. There are also branch offices of ESAM in Istanbul, Bursa, Konya and elsewhere. ESAM has strong international relationships, especially with Muslim countries and societies. Ideologically it performs policies, produces ideas and manages projects in parallel to Milli Görüş and also influences political parties and international strategies. The founder and leader of Milli Görüş, Necmettin Erbakan, was very concerned with the activities and brainstorming events of ESAM. In The Republic of Turkey, two presidents, four prime ministers, various ministers, many members of the parliament, and numerous mayors and bureaucrats have been members of ESAM. Currently the General Chairman of ESAM is Recai Kutan (former minister for two different ministries, former main opposition party leader, and founder and General Chairman of the Saadet Party). The Turkish Economic and Social Studies Foundation (TESEV) is another leading think-thank. Established in 1994, TESEV is an independent non-governmental think-tank, analyzing social, political and economic policy issues facing Turkey. TESEV has raised issues about Islam and democracy, combating corruption, state reform, and transparency and accountability. TESEV serve as a bridge between academic research and policy-making. Its core program areas are democratization, good governance, and foreign policy. Other notable Turkish think tanks are the International Strategic Research Organisation (USAK), the Foundation for Political, Economic and Social Research (SETA), and the Turkish think tanks#BİLGESAM, Wise Men Center for Strategic Studies (BİLGESAM).

North American think tanks


Canada has many notable think tanks (listed in alphabetical order). Each has specific areas of interest with some overlaps. * Asia Pacific Foundation of Canada * Atlantic Institute for Market Studies * Broadbent Institute * C. D. Howe Institute, C.D. Howe Institute * Caledon Institute of Social Policy * Canada West Foundation * Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives * Canadian Global Affairs Institute * Canadian Institute for Advanced Research * Canadian International Council * Canadian Policy Research Networks (disbanded) * Canadian Tax Foundation * Cardus * Centre for International Governance Innovation * Conference Board of Canada * Council of Canadians * Fraser Institute * Frontier Centre for Public Policy * Institute for Quantum Computing * Institute for Research on Public Policy * Institute on Governance * International Institute for Sustainable Development * International Policy Forum * Montreal Economic Institute * Mowat Centre for Policy Innovation * National Citizens Coalition * North-South Institute * Parkland Institute * Pembina Institute * Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics * Public Policy Forum


*CIDAC – The Center of Research for Development (Centro de Investigación para el Desarrollo, Asociación Civil) is a not-for-profit think tank that undertakes research and proposes viable policy options for Mexico's economic and democratic development. The organization seeks to promote open, pluralistic debate pursuing: the Rule of Law & Democracy, market economics, social development, and strengthening Mexico-United States relations. *Centro de Investigación y Docencia Económicas, CIDE – The Center of Research and Economics Teaching (Centro de Investigación y Docencia Económicas) is a think tank institute focussing on "public policies", "public choice", "democracy", and "economy". *COMEXI – The Mexican Council of International Affairs (Consejo Mexicano de Asuntos Internacionales).

United States

As the classification is most often used today, the oldest American think tank is the
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (CEIP) is a nonpartisan foreign-policy think tank A think tank, or policy institute, is a research institute A research institute, research centre, or research center is an establishment founded for ...
, founded in 1910.Thomas Medvetz, "'Think Tanks in America" (2012) Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press The Institute for Government Research, which later merged with two organizations to form the
Brookings Institution The Brookings Institution, often referred to simply as Brookings, is an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States ...
, was formed in 1916. Other early twentieth century organizations now classified as think tanks include the Hoover Institution (1919), Twentieth Century Fund, The Twentieth Century Fund (1919, and now known as the Century Foundation), the National Bureau of Economic Research (1920), the Council on Foreign Relations (1921), and the Social Science Research Council (1923). The Great Depression and its aftermath spawned several economic policy organizations, such as the National Planning Association (1934), the Tax Foundation (1937), and the Committee for Economic Development (1943). In collaboration with the Douglas Aircraft Company, the Air Force set up the
RAND Corporation The RAND Corporation ("research and development") is an American nonprofit A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and ope ...
in 1946 to develop weapons technology and strategic defense analysis. The Hudson Institute is a conservative American think tank founded in 1961 by futurist, military strategist, and systems theorist Herman Kahn and his colleagues at the RAND Corporation. Recent members include Mike Pompeo, the former secretary of state under Donald Trump who joined in 2021. More recently, progressive and liberal think tanks have been established, most notably the Center for American Progress and the Center for Research on Educational Access and Leadership (CREAL). The organization has close ties to former United States President Barack Obama and other prominent Democrats. Think tanks help shape both foreign and domestic policy. They receive funding from private donors, and members of private organizations. By 2013, the largest 21 think tanks in the US spent more than $1 billion per year. Think tanks may feel more free to propose and debate controversial ideas than people within government. The progressive media watchgroup Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting (FAIR) has identified the top 25 think tanks by media citations, noting that from 2006 to 2007 the number of citations declined 17%. The FAIR report reveals the ideological breakdown of the citations: 37% conservative, 47% centrist, and 16% liberal. Their data show that the most-cited think tank was the
Brookings Institution The Brookings Institution, often referred to simply as Brookings, is an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States ...
, followed by the Council on Foreign Relations, the American Enterprise Institute, The Heritage Foundation, and the Center for Strategic and International Studies. Recently in response to scrutiny about think tanks appearing to have a "conflict of interest" or lack transparency, executive vice president, Martin S. Indyk of Brookings Institution – the "most prestigious think tank in the world" – admitted that they had "decided to prohibit corporations or corporate-backed foundations from making anonymous contributions." In August 2016, the ''
New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper A newspaper is a periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of Serial (publishing), serial published, publicatio ...
'' published a series on think tanks that blur the line. One of the cases the journalists cited was Brookings, where scholars paid by a seemingly independent think tank "push donors' agendas amplifying a culture of corporate influence in Washington." For example, in exchange for hundreds of thousands of dollars the Brookings Institution provided the publicly-traded company Lennar Corporation – one of the United States' largest home builders – with a significant advantage in pursuing their US$8 billion revitalization project in Hunters Point, San Francisco. In 2014 Lennar's then-regional vice president in charge of the San Francisco revitalization, Kofi Bonner in 2014, was named as a Brookings senior fellow – a position as 'trusted adviser' that carries some distinction. Bruce Katz, a Brookings vice president, also offered to help Lennar Corporation "engage with national media to develop stories that highlight Lennar's innovative approach."

= U.S. Government think tanks

= Government think tanks are also important in the United States, particularly in the security and defense field. These include the Center for Technology and National Security Policy at the National Defense University, the Center for Naval Warfare Studies at the Naval War College, and the Strategic Studies Institute at the U.S. Army War College. The government funds, wholly or in part, activities at approximately 30 Federally Funded Research and Development Centers (FFRDCs). FFRDCs, are unique independent nonprofit entities sponsored and funded by the United States government to meet specific long-term technical needs that cannot be met by any other single organization. FFRDCs typically assist government agencies with scientific research and analysis, systems development, and systems acquisition. They bring together the expertise and outlook of government, industry, and academia to solve complex technical problems. These FFRDCs include the
RAND Corporation The RAND Corporation ("research and development") is an American nonprofit A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and ope ...
, the MITRE Corporation, the Institute for Defense Analyses, the Aerospace Corporation, the MIT Lincoln Laboratory, and other organizations supporting various departments within the United States Government. Similar to the above quasi-governmental organizations are Federal Advisory Committee Act, Federal Advisory Committees. These groups, sometimes referred to as commissions, are a form of think tank dedicated to advising the US Presidents or the Executive branch of government. They typically focus on a specific issue and as such, might be considered similar to special interest groups. However, unlike special interest groups these committees have come under some oversight regulation and are required to make formal records available to the public. Approximately 1,000 these advisory committees are described in the FACA searchable database.

South American think tanks

Research done by Enrique Mendizabal shows that South American think tanks play various roles depending on their origins, historical development and relations to other policy actors. In this study, Orazio Bellettini from Grupo FARO suggests that they: # Seek political support for policies. # Legitimize policies – This has been clearer in Ecuador, Bolivia and Peru. New governments in Ecuador and Peru have approached policy institutes for support for already defined policies. In Bolivia, the government of Evo Morales has been working with Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) and other research institutes to do the same. However, in Chile, many think tanks during the 1990s seemed to endorse and maintain the legitimacy of policies implemented during the previous decade by Military government of Chile (1973–1990), the military dictatorship headed by Pinochet. # Spaces of debate – In this case think tanks serve as sounding boards for new policies. In Chile, during the Pinochet dictatorship, many left wing intellectuals and researchers found ‘asylum’ in think tanks. In Ecuador, think tanks are seen as spaces where politicians can test the soundness of their policies and government plans. # Financial channels for political parties or other interest groups – In Ecuador and Bolivia, German foundations have been able to provide funds to think tanks that work with certain political parties. This method has provided support to the system as a whole rather than individual CSOs. # Expert cadres of policy-makers and politicians – In Peru after the end of the Alberto Fujimori, Fujimori regime, and in Chile after the fall of Pinochet, think tank staff left to form part of the new governments. In the United States, the role of major think tanks is precisely that: host scholars for a few months or years and then lose them to government employ. How a policy institute addresses these largely depends on how they work, their ideology vs. evidence credentials, and the context in which they operate including funding opportunities, the degree and type of competition they have and their staff. This functional method addresses the inherit challenge of defining a think tank. As Simon James said in 1998, "Discussion of think tanks...has a tendency to get bogged down in the vexed question of defining what we mean by ‘think tank’—an exercise that often degenerates into futile semantics." It is better (as in the Network Functions Approach) to describe what the organisation should do. Then the shape of the organisation should follow to allow this to happen. The following framework (based on Stephen Yeo's description of think tanks’ mode of work) is described in Enrique Mendizabal's blog "onthinktanks": First, policy institutes may work in or base their funding on one or more of: # Independent research: this would be work done with core or flexible funding that allows the researchers the liberty to choose their research questions and method. It may be long term and could emphasize ‘big ideas’ without direct policy relevance. However, it could emphasize a major policy problem that requires a thorough research and action investment. # Consultancy: this would be work done by commission with specific clients and addressing one or two major questions. Consultancies often respond to an existing agenda. # Influencing/advocacy: this would be work done by communications, capacity development, networking, campaigns, lobbying, etc. It is likely to be based on research based evidence emerging from independent research or consultancies. Second, policy institutes may base their work or arguments on: # Ideology, values or interests # Applied, empirical or synthesis research # Theoretical or academic research According to the National Institute for Research Advancement, a Japanese policy institute, think tanks are "one of the main policy actors in democratic societies ..., assuring a pluralistic, open and accountable process of policy analysis, research, decision-making and evaluation". A study in early 2009 found a total of 5,465 think tanks worldwide. Of that number, 1,777 were based in the United States and approximately 350 in Washington, DC, alone.


As of 2009, Science and technology in Argentina, Argentina is home to 122 think tanks, many specializing in public policy and
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issues. Argentina ranks fifth in the number of these institutions worldwide.


Working on public policies, Brazil hosts, for example, Instituto Liberdade, a University-based Center at Tecnopuc inside the Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, located in the South Region of the country, in the city of Porto Alegre. Instituto Liberdade is among the Top 40 think tanks in Latin America and the Caribbean, according to the 2009 Global Go To Think Tanks Index a report from the University of Pennsylvania's Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program (TTCSP). Fundação Getulio Vargas (Getulio Vargas Foundation (FGV)) is a Brazilian higher education institution. Its original goal was to train people for the country's public- and private-sector management. Today it hosts faculties (Law, Business, Economics, Social Sciences and Mathematics), libraries, and also research centers in Rio, São Paulo and Brasilia. It is considered by ''Foreign Policy'' magazine to be a top-5 "policymaker think-tank" worldwide. The Igarapé Institute is a Brazilian think tank focusing on public security and policing.

See also

* Collective intelligence * Futurists * Internet think tanks * List of think tanks * Lobbying * Mass collaboration * Mass communication * Overton window * Strategic studies * TED (conference)


Further reading

* Abelson, Donald E. ''Do Think Tanks Matter? Assessing the Impact of Public Policy Institutes.'' Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2002. * Arin, Kubilay Yado: ''Think Tanks, the Brain Trusts of US Foreign Policy''. Wiesbaden: VS Springer 2013. * Boucher, Stephen, et al., ''Europe and its think tanks; a promise to be fulfilled. An analysis of think tanks specialised in European policy issues in the enlarged European Union'', Studies and Research No 35, October, Paris, Notre Europe, 200
* Cockett, Richard, ''Thinking the unthinkable: think tanks and the economic counter revolution; 1931–1983'', London: Fontana, 1995. * * Dickson, Paul. "Think Tanks". New York: Ballantine Books, 1972. 397 pages.

* [https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/05/15/AR2005051501035.html Fan, Maureen. "Capital Brain Trust Puts Stamp on the World", ''Washington Post'' (16 May 2005): B01.] * Patrick Dixon. ''Futurewise (book), Futurewise – Six Faces of Global Change'' – issues covered by Think Tanks and methodology for reviewing trends, impact on policy 2003): Profile Books * Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl (2016): The Politics of Think Tanks in Europe. Abingdon & New York: Routledge. * George Lakoff, Lakoff, George. ''Moral Politics: What Conservatives Know That Liberals Don't.'' Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996. * Ladi, Stella. ''Globalisation, Policy Transfer And Policy Research Institutes'', Edward Elgar, 2005. * McGann, James (2006)
Comparative Think Tanks, Politics And Public Policy
', Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing * Mendizabal, Enrique and Kristen Sample (2009)
Dime a quien escuchas... Think Tanks y Partidos Politicos en America Latina
, ODI/IDEA: Lima * Medvetz, Thomas (2012)

, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. * Phelps, Richard P. (2015).

' New Educational Foundations, 4. * Ranquet, Robert. ''Think Tanks and the National Security Strategy Formulation Process: A Comparison of Current American and French Patterns'', 1997
* * Smith, James. A. ''The Idea Brokers: Think Tanks and the Rise of the New Policy Elite, New York: The Free Press'', 1991.

* Stone, Diane. Knowledge actors and transnational governance: The private-public policy nexus in the global agora. Palgrave Macmillan, 2013. * * Stone, Diane. ''Capturing the Political Imagination: Think Tanks and the Policy Process'', London: Frank Cass, 1996 * * Stone, Diane, and Andrew Denham, eds. ''Think Tank Traditions: Policy Research and the Politics of Ideas.'' Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2004. * Struyk, Raymond J. ''Managing Think Tanks: Practical Guidance for Maturing Organizations'', Budapest, Local Government and Public Service Reform Initiative Washington DC., Urban Institute 2002 * UNDP – United Nations Development Program. ''Thinking the Unthinkable'', Bratislava, UNDP Regional Bureau for Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States, 2003 {{Authority control Think tanks,