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Zagreb ( , , , ) is the
capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowercase (or more formally ''minusc ...
and
largest city A city is a large human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The complexity of a settlement can range from a small number of dwellings grouped to ...
of
Croatia , image_flag = Flag of Croatia.svg , image_coat = Coat of arms of Croatia.svg , anthem = "Lijepa naša domovino ''Lijepa naša domovino'' (; ) is the national anthem A national anthem is a song that ...

Croatia
. It is in the northwest of the country, along the
Sava The Sava (; , ; sr-cyr, Сава, Hungarian: Száva) is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes ...

Sava
river, at the southern slopes of the
Medvednica Medvednica () is a mountain A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust, generally with steep sides that show significant exposed bedrock. A mountain differs from a plateau in having a limited summit area, and is larger than a h ...

Medvednica
mountain. Zagreb lies at an elevation of approximately
above sea level Above may refer to: * Above (artist), Tavar Zawacki (born 1981), contemporary urban artist * ''Above'' (magazine), an American environmental magazine 2009–2010 *Above (Mad Season album), ''Above'' (Mad Season album), 1995 *Above (Pillar album), ' ...
. The estimated population of the city in 2018 was 804,507. The population of the Zagreb urban agglomeration is 1,153,255, approximately a quarter of the total population of Croatia. Zagreb is a city with a rich history dating from
Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in the New Testament of the Christian Bible Roman ...

Roman
times. The oldest settlement in the vicinity of the city was the Roman
Andautonia Andautonia was a Roman settlement located on the southern bank of the river Sava, located in the modern-day village of Šćitarjevo, southeast of the city of Zagreb, Croatia :* french: link=no, République de Croatie :* hu, Horvát Közt ...

Andautonia
, in today's Ščitarjevo. The name "Zagreb" is recorded in 1134, in reference to the foundation of the settlement at
KaptolKaptol can refer to: * Kaptol, Zagreb, a part of Zagreb, Croatia * Kaptol, Požega-Slavonia County, a municipality in Požega-Slavonia County, Croatia * Kaptol, Kostel, a settlement in the Municipality of Kostel, Slovenia {{geodis ...
in 1094. Zagreb became a
free royal city Royal free city or free royal city (Latin: libera regiae civitas) was the official term for the most important cities in the Kingdom of Hungary The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the ...
in 1242. In 1851 Zagreb had its first mayor,
Janko Kamauf Janko Kamauf (1801–1874) was the last city magistrate of Gradec and the first mayor of Zagreb Zagreb ( , , ; ) is the capital and largest city of Croatia :* french: link=no, République de Croatie :* hu, Horvát Köztársaság :* ...
. Zagreb has special status as a Croatian administrative division and is a consolidated city-county (but separated from
Zagreb County Zagreb County ( hr, Zagrebačka županija) is a counties of Croatia, county in central Croatia. It surrounds – but does not contain – the nation's capital Zagreb, which is a separate territorial unit. For that reason, the county is often ...

Zagreb County
), and is administratively subdivided into 17 city districts. Most of them are at a low elevation along the river , whereas northern and northeastern city districts, such as Podsljeme and
Sesvete Sesvete () is the easternmost city district of Zagreb, Croatia, as well as a standalone settlement. With a total population of 70,009 (as of 2011 Croatian census, 2011) it is the most populated district as well as the second largest by area (165 ...
districts are situated in the foothills of the
Medvednica Medvednica () is a mountain A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust, generally with steep sides that show significant exposed bedrock. A mountain differs from a plateau in having a limited summit area, and is larger than a h ...

Medvednica
mountain, making the city's geographical image rather diverse. The city extends over east-west and around north-south. Zagreb is considered a
global city A global city, also called a power city, world city, alpha city or world center, is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996 ...
with a Beta-rating from the
Globalization and World Cities Research Network The Globalization and World Cities Research Network, commonly abbreviated to GaWC, is a think tank A think tank, or policy institute, is a research institute A research institute, research centre, or research center is an establishment founded for ...
. The transport connections, concentration of industry, scientific, and research institutions and industrial tradition underlie its leading economic position in Croatia. Zagreb is the seat of the
central government A central government is the government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthl ...
, administrative bodies, and almost all
government ministries Ministry or department, also less commonly used secretariat, office, or directorate are designations used by a first-level Executive (government), executive bodies in the Machinery of government, machinery of governments that manage a specific sect ...
. Almost all of the largest Croatian companies,
media Media may refer to: Physical means Communication * Media (communication), tools used to deliver information or data ** Advertising media, various media, content, buying and placement for advertising ** Broadcast media, communications deliv ...
, and scientific institutions have their headquarters in the city. Zagreb is the most important transport hub in Croatia where
Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between Western Europe and Eastern Europe, based on a common History, historical, Society, social and cultural identity. The Thirty Years' War between Catholic Church, Catholicism and Protestantism was a signifi ...

Central Europe
, the
Mediterranean The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western Europe, Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa ...

Mediterranean
and
Southeast Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), human impact characteri ...

Southeast Europe
meet, making the Zagreb area the centre of the road, rail and air networks of Croatia. It is a city known for its diverse
economy An economy (; ) is an area of the production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturing goods * Production, in the outline of industrial organization, the act of making products ( ...

economy
, high quality of living,
museums A museum ( ; plural museums or, rarely, musea) is a building or institution that cares for and displays a collection Collection or Collections may refer to: * Cash collection, the function of an accounts receivable department * Collect ...
, sporting, and entertainment events. Its main branches of economy are
high-tech High technology (high tech) or frontier technology (frontier tech) is technology Technology ("science of craft", from Ancient Greek, Greek , ''techne'', "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and , ''wikt:-logia, -logia'') is the sum of Art techni ...

high-tech
industries and the
service sector The tertiary sector of the economy, generally known as the service sector, is the third of the three economic sector Image:Economic sectors and income.JPG, 250px, This figure illustrates the percentages of a country's economy made up by differen ...
.


Name

The etymology of the name ''Zagreb'' is unclear. It was used for the united city only from 1852, but it had been in use as the name of the Zagreb Diocese since the 12th century and was increasingly used for the city in the 17th century. The name is first recorded in a charter by
archbishop of Esztergom In many Christian Denominations, an archbishop (, via Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as ...
Felician, dated 1134, mentioned as ''Zagrabiensem episcopatum''. The older form of the name is ''Zagrab''. The modern Croatian form ''Zagreb'' is first recorded in a 1689 map by
Nicolas Sanson Image:Insel Kalifornien 1650.jpg, 250px, A 1650 map of Sanson's showing North America (with California depicted Island of California, as an island) Nicolas Sanson (20 December 1600 – 7 July 1667) was a France, French cartographer who served unde ...

Nicolas Sanson
. An even older form is reflected in Hungarian ''Zabrag'' (recorded from c. 1200 and in use until the 18th century). For this, Hungarian linguist Gyula Décsy proposes the etymology of ''Chabrag'', a well-attested
hypocorism A hypocorism ( or ; from Ancient Greek: (), from (), 'to call by pet names') or pet name is a name used to show affection for a person or object. It may be a diminutive form of a person's name, such as ''Izzy'' for Isabel or ''Bob (given n ...
of the name ''
Cyprian Cyprian ( ; la, Thaschus Caecilius Cyprianus; 210 – September 14, 258 AD''The Liturgy of the Hours according to the Roman Rite: Vol. IV.'' New York: Catholic Book Publishing Company, 1975. p. 1406.) was bishop of Carthage Carthage was the c ...

Cyprian
''. The same form is reflected in a number of Hungarian toponyms, such as Csepreg.Décsy, Gyula in: Jean-Claude Boulanger (ed.) ''Actes du XVIe Congrès international des sciences onomastiques: Québec, Université Laval, 16–22 août 1987 : le nom propre au carrefour des études humaines et des sciences sociales'', Presses Université Laval (1990),
p. 202
The name might be derived from Proto-Slavic word *''grębъ'' which means hill, uplift. (However, note Serbo-Croatian ''brȇg'' < Proto-Slavic *''bergъ'', which also means '(smaller) hill', and ''za brȇg'' 'to ''or'' toward the hill' for the seemingly metathesized variant in Hungarian, ''Zabrag'' – possibly modified from assumed *''Zabreg'' because of Hungarian vowel harmony.) An Old Croatian reconstructed name *''Zagrębъ'' is manifested through the German name of the city Agram. The name ''Agram'' was used in German in the ; this name has been classified as "probably of Roman origin" but according to Décsy (1990) it could be an
Austrian German Austrian German (german: Österreichisches Deutsch), Austrian Standard German (ASG), Standard Austrian German (), or Austrian High German (), is the variety of Standard German written and spoken in Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreic ...
reanalysis of ''*Zugram''. In
Middle Latin Medieval Latin was the form of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the p ...
and
Modern Latin New Latin (also called Neo-Latin or Modern Latin) is the List of revived languages, revival of Latin used in original, scholarly, and scientific works since about 1500. Modern scholarly and technical nomenclature, such as in zoological and botan ...
, Zagreb is known as ''Agranum'' (the name of an unrelated Arabian city in
Strabo Strabo''Strabo'' (meaning "squinty", as in strabismus Strabismus is a condition in which the eyes do not properly align with each other when looking at an object. The eye that is focused on an object can alternate. The condition may be pre ...

Strabo
), ''Zagrabia'' or ''Mons Graecensis'' (also ''Mons Crecensis'', in reference to ''Grič'' (Gradec)). In Croatian
folk etymology Folk etymology (also known as popular etymology, analogical reformation, reanalysis, morphological reanalysis or etymological reinterpretation) is a change in a word or phrase resulting from the replacement of an unfamiliar form by a more familia ...
, the name of the city has been derived from either the verb '' za- grab-'', meaning "to scoop" or "to dig". One folk legend illustrating this derivation ties the name to a drought of the early 14th century, during which (c. 1260–1323) is said to have dug a well which miraculously produced water. In another legend, a city governor is thirsty and orders a girl named Manda to "scoop" water from the well (nowadays a fountain in Ban Jelačić Square), using the imperative: ''Zagrabi, Mando!'' ("Scoop, Manda!").


History

The oldest settlement located near today's Zagreb was a
Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in the New Testament of the Christian Bible Roman ...

Roman
town of
Andautonia Andautonia was a Roman settlement located on the southern bank of the river Sava, located in the modern-day village of Šćitarjevo, southeast of the city of Zagreb, Croatia :* french: link=no, République de Croatie :* hu, Horvát Közt ...

Andautonia
, now Ščitarjevo, which existed between the 1st and the 5th century AD. The first recorded appearance of the name Zagreb is dated to 1094, at which time the city existed as two different city centers: the smaller, eastern
KaptolKaptol can refer to: * Kaptol, Zagreb, a part of Zagreb, Croatia * Kaptol, Požega-Slavonia County, a municipality in Požega-Slavonia County, Croatia * Kaptol, Kostel, a settlement in the Municipality of Kostel, Slovenia {{geodis ...
, inhabited mainly by
clergy Clergy are formal leaders within established s. Their roles and functions vary in different religious traditions, but usually involve presiding over specific rituals and teaching their religion's s and practices. Some of the terms used for ind ...
and housing
Zagreb Cathedral , native_name_lang = , image = Zagreb Cathedral 2020.jpg , imagesize = , imagelink = , imagealt = , landscape = , caption =Zagreb Cathedral in 2020, ...

Zagreb Cathedral
, and the larger, western Gradec, inhabited mainly by craftsmen and merchants. Gradec and Kaptol were united in 1851 by ban Josip Jelačić, who was credited for this, with the naming the main city square,
Ban Jelačić Square Ban Jelačić Square (; hr, Trg bana Jelačića) is the central square of the city of Zagreb Zagreb ( , , ; ) is the capital and largest city of Croatia :* french: link=no, République de Croatie :* hu, Horvát Köztársaság :* it ...

Ban Jelačić Square
in his honor. During the period of
former Yugoslavia The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, commonly referred to as SFR Yugoslavia or simply Yugoslavia, was a Socialist state, socialist country in Southeast Europe, Southeast and Central Europe that existed from its foundation in the after ...
, Zagreb remained an important economic centre of the country, and was the second largest city. After Croatia declared independence from Yugoslavia, Zagreb was proclaimed its capital.


Early Zagreb

The history of Zagreb dates as far back as 1094 A.D. when the
HungarianHungarian may refer to: * Hungary, a country in Central Europe * Kingdom of Hungary, state of Hungary, existing between 1000 and 1946 * Hungarians, ethnic groups in Hungary * Hungarian algorithm, a polynomial time algorithm for solving the assignmen ...

Hungarian
, returning from his campaign against
Croatia , image_flag = Flag of Croatia.svg , image_coat = Coat of arms of Croatia.svg , anthem = "Lijepa naša domovino ''Lijepa naša domovino'' (; ) is the national anthem A national anthem is a song that ...
, founded a diocese. Alongside the bishop's see, the canonical settlement
KaptolKaptol can refer to: * Kaptol, Zagreb, a part of Zagreb, Croatia * Kaptol, Požega-Slavonia County, a municipality in Požega-Slavonia County, Croatia * Kaptol, Kostel, a settlement in the Municipality of Kostel, Slovenia {{geodis ...
developed north of
Zagreb Cathedral , native_name_lang = , image = Zagreb Cathedral 2020.jpg , imagesize = , imagelink = , imagealt = , landscape = , caption =Zagreb Cathedral in 2020, ...

Zagreb Cathedral
, as did the fortified settlement Gradec on the neighbouring hill; the border between the two being the Medveščak stream. Today the latter is Zagreb's Upper Town ( Gornji Grad) and is one of the best preserved urban nuclei in Croatia. Both settlements came under
Tatar The Tatars (; tt, , , , crh, tatarlar; otk, 𐱃𐱃𐰺, Tatar) is an umbrella term for different Turkic peoples, Turkic ethnic groups bearing the name "Tatar." Initially, the ethnonym ''Tatar'' possibly referred to the Tatar confederation ...
attack in 1242. As a sign of gratitude for offering him a safe haven from the
Tatars The Tatars (; tt, , , , crh, tatarlar; otk, 𐱃𐱃𐰺, Tatar) is an umbrella term for different Turkic peoples, Turkic ethnic groups bearing the name "Tatar". Initially, the ethnonym ''Tatar'' possibly referred to the Tatar confederation ...
the Croatian and Hungarian King Béla IV bestowed Gradec with a
Golden Bull A golden bull or chrysobull was a issued by s and later by monarchs in Europe during the and , most notably by the . The term was originally coined for the golden (a '' aurea''), attached to the decree, but came to be applied to the entire ...
, which offered its citizens exemption from county rule and autonomy, as well as its own
judicial system The judiciary (also known as the judicial system, judicature, judicial branch, judiciative branch, and court or judiciary system) is the system of courts that adjudicates legal disputes and interprets, defends, and applies the law in legal cases. ...
.


16th to 18th centuries

There were numerous connections between the Kaptol diocese and the free sovereign town of Gradec for both economic and political reasons, but they weren't known as an integrated city, even as Zagreb became the political center and, representing both Croatia,
Slavonia Slavonia (; hr, Slavonija) is, with , , and , one of the four of . Taking up the east of the country, it roughly corresponds with five : , , , , and , although the territory of the counties includes , and the definition of the western exte ...

Slavonia
and
Dalmatia Dalmatia (; hr, Dalmacija ; it, Dalmazia; see #Name, names in other languages) is a region on the east shore of the Adriatic Sea, a narrow belt stretching from the island of Rab in the north to the Bay of Kotor in the south. The Dalmatian Hin ...

Dalmatia
, first convened at Gradec. Zagreb became Croatian Capitol in 1557, with city also being chosen as the seat of the
Ban of Croatia Ban of Croatia ( hr, Hrvatski ban, hu, horvát bán) was the title of local rulers or office holders and after 1102, viceroys of Croatia. From the earliest periods of the Croatian state, some provinces were ruled by Ban (title), bans as a ruler' ...
in 1621 under ban Nikola IX Frankopan. At the invitation of the
Croatian Parliament The Croatian Parliament ( hr, Hrvatski sabor) or the Sabor is the Unicameralism, unicameral legislature of the Republic of Croatia. Under the terms of the Constitution of Croatia, Croatian Constitution, the Sabor represents the nation, people ...

Croatian Parliament
, the
Jesuits The Society of Jesus ( la, Societas Iesu; abbreviated SJ), also known as the Jesuits (; la, Iesuitæ), is a religious order (Catholic), religious order of the Catholic Church headquartered in Rome. It was founded by Ignatius of Loyola and six co ...
came to Zagreb and built the first
grammar school A grammar school is one of several different types of school A school is an educational institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of students under the direction of teachers. Most coun ...
, the St. Catherine's Church and monastery. In 1669, they founded an academy where philosophy, theology, and law were taught, the forerunner of today's
University of Zagreb A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various Discipline (academia), academic d ...

University of Zagreb
. During the 17th and 18th centuries, Zagreb was badly devastated by fire and
the plague Plague or The Plague may refer to: Agriculture, fauna, and medicine *Plague (disease) Plague is an infectious disease caused by the Enterobacteriaceae, bacterium ''Yersinia pestis''. Symptoms include fever, weakness and headache. Usually ...
. In 1776, the royal council (government) moved from
Varaždin ) , image_photo = , image_skyline = , image_flag = Flag of Varaždin.svg , flag_size = , image_seal = , seal_size = , image_shield = Grb_Grada ...
to Zagreb and during the reign of
Joseph II Joseph II (German: ''Josef Benedikt Anton Michel Adam''; English: ''Joseph Benedict Anthony Michael Adam''; 13 March 1741 – 20 February 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from August 1765 and sole ruler of the Habsburg Monarchy, Habsburg lands from N ...

Joseph II
Zagreb became the headquarters of the
Varaždin ) , image_photo = , image_skyline = , image_flag = Flag of Varaždin.svg , flag_size = , image_seal = , seal_size = , image_shield = Grb_Grada ...
and
Karlovac Karlovac () is a city in central Croatia , image_flag = Flag of Croatia.svg , image_coat = Coat of arms of Croatia.svg , anthem = "Lijepa naša domovino ''Lijepa naša domovino'' (; ) is the national a ...
general command.


19th to mid-20th century

In the 19th century, Zagreb was the center of the
Croatian National Revival The Illyrian movement ( hr, Ilirski pokret, sr, Илирски покрет, sl, Ilirsko gibanje) was a pan- South-Slavist cultural and political campaign with roots in the early modern period, and revived by a group of young Croatia :* ...
and saw the erection of important cultural and historic institutions. In 1850, the town was united under its first
mayor In many countries, a mayor is the highest-ranking official An official is someone who holds an office (function or , regardless whether it carries an actual with it) in an or government and participates in the exercise of , (either their ow ...
Janko Kamauf Janko Kamauf (1801–1874) was the last city magistrate of Gradec and the first mayor of Zagreb Zagreb ( , , ; ) is the capital and largest city of Croatia :* french: link=no, République de Croatie :* hu, Horvát Köztársaság :* ...
. The first
railway Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicle A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine that transports people or cargo. Vehicles include wagons, bicycles, motor veh ...

railway
line to connect Zagreb with
Zidani Most Zidani Most (; german: Steinbrück) is a settlement in the Municipality of Laško in eastern Slovenia. It lies at the confluence of the Sava and Savinja rivers. The area is part of the traditional region of Lower Styria, Styria. It is now include ...

Zidani Most
and
Sisak Sisak (; hu, Sziszek ; also known by other alternative names ''AlterNative: An International Journal of Indigenous Peoples'' (formerly ''AlterNative: An International Journal of Indigenous Scholarship'') is a quarterly peer-reviewed Pee ...
was opened in 1862 and in 1863 Zagreb received a
gasworks that produced coal gas between 1856 and 1973. Currently used for distribution of natural gas. located at in Seattle, Washington. A gasworks or gas house is an industrial plant for the production of flammable gas. Many of these have been made r ...
. The Zagreb
waterworks Water supply is the provision of water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and translucency, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and Color of water, nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of ...
was opened in 1878. After the 1880 Zagreb earthquake, up to the 1914 outbreak of
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
, development flourished and the town received the characteristic layout which it has today. The first horse-drawn
tram A tram (also known as a streetcar or trolley in North America) is a train that runs on tramway track Tramway track is used on tramways or light rail operations. Groove (engineering), Grooved rails (or Rail profile#Grooved rail, girder ...

tram
was used in 1891. The construction of the
railway Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicle A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine that transports people or cargo. Vehicles include wagons, bicycles, motor veh ...

railway
lines enabled the old suburbs to merge gradually into Donji Grad, characterized by a regular block pattern that prevails in
Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between Western Europe and Eastern Europe, based on a common History, historical, Society, social and cultural identity. The Thirty Years' War between Catholic Church, Catholicism and Protestantism was a signifi ...

Central Europe
an cities. This bustling core hosts many imposing buildings, monuments, and parks as well as a multitude of museums, theatres, and cinemas. An was built in 1907. Since 1 January 1877, the Grič cannon is fired daily from the Lotrščak Tower on Grič to mark midday. The first half of the 20th century saw a considerable expansion of Zagreb. Before World War I, the city expanded and neighborhoods like Stara Peščenica in the east and Črnomerec in the west were created. After the war, working-class districts such as
Trnje Trnje () is a district in the City of Zagreb, Croatia. According to the 2011 Croatian census, 2011 census, the district had 42,282 residents. It is located in the central part of the city, south of Donji grad (Zagreb), Donji grad across the railwa ...
emerged between the railway and the
Sava The Sava (; , ; sr-cyr, Сава, Hungarian: Száva) is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes ...

Sava
, whereas the construction of residential districts on the hills of the southern slopes of
Medvednica Medvednica () is a mountain A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust, generally with steep sides that show significant exposed bedrock. A mountain differs from a plateau in having a limited summit area, and is larger than a h ...

Medvednica
was completed between the two World Wars. In the 1920s, the population of Zagreb increased by 70 percent – the largest demographic boom in the history of the town. In 1926, the first
radio station Radio broadcasting is transmission of audio Audio most commonly refers to sound In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' 'nature'), , is th ...
in the region began broadcasting from Zagreb, and in 1947 the
Zagreb Fair Zagreb Fair ( hr, Zagrebački velesajam) is a complex of exhibition pavilions in Zagreb, Croatia. The company which operates the venue carries the same name. The Zagreb Fair is the main venue in Zagreb for trade shows and fairs. Every year more th ...
was opened. During
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, Zagreb became the capital of the
Independent State of Croatia The Independent State of Croatia ( sh, Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, NDH; german: Unabhängiger Staat Kroatien; it, Stato indipendente di Croazia) was a World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII ...

Independent State of Croatia
, which was backed by
Nazi Germany Nazi Germany, (lit. "National Socialist State"), ' (lit. "Nazi State") for short; also ' (lit. "National Socialist Germany") officially known as the German Reich from 1933 until 1943, and the Greater German Reich from 1943 to 1945, was ...

Nazi Germany
and the
Italians Italians ( it, italiani ) are a Romance Romance (from Vulgar Latin , "in the Roman language", i.e., "Latin") may refer to: Common meanings * Romance (love) Romance or Romantic love is an emotional feeling of love for, or a strong att ...
. The history of Zagreb in World War II became rife with incidents of regime terror and resistance sabotage, and the Ustaša regime had thousands of people executed during the war in and near the city. The city was taken by the Partisans (Yugoslavia), Partisans at the end of the war. From 1945 until 1990, Zagreb was the capital of the Socialist Republic of Croatia, one of the six constituent socialist republics of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.


Modern Zagreb

The area between the railway and the Sava river witnessed a new construction boom after
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
. After the mid-1950s, construction of new residential areas south of the Sava river began, resulting in Novi Zagreb (Croatian for ''New Zagreb''), originally called "Južni Zagreb" (''Southern Zagreb''). Today Novi Zagreb is divided in two city districts: Novi Zagreb – zapad (''New Zagreb – West'') and Novi Zagreb – istok (''New Zagreb – East'') The city also expanded westward and eastward, incorporating Dubrava, Zagreb, Dubrava, Podsused, Jarun, Blato, Zagreb, Blato, and other settlements. The cargo railway hub and the international airport Zagreb Airport, Pleso were built south of the Sava river. The largest industrial district, industrial zone (Žitnjak) in the south-eastern part of the city represents an extension of the industrial zones on the eastern outskirts of the city, between the Sava and the Prigorje region. Zagreb also hosted the 1987 Summer Universiade, Summer Universiade in 1987. This event initiated the creation of pedestrian-only zones in the city centre and numerous new sport infrastructure, lacking until then, all around the city. During the 1991–1995 Croatian War of Independence, it was a scene of some Battle of the Barracks, sporadic fighting surrounding its Yugoslav People's Army, JNA barracks, army barracks, but escaped major damage. In May 1995, it was targeted by Serb rocket artillery in two Zagreb rocket attacks, rocket attacks which killed seven civilians and wounded many. An urbanized area connects Zagreb with the surrounding towns of Zaprešić, Samobor, Dugo Selo, and Velika Gorica. Sesvete was the first and the closest area to become a part of the urban agglomeration, agglomeration and is already included in the City of Zagreb for administrative purposes and now forms the easternmost city district. In 2020 the city was hit by a 2020 Zagreb earthquake, 5.5 magnitude earthquake. Various buildings in the historic downtown area were damaged. The city's iconic cathedral lost the cross off of one of its towers. This earthquake was the strongest one to affect the city since the destructive 1880 Zagreb earthquake.


Area and population development


Geography


Climate

The climate of Zagreb is classified as an oceanic climate (Humid temperate climate, Köppen climate classification ''Cfb''), but with significant continental influences and very closely bordering on a humid continental climate (''Dfb'') as well as a humid subtropical climate (''Cfa''). Zagreb has four separate seasons. Summers are generally warm, sometimes hot. In late May it gets significantly warmer, temperatures start rising and it is often very warm or even hot with frequent afternoon and evening thunderstorms. Heatwaves can occur but are short-lived. Temperatures rise above on an average 14.6 days each summer. Rainfall is abundant in the summertime and it continues to be in autumn as well. With 840 mm of precipitation per year, Zagreb is Europe's ninth wettest capital, receiving less precipitation than Luxembourg (city), Luxembourg but more than Brussels, Paris or London. Autumn in its early stage often brings pleasant and sunny weather with occasional episodes of rain later in the season. Late autumn is characterized by an increase in rainy days as well as by steadily declining temperature averages. Morning fog is common from mid-October to January, with northern city districts at the foothills of the
Medvednica Medvednica () is a mountain A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust, generally with steep sides that show significant exposed bedrock. A mountain differs from a plateau in having a limited summit area, and is larger than a h ...

Medvednica
mountain as well as the districts along the
Sava The Sava (; , ; sr-cyr, Сава, Hungarian: Száva) is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes ...

Sava
river being more prone to all-day fog accumulation. Winters are relatively cold with a precipitation decrease pattern. February is the driest month, averaging 39 mm of precipitation. On average there are 29 days with snowfall, with the first snow usually falling in early December. However, in recent years, the number of days with snowfall has decreased sharply. Springs are generally mild and very pleasant with frequent weather changes and are windier than other seasons. Sometimes cold spells can occur, mostly in their early stages. The average daily mean temperature in the winter is around (from December to February) and the average temperature in the summer is . The highest recorded temperature at the Maksimir weather station was in July 1950, and lowest was in February 1956. A temperature of was recorded on the since defunct Borongaj Airfield in February 1940.


Cityscape

The most important historical high-rise constructions are Neboder (1958) on
Ban Jelačić Square Ban Jelačić Square (; hr, Trg bana Jelačića) is the central square of the city of Zagreb Zagreb ( , , ; ) is the capital and largest city of Croatia :* french: link=no, République de Croatie :* hu, Horvát Köztársaság :* it ...

Ban Jelačić Square
, Cibona Tower (1987), and Zagrepčanka (1976) on Savska Street, Mamutica in Travno (Novi Zagreb – istok district, built in 1974) and Zagreb TV Tower on Medvednica, Sljeme (built in 1973). In the 2000s, the City Assembly approved a new plan that allowed for the many recent high-rise buildings in Zagreb, such as the Almeria Tower, Eurotower (Zagreb), Eurotower, HOTO Tower, Zagrebtower and one of the tallest skyscrapers Sky Office Tower. In Novi Zagreb, the neighbourhoods of Blato, Zagreb, Blato and Lanište, Croatia, Lanište expanded significantly, including the Arena Zagreb, Zagreb Arena and the adjoining business centre. Due to a long-standing restriction that forbade the construction of 10-story or higher buildings, most of Zagreb's high-rise buildings date from the 1970s and 1980s and new apartment, apartment buildings on the outskirts of the city are usually 4–8 floors tall. Exceptions to the restriction have been made in recent years, such as permitting the construction of high-rise buildings in Lanište or Kajzerica.


Surroundings

The wider Zagreb area has been continuously inhabited since the prehistoric period, as witnessed by archaeological findings in the Veternica cave from the Paleolithic and excavation of the remains of the Roman Andautonia near the present village of Šćitarjevo. Picturesque former villages on the slopes of Medvednica, Šestine, Gračani, and Remete, maintain their rich traditions, including folk costumes, Šestine umbrellas, and gingerbread products. To the north is the
Medvednica Medvednica () is a mountain A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust, generally with steep sides that show significant exposed bedrock. A mountain differs from a plateau in having a limited summit area, and is larger than a h ...

Medvednica
Mountain ( hr, Zagrebačka gora), with its highest peak Medvednica, Sljeme(1,035 m), where one of the tallest structures in Croatia, Zagreb TV Tower is located. The Sava and the Kupa (river), Kupa valleys are to the south of Zagreb, and the region of Hrvatsko Zagorje is located on the other (northern) side of the Medvednica hill. In mid-January 2005, Sljeme held its first FIS Alpine World Ski Championships, World Ski Championship tournament. From the summit, weather permitting, the vista reaches as far as Velebit Range along Croatia's rocky northern coast, as well as the snow-capped peaks of the towering Julian Alps in neighboring Slovenia. There are several lodging villages, offering accommodation and restaurants for hikers. Skiers visit Sljeme, which has four ski-runs, three ski-lifts, and a chairlift. The old Medvedgrad, a recently restored medieval wikt:Special:Search/burg, burg was built in the 13th century on Medvednica hill. It overlooks the western part of the city and also hosts the ''Shrine of the Homeland'', a memorial with an eternal flame, where Croatia pays reverence to all its heroes fallen for homeland in its history, customarily on Public holiday, national holidays. The ruined medieval fortress Susedgrad is located on the far-western side of Medvednica hill. It has been abandoned since the early 17th century, but it is visited during the year. Zagreb occasionally experiences earthquakes, due to the proximity of Žumberak-
Medvednica Medvednica () is a mountain A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust, generally with steep sides that show significant exposed bedrock. A mountain differs from a plateau in having a limited summit area, and is larger than a h ...

Medvednica
fault zone. It's classified as an area of high seismic activity. The area around Medvednica was the epicentre of the 1880 Zagreb earthquake (magnitude 6.3), and the area is known for occasional landslide threatening houses in the area. The proximity of strong seismic sources presents a real danger of strong earthquakes. Croatian Chief of Office of Emergency Management Pavle Kalinić stated Zagreb experiences around 400 earthquakes a year, most of them being imperceptible. However, in case of a strong earthquake, it's expected that 3,000 people would die and up to 15,000 would be wounded.


Demographics

Zagreb is by far the largest city in Croatia in terms of area and population. The official 2011 Croatian census, 2011 census counted 790,017 residents, although due to a Immigration, substantial immigrant influx the number of people residing in the city is much higher. Zagreb metropolitan area population is slightly above 1.1 million inhabitants, as it includes the
Zagreb County Zagreb County ( hr, Zagrebačka županija) is a counties of Croatia, county in central Croatia. It surrounds – but does not contain – the nation's capital Zagreb, which is a separate territorial unit. For that reason, the county is often ...

Zagreb County
. Zagreb metropolitan area makes approximately a quarter of a total Demographics of Croatia, population of Croatia. In 1997, the City of Zagreb itself was given special County status, separating it from Zagreb County, although it remains the administrative centre of both. The majority of its citizens are Croats making up 93% of the city's population (2011 census). The same census records around 55,000 residents belonging to Ethnic minorities in Croatia, ethnic minorities: 17,526 Serbs (2.22%), 8,119 Bosniaks (1.03%), 4,292 Albanians (0.54%), 2,755 Romani people, Romani (0.35%), 2,132 Slovenes (0.27%), 1,194 Macedonians (ethnic group), Macedonians (0.15%), 1,191 Montenegrins (ethnic group), Montenegrins (0.15%), and a number of other smaller communities.


City districts

Since 14 December 1999 City of Zagreb is divided into 17 city districts (''gradska četvrt'', pl. ''gradske četvrti''): City districts are subdivided in 218 local committees as primary units of local self-government.


Settlements

The city itself is not the only naselje, standalone settlement in the City of Zagreb administrative area – there are a number of larger urban settlements like Sesvete and Lučko and a number of smaller villages attached to it whose population is tracked separately. There are 70 settlements in the City of Zagreb administrative area:


Government and politics

The current mayor of Zagreb is Tomislav Tomašević ('We can! (Croatia), We can!'), elected in the 2021 Zagreb local elections, the second round of which was held on 30 May 2021. There are two deputy mayors elected from the same list, Danijela Dolenec and Luka Korlaet. The Zagreb Assembly is composed of 51 representatives, elected in the 2021 Zagreb local elections.


Administration

According to the Constitution of Croatia, Constitution, the city of Zagreb, as the capital of Croatia, has a special status. As such, Zagreb performs Self-governance, self-governing public affairs of both List of cities and towns in Croatia, city and Counties of Croatia, county. It is also the seat of the
Zagreb County Zagreb County ( hr, Zagrebačka županija) is a counties of Croatia, county in central Croatia. It surrounds – but does not contain – the nation's capital Zagreb, which is a separate territorial unit. For that reason, the county is often ...

Zagreb County
which encircles Zagreb. The city administration bodies are the Zagreb Assembly, Zagreb City Assembly (''Gradska skupština Grada Zagreba'') as the representative body and the list of mayors of Zagreb, mayor of Zagreb (''Gradonačelnik Grada Zagreba'') who is the executive head of the city. The City Assembly is the representative body of the citizens of the City of Zagreb elected for a four-year term on the basis of universal suffrage in direct elections by secret ballot using proportional representation, proportional system with d'Hondt method in a manner specified by law. There are 51 representatives in the City Assembly, among them the president and vice-presidents of the assembly are elected by the representatives. Prior to 2009, the mayor was elected by the City Assembly. It was changed to direct elections by Majority vote, majoritarian vote (two-round system) in 2009. The mayor is the head of the city administration and has two deputies (directly elected together with him/her). The term of office of the mayor (and his/her deputies) is four years. The mayor (with the deputies) may be recalled by a referendum according to the law (not less than 20% of all electors in the City of Zagreb or not less than two-thirds of the Zagreb Assembly city deputies have the right to initiate a recall referendum, city referendum regarding recalling of the mayor; when a majority of voters taking part in the referendum vote in favor of the recall, provided that majority includes not less than one third of all persons entitled to vote in the City of Zagreb, i.e. ⅓ of persons in the City of Zagreb electoral register, the mayor's mandate shall be deemed revoked and special elections, special mayoral by-elections shall be held). In the City of Zagreb the mayors of Zagreb, mayor is also responsible for the state administration (due to the special status of Zagreb as a "city with county rights", there isn't a State Administration Office which in all counties performs tasks of the central government). City administration offices, institutions and services (18 Municipal service, city offices, 1 Municipal service, public institute or Municipal service, bureau and 2 Municipal services, city services) have been founded for performing activities within the self-administrative sphere and activities entrusted by the state administration. The city administrative bodies are managed by the principals (appointed by the mayor for a four-year term of office, may be appointed again to the same duty). The City Assembly Professional Service is managed by the secretary of the City Assembly (appointed by the Assembly). Local government is organised in 17 Districts of Zagreb, city districts represented by City District Councils. Residents of districts elect members of councils.


International relations


Twin towns – sister cities

Zagreb is twin towns and sister cities, twinned with the following towns and cities: * Bologna, Italy ''(since 1963)'' * Mainz, Germany ''(since 1967)'' * Saint Petersburg, Russia ''(since 1968)'' * Tromsø, Norway ''(since 1971)'' * Buenos Aires, Argentina ''(since 1972)'' * Kyoto, Japan ''(since 1972)'' * Lisbon, Portugal ''(since 1977)'' * Pittsburgh, United States ''(since 1980)'' * Shanghai, China ''(since 1980)'' * Budapest, Hungary ''(since 1994)'' * La Paz, Bolivia ''(since 2000)'' * Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina ''(since 2001)'' * Ljubljana, Slovenia ''(since 2001)'' * Podgorica, Montenegro ''(since 2006)'' * Tabriz, Iran '' (since 2006)'' * Ankara, Turkey ''(since 2008)'' * London, United Kingdom ''(since 2009)'' * Skopje, North Macedonia ''(since 2011)'' * Warsaw, Poland ''(since 2011)'' * Pristina, Kosovo ''(since 2012)'' * Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan ''(since 2014)'' * Rome, Italy ''(since 2014)'' * Vienna, Austria ''(since 2014)'' * Petrinja, Croatia ''(since 2015)'' * Vukovar, Croatia ''(since 2016)'' * Xiangyang, China ''(since 2017)''


Partner cities

The city has partnership arrangements with:


Culture


Tourism

Zagreb is an important tourist center, not only in terms of passengers traveling from the rest of Europe to the Adriatic Sea, but also as a travel destination itself. Since the end of the History of Croatia, war, it has attracted close to a million visitors annually, mainly from Austria, Germany, and Italy, and in recent years many tourists from far east (South Korea, Japan, China, and last two years, from India). It has become an important tourist destination, not only in Croatia, but considering the whole region of southeastern Europe. There are many interesting sights and happenings for tourists to attend in Zagreb, for example, the two statues of Saint George, one at the Republic of Croatia Square, the other at the Stone Gate, where the image of Virgin Mary is said to be the only thing that hasn't burned in the 17th-century fire. Also, there is an art installation starting in the Bogovićeva Street, called Nine Views. Zagreb is also famous for its award-winning Christmas market that had been named the one in Europe for three years in a row (2015, 2016, 2017) by ''European Best Destinations''. The historical part of the city to the north of
Ban Jelačić Square Ban Jelačić Square (; hr, Trg bana Jelačića) is the central square of the city of Zagreb Zagreb ( , , ; ) is the capital and largest city of Croatia :* french: link=no, République de Croatie :* hu, Horvát Köztársaság :* it ...

Ban Jelačić Square
is composed of the Gradec, Zagreb, Gornji Grad and
KaptolKaptol can refer to: * Kaptol, Zagreb, a part of Zagreb, Croatia * Kaptol, Požega-Slavonia County, a municipality in Požega-Slavonia County, Croatia * Kaptol, Kostel, a settlement in the Municipality of Kostel, Slovenia {{geodis ...
, a medieval urban complex of churches, palaces, museums, galleries and government buildings that are popular with tourists on sightseeing tours. The historic district can be reached on foot, starting from the
Ban Jelačić Square Ban Jelačić Square (; hr, Trg bana Jelačića) is the central square of the city of Zagreb Zagreb ( , , ; ) is the capital and largest city of Croatia :* french: link=no, République de Croatie :* hu, Horvát Köztársaság :* it ...

Ban Jelačić Square
, the center of Zagreb, or by a funicular on nearby Tomićeva Street. Each Saturday, (from April till the end of September), on St. Mark's Square, Zagreb, St. Mark's Square in the Gradec, Zagreb, Upper town, tourists can meet members of the Order of The Silver Dragon (''Red Srebrnog Zmaja''), who reenact famous historical conflicts between Gradec, Zagreb County, Gradec and
KaptolKaptol can refer to: * Kaptol, Zagreb, a part of Zagreb, Croatia * Kaptol, Požega-Slavonia County, a municipality in Požega-Slavonia County, Croatia * Kaptol, Kostel, a settlement in the Municipality of Kostel, Slovenia {{geodis ...
. It's a great opportunity for all visitors to take photographs of authentic and fully functional historical replicas of medieval armor. In 2010 more than 600,000 tourists visited the city, with a 10% increase seen in 2011. In 2012 a total of 675 707 tourists visited the city. A record number of tourists visited Zagreb in 2017. – 1.286.087, up 16% compared to the year before, which generated 2.263.758 overnight stays, up 14,8%.


Souvenirs and gastronomy

Numerous shops, boutiques, store houses and shopping mall, shopping centers offer a variety of quality clothing. There are about fourteen big shopping centers in Zagreb. Zagreb's offerings include crystal, Chinese ceramics, china and Pottery, ceramics, wicker or straw baskets, and top-quality Croatian wines and gastronomy, gastronomic products. Notable Zagreb souvenirs are the necktie, tie or ''cravat'', an accessory named after Croats who wore characteristic scarves around their necks in the Thirty Years' War in the 17th century and the Ballpoint pen, ball-point pen, a tool developed from the inventions by Slavoljub Eduard Penkala, an inventor and a citizen of Zagreb. Many Zagreb restaurants offer various specialties of Croatian cuisine, national and Fusion cuisine, international cuisine. Domestic products which deserve to be tasted include Turkey as food, turkey, duck or goose with ''mlinci'' (a kind of pasta), ''štrukli'' (cottage cheese strudel), ''sir i vrhnje'' (cottage cheese with cream), ''kremšnite'' (custard slices in flaky pastry), and ''orehnjača'' (traditional walnut#Nuts, walnut roll).


Museums

Zagreb's numerous museums reflect the history, art, and culture not only of Zagreb and Croatia, but also of Europe and the world. Around thirty collections in museums and galleries comprise more than 3.6 million various exhibits, excluding church and private collections. The Archaeological Museum, Zagreb, Archaeological Museum (19 Nikola Šubić Zrinski Square) collections, today consisting of nearly 450,000 varied archaeology, archaeological artefacts and monuments, have been gathered over the years from many different sources. These holdings include evidence of Croatian presence in the area. The most famous are the Egyptian collection, the Liber Linteus, Zagreb mummy and bandages with the oldest Old Italic alphabet, Etruscan inscription in the world (''Liber Linteus Zagrabiensis''), as well as the coin collecting, numismatic collection. Modern Gallery, Zagreb, Modern Gallery ( hr, Moderna galerija) holds the most important and comprehensive collection of paintings, sculptures and drawings by 19th- and 20th-century Croatian artists. The collection numbers more than 10,000 works of art, housed since 1934 in the historic Vranyczany Palace in the center of Zagreb, overlooking the Zrinjevac Park. A secondary gallery is the Josip Račić Studio at Margaretska 3. Croatian Natural History Museum (1 Demetrova Street) holds one of the world's most important collection of Neanderthal remains found at one site. These are the remains, stone weapons, and tools of prehistoric ''Krapina man''. The holdings of the Croatian Natural History Museum comprise more than 250,000 specimens distributed among various collections. Technical Museum, Zagreb, Technical Museum (18 Savska Street) was founded in 1954 and it maintains the oldest preserved machine in the area, dating from 1830, which is still operational. The museum exhibits numerous historic aircraft, cars, machinery and equipment. There are some distinct sections in the museum: the Planetarium, the Apisarium, the Mine (model of mines for coal, iron and ferrous, non-ferrous metals, about long), and the Nikola Tesla study. Zagreb City Museum, Museum of the City of Zagreb (20 Opatička Street) was established in 1907 by the Association of the Braća Hrvatskog Zmaja. It is located in a restored monumental complex (Popov toranj, the Observatory, Zakmardi Granary) of the former Convent of the Poor Clares, of 1650. The Museum deals with topics from the cultural, artistic, economic and political history of the city spanning from Roman finds to the modern history, modern period. The holdings comprise over 80,000 items arranged systematically into collections of artistic and mundane objects characteristic of the city and its history. Museum of Arts and Crafts, Zagreb, Arts and Crafts Museum (10 Republic of Croatia Square) was founded in 1880 with the intention of preserving the works of art and craft against the new predominance of industrial products. With its 160,000 exhibits, the Arts and Crafts Museum is a national-level museum for artistic production and the history of Archaeological culture, material culture in Croatia. Ethnographic Museum, Zagreb, Ethnographic Museum (14 Ivan Mažuranić Square) was founded in 1919. It lies in the fine Secession building of the one-time Trades Hall of 1903. The ample holdings of about 80,000 items cover the ethnographic heritage of Croatia, classified in the three cultural zones: the Pannonian, Dinaric and Adriatic. Mimara Museum (5 Roosevelt Square) was founded with a donation from Ante "Mimara" Topić and opened to the public in 1987. It is located in a late 19th-century Renaissance Revival architecture, neo-Renaissance palace. The holdings comprise 3,750 works of art of various techniques and materials, and different cultures and civilizations. Croatian Museum of Naïve Art (works by Croatian primitivists at 3 Ćirilometodska Street) is one of the first museums of naïve art in the world. The museum holds works of Croatian naïve expression of the 20th century. It is located in the 18th-century Raffay Palace in the Gornji Grad. The museum holdings consist of almost 2000 works of art – paintings, sculptures, drawings, and prints, mainly by Croatians but also by other well-known world artists. From time to time, the museum organizes topics and retrospective exhibitions by naïve artists, expert meetings and educational workshops and playrooms. The Museum of Contemporary Art, Zagreb, Museum of Contemporary Art was founded in 1954. Its new building hosts a rich collection of Croatian and international contemporary visual art which has been collected throughout the decades from the nineteen-fifties till today. The museum is located in the center of Novi Zagreb, opened in 2009. The old location, 2 St. Catherine's Square, is part of the Kulmer Palace in the Gornji Grad. List of museums in Croatia, Other museums and galleries are also found in the Croatian School Museum, the Croatian Hunting Museum, the Croatian Sports Museum, the Croatian Post and Telecommunications Museum, the HAZU (Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts) Glyptotheque (collection of monuments), and the HAZU Graphics Cabinet. The Strossmayer Gallery of Old Masters (11 Zrinski Square) offers permanent holdings presenting European paintings from the 14th to 19th centuries, and the Ivan Meštrović Studio, (8 Mletačka Street) with sculptures, drawings, lithography portfolios and other items, was a donation of this great artist to his homeland The Museum and Gallery Center (4 Jesuit Square) introduces on various occasions the Croatian and foreign cultural and artistic heritage. The Art Pavilion, Zagreb, Art Pavilion (22 King Tomislav Square) by Viennese architects Hellmer and Fellmer who were the most famous designers of theatres in Central Europe is a Neoclassicism, neo-classical exhibition complex and one of the landmarks of the downtown. The exhibitions are also held in the impressive Meštrović building on the Square of the Victims of Fascism – the Home of Croatian Fine Artists. The World Center "Wonder of Croatian Naïve Art" (12
Ban Jelačić Square Ban Jelačić Square (; hr, Trg bana Jelačića) is the central square of the city of Zagreb Zagreb ( , , ; ) is the capital and largest city of Croatia :* french: link=no, République de Croatie :* hu, Horvát Köztársaság :* it ...

Ban Jelačić Square
) exhibits masterpieces of Croatian naïve art as well as the works of a new generation of artists. The Modern Gallery (1 Hebrangova Street) comprises all relevant fine artists of the 19th and 20th centuries. The Museum of Broken Relationships at 2 Ćirilometodska holds people's mementos of past relationships. It is the first private museum in the country. Lauba House (23a Baruna Filipovića) presents works from Filip Trade Collection, a large private collection of modern and contemporary Croatian art and current artistic production.


Events

Zagreb has been, and is, hosting some of the most popular mainstream artists, in the past few years their concerts held the Rolling Stones, U2, Eric Clapton, Deep Purple, Bob Dylan, David Bowie, Roger Waters, Depeche Mode, The Prodigy, Prodigy, Beyoncé Knowles, Beyoncé, Nick Cave, Jamiroquai, Manu Chao, Massive Attack, Metallica, Snoop Dogg, Lady Gaga, Duran Duran as well as some of world most recognised underground artists such as Dimmu Borgir, Sepultura, Melvins, Mastodon (band), Mastodon and many more. Zagreb is also a home of the INmusic festival, one of the biggest open-air festivals in Croatia which is held every year, usually at the end of June. There is also the Zagreb Jazz Festival which has featured popular jazz artists like Pat Metheny or Sonny Rollins. Many others festivals occur in Zagreb like Žedno uho featuring indie, rock, metal and electronica artists such as Animal Collective, Melvins, Butthole Surfers, Crippled Black Phoenix, NoMeansNo, The National (band), The National, Mark Lanegan, Swans (band), Swans, Mudhoney around the clubs and concert halls of Zagreb.


Performing arts

There are about 20 permanent or seasonal theatres and stages. The Croatian National Theatre in Zagreb, Croatian National Theater in Zagreb was built in 1895 and opened by emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria. The most renowned List of concert halls, concert hall named "Vatroslav Lisinski Concert Hall, Vatroslav Lisinski", after the composer of the first Croatian opera, was built in 1973. The World Theatre Festival (Zagreb), World Theatre Festival and International Puppet Festival both take place in Zagreb in September and October. ''Animafest'', the World Festival of Animation, Animated Films, takes place every even-numbered year, and the ''Music Biennale'', the international festival of avant-garde music, every odd-numbered year. It also hosts the annual ''ZagrebDox'' documentary film festival. The ''Festival of the Zagreb orchestra, Philharmonic'' and the flowers exhibition ''Floraart'' (end of May or beginning of June), the ''Old-timer Rally'' annual events. In the summer, theatre performances and concerts, mostly in the Upper Town, are organized either indoors or outdoors. The stage on Opatovina hosts the ''Zagreb Histrionic Summer'' theatre events. Zagreb is also the host of ''Zagrebfest'', the oldest Croatian pop music, pop-music music festival, festival, as well as of several traditional international sports events and tournaments. The ''Day of the City of Zagreb'' on 16 November is celebrated every year with special festivities, especially on the Jarun lake in the southwestern part of the city.


Recreation and sports

Zagreb is home to numerous sports and recreational centers. Recreational SportsCenter, Sports Center Jarun, situated on Jarun, Jarun Lake in the southwest of the city, has fine shingle beaches, a world-class regatta course, a jogging lane around the lake, several restaurants, many Nightclub, night clubs and a discothèque. Its sports and recreation opportunities include swimming, sunbathing, waterskiing, angling, and other List of water sports, water sports, but also beach volleyball, football, basketball, handball, table tennis, and Miniature golf, mini-golf. Dom Sportova, a sport centre in northern Trešnjevka features six halls. The largest two have seating capacity of 5,000 and 3,100 people, respectively. This centre is used for basketball, handball, volleyball, hockey, gymnastics, tennis, etc. It also hosts music events. Arena Zagreb was finished in 2008. The 16,500-seat arena hosted the 2009 World Men's Handball Championship. The Dražen Petrović Basketball Hall seats 5,400 people. Alongside the hall is the high glass Cibona Tower. Mladost (sports society), Sports Park Mladost, situated on the embankment of the Sava river, has an Olympic-size swimming pool, smaller indoor and outdoor swimming pools, a sunbathing terrace, 16 tennis courts as well as basketball, volleyball, team handball, handball, Association football, football and field hockey courts. A volleyball sports hall is within the park. Sports and Recreational Center Šalata, located in Šalata, only a couple hundred meters from the Ban Jelačić Square, Jelačić Square, is most attractive for tennis players. It comprises a big tennis court and eight smaller ones, two of which are covered by the so-called "balloon", and another two equipped with lights. The center also has swimming pools, basketball courts, football fields, a gym, and fitness center, and a four-lane bowling alley. Outdoor ice skating is a popular winter recreation. There are also several fine restaurants within and near the center. Maksimir Tennis Center, located in Ravnice east of Donji grad (Zagreb), downtown, consists of two sports blocks. The first comprises a tennis center situated in a large tennis hall with four courts. There are 22 outdoor tennis courts with lights. The other block offers multipurpose sports facilities: apart from tennis courts, there are handball, basketball and indoor soccer, indoor football grounds, as well as track and field facilities, a bocce, bocci ball alley and table tennis opportunities. Recreational swimmers can enjoy a smaller-size indoor swimming pool in Daničićeva Street, and a newly opened indoor Olympic-size pool at Utrine, Zagreb, Utrine sports center in Novi Zagreb. Skaters can skate in the Ice rink, skating rink on Trg Sportova (Sports Square) and on the lake Jarun Skaters' park. Hippodrome Zagreb offers recreational Equestrianism, horseback riding opportunities, while horse racing, horse races are held every weekend during the warmer part of the year. The 38,923-seat Stadion Maksimir, Maksimir Stadium, last 10 years under renovation, is located in Maksimir in the northeastern part of the city. The stadium is part of the immense Svetice recreational and sports complex (ŠRC Svetice), south of the Maksimir Park. The complex covers an area of . It is part of a significant green zone, which passes from
Medvednica Medvednica () is a mountain A mountain is an elevated portion of the Earth's crust, generally with steep sides that show significant exposed bedrock. A mountain differs from a plateau in having a limited summit area, and is larger than a h ...

Medvednica
in the north toward the south. ŠRC Svetice, together with Maksimir Park, creates an ideal connection of areas which are assigned to sport, recreation, and leisure. The latest larger recreational facility is Bundek, a group of two small lakes near the Sava in Novi Zagreb, surrounded by a partly forested park. The location had been used prior to the 1970s, but then went to neglect until 2006 when it was renovated. Some of the most notable sport clubs in Zagreb are: GNK Dinamo Zagreb, KHL Medveščak Zagreb, RK Zagreb, KK Cibona, KK Zagreb, KK Cedevita, NK Zagreb, HAVK Mladost and others. The city hosted the 2016 Davis Cup World Group final between Croatia Davis Cup team, Croatia and Argentina Davis Cup team, Argentina.


Religion

The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Zagreb, Archdiocese of Zagreb is a metropolitan bishop, metropolitan see of the Roman Catholicism in Croatia, Catholic Church in Croatia, serving as its religious center. The Archbishop is Josip Bozanić, Josip Cardinal Bozanić. The Catholic Church is the largest religious organisation in Zagreb, Catholicism being the predominant religion of Croatia, with over 1.1 million adherents. Zagreb is also the Episcopal see of the Metropolitanate of Zagreb and Ljubljana of the Eastern Orthodoxy in Croatia, Serbian Orthodox Church. Islam in Croatia, Islamic religious organization of Croatia has the see in Zagreb. President is Mufti Aziz Hasanović. There used to be a mosque in the Meštrović Pavilion during Zagreb in World War II, World War II at the Square of the Victims of Fascism, but it was relocated to the neighborhood of Borovje in Peščenica – Žitnjak, Peščenica. Mainstream Protestant churches have also been present in Zagreb – Evangelical (Lutheran) Church and Reformed Christian (Calvinist) Church. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) is also present in the Zagreb neighborhood of Jarun whereas Jehovah's Witnesses have their headquarters in Central Zagreb. In total there are around 40 non-Catholic religious organizations and denominations in Zagreb with their headquarters and places of worship across the city making it a large and diverse multicultural community. There is also significant History of the Jews in Croatia, Jewish history through The Holocaust in the Independent State of Croatia, the Holocaust.


Economy and infrastructure

Important branches of industry are: production of electrical machines and devices, chemical industry, chemical, pharmaceutical drug, pharmaceutical, textile industry, textile, food industry, food and drink processing. Zagreb is an international trade and business centre, as well as an essential transport hub placed at the crossroads of
Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between Western Europe and Eastern Europe, based on a common History, historical, Society, social and cultural identity. The Thirty Years' War between Catholic Church, Catholicism and Protestantism was a signifi ...

Central Europe
, the Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean and the
Southeast Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), human impact characteri ...

Southeast Europe
. Almost all of the largest Croatian as well as Central European companies and conglomerates such as Agrokor, INA (company), INA, Hrvatski Telekom have their headquarters in the city. The only Croatian stock exchange is the Zagreb Stock Exchange ( hr, Zagrebačka burza), which is located in Eurotower (Zagreb), Eurotower, one of the tallest List of tallest buildings in Croatia, Croatian skyscrapers. According to 2008 data, the city of Zagreb has the highest PPP and nominal gross domestic product per capita in Croatia at $32,185 and $27,271 respectively, compared to the Croatian averages of US$18,686 and $15,758. As of May 2015, the average monthly net salary in Zagreb was 6,669 Croatian kuna, kuna, about Euro, €870 (Croatian average is 5,679 kuna, about €740). At the end of 2012, the average unemployment rate in Zagreb was around 9.5%. 34% of companies in Croatia have headquarters in Zagreb, and 38.4% of the Croatian workforce works in Zagreb, including almost all banks, utility and public transport companies. Companies in Zagreb create 52% of total turnover and 60% of total profit of Croatia in 2006 as well as 35% of Croatian export and 57% of Croatian import.


Transport


Highways

Zagreb is the hub of five major Croatian highways. The highway A6 (Croatia), A6 was upgraded in October 2008 and leads w:A7 (Croatia)#Route description, from Zagreb to Rijeka, and forming a part of the Pan-European Corridor Vb. The upgrade coincided with the opening of the Zrinski Bridge, bridge over the Mura river on the A4 (Croatia), A4 and the completion of the Hungary, Hungarian M7 motorway (Hungary), M7, which marked the opening of the first freeway corridor between Rijeka and Budapest. The A1 (Croatia), A1 starts at the Lučko interchange and Concurrency (road), concurs with the A6 up to the Bosiljevo 2 interchange, connecting Zagreb and Split, Croatia, Split ( Vrgorac). A further extension of the A1 up to Dubrovnik is under construction. Both highways are tolled by the Croatian highway authorities Hrvatske autoceste and Autocesta Rijeka - Zagreb. Highway A3 (Croatia), A3 (formerly named Brotherhood and unity, Bratstvo i jedinstvo) was the showpiece of Croatia in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, SFRY. It is the oldest Croatian highway. A3 forms a part of the Pan-European Corridor X. The highway starts at the Bregana border checkpoint, border crossing, bypasses Zagreb forming the southern arch of the Zagreb bypass, and ends at Lipovac, Vukovar-Srijem County, Lipovac near the Bajakovo border crossing. It continues in
Southeast Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), human impact characteri ...

Southeast Europe
in the direction of Near East. This highway is tolled except for the stretch between Bobovica and Ivanja Reka interchange, Ivanja Reka interchanges. Highway A2 (Croatia), A2 is a part of the Pan-European Corridor Xa, Corridor Xa. It connects Zagreb and the frequently congested Macelj border crossing, forming a near-continuous motorway-level link between Zagreb and Western Europe. Forming a part of the Corridor Vb, highway A4 (Croatia), A4 starts in Zagreb forming the northeastern wing of the Zagreb bypass and leads to Hungary until the Goričan border crossing. It is often used highway around Zagreb. The railway and the highway A3 (Croatia), A3 along the
Sava The Sava (; , ; sr-cyr, Сава, Hungarian: Száva) is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes ...

Sava
river that extend to
Slavonia Slavonia (; hr, Slavonija) is, with , , and , one of the four of . Taking up the east of the country, it roughly corresponds with five : , , , , and , although the territory of the counties includes , and the definition of the western exte ...

Slavonia
(towards Slavonski Brod, Vinkovci, Osijek and Vukovar) are some of the busiest traffic corridors in the country. The railway running along the Sutla river and the A2 (Croatia), A2 highway (Zagreb-Macelj) running through Zagora (Croatia), Zagorje, as well as traffic connections with the Pannonian region and Hungary (the Hrvatsko Zagorje, Zagorje railroad, the roads and railway to
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– Čakovec and Koprivnica) are linked with truck routes. The southern railway connection to Split, Croatia, Split operates on a high-speed tilting trains line via the Lika region (renovated in 2004 to allow for a five-hour journey); a faster line along the Una (Sava), Una river valley is in use only up to the border between Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina.


Roads

The city has an extensive Avenue Road, avenue network with numerous main arteries up to ten lanes wide and Zagreb bypass, a congested four-lane highway encircling most of the city. Finding a parking space is supposed to be made somewhat easier by the construction of new underground multi-story parking lots (Importanne Center, Importanne Gallery, Lang Square, Tuškanac, Kvaternik Square, Klaić Street, etc.). The busiest roads are the main east–west arteries, former Brotherhood and Unity Highway, Highway "Brotherhood and Unity", consisting of Ljubljanska Avenue, Zagrebačka Avenue and Slavonska Avenue; and the Vukovarska Avenue, the closest bypass of the city center. The avenues were supposed to alleviate the traffic problem, but most of them are nowadays gridlocked during rush hour and others, like Branimirova Avenue and Dubrovnik Avenue which are gridlocked for the whole day. International E-road network, European routes European route E59, E59, European route E65, E65 and E70 in Croatia, E70 serve Zagreb.


=Bridges

= Zagreb has seven road traffic bridges across the Sava, river Sava, and they all span both the river and the levees, making them all by and large longer than . In downstream order, these are: There are also two rail traffic bridges across the Sava, one near the Sava bridge and one near Mičevec, as well as two bridges that are part of the Zagreb bypass, one near Zaprešić (west), and the other near Ivanja Reka (east). Two additional bridges across the river
Sava The Sava (; , ; sr-cyr, Сава, Hungarian: Száva) is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes ...

Sava
are proposed: Jarun Bridge and Bundek Bridge.


Public transportation

Public transportation in the city is organized in several layers: the inner parts of the city are mostly covered by
tram A tram (also known as a streetcar or trolley in North America) is a train that runs on tramway track Tramway track is used on tramways or light rail operations. Groove (engineering), Grooved rails (or Rail profile#Grooved rail, girder ...

tram
s, the outer city areas, and closer suburbs are linked with buses and rapid transit Zagreb Commuter Rail, commuter rail. The public transportation company Zagrebački električni tramvaj, ZET (''Zagrebački električni tramvaj'', Zagreb Electric Tram) operates trams, all inner bus lines, and most of the suburban bus lines, and it is subsidized by the city council. The national rail operator Croatian Railways (''Hrvatske željeznice'', HŽ) runs a network of urban and suburban train lines in the metropolitan Zagreb area and is a government-owned corporation. The funicular (''uspinjača'') in the historic part of the city is a tourist attraction. Taxicab, Taxi market has been liberalized in early 2018 and numerous transport companies have been allowed to enter the market; consequently, the prices significantly dropped whereas the service was immensely improved so the popularity of taxis in Zagreb has been increasing from then onwards.


=Tram network

= Zagreb has an extensive
tram A tram (also known as a streetcar or trolley in North America) is a train that runs on tramway track Tramway track is used on tramways or light rail operations. Groove (engineering), Grooved rails (or Rail profile#Grooved rail, girder ...

tram
network with 15 day and 4 night lines covering much of the inner- and middle-suburbs of the city. The first tram line was opened on 5 September 1891 and trams have been serving as a vital component of Zagreb mass transit ever since. Trams usually travel at speeds of , but slow considerably during rush hour. The network operates at the curb (road), curb whereas on larger avenues its tracks are situated inside the green belts. An ambitious program, which entailed replacing old trams with the new and modern ones built mostly in Zagreb by companies KONČAR Group, Končar elektroindustrija and, to a lesser extent, by TŽV Gredelj, has recently been finished. The new "CROTRAM, TMK 2200", trams by the end of 2012 made around 95% of the fleet.


=Suburban rail network

= The commuter rail network in Zagreb has existed since 1992. In 2005, suburban rail services were increased to a 15-minute frequency serving the middle and outer suburbs of Zagreb, primarily in the east–west direction and to the southern districts. This has enhanced the commuting opportunities across the city. A new link to the nearby town of Samobor has been announced and is due to start construction in 2014. This link will be standard gauge, standard-gauge and tie in with normal Croatian Railways operations. The previous narrow-gauge line to Samobor called ''Samoborček'' was closed in the 1970s.


Air traffic

Zagreb Airport is the main Croatian international airport, a drive southeast of Zagreb in the city of Velika Gorica. The airport is also the main Croatian airbase featuring a fighter squadron, helicopters, as well as military and freight Cargo aircraft, transport aircraft. The airport had 2,77 million passengers in 2016 with a new passenger terminal being opened in late March 2017 that can accommodate up to 5,5 million passengers. Zagreb also has a second, smaller airport, Lučko . It is home to sports aeroplanes and a Croatian special police unit, as well as being a military helicopter airbase. Lučko used to be the main airport of Zagreb from 1947 to 1959. A third, small grass airfield, Buševec, is located just outside Velika Gorica. It is primarily used for sports purposes.


Education

Zagreb has 136 primary education, primary schools and 100 secondary education, secondary schools including 30 gymnasium (school), gymnasia. There are 5 public higher education institution and 9 private professional higher education schools.


University

Founded in 1669, the University of Zagreb is the oldest continuously operating university in Croatia and one of the largest and oldest universities in the Southeastern Europe. Ever since its foundation, the university has been continually growing and developing and now consists of 29 faculties, three art academies and the Croatian Studies Centre. More than 200,000 students have attained the Bachelor's degree at the university, which has also assigned 18,000 Master's degree, Master's and 8,000 Doctorate, Doctor's degrees. , the University of Zagreb is ranked among 500 Best Universities of the world by th
Shanghai Academic Ranking of World Universities
Zagreb is also the seat of two private universities: the Catholic University of Croatia and the Libertas International University; as well as numerous public and private polytechnics, colleges, and higher professional schools.


References


Footnotes


Citations


Bibliography

*


External links


Zagreb – Official website

Zagreb Tourist Board

Zagreb Fair
{{Portal bar, Geography, Europe, Croatia Zagreb, Capitals in Europe Cities and towns in Croatia Counties of Croatia Former counties of Croatia Populated places in the City of Zagreb Populated places on the Sava Populated places established in the 11th century 11th-century establishments in Croatia 1094 establishments in Europe Zagreb County (former)