Zagreb ( , , ; ) is the capital
and largest city
. It is in the northwest of the country, along the Sava
river, at the southern slopes of the Medvednica
mountain. Zagreb lies at an elevation of approximately above sea level
. The estimated population of the city in 2018 was 804,507.
The population of the Zagreb urban agglomeration is 1,153,255,
approximately a quarter of the total population of Croatia.
Zagreb is a city with a rich history dating from Roman
times. The oldest settlement in the vicinity of the city was the Roman Andautonia
, in today's Ščitarjevo
. The name "Zagreb" is recorded in 1134, in reference to the foundation of the settlement at Kaptol
in 1094. Zagreb became a free royal city
in 1242. In 1851 Zagreb had its first mayor
, Janko Kamauf
Zagreb has special status as a Croatian administrative division and is a consolidated city-county (but separated from Zagreb County
), and is administratively subdivided into 17 city districts
. Most of them are at a low elevation along the river Sava valley
, whereas northern and northeastern city districts, such as Podsljeme
districts are situated in the foothills of the Medvednica
mountain, making the city's geographical image rather diverse. The city extends over east-west and around north-south.
Zagreb is considered a global city
with a Beta-rating from the Globalization and World Cities Research Network
The transport connections, concentration of industry, scientific, and research institutions and industrial tradition underlie its leading economic position in Croatia. Zagreb is the seat of the central government
, administrative bodies
, and almost all government ministries
. Almost all of the largest Croatian companies
, and scientific institutions have their headquarters in the city. Zagreb is the most important transport hub in Croatia where Central Europe
, the Mediterranean
and Southeast Europe
meet, making the Zagreb area the centre of the road, rail and air networks of Croatia. It is a city known for its diverse economy
, high quality of living, museums
, sporting, and entertainment events. Its main branches of economy are high-tech
industries and the service sector
The etymology of the name ''Zagreb'' is unclear. It was used for the united city only from 1852, but it had been in use as the name of the Zagreb Diocese
since the 12th century and was increasingly used for the city in the 17th century.
The name is first recorded in a charter by archbishop of Esztergom Felician
, dated 1134, mentioned as ''Zagrabiensem episcopatum''.
The older form of the name is ''Zagrab''. The modern Croatian form ''Zagreb'' is first recorded in a 1689 map by Nicolas Sanson
An even older form is reflected in Hungarian ''Zabrag'' (recorded from c. 1200 and in use until the 18th century).
For this, Hungarian linguist Gyula Décsy proposes the etymology of ''Chabrag'', a well-attested hypocorism
of the name ''Cyprian
''. The same form is reflected in a number of Hungarian toponyms, such as Csepreg
[Décsy, Gyula in: Jean-Claude Boulanger (ed.) ''Actes du XVIe Congrès international des sciences onomastiques: Québec, Université Laval, 16–22 août 1987 : le nom propre au carrefour des études humaines et des sciences sociales'', Presses Université Laval (1990), ]
The name might be derived from Proto-Slavic word *''grębъ''
which means hill, uplift. (However, note Serbo-Croatian ''brȇg'' < Proto-Slavic *''bergъ''
, which also means '(smaller) hill', and ''za brȇg'' 'to ''or'' toward the hill' for the seemingly metathesized
variant in Hungarian, ''Zabrag'' – possibly modified from assumed *''Zabreg'' because of Hungarian vowel harmony.) An Old Croatian reconstructed name *''Zagrębъ''
is manifested through the German name of the city Agram.
The name ''Agram'' was used in German in the Habsburg period
; this name has been classified as "probably of Roman origin"
but according to Décsy (1990) it could be an Austrian German
reanalysis of ''*Zugram''.
In Middle Latin
and Modern Latin
, Zagreb is known as ''Agranum'' (the name of an unrelated Arabian city in Strabo
), ''Zagrabia'' or ''Mons Graecensis'' (also ''Mons Crecensis'', in reference to ''Grič'' (Gradec)
In Croatian folk etymology
, the name of the city has been derived from either the verb ''za
'', meaning "to scoop" or "to dig". One folk legend illustrating this derivation
ties the name to a drought of the early 14th century, during which Augustin Kažotić
(c. 1260–1323) is said to have dug a well which miraculously produced water.
In another legend, a city governor is thirsty and orders a girl named Manda to "scoop" water from the Manduševac
well (nowadays a fountain in Ban Jelačić Square), using the imperative: ''Zagrabi, Mando!'' ("Scoop, Manda!").
The oldest settlement located near today's Zagreb was a Roman
town of Andautonia
, now Ščitarjevo
, which existed between the 1st and the 5th century AD.
The first recorded appearance of the name Zagreb is dated to 1094, at which time the city existed as two different city centers: the smaller, eastern Kaptol
, inhabited mainly by clergy
and housing Zagreb Cathedral
, and the larger, western Gradec
, inhabited mainly by craftsmen and merchants. Gradec and Kaptol were united in 1851 by ban Josip Jelačić
, who was credited for this, with the naming the main city square, Ban Jelačić Square
in his honor.
During the period of former Yugoslavia
, Zagreb remained an important economic centre of the country, and was the second largest city. After Croatia declared independence
from Yugoslavia, Zagreb was proclaimed its capital.
The history of Zagreb dates as far back as 1094 A.D. when the Hungarian King Ladislaus
, returning from his campaign against Croatia
, founded a diocese. Alongside the bishop's see
, the canonical settlement Kaptol
developed north of Zagreb Cathedral
, as did the fortified settlement Gradec
on the neighbouring hill; the border between the two being the Medveščak stream. Today the latter is Zagreb's Upper Town (Gornji Grad
) and is one of the best preserved urban nuclei in Croatia
. Both settlements came under Tatar
attack in 1242. As a sign of gratitude for offering him a safe haven from the Tatars
the Croatian and Hungarian King Béla IV
bestowed Gradec with a Golden Bull
, which offered its citizens exemption from county rule and autonomy, as well as its own judicial system
16th to 18th centuries
There were numerous connections between the Kaptol diocese and the free sovereign town of Gradec for both economic and political reasons, but they weren't known as an integrated city, even as Zagreb became the political center and, representing both Croatia, Slavonia
, first convened at Gradec. Zagreb became Croatian Capitol in 1557, with city also being chosen as the seat of the Ban of Croatia
in 1621 under ban Nikola IX Frankopan
At the invitation of the Croatian Parliament
, the Jesuits
came to Zagreb and built the first grammar school
, the St. Catherine's
Church and monastery. In 1669, they founded an academy where philosophy, theology, and law were taught, the forerunner of today's University of Zagreb
During the 17th and 18th centuries, Zagreb was badly devastated by fire and the plague
. In 1776, the royal council (government) moved from Varaždin
to Zagreb and during the reign of Joseph II
Zagreb became the headquarters of the Varaždin
19th to mid-20th century
In the 19th century, Zagreb was the center of the Croatian National Revival
and saw the erection of important cultural and historic institutions.
In 1850, the town was united under its first mayor
– Janko Kamauf
The first railway
line to connect Zagreb with Zidani Most
was opened in 1862 and in 1863 Zagreb received a gasworks
. The Zagreb waterworks
was opened in 1878.
After the 1880 Zagreb earthquake
, up to the 1914 outbreak of World War I
, development flourished and the town received the characteristic layout which it has today.
The first horse-drawn tram
was used in 1891. The construction of the railway
lines enabled the old suburbs to merge gradually into Donji Grad
, characterized by a regular block pattern that prevails in Central Europe
an cities. This bustling core hosts many imposing buildings, monuments, and parks as well as a multitude of museums, theatres, and cinemas. An electric power plant
was built in 1907.
Since 1 January 1877, the Grič cannon
is fired daily from the Lotrščak Tower
to mark midday.
The first half of the 20th century saw a considerable expansion of Zagreb. Before World War I, the city expanded and neighborhoods like Stara Peščenica
in the east and Črnomerec
in the west were created. After the war, working-class
districts such as Trnje
emerged between the railway and the Sava
, whereas the construction of residential districts on the hills of the southern slopes of Medvednica
was completed between the two World Wars
In the 1920s, the population of Zagreb increased by 70 percent – the largest demographic boom in the history of the town. In 1926, the first radio station
in the region began broadcasting from Zagreb, and in 1947 the Zagreb Fair
During World War II
, Zagreb became the capital of the Independent State of Croatia
, which was backed by Nazi Germany
and the Italians
. The history of Zagreb in World War II
became rife with incidents of regime terror and resistance sabotage, and the Ustaša
regime had thousands of people executed during the war in and near the city. The city was taken by the Partisans
at the end of the war. From 1945 until 1990, Zagreb was the capital of the Socialist Republic of Croatia
, one of the six constituent socialist republics of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
The area between the railway and the Sava river witnessed a new construction boom after World War II
. After the mid-1950s, construction of new residential areas south of the Sava river began, resulting in Novi Zagreb
(Croatian for ''New Zagreb''), originally called "Južni Zagreb" (''Southern Zagreb'').
Today Novi Zagreb is divided in two city districts
: Novi Zagreb – zapad
(''New Zagreb – West'') and Novi Zagreb – istok
(''New Zagreb – East'')
The city also expanded westward and eastward, incorporating Dubrava
, Podsused, Jarun
, and other settlements.
The cargo railway hub and the international airport Pleso
were built south of the Sava river. The largest industrial zone
(Žitnjak) in the south-eastern part of the city represents an extension of the industrial zones on the eastern outskirts of the city, between the Sava and the Prigorje region. Zagreb also hosted the Summer Universiade
During the 1991–1995 Croatian War of Independence
, it was a scene of some sporadic fighting
surrounding its JNA army barracks
, but escaped major damage. In May 1995, it was targeted by Serb rocket artillery
in two rocket attacks
which killed seven civilians and wounded many.
An urbanized area connects Zagreb with the surrounding towns of Zaprešić
, Dugo Selo
, and Velika Gorica
. Sesvete was the first and the closest area to become a part of the agglomeration
and is already included in the City of Zagreb for administrative purposes and now forms the easternmost city district.
In 2020 the city was hit by a 5.5 magnitude earthquake
. Various buildings in the historic downtown area were damaged. The city's iconic cathedral lost the cross off of one of its towers. This earthquake was the strongest one to affect the city since the destructive 1880 Zagreb earthquake
Area and population development
The climate of Zagreb is classified as an oceanic climate
(Köppen climate classification
''Cfb''), but with significant continental influences and very closely bordering on a humid continental climate
(''Dfb'') as well as a humid subtropical climate
(''Cfa''). Zagreb has four separate season
s. Summers are generally warm, sometimes hot. In late May it gets significantly warmer, temperatures start rising and it is often very warm or even hot with frequent afternoon and evening thunderstorms. Heatwaves can occur but are short-lived. Temperatures rise above on an average 14.6 days each summer. Rainfall is abundant in the summertime and it continues to be in autumn as well. With 840 mm of precipitation per year, Zagreb is Europe's ninth wettest capital, receiving less precipitation than Luxembourg but more than Brussels
in its early stage often brings pleasant and sunny weather with occasional episodes of rain later in the season. Late autumn is characterized by an increase in rainy days as well as by steadily declining temperature averages. Morning fog
is common from mid-October to January, with northern city districts at the foothills of the Medvednica
mountain as well as the districts along the Sava
river being more prone to all-day fog accumulation. Winters are relatively cold with a precipitation decrease pattern. February is the driest month, averaging 39 mm of precipitation. On average there are 29 days with snowfall, with the first snow usually falling in early December. However, in recent years, the number of days with snowfall has decreased sharply. Springs are generally mild and very pleasant with frequent weather changes and are windier than other seasons. Sometimes cold spells can occur, mostly in their early stages. The average daily mean temperature in the winter is around (from December to February) and the average temperature in the summer is .
The highest recorded temperature at the Maksimir weather station was in July 1950, and lowest was in February 1956.
A temperature of was recorded on the since defunct Borongaj Airfield in February 1940.
File:St. Marks Sq Zagreb pano.jpg|St. Mark's Square: Banski dvori (Croatian Government residence), St. Mark's Church, Croatian Parliament (Sabor)
File:Panorama Save.JPG|Sava flowing through Zagreb.
The most important historical high-rise
constructions are Neboder
(1958) on Ban Jelačić Square
, Cibona Tower
(1987), and Zagrepčanka
(1976) on Savska Street, Mamutica
in Travno (Novi Zagreb – istok
district, built in 1974) and Zagreb TV Tower
(built in 1973).
In the 2000s, the City Assembly approved a new plan that allowed for the many recent high-rise buildings in Zagreb, such as the Almeria Tower, Eurotower
, HOTO Tower
and one of the tallest skyscrapers Sky Office Tower
In Novi Zagreb
, the neighbourhoods of Blato
expanded significantly, including the Zagreb Arena
and the adjoining business centre.
Due to a long-standing restriction that forbade the construction of 10-story or higher buildings, most of Zagreb's high-rise buildings date from the 1970s and 1980s and new apartment building
s on the outskirts of the city are usually 4–8 floors tall. Exceptions to the restriction have been made in recent years, such as permitting the construction of high-rise buildings in Lanište or Kajzerica.
The wider Zagreb area has been continuously inhabited since the prehistoric period, as witnessed by archaeological findings in the Veternica cave from the Paleolithic
and excavation of the remains of the Roman Andautonia near the present village of Šćitarjevo.
Picturesque former villages on the slopes of Medvednica, Šestine, Gračani, and Remete, maintain their rich tradition
s, including folk costumes, Šestine umbrellas, and gingerbread
To the north is the Medvednica
Mountain ( hr|Zagrebačka gora), with its highest peak Sljeme
(1,035 m), where one of the tallest structures in Croatia, Zagreb TV Tower
is located. The Sava and the Kupa
valleys are to the south of Zagreb, and the region of Hrvatsko Zagorje
is located on the other (northern) side of the Medvednica hill. In mid-January 2005, Sljeme held its first World Ski Championship tournament
From the summit, weather permitting, the vista reaches as far as Velebit
Range along Croatia's rocky northern coast, as well as the snow-capped peaks of the towering Julian Alps
in neighboring Slovenia
. There are several lodging villages, offering accommodation and restaurants for hikers. Skiers visit Sljeme, which has four ski-runs, three ski-lifts, and a chairlift.
The old Medvedgrad
, a recently restored medieval burg
was built in the 13th century on Medvednica hill. It overlooks the western part of the city and also hosts the ''Shrine of the Homeland'', a memorial with an eternal flame
, where Croatia pays reverence to all its heroes fallen for homeland
in its history, customarily on national holiday
s. The ruined medieval fortress Susedgrad
is located on the far-western side of Medvednica hill. It has been abandoned since the early 17th century, but it is visited during the year.
Zagreb occasionally experiences earthquakes, due to the proximity of Žumberak
fault zone. It's classified as an area of high seismic activity.
The area around Medvednica was the epicentre of the 1880 Zagreb earthquake
(magnitude 6.3), and the area is known for occasional landslide threatening houses in the area.
The proximity of strong seismic sources presents a real danger of strong earthquakes.
Croatian Chief of Office of Emergency Management
Pavle Kalinić stated Zagreb experiences around 400 earthquakes a year, most of them being imperceptible. However, in case of a strong earthquake, it's expected that 3,000 people would die and up to 15,000 would be wounded.
Zagreb is by far the largest city in Croatia
in terms of area and population. The official 2011 census
counted 790,017 residents,
although due to a substantial immigrant
influx the number of people residing in the city is much higher.
Zagreb metropolitan area
population is slightly above 1.1 million inhabitants,
as it includes the Zagreb County
Zagreb metropolitan area makes approximately a quarter of a total population of Croatia
In 1997, the City of Zagreb itself was given special County status, separating it from Zagreb County, although it remains the administrative centre
The majority of its citizens are Croats
making up 93% of the city's population (2011 census). The same census records around 55,000 residents belonging to ethnic minorities
: 17,526 Serbs
(2.22%), 8,119 Bosniaks
(1.03%), 4,292 Albanians
(0.54%), 2,755 Romani
(0.35%), 2,132 Slovenes
(0.27%), 1,194 Macedonians
(0.15%), 1,191 Montenegrins
(0.15%), and a number of other smaller communities.
Since 14 December 1999 City of Zagreb is divided into 17 city districts
(''gradska četvrt'', pl. ''gradske četvrti''):
City districts are subdivided in 218 local committees as primary units of local self-government.
is the eastern gate to medieval town and Zagreb's most important shrine built between 1242
The city itself is not the only naselje|standalone settlement
in the City of Zagreb administrative area – there are a number of larger urban settlements like Sesvete and Lučko and a number of smaller villages
attached to it whose population is tracked separately.
There are 70 settlements in the City of Zagreb administrative area:
, population 975
, population 378
, population 594
, population 9
, population 49
, population 594
, population 323
, population 1,055
, population 398
, population 721
, population 377
, population 1,203
* Donji Čehi
, population 232
* Donji Dragonožec
, population 577
* Donji Trpuci
, population 428
, population 131
* Drežnik Brezovički
, population 656
, population 903
, population 778
, population 311
* Glavnica Donja
, population 544
* Glavnica Gornja
, population 226
, population 229
* Goli Breg
, population 406
, population 449
* Gornji Čehi
, population 363
* Gornji Dragonožec
, population 295
* Gornji Trpuci
, population 87
, population 221
* Havidić Selo
, population 53
, population 1,490
* Hrašće Turopoljsko
, population 1,202
* Hrvatski Leskovac
, population 2,687
* Hudi Bitek
, population 441
* Ivanja Reka
, population 1,800
, population 460
, population 1,728
, population 1,548
* Kašinska Sopnica
, population 245
, population 219
, population 228
* Kupinečki Kraljevec
, population 1,957
, population 207
, population 3,010
, population 719
* Mala Mlaka
, population 636
* Markovo Polje
, population 425
, population 663
, population 1,866
* Odranski Obrež
, population 1,578
, population 632
* Planina Donja
, population 554
* Planina Gornja
, population 247
, population 937
, population 809
, population 332
, population 54,085
, population 978
, population 227
, population 645
, population 678
, population 271
* Veliko Polje
, population 1,668
* Vuger Selo
, population 273
* Vugrovec Donji
, population 442
* Vugrovec Gornji
, population 357
, population 201
, population 1,288
* Zagreb, population 688,163
, population 556
Government and politics
of Zagreb was Milan Bandić
(BM 365 - Labour and Solidarity Party
). He was confirmed as mayor on 4 June 2017 (Zagreb local elections 2017
, second round), but died on 28 February 2021 thus ending his mandate earlier. Two deputy mayors (vice mayoresses) are Jelena Pavičić-Vukičević and Olivera Jurković-Majić.
The Zagreb Assembly
is composed of 51 representatives. Last elections were held on 21 May 2017 (Zagreb local elections
). The structure of the city assembly by party lines is as follows (2 December 2017):
According to the Constitution
, the city of Zagreb, as the capital of Croatia
, has a special status. As such, Zagreb performs self-governing
public affairs of both city
. It is also the seat of the Zagreb County
which encircles Zagreb.
The city administration bodies are the Zagreb City Assembly
(''Gradska skupština Grada Zagreba'') as the representative body and the mayor of Zagreb
(''Gradonačelnik Grada Zagreba'') who is the executive head of the city.
The City Assembly is the representative body of the citizens of the City of Zagreb elected for a four-year term on the basis of universal suffrage
in direct elections
by secret ballot
using proportional system
with d'Hondt method
in a manner specified by law. There are 51 representatives in the City Assembly, among them the president and vice-presidents of the assembly are elected by the representatives.
Prior to 2009, the mayor was elected by the City Assembly. It was changed to direct elections by majoritarian vote
) in 2009. The mayor is the head of the city administration and has two deputies (directly elected together with him/her). The term of office of the mayor (and his/her deputies) is four years. The mayor (with the deputies) may be recalled by a referendum according to the law (not less than 20% of all electors in the City of Zagreb or not less than two-thirds of the Zagreb Assembly
city deputies have the right to initiate a city referendum
regarding recalling of the mayor; when a majority of voters taking part in the referendum vote in favor of the recall, provided that majority includes not less than one third of all persons entitled to vote in the City of Zagreb, i.e. ⅓ of persons in the City of Zagreb electoral register
, the mayor's mandate shall be deemed revoked and special mayoral by-elections
shall be held).
In the City of Zagreb the mayor
is also responsible for the state administration (due to the special status of Zagreb as a "city with county rights", there isn't a State Administration Office which in all counties performs tasks of the central government).
City administration offices, institutions and services (18 city offices
, 1 public institute
and 2 city services
) have been founded for performing activities within the self-administrative sphere and activities entrusted by the state administration.
The city administrative bodies are managed by the principals (appointed by the mayor for a four-year term of office, may be appointed again to the same duty). The City Assembly Professional Service is managed by the secretary of the City Assembly (appointed by the Assembly).
Local government is organised in 17 city district
s represented by City District Councils. Residents of districts elect members of councils.
Twin towns – sister cities
Zagreb is twinned
with the following towns and cities:
, Italy ''(since 1963)''
, Germany ''(since 1967)''
* Saint Petersburg
, Russia ''(since 1968)''
, Norway ''(since 1971)''
* Buenos Aires
, Argentina ''(since 1972)''
, Japan ''(since 1972)''
, Portugal ''(since 1977)''
, USA ''(since 1980)''
, China ''(since 1980)''
, Hungary ''(since 1994)''
* La Paz
, Bolivia ''(since 2000)''
, Bosnia and Herzegovina ''(since 2001)''
, Slovenia ''(since 2001)''
, Montenegro ''(since 2006)''
, Iran '' (since 2006)''
, Turkey ''(since 2008)''
, United Kingdom ''(since 2009)''
, Kosovo ''(since 2010)''
, North Macedonia ''(since 2011)''
, Poland ''(since 2011)''
, Kazakhstan ''(since 2014)''
, Italy ''(since 2014)''
, Austria ''(since 2014)''
, Croatia ''(since 2015)''
, Croatia ''(since 2016)''
The city has partnership arrangements with:
Zagreb is an important tourist center, not only in terms of passengers traveling from the rest of Europe to the Adriatic Sea, but also as a travel destination itself. Since the end of the war
, it has attracted close to a million visitors annually, mainly from Austria
, and Italy
, and in recent years many tourists from far east (South Korea, Japan, China, and last two years, from India). It has become an important tourist destination, not only in Croatia, but considering the whole region of southeastern Europe. There are many interesting sights and happenings for tourists to attend in Zagreb, for example, the two statues of Saint George, one at the Republic of Croatia Square
, the other at Kamenita vrata
, where the image of Virgin Mary is said to be the only thing that hasn't burned in the 17th-century fire. Also, there is an art installation starting in Bogovićeva street, called Nine Views
. Most people don't know what the statue "Prizemljeno Sunce" (The Grounded Sun) is for, and just scrawl graffiti or signatures on it, but it's actually the Sun scaled down, with many planets situated all over Zagreb in scale with the Sun. There are also many festivals and events throughout the year, which made Zagreb a year-round tourist destination for many years already.
The historical part of the city to the north of Ban Jelačić Square
is composed of the Gornji Grad
, a medieval urban complex of churches, palaces, museums, galleries and government buildings that are popular with tourists on sightseeing tours. The historic district can be reached on foot, starting from Jelačić Square
, the center of Zagreb, or by a funicular
on nearby Tomićeva Street. Each Saturday, (from April till the end of September), on St. Mark's Square
in the Upper town
, tourists can meet members of the Order of The Silver Dragon (''Red Srebrnog Zmaja''), who reenact famous historical conflicts between Gradec
. It's a great opportunity for all visitors to take photographs of authentic and fully functional historical replicas of medieval armor.
In 2010 more than 600,000 tourists visited the city, with a 10% increase seen in 2011. In 2012 a total of 675 707 tourists visited the city.
A record number of tourists visited Zagreb in 2017. – 1.286.087, up 16% compared to the year before, which generated 2.263.758 overnight stays, up 14,8%.
Souvenirs and gastronomy
Numerous shops, boutiques, store houses and shopping centers
offer a variety of quality clothing. There are about fourteen big shopping centers in Zagreb. Zagreb's offerings include crystal
baskets, and top-quality Croatian wine
s and gastronomic
Notable Zagreb souvenirs are the tie
or ''cravat'', an accessory named after Croats who wore characteristic scarves around their necks in the Thirty Years' War
in the 17th century and the ball-point pen
, a tool developed from the inventions by Slavoljub Eduard Penkala
, an inventor and a citizen of Zagreb.
Many Zagreb restaurants offer various specialties of national
and international cuisine
. Domestic products which deserve to be tasted include turkey
'' (a kind of pasta
), ''štrukli'' (cottage cheese strudel
), ''sir i vrhnje'' (cottage cheese
with cream), ''kremšnite'' (custard
slices in flaky pastry), and ''orehnjača'' (traditional walnut
left|Museum of Contemporary Art
Zagreb's numerous museum
s reflect the history, art, and culture not only of Zagreb and Croatia, but also of Europe and the world. Around thirty collections in museums and galleries comprise more than 3.6 million various exhibits, excluding church and private collections.
The Archaeological Museum
(19 Nikola Šubić Zrinski
Square) collections, today consisting of nearly 450,000 varied archaeological
artefacts and monuments, have been gathered over the years from many different sources. These holdings include evidence of Croatian presence in the area.
The most famous are the Egyptian collection, the Zagreb mummy
and bandages with the oldest Etruscan
inscription in the world (''Liber Linteus
Zagrabiensis''), as well as the numismatic
( hr|Moderna galerija) holds the most important and comprehensive collection of painting
s and drawing
s by 19th- and 20th-century Croatian artists. The collection numbers more than 10,000 works of art, housed since 1934 in the historic Vranyczany Palace in the center of Zagreb, overlooking the Zrinjevac Park. A secondary gallery is the Josip Račić Studio at Margaretska 3.
Croatian Natural History Museum
(1 Demetrova Street) holds one of the world's most important collection of Neanderthal
remains found at one site.
These are the remains, stone weapons, and tools of prehistoric ''Krapina
man''. The holdings of the Croatian Natural History Museum comprise more than 250,000 specimens distributed among various collections.
(18 Savska Street) was founded in 1954 and it maintains the oldest preserved machine in the area, dating from 1830, which is still operational. The museum exhibits numerous historic aircraft, cars, machinery and equipment. There are some distinct sections in the museum: the Planetarium, the Apisarium, the Mine (model of mines for coal, iron and non-ferrous metals
, about long), and the Nikola Tesla
Museum of the City of Zagreb
(20 Opatička Street) was established in 1907 by the Association of the Braća Hrvatskog Zmaja. It is located in a restored monumental complex (Popov toranj, the Observatory, Zakmardi Granary) of the former Convent of the Poor Clares
, of 1650.
The Museum deals with topics from the cultural, artistic, economic and political history
of the city spanning from Roman finds to the modern period
. The holdings comprise over 80,000 items arranged systematically into collections of artistic and mundane objects characteristic of the city and its history.
Arts and Crafts Museum
(10 Republic of Croatia Square
) was founded in 1880 with the intention of preserving the works of art and craft against the new predominance of industrial products. With its 160,000 exhibits, the Arts and Crafts Museum is a national-level museum for artistic production and the history of material culture
(14 Ivan Mažuranić
Square) was founded in 1919. It lies in the fine Secession building of the one-time Trades Hall of 1903. The ample holdings of about 80,000 items cover the ethnographic heritage of Croatia, classified in the three cultural zones: the Pannonian, Dinaric and Adriatic.
(5 Roosevelt Square) was founded with a donation from Ante "Mimara" Topić and opened to the public in 1987. It is located in a late 19th-century neo-Renaissance
The holdings comprise 3,750 works of art of various techniques and materials, and different cultures and civilizations.
Croatian Museum of Naïve Art
(works by Croatian primitivists at 3 Ćirilometodska Street) is one of the first museums of naïve art
in the world. The museum holds works of Croatian naïve expression of the 20th century. It is located in the 18th-century Raffay Palace in the Gornji Grad
The museum holdings consist of almost 2000 works of art – paintings, sculptures, drawings, and prints, mainly by Croatians but also by other well-known world artists.
From time to time, the museum organizes topics and retrospective exhibitions by naïve artists, expert meetings and educational workshops and playrooms.
The Museum of Contemporary Art
was founded in 1954. Its new building hosts a rich collection of Croatian and international contemporary visual art which has been collected throughout the decades from the nineteen-fifties till today. The museum is located in the center of Novi Zagreb
, opened in 2009. The old location, 2 St. Catherine's Square, is part of the Kulmer Palace in the Gornji Grad
Other museums and galleries
Valuable historical collections are also found in the Croatian School
Museum, the Croatian Hunting
Museum, the Croatian Sport
s Museum, the Croatian Post and Telecommunication
s Museum, the HAZU (Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts
) Glyptotheque (collection of monuments), and the HAZU Graphics Cabinet.
The Strossmayer Gallery of Old Masters
(11 Zrinski Square) offers permanent holdings presenting European paintings from the 14th to 19th centuries,
and the Ivan Meštrović
Studio, (8 Mletačka Street) with sculptures, drawings, lithography portfolios and other items, was a donation of this great artist to his homeland The Museum and Gallery Center (4 Jesuit Square) introduces on various occasions the Croatian and foreign cultural and artistic heritage. The Art Pavilion
(22 King Tomislav Square) by Viennese architects Hellmer and Fellmer who were the most famous designers of theatres in Central Europe is a neo-classical
exhibition complex and one of the landmarks of the downtown. The exhibitions are also held in the impressive Meštrović
building on Žrtava Fašizma Square – the Home of Croatian Fine Art
ists. The World Center "Wonder of Croatian Naïve Art" (12 Ban Jelačić Square
) exhibits masterpieces of Croatian naïve art as well as the works of a new generation of artists. The Modern Gallery (1 Hebrangova Street) comprises all relevant fine artists of the 19th and 20th centuries. The Museum of Broken Relationships
at 2 Ćirilometodska holds people's mementos of past relationships. It is the first private museum in the country. Lauba House
(23a Baruna Filipovića) presents works from Filip Trade Collection
, a large private collection of modern and contemporary Croatian art and current artistic production.
Zagreb developed its Advent several years, and it has been awarded Best Christmas Market 3 years in a row. Hosting numerous events for 6 weeks, from 1 December till 6 January.
Zagreb has been, and is, hosting some of the most popular mainstream artists, in the past few years their concerts held the Rolling Stones
, Eric Clapton
, Deep Purple
, Bob Dylan
, David Bowie
, Roger Waters
, Taylor Swift
, Depeche Mode
, Nick Cave
, Manu Chao
, Massive Attack
, Snoop Dogg
, Lady Gaga
, Duran Duran
as well as some of world most recognised underground artists such as Dimmu Borgir
and many more.
Zagreb is also a home of the INmusic festival
, one of the biggest open-air festivals in Croatia which is being held every year, usually at the end of June. There are also many jazz festivals like Zagreb Jazz Festival which was the host for some of the most popular artists from the world jazz scene like Pat Metheny
or Sonny Rollins
just to name a few. Zagreb is also home of many others club festivals like Žedno uho where many of indie, rock, metal and electronica artists like Animal Collective
, Butthole Surfers
, Crippled Black Phoenix
, The National
, Mark Lanegan
etc. made there performances around the clubs and concert halls of Zagreb. This is mostly recognized because of the city's location, and its good traffic relations with other neighboring European capital cities such as Vienna and Budapest. This is the effort of the Zagreb community to increase the percentage of tourist visits during the summertime, since Croatia, in general, is a popular destination for many people around the globe during the vacation period.
There are about 20 permanent or seasonal theatres and stages. The Croatian National Theater in Zagreb
was built in 1895 and opened by emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria
. The most renowned concert hall
named "Vatroslav Lisinski
", after the composer of the first Croatian opera, was built in 1973.
''Animafest'', the World Festival of Animated Film
s, takes place every even-numbered year, and the ''Music Biennale'', the international festival of avant-garde music
, every odd-numbered year. It also hosts the annual ''ZagrebDox
'' documentary film
festival. The ''Festival of the Zagreb Philharmonic
'' and the flowers exhibition ''Floraart'' (end of May or beginning of June), the ''Old-timer Rally'' annual events. In the summer, theatre performances and concerts, mostly in the Upper Town, are organized either indoors or outdoors. The stage on Opatovina hosts the ''Zagreb Histrionic Summer'' theatre events.
Zagreb is also the host of ''Zagrebfest'', the oldest Croatian pop-music festival
, as well as of several traditional international sports events and tournaments. The ''Day of the City of Zagreb'' on 16 November is celebrated every year with special festivities, especially on the Jarun
lake in the southwestern part of the city.
Recreation and sports
Zagreb is home to numerous sports and recreational centers. Recreational Sports Center
Jarun, situated on Jarun Lake
in the southwest of the city, has fine shingle beaches, a world-class regatta
course, a jogging
lane around the lake, several restaurants, many night clubs
and a discothèque
Its sports and recreation opportunities include swimming, sunbathing, waterskiing, angling, and other water sports
, but also beach volleyball
, football, basketball, handball, table tennis, and mini-golf
, a sport centre in northern Trešnjevka
features six halls. The largest two have seating capacity of 5,000 and 3,100 people, respectively. This centre is used for basketball, handball, volleyball, hockey, gymnastics, tennis, etc. It also hosts music events.
was finished in 2008. The 16,500-seat arena hosted the 2009 World Men's Handball Championship
The Dražen Petrović Basketball Hall
seats 5,400 people. Alongside the hall is the high glass Cibona Tower
Sports Park Mladost
, situated on the embankment of the Sava river, has an Olympic-size swimming pool
, smaller indoor and outdoor swimming pool
s, a sunbathing terrace, 16 tennis
courts as well as basketball
and field hockey
A volleyball sports hall is within the park.
Sports and Recreational Center Šalata, located in Šalata
, only a couple hundred meters from the Jelačić Square
, is most attractive for tennis players. It comprises a big tennis court
and eight smaller ones, two of which are covered by the so-called "balloon", and another two equipped with lights. The center also has swimming pools, basketball courts, football fields, a gym, and fitness center, and a four-lane bowling
alley. Outdoor ice skating
is a popular winter recreation. There are also several fine restaurants within and near the center.
Maksimir Tennis Center, located in Ravnice east of downtown
, consists of two sports blocks. The first comprises a tennis center situated in a large tennis hall with four courts. There are 22 outdoor tennis courts with lights. The other block offers multipurpose sports facilities: apart from tennis courts, there are handball, basketball and indoor football
grounds, as well as track and field
facilities, a bocci ball
alley and table tennis
Recreational swimmers can enjoy a smaller-size indoor swimming pool in Daničićeva Street, and a newly opened indoor Olympic-size pool at Utrine
sports center in Novi Zagreb. Skaters can skate in the skating rink
on Trg Sportova (Sports Square) and on the lake Jarun Skaters' park. Hippodrome
Zagreb offers recreational horseback riding
opportunities, while horse races
are held every weekend during the warmer part of the year.
The 38,923-seat Maksimir Stadium
, last 10 years under renovation, is located in Maksimir
in the northeastern part of the city. The stadium is part of the immense Svetice recreational and sports complex (ŠRC Svetice), south of the Maksimir Park. The complex covers an area of . It is part of a significant Green Zone
, which passes from Medvednica Mountains
in the north toward the south. ŠRC Svetice, together with Maksimir Park, creates an ideal connection of areas which are assigned to sport, recreation, and leisure.
The latest larger recreational facility is Bundek
, a group of two small lakes near the Sava in Novi Zagreb
, surrounded by a partly forested park. The location had been used prior to the 1970s, but then went to neglect until 2006 when it was renovated.
Some of the most notable sport clubs in Zagreb are: GNK Dinamo Zagreb
, KHL Medveščak Zagreb
, RK Zagreb
, KK Cibona
, KK Zagreb
, KK Cedevita
, NK Zagreb
, HAVK Mladost
The city hosted the 2016 Davis Cup World Group
final between Croatia
The Archdiocese of Zagreb
is a metropolitan see
of the Catholic Church in Croatia
, serving as its religious center. The Archbishop is Josip Cardinal Bozanić
. The Catholic Church is the largest religious organisation in Zagreb, Catholicism being the predominant religion of Croatia, with over 1.1 million adherents.
Zagreb is also the Episcopal see
of the Metropolitanate of Zagreb and Ljubljana
of the Serbian Orthodox Church
Islamic religious organization of Croatia
has the see in Zagreb. President is Mufti Aziz Hasanović. There used to be a mosque in the Meštrović Pavilion during World War II at the Žrtava Fašizma Square, but it was relocated to the neighborhood of Borovje in Peščenica
. Mainstream Protestant churches have also been present in Zagreb – Evangelical (Lutheran) Church and Reformed Christian (Calvinist) Church. (LDS Church) is also present in the Zagreb neighborhood of Jarun
. In total there are around 40 non-Catholic religious organizations and denominations in Zagreb with their headquarters and places of worship across the city making it a large and diverse multicultural
There is also significant Jewish history through the Holocaust
Economy and infrastructure
Important branches of industry are: production of electrical machines and devices, chemical
, food and drink
processing. Zagreb is an international trade
and business centre, as well as an essential transport hub placed at the crossroads of Central Europe
, the Mediterranean
and the Southeast Europe
Almost all of the largest Croatian as well as Central European companies and conglomerates such as Agrokor
, Hrvatski Telekom
have their headquarters in the city.
The only Croatian stock exchange is the Zagreb Stock Exchange ( hr|Zagrebačka burza), which is located in Eurotower
, one of the tallest Croatian skyscrapers
According to 2008 data, the city of Zagreb has the highest PPP and nominal gross domestic product
per capita in Croatia at $32,185 and $27,271 respectively, compared to the Croatian averages of $
18,686 and $15,758.
As of May 2015, the average monthly net salary in Zagreb was 6,669 kuna
, about €
870 (Croatian average is 5,679 kuna, about €740). At the end of 2012, the average unemployment
rate in Zagreb was around 9.5%.
34% of companies in Croatia have headquarters in Zagreb, and 38.4% of the Croatian workforce works in Zagreb, including almost all banks, utility and public transport companies.
Companies in Zagreb create 52% of total turnover and 60% of total profit of Croatia in 2006 as well as 35% of Croatian export and 57% of Croatian import.
Zagreb is the hub of five major Croatian highways.
The highway A6
was upgraded in October 2008 and leads from Zagreb to Rijeka
, and forming a part of the Pan-European Corridor Vb. The upgrade coincided with the opening of the bridge over the Mura river
on the A4
and the completion of the Hungarian M7
, which marked the opening of the first freeway corridor between Rijeka
starts at the Lučko interchange
with the A6 up to the Bosiljevo 2 interchange
, connecting Zagreb and Split
). A further extension of the A1 up to Dubrovnik
is under construction. Both highways are tolled by the Croatian highway authorities Hrvatske autoceste
and Autocesta Rijeka - Zagreb
(formerly named Bratstvo i jedinstvo
) was the showpiece of Croatia in the SFRY
. It is the oldest Croatian highway.
A3 forms a part of the Pan-European Corridor X
. The highway starts at the Bregana border crossing
, bypasses Zagreb forming the southern arch of the Zagreb bypass
, and ends at Lipovac
near the Bajakovo border crossing. It continues in Southeast Europe
in the direction of Near East
. This highway is tolled except for the stretch between Bobovica and Ivanja Reka
is a part of the Corridor Xa
It connects Zagreb and the frequently congested Macelj
border crossing, forming a near-continuous motorway-level link between Zagreb and Western Europe
Forming a part of the Corridor Vb, highway A4
starts in Zagreb forming the northeastern wing of the Zagreb bypass
and leads to Hungary until the Goričan
border crossing. It is often used highway around Zagreb.
The railway and the highway A3
along the Sava
river that extend to Slavonia
(towards Slavonski Brod
) are some of the busiest traffic corridors in the country.
The railway running along the Sutla
river and the A2
) running through Zagorje
, as well as traffic connections with the Pannonian region and Hungary
railroad, the roads and railway to Varaždin
) are linked with truck routes.
The southern railway connection to Split
operates on a high-speed tilting train
s line via the Lika
region (renovated in 2004 to allow for a five-hour journey); a faster line along the Una
river valley is in use only up to the border between Croatia
and Bosnia and Herzegovina
The city has an extensive avenue
network with numerous main arteries up to ten lanes wide and Zagreb bypass
, a congested four-lane highway
encircling most of the city. Finding a parking space
is supposed to be made somewhat easier by the construction of new underground multi-story parking lot
s (Importanne Center, Importanne Gallery, Lang Square, Tuškanac, Kvaternik Square, Klaić Street, etc.). The busiest roads are the main east–west arteries, former Highway "Brotherhood and Unity"
, consisting of Ljubljanska Avenue
, Zagrebačka Avenue
and Slavonska Avenue
; and the Vukovarska Avenue, the closest bypass of the city center. The avenues were supposed to alleviate the traffic problem, but most of them are nowadays gridlocked during rush hour and others, like Branimirova Avenue and Dubrovnik Avenue which are gridlocked for the whole day. European routes E59
Zagreb has seven road traffic bridges across the river Sava
, and they all span both the river and the levee
s, making them all by and large longer than . In downstream order, these are:
There are also two rail traffic bridges across the Sava, one near the Sava bridge and one near Mičevec
, as well as two bridges that are part of the Zagreb bypass
, one near Zaprešić
(west), and the other near Ivanja Reka
Two additional bridges across the river Sava
are proposed: Jarun Bridge and Bundek Bridge.
ation in the city is organized in several layers: the inner parts of the city are mostly covered by tram
s, the outer city areas, and closer suburbs are linked with bus
es and rapid transit commuter rail
The public transportation company ZET
(''Zagrebački električni tramvaj'', Zagreb Electric Tram) operates trams, all inner bus lines, and most of the suburban bus lines, and it is subsidized by the city council.
The national rail operator Croatian Railways
(''Hrvatske željeznice'', HŽ) runs a network of urban and suburban train lines in the metropolitan Zagreb area and is a government-owned corporation
(''uspinjača'') in the historic part of the city is a tourist attraction
market has been liberalized in early 2018 and numerous transport companies have been allowed to enter the market; consequently, the prices significantly dropped whereas the service was immensely improved so the popularity of taxis in Zagreb has been increasing from then onwards.
Zagreb has an extensive tram
network with 15 day and 4 night lines covering much of the inner- and middle-suburbs of the city. The first tram line was opened on 5 September 1891 and trams have been serving as a vital component of Zagreb mass transit ever since. Trams usually travel at speeds of , but slow considerably during rush hour
. The network operates at the curb
whereas on larger avenues its tracks are situated inside the green belts.
An ambitious program, which entailed replacing old trams with the new and modern ones built mostly in Zagreb by companies Končar elektroindustrija
and, to a lesser extent, by TŽV Gredelj
, has recently been finished. The new "TMK 2200
", trams by the end of 2012 made around 95% of the fleet.
=Suburban rail network
The commuter rail network in Zagreb has existed since 1992. In 2005, suburban rail services were increased to a 15-minute frequency serving the middle and outer suburbs of Zagreb, primarily in the east–west direction and to the southern districts. This has enhanced the commuting opportunities across the city.
A new link to the nearby town of Samobor
has been announced and is due to start construction in 2014. This link will be standard-gauge
and tie in with normal Croatian Railways
operations. The previous narrow-gauge line to Samobor called ''Samoborček
'' was closed in the 1970s.
is the main Croatian international airport, a drive southeast of Zagreb in the city of Velika Gorica
. The airport is also the main Croatian airbase featuring a fighter squadron, helicopters, as well as military and freight transport aircraft
The airport had 2,77 millions of passengers in 2016 with a new passenger terminal being opened in late March 2017 that can accommodate up to 5,5 million passengers.
Zagreb also has a second, smaller airport, Lučko
. It is home to sports aeroplanes and a Croatian special police unit, as well as being a military helicopter airbase. Lučko used to be the main airport of Zagreb from 1947 to 1959.
A third, small grass airfield, Buševec, is located just outside Velika Gorica
. It is primarily used for sports purposes.
Zagreb has 136 primary
schools and 100 secondary
schools including 30 gymnasia
There are 5 public higher education
institution and 9 private professional higher education schools.
Founded in 1669, the University of Zagreb is the oldest continuously operating university in Croatia and one of the largest
and oldest universities in the Southeastern Europe. Ever since its foundation, the university has been continually growing and developing and now consists of 29 faculties, three art academies and the Croatian Studies Centre. More than 200,000 students have attained the Bachelor's degree
at the university, which has also assigned 18,000 Master's
and 8,000 Doctor's degree
, the University of Zagreb is ranked among 500 Best Universities of the world by thShanghai Academic Ranking of World Universities
Zagreb is also the seat of two private universities: the Catholic University of Croatia
and the Libertas International University; as well as numerous public and private polytechnics, colleges, and higher professional schools.
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