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Seville (; es, Sevilla,
Castilian Spanish In English, Castilian Spanish is the variety of Peninsular Spanish spoken in northern and central Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España ( ...
,
Andalusian Spanish The Andalusian dialects of Spanish (Spanish: ''andaluz'' ; Andalusian: ) are spoken in Andalusia Andalusia (, ; es, Andalucía ) is the southernmost Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community in Peninsular Spain. It is the most popu ...
(with
yeísmo ''Yeísmo'' (; literally "Y-ism") is a distinctive feature of certain languages, many dialects The term dialect (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European langu ...
)
) is the capital and largest city of the
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
autonomous community In Spain, an autonomous community ( es, comunidad autónoma) is a first-level political divisions of Spain, political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish Constitution of 1978, Spanish constitution of 1978, with the ...

autonomous community
of
Andalusia Andalusia (, ; es, Andalucía ) is the southernmost autonomous community eu, autonomia erkidegoa ca, comunitat autònoma gl, comunidade autónoma oc, comunautat autonòma an, comunidat autonoma ast, comunidá autónoma , alt_name ...
and the
province of Seville The Province of Seville ( es, Sevilla) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territorial and administrative ...
. It is situated on the lower reaches of the
River Guadalquivir
River Guadalquivir
, in the southwest of the
Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese language, Aragonese and Occitan language, Occitan: ''Peninsula Iberica'' ** ** * french: Péninsule Ibérique * mwl, Península Eibérica * eu, Iberiar penintsula also known as Iberia, is a peni ...

Iberian Peninsula
. Seville has a municipal population of about 690,000 , and a
metropolitan Metropolitan may refer to: * Metropolitan area, a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories * Metropolitan borough, a form of local government district in England * Metropolitan county, a type ...
population of about 1.5 million, making it the largest city in Andalusia, the fourth-largest city in Spain and the 26th most populous municipality in the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
. Its
old town File:Porvoon tuomiokirkko Näsinmäeltä.JPG, The Medieval, medieval timed old town of Porvoo in Finland, along the Porvoonjoki river in summer time. In a city or town, the old town is its historic or original core. Although the city is usually ...

old town
, with an area of , contains three
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous orga ...

UNESCO
World Heritage Sites A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for ha ...
: the
Alcázar palace complex
Alcázar palace complex
, the
Cathedral A cathedral is a church Church may refer to: Religion * Church (building) A church building, church house, or simply church, is a building used for Christian worship services and other Christian religious activities. The term is used ...
and the
General Archive of the Indies The Archivo General de Indias (, "General Archive of the Indies"), housed in the ancient merchants' exchange of Seville, Spain, the ''Casa Lonja de Mercaderes'', is the repository of extremely valuable archival documents illustrating the history ...
. The Seville harbour, located about from the Atlantic Ocean, is the only river port in Spain. Seville experiences high temperatures in the summer, with daily maximums routinely above in July and August. Seville was founded as the Roman city of . Known as ''Ishbiliyah'' after the
Islamic conquest The spread of Islam spans about 1,400 years. Muslim conquests following Muhammad's death led to the creation of the caliphates, occupying a vast geographical area; conversion to Islam was boosted by Arab Muslim forces conquering vast territories ...
in 711, Seville became the centre of the independent
Taifa of Seville The Taifa The ''taifas'' (singular ''taifa'', from ar, طائفة ''ṭā'ifa'', plural طوائف ''ṭawā'if'', a party, band or faction) were the independent Muslim principalities of the Iberian Peninsula (modern Portugal Portu ...
following the collapse of the
Caliphate of Córdoba A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state {{Infobox war faction , name = Islamic State , anthem = '' Dawlat al-Islam Qamat'' {{small, ("My Ummah ' ( ar, أمة ) is an Arabic Arabic (, ' ...
in the early 11th century; later it was ruled by
Almoravids The Almoravid dynasty ( ar, المرابطون, translit=Al-Murābiṭūn, lit=those from the ribats) was an imperial Berbers, Berber Muslim dynasty centered in Morocco. It established an empire in the 11th century that stretched over the west ...
and
Almohads The Almohad Caliphate (International Phonetic Alphabet, IPA: ; from ar, المُوَحِّدون, translit=al-Muwaḥḥidūn, lit=those who profess the unity of God) was a North African Berbers, Berber Muslim empire founded in the 12th century. ...

Almohads
until being incorporated to the
Crown of Castile The Crown of Castile was a medieval polity in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and, some decades later, the parliaments of the kingdoms of Kingdom of Castile, Castile and Kin ...

Crown of Castile
in 1248. Owing to its role as gateway of the
Spanish Empire The Spanish Empire ( es, link=no, Imperio Español), also known as the Hispanic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Hispánica) or the Catholic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Católica) during the Early Modern period, was a colonial empire ...

Spanish Empire
's trans-atlantic trade, managed from the Casa de Contratación, Seville became one of largest cities in Western Europe in the 16th century. Coinciding with the Baroque period, the 17th century in Seville represented the most brilliant flowering of the city's culture; then began a gradual economic and demographic decline as silting in the Guadalquivir forced the trade monopoly to relocate to the nearby port of
Cádiz Cádiz (, also , ; see more below) is a city and port in southwestern Spain. It is the capital of the Province of Cádiz, one of eight that make up the autonomous community of Andalusia Andalusia (, ; es, Andalucía ) is the southernmost ...

Cádiz
. The 20th century in Seville saw the tribulations of the
Spanish Civil War The Spanish Civil War ( es, Guerra Civil Española)) or The Revolution ( es, La Revolución) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War ( es, Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlism, Carlists, and The Rebellion ( es, La Rebelión) or Uprising ( ...

Spanish Civil War
, decisive cultural milestones such as the
Ibero-American Exposition of 1929 300px, Pavilion map The Ibero-American Exposition of 1929 (Spanish: ''Exposición iberoamericana de 1929'') was a world's fair held in Seville Seville (; es, Sevilla, Castilian Spanish , Andalusian Spanish (with yeísmo) ) is the capital and ...
and Expo '92, and the city's election as the capital of the Autonomous Community of Andalusia.


Name


Other names

''Hisbaal'' is the oldest name for Seville. It appears to have originated during the
Phoenicia Phoenicia () was an ancient Ancient history is the aggregate of past eventsWordNet Search – 3 ...
n colonisation of the
Tartessian
Tartessian
culture in south-western Iberia and it refers to the god
Baal Baal (), properly Baal,; phn, , baʿl; hbo, , baʿal, ). was a title and honorific An honorific is a title that conveys esteem, courtesy, or respect for position or rank when used in addressing or referring to a person. Sometimes, the term " ...

Baal
. According to Manuel Pellicer Catalán, the ancient name was Spal, and it meant "lowland" in the
Phoenician language Phoenician ( ) is an extinct Extinction is the termination of a kind of organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, c ...
(
cognate In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Itali ...
to the Hebrew ''
Shfela The Shfela, or Shephelah, lit. "lowlands" ( he, הַשְּפֵלָה, also , ''Shfelat Yehuda'', the "Judaean foothills"), is a transitional region of soft-sloping rolling hills (geology), rolling hills in south-central Israel stretching over 10 ...

Shfela
'' and the Arabic ''Asfal'' ). During
Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Laz ...

Roman
rule, the name was Latinised as and later as . After the
Umayyad The Umayyad Caliphate (661–750 CE; , ; ar, ٱلْخِلَافَة ٱلْأُمَوِيَّة, al-Khilāfah al-ʾUmawīyah) was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad. The caliphate was ruled by the ...
invasion, this name remained in use among the
Mozarabs , representing the Apocalypse. 10th century. The Mozarabs ( es, mozárabes ; pt, moçárabes ; ca, mossàrabs ; from ar, مستعرب, musta‘rab, lit=Arabized) is a modern historical term for the Iberian Peninsula, Iberian Christians who lived ...
, being adapted into Arabic as ''Išbīliya'' (): since the /p/
phoneme In phonology and linguistics, a phoneme is a unit of sound that distinguishes one word from another in a particular language. For example, in most List of dialects of English, dialects of English, with the notable exception of the West Midlan ...
does not exist in Arabic, it was replaced by /b/; the Latin place-name suffix ''-is'' was Arabized as ''-iya'', and ''a'' turned into ''ī'' due to the phonetic phenomenon called '' imāla''. In the meantime, the city's official name had been changed to ''Ḥimṣ al-Andalus'' (), in reference to the city of
Homs ar, حمصي, HimsiHimsi or Homsi is an Arabic locational surname, which means a person from Homs, Syria.Abu Assali, Sarah. (2012)"The Eye of the Beholder" ''Syria Today Magazine'', October 10. Retrieved on 25 January 2016. The name may refer to ...

Homs
in modern Syria, the jund of which Seville had been assigned to upon the Umayyad conquest; "Ḥimṣ al-Andalus" remained a customary and affectionate name for the city during the whole period throughout the Muslim Arab world, being referred to for example in the encyclopedia of
Yaqut al-Hamawi Yāqūt Shihāb al-Dīn ibn-'Abdullāh al-Rūmī al-Hamawī (1179–1229) ( ar, ياقوت الحموي الرومي) is famous for his great "geography", ''Mu'jam ul-Buldān'', an encyclopedia of Islam written in the late Abbāsid era and as muc ...
or in Abu al-Baqa ar-Rundi's '' Ritha' al-Andalus''. The city is sometimes referred to as the "Pearl of Andalusia". The inhabitants of the city are known as (feminine form: ) or , after the Roman name of the city.


Motto

''NO8DO'' is the official motto of Seville, popularly believed to be a
rebus A rebus () is a puzzle A puzzle is a game, Problem solving, problem, or toy that tests a person's ingenuity or knowledge. In a puzzle, the solver is expected to put pieces together in a logical way, in order to arrive at the correct or fun ...

rebus
signifying the Spanish , meaning "She evillehas not abandoned me". The phrase, pronounced with
synalepha A synalepha or synaloepha is the merging Merge, merging, or merger may refer to: Concepts * Merge (traffic), the reduction of the number of lanes on a road * Merge (linguistics), a basic syntactic operation in generative syntax in the Minima ...
as no-madeja-do, is written with an eight in the middle representing the word "skein f wool. Legend states that the title was given by King
Alfonso X Alfonso X (also known as the Wise, es, el Sabio; 23 November 1221 4 April 1284) was the king of Castile This is a list of kings and queens of the Kingdom Kingdom may refer to: Monarchy * A type of monarchy * A realm ruled by: **A king ...

Alfonso X
, who was resident in the city's
Alcázar An alcázar (; ) is a type of Moors, Moorish castle or palace in Spain and Portugal built during al-Andalus, Muslim rule although the term is also used for many medieval castles built by Reconquista, Christians on earlier Roman, Visigothic o ...

Alcázar
and supported by the citizens when his son, later
Sancho IV of Castile Sancho IV of Castile (12 May 1258 – 25 April 1295) called the Brave (''el Bravo''), was the king of Castile This is a list of kings and queens of the Kingdom Kingdom may refer to: Monarchy * A type of monarchy * A realm rul ...

Sancho IV of Castile
, tried to usurp the throne from him. The emblem is present on Seville's municipal flag, and features on city property such as manhole covers, and
Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus * lij, Cristoffa C(or)ombo * es, Cristóbal Colón * pt, Cristóvão Colombo * ca, Cristòfor (or ) * la, Christophorus Columbus. (; born between 25 August and 31 October 1451, died 20 May 1506) was an Italian ...

Christopher Columbus
's tomb in the cathedral.


History

Seville is approximately 2,200 years old. The passage of the various civilizations instrumental in its growth has left the city with a distinct personality, and a large and well-preserved historical centre.


Early periods

The mythological founder of the city is Hercules (
Heracles Heracles ( ; grc-gre, Ἡρακλῆς, , glory/fame of Hera Hera (; grc-gre, Ἥρα, Hḗrā; grc, Ἥρη, Hḗrē, label=none in Ionic Ionic or Ionian may refer to: Arts and entertainment * Ionic meter, a poetic metre in anci ...

Heracles
), commonly identified with the Phoenician god
Melqart Melqart (also Melkarth or Melicarthus) was the tutelary god of the Phoenician city-state of Tyre (Lebanon), Tyre and a major deity in the Phoenician religion, Phoenician and Punic pantheons. Often titled the "Lord of Tyre" (''Baal, Ba‘al Ṣ ...
, who the myth says sailed through the
Strait of Gibraltar The Strait of Gibraltar ( ar, مضيق جبل طارق, Maḍīq Jabal Ṭāriq; es, Estrecho de Gibraltar, Archaic Archaic is a period of time preceding a designated classical period, or something from an older period of time that is also no ...

Strait of Gibraltar
to the Atlantic, and founded trading posts at the current sites of
Cádiz Cádiz (, also , ; see more below) is a city and port in southwestern Spain. It is the capital of the Province of Cádiz, one of eight that make up the autonomous community of Andalusia Andalusia (, ; es, Andalucía ) is the southernmost ...

Cádiz
and of Seville. The original core of the city, in the neighbourhood of the present-day street, Cuesta del Rosario, dates to the 8th century BC, when Seville was on an island in the Guadalquivir. Archaeological excavations in 1999 found anthropic remains under the north wall of the Real
Alcázar An alcázar (; ) is a type of Moors, Moorish castle or palace in Spain and Portugal built during al-Andalus, Muslim rule although the term is also used for many medieval castles built by Reconquista, Christians on earlier Roman, Visigothic o ...

Alcázar
dating to the 8th–7th century BC. The town was called ''Hisbaal'' by the Phoenicians and by the Tartessians, the indigenous pre-Roman Iberian people of
Tartessos Tartessos ( el, Ταρτησσός) or Tartessus, was a semi-mythical harbor city and the surrounding culture on the south coast of the Iberian Peninsula (in modern Andalusia, Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, ...

Tartessos
, who controlled the Guadalquivir Valley at the time. The city was known from
Roman times In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman people, Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom (753 BC ...
as ''Hispal'' and later as ''Hispalis''. Hispalis developed into one of the great market and industrial centres of Hispania, while the nearby Roman city of Italica (present-day
Santiponce Santiponce is a town located in the province of Seville, Spain. According to the 2006 census A census is the procedure of systematically enumerating, and acquiring and recording information about the members of a given Statistical population, popu ...
, birthplace of the Roman emperors
Trajan Trajan ( ; la, Caesar Nerva Trajanus; 18 September 539/11 August 117) was Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the History of the Roman Empire, imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors use ...

Trajan
and
Hadrian Hadrian (; la, Caesar Traianus Hadrianus ; 24 January 76 – 10 July 138) was Roman emperor from 117 to 138. He was born into a Roman Italo-Hispanic family, which settled in Spain from the Italian city of Atri, Abruzzo, Atri in Picenum. Hi ...

Hadrian
) remained a typically Roman residential city. Large-scale Roman archaeological remains can be seen there and at the nearby town of Carmona as well. Existing Roman features in Seville itself include the remains exposed ''in situ'' in the underground Antiquarium of the
Metropol Parasol Metropol Parasol is a wooden structure located at ''La Encarnación'' square, in the old quarter of Seville Seville (; es, Sevilla, Castilian Spanish , Andalusian Spanish (with yeísmo) ) is the capital and largest city of the Spain, Spanish ...

Metropol Parasol
building, the remnants of an
aqueduct Aqueduct may refer to: Bridges *Aqueduct (bridge), a bridge to convey water over an obstacle, such as a ravine or valley *Navigable aqueduct, or water bridge, a structure to carry navigable waterway canals over other rivers, valleys, railways or r ...

aqueduct
, three pillars of a
temple A temple (from the Latin ) is a building reserved for spiritual rituals and activities such as prayer and sacrifice. Religions which erect temples include Christianity (whose temples are typically called church (building), churches), Hinduism (w ...
in ''Mármoles'' Street, the columns of La Alameda de Hércules and the remains in the Patio de Banderas square near the
Seville Cathedral The Cathedral of Saint Mary of the See ( es, Catedral de Santa María de la Sede), better known as Seville Cathedral, is a Roman Catholic Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from ...
. The walls surrounding the city were originally built during the rule of
Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened ...

Julius Caesar
, but their current course and design were the result of Moorish reconstructions. Following Roman rule, there were successive conquests of the Roman province of ''
Hispania Baetica Hispania Baetica, often abbreviated Baetica, was one of three Roman province The Roman provinces (Latin: ''provincia'', pl. ''provinciae'') were the administrative regions of Ancient Rome outside Roman Italy that were controlled by the Roma ...

Hispania Baetica
'' by the Germanic
Vandals The Vandals were a Germanic peoples, Germanic people who first inhabited what is now southern Poland. They established Vandal Kingdom, Vandal kingdoms on the Iberian Peninsula, Mediterranean islands, and North Africa in the fifth century. The ...
,
Suebi The Suebi (or Suebians, also spelled Suevi, Suavi) were a large group of Germanic peoples The Germanic peoples were a historical group of people living in Central Europe and Scandinavia. Since the 19th century, they have traditionally been d ...
and
Visigoths The Visigoths (; la, Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi) were an early Germanic people The Germanic peoples were a historical group of people living in Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between Western Europe a ...
during the 5th and 6th centuries.


Middle ages

In the wake of the
Islamic conquest of the Iberian Peninsula The Umayyad The Umayyad Caliphate (661–750 CE; , ; ar, ٱلْخِلَافَة ٱلْأُمَوِيَّة, al-Khilāfah al-ʾUmawīyah) was the second of the four major caliphate A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islami ...
, Seville (''Spalis'') was seemingly taken by
Musa ibn Nusayr Musa ibn Nusayr ( ar, موسى بن نصير ''Mūsá bin Nuṣayr''; 640 – c. 716) served as a Umayyad governor and an Arab general under the Umayyad caliph The Umayyad Caliphate (661–750 CE; , ; ar, ٱلْخِلَافَة ٱلْأُم ...
in the late Summer of 712, while he was on his way to Mérida. Yet it had to be retaken in July 713 by troops led by his son
Abd al-Aziz ibn MusaAbd al-Aziz ibn Musa ibn Nusayr ( ar, عبد العزيز بن موسى) was the first governor of Al-Andalus, in modern-day Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_c ...
, as the Visigothic population who had fled to
BejaBeja may refer to: Ethnicity *Beja people, an ethnic group in northeast Africa **Blemmyes, historical name for the people *Beja language, language spoken by the Beja people *Beja Congress, a group formed primarily of Beja opposing the government of ...
had returned to Seville once Musa left for Mérida. The seat of the
Wali A wali (''wali'' ar, وَلِيّ, '; plural , '), the Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle Eas ...
of (administrative division of the
Umayyad Caliphate The Umayyad Caliphate (661–750 CE; , ; ar, ٱلْخِلَافَة ٱلْأُمَوِيَّة, al-Khilāfah al-ʾUmawīyah) was the second of the four major caliphate A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state under ...
) was thus established in the city until 716, when the capital of Al-Andalus was relocated to Córdoba. Seville (''Ishbīliya'') was sacked by Vikings in the mid-9th century. After Vikings arrived by 25 September 844, Seville fell to invaders on 1 October, and they stood for 40 days before they fled from the city. During Umayyad rule, under an Andalusi-Arab framework, the bulk of the population were Muladi converts, to which Christian and Jewish minorities added up. Up until the arrival of the Almohads in the 12th century, the city remained as the see of a Metropolitan Archbishop, the leading Christian religious figure in al-Andalus. However, the transfer of the relics of Saint Isidore to León circa 1063, in the taifa period, already hinted at a possible worsening of the situation of the local Christian minority. A powerful ''taifa'' kingdom with capital in Seville emerged after 1023, in the wake of the
fitna of al-Andalus The Fitna of al-Andalus ( ar, فتنة الأندلس) (1009–1031) was a period of instability and civil war that preceded the ultimate collapse of the Caliphate of Córdoba A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic stat ...
. Ruled by the
Abbadid dynasty The Abbadid dynasty or Abbadids ( ar, بنو عباد, Banū ʿAbbād) was an Arab The Arabs (singular Arab ; singular ar, عَرَبِيٌّ, ISO 233: , Arabic pronunciation: , plural ar, عَرَبٌ, ISO 233: , Arabic pronunciation: ) are ...
, the taifa grew by aggregation of smaller neighbouring ''taifas''. During the taifa period, Seville became an important scholarly and literary centre. After several months of siege, Seville was conquered by the
Almoravids The Almoravid dynasty ( ar, المرابطون, translit=Al-Murābiṭūn, lit=those from the ribats) was an imperial Berbers, Berber Muslim dynasty centered in Morocco. It established an empire in the 11th century that stretched over the west ...
in 1091. The city fell to the
Almohads The Almohad Caliphate (International Phonetic Alphabet, IPA: ; from ar, المُوَحِّدون, translit=al-Muwaḥḥidūn, lit=those who profess the unity of God) was a North African Berbers, Berber Muslim empire founded in the 12th century. ...

Almohads
on 17 January 1147 (12 Shaʽban 541). After an informal Almohad settlement in Seville during the early stages of the Almohad presence in the Iberian Peninsula and then a brief relocation of the capital of al-Andalus to Córdoba in 1162 (which had dire consequences for Seville, reportedly depopulated and under starvation), Seville became the definitive seat of the Andalusi part of the Almohad Empire in 1163, a twin capital alongside
Marrakech Marrakesh or Marrakech ( or ; ar, مراكش, murrākuš; ber, ⴰⵎⵓⵔⴰⴽⵓⵛ, amurakuš) is the fourth largest city in the Kingdom of Morocco ) , image_map = Morocco (orthographic projection, WS claimed).svg , map_caption = Lo ...

Marrakech
. Almohads carried out a large urban renewal. By the end of the 12th century, the walled enclosure perhaps contained 80,000 inhabitants. In the wider context of the Castilian–Leonese conquest of the Guadalquivir Valley that ensued in the 13th century, laid siege on Seville in 1247. A
naval blockade A navy, naval force, or maritime force is the branch of a Nation's armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typically officially ...
came to prevent relief of the city. The city surrendered on 23 November 1248, after fifteen months of siege. The conditions of capitulation contemplated the eviction of the population, with contemporary sources seemingly confirming that a mass movement of people out of Seville indeed took place. The city's development continued after the
Castilian Castilian or Castillian may refer to: * Castile (historical region), Castile, a historic region of Spain ** Castilian people, an ethnic group from Castile ** Spanish language, often known in Spain as the ''Castilian language'', a Romance language ...

Castilian
conquest in 1248. Public buildings were constructed including churches—many of which were built in the ''
Mudéjar Mudéjar (, also , , ; ca, mudèjar ; from ar, مدجن, mudajjan, subjugated; tamed; domesticated) refers to the group of Muslims who remained in Iberia in the Late Middle Ages, late medieval period despite the Reconquista, Christian reconques ...
'' and
Gothic Gothic or Gothics may refer to: People and languages *Goths or Gothic people, the ethnonym of a group of East Germanic tribes **Gothic language, an extinct East Germanic language spoken by the Goths **Crimean Gothic, the Gothic language spoken by ...
styles—such as the
Seville Cathedral The Cathedral of Saint Mary of the See ( es, Catedral de Santa María de la Sede), better known as Seville Cathedral, is a Roman Catholic Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from ...
, built during the 15th century with
Gothic architecture Gothic architecture (or pointed architecture) is an architectural style An architectural style is a set of characteristics and features that make a building or other structure notable or historically identifiable. It is a sub-class of sty ...
. Other Moorish buildings were converted into Catholic edifices, as was customary of the Catholic Church during the Reconquista. The Moors' Palace became the Castilian royal residence, and during Pedro I's rule it was replaced by the
Alcázar An alcázar (; ) is a type of Moors, Moorish castle or palace in Spain and Portugal built during al-Andalus, Muslim rule although the term is also used for many medieval castles built by Reconquista, Christians on earlier Roman, Visigothic o ...

Alcázar
(the upper levels are still used by the
Spanish royal family#REDIRECT Spanish royal family The House of Borbón-Anjou, or simply House of Borbón ( es, Casa de Borbón), is the reigning royal house of the Kingdom of Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = ...
as the official Seville residence). After the 1391
pogrom A pogrom is a violent riot Rioters wearing scarves to conceal their identity and filter tear gas A riot () is a form of civil disorder Civil disorder, also known as civil disturbance, civil unrest, or social unrest is an activity arising ...
, believed to having been instigated by the Archdeacon Ferrant Martínez, all the synagogues in Seville were converted to churches (renamed Santa María la Blanca, San Bartolomé, Santa Cruz, and Convento Madre de Dios). The Jewish quarter's land and shops (which were located in modern-day Barrio Santa Cruz) were appropriated by the church. Many were killed during the pogrom, although most were B'nei Anusim, forced to convert. The first tribunal of the Spanish Inquisition was instituted in Seville in 1478. Its primary charge was to ensure that all nominal Christians were really behaving like Christians, and not practicing what Judaism they could in secret. At first, the activity of the Inquisition was limited to the dioceses of Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Seville, Seville and Roman Catholic Diocese of Córdoba, Córdoba, where the Dominican friar, Alonso de Ojeda, had detected converso activity. Description of Dominican friar who agitated for the Spanish Inquisition. The first Auto-da-fé, Auto de Fé took place in Seville on 6 February 1481, when six people were burned alive. Alonso de Ojeda himself gave the sermon. The Inquisition then grew rapidly. The Plaza de San Francisco was the site of the 'autos de fé'. By 1492, tribunals existed in eight Castilian cities: Ávila, Córdoba, Jaén, Medina del Campo, Segovia, Sigüenza, Toledo, and Valladolid; and by the Alhambra Decree all Jews were anusim, forced to convert to Catholicism or be exiled (expelled) from Spain.Levine Melammed, Renee. "Women in Medieval Jewish Societies." ''Women and Judaism: New Insights and Scholarship''. Ed. Frederick E. Greenspahn. New York: New York University Press, 2009. 105–106.


Early Modern Period

Following the Voyages of Christopher Columbus, Columbian exploration of the New World, Seville was chosen as headquarters of the Casa de Contratación in 1503, which was the decisive development for Seville becoming the port and gateway to the Indies. Unlike other harbours, reaching the port of Seville required sailing about up the River Guadalquivir. The choice of Seville was made in spite of the difficulties for navigation in the Guadalquivir stemming from the increasing tonnage of ships as a result of the relentless drive to make maritime transport cheaper during the late Middle Ages. Nevertheless, technical suitability issues notwithstanding, the choice was still reasonable in the sense that Seville had become the largest demographic, economic and financial centre of Christian Andalusia in the late Middle Ages. A 'golden age of development' commenced in Seville, due to its being the only port awarded the royal monopoly for trade with the growing Spanish colonization of the Americas, Spanish colonies in the Americas and the influx of riches from them. Since only Winds in the Age of Sail, sailing ships leaving from and returning to the inland port of Seville could engage in trade with the Spanish Americas, merchants from Europe and other trade centres needed to go to Seville to acquire New World trade goods. The city's population grew to more than a hundred thousand people. In the late 16th century the monopoly was broken, with the port of
Cádiz Cádiz (, also , ; see more below) is a city and port in southwestern Spain. It is the capital of the Province of Cádiz, one of eight that make up the autonomous community of Andalusia Andalusia (, ; es, Andalucía ) is the southernmost ...

Cádiz
also authorised as a port of trade. Throughout the 17th century, colonial trade declined. Spain's American Colonies improved their production of basic goods, reducing their need to import. Compounded with these tribulations was the Siltation, silting of the Guadalquivir river in the 1620s, which made Seville's harbors harder to use, and ceased upriver shipping. The Great Plague of Seville in 1649, exacerbated by excessive flooding of the Guadalquivir, reduced the population by almost half, and it would not recover until the early 19th century. By the 18th century, Seville's international importance was in decline. After the silting up of the harbour by the River Guadalquivir, upriver shipping ceased and the city went into relative economic decline. The writer Miguel de Cervantes lived primarily in Seville between 1596 and 1600. Because of financial problems, Cervantes worked as a purveyor for the Spanish Armada, and later as a tax collector. In 1597, discrepancies in his accounts of the three years previous landed him in the Royal Prison of Seville for a short time. His short story ''Rinconete y Cortadillo'', since the 19th century one of his most-read pieces, includes much description of Sevillian society; it features two young vagabonds who come to Seville, attracted by the riches and disorder that the 16th-century commerce with the Americas had brought to the city. During the 18th century Charles III of Spain promoted Seville's industries. Construction of the ''Real Fábrica de Tabacos'' (Royal Tobacco Factory) began in 1728. It was the second-largest building in Spain, after the royal residence El Escorial. Since the 1950s it has been the seat of the rectorate (administration) of the University of Seville, as well as its Schools of Law, Philology (language/letters), Geography, and History. More operas have been set in Seville than in any other city of Europe. In 2012, a study of experts concluded the total number of operas set in Seville is 153. Among the composers who fell in love with the city are Beethoven (''Fidelio''), Mozart (''The Marriage of Figaro and Don Giovanni''), Rossini (''The Barber of Seville''), Donizetti (''La favorite''), and Bizet (''Carmen''). The first newspaper in Spain outside of Madrid was Seville's ''Hebdomario útil de Seville'', which began publication in 1758.


Late Modern History

Between 1825 and 1833, Melchor Cano acted as chief architect in Seville; most of the urban planning policy and architectural modifications of the city were made by him and his collaborator Jose Manuel Arjona y Cuba. Industrial architecture surviving today from the first half of the 19th century includes the ceramics factory installed in the Carthusian monastery at La Cartuja in 1841 by the Pickman family, and now home to the El Centro Andaluz de Arte Contemporáneo (CAAC), which manages the collections of the Museo de Arte Contemporáneo de Sevilla. It also houses the rectory of the UNIA. In the years that Queen Isabella II of Spain, Isabel II ruled directly, about 1843–1868, the Sevillian bourgeoisie invested in a construction boom unmatched in the city's history. The Puente de Isabel II, Isabel II bridge, better known as the Triana bridge, dates from this period; street lighting was expanded in the municipality and most of the streets were paved during this time as well.Diego A. Cardoso Bueno: ''Sevilla. El Casco Antiguo. Historia, Arte y Urbanismo''. Ediciones Guadalquivir (2006). . Consultado el 24 March 2010 By the second half of the 19th century, Seville had begun an expansion supported by railway construction and the demolition of part of its ancient walls, allowing the urban space of the city to grow eastward and southward. The ''Sevillana de Electricidad'' Company was created in 1894 to provide electric power throughout the municipality, and in 1901 the ''Plaza de Armas'' railway station was inaugurated. The Museum of Fine Arts ''(Museo de Bellas Artes de Sevilla)'' opened in 1904. In 1929 the city hosted the Ibero-American Exposition of 1929, Ibero-American Exposition, which accelerated the southern expansion of the city and created new public spaces such as the Plaza de España, Seville, Plaza de España and the Maria Luisa Park. Not long before the opening, the Spanish government began a modernisation of the city in order to prepare for the expected crowds by erecting new hotels and widening the mediaeval streets to allow for the movement of automobiles. Seville fell very quickly at the beginning of the
Spanish Civil War The Spanish Civil War ( es, Guerra Civil Española)) or The Revolution ( es, La Revolución) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War ( es, Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlism, Carlists, and The Rebellion ( es, La Rebelión) or Uprising ( ...

Spanish Civil War
in 1936. General Queipo de Llano carried out a coup within the city, quickly capturing the city centre.''The Spanish Civil War'', Hugh Thomas, Penguin, 1961, p. 221–3, Radio Seville opposed the uprising and called for the peasants to come to the city for arms, while workers' groups established barricades. Queipo then moved to capture Radio Seville, which he used to broadcast propaganda on behalf of the Francoist forces. After the initial takeover of the city, resistance continued among residents of the working-class neighbourhoods for some time, until a series of fierce reprisals took place. Under Francisco Franco's rule Spain was officially neutral in World War II (although it did collaborate with the Axis powers), and like the rest of the country, Seville remained largely economically and culturally isolated from the outside world. In 1953 the shipyard of Seville was opened, eventually employing more than 2,000 workers in the 1970s. Before the existence of wetlands regulation in the Guadalquivir basin, Seville suffered regular heavy flooding; perhaps worst of all were the floods that occurred in November 1961 when the River Tamarguillo, a tributary of the Guadalquivir, overflowed as a result of a prodigious downpour of rain, and Seville was consequently declared a disaster zone. Trade unionism in Seville began during the 1960s with the underground organisational activities of the Workers' Commissions or Comisiones Obreras (CCOO), in factories such as Hytasa, the Astilleros shipyards, Hispano Aviación, etc. Several of the movement's leaders were imprisoned in November 1973.


Recent developments

On 3 April 1979 Spain held its first democratic municipal elections after the end of Franco's dictatorship; councillors representing four different political parties were elected in Seville. On 5 November 1982, Pope John Paul II arrived in Seville to officiate at a Mass before more than half a million people at the fairgrounds. He visited the city again on 13 June 1993, for the International Eucharistic Congress. In 1992, coinciding with the fifth centenary of the Voyages of Christopher Columbus, Discovery of the Americas, the Seville Expo '92, Universal Exposition was held for six months in Seville, on the occasion of which the local communications network and urban infrastructure was greatly improved under a 1987 PGOU plan launched by Mayor Manuel del Valle: the SE-30 ring road around the city was completed and new highways were constructed; the new Seville-Santa Justa railway station had opened in 1991, while the Spanish High-Speed Rail system, the ''Alta Velocidad Española'' (AVE), began to operate between Madrid-Seville. The Seville Airport was expanded with a new terminal building designed by the architect Rafael Moneo, and various other improvements were made. The Puente del Alamillo, Alamillo Bridge and the Centenario Bridge, both crossing over the Guadalquivir, also were built for the occasion. Some of the installations remaining at the site after the exposition were converted into the Scientific and Technological Park Cartuja 93. In 2004 the
Metropol Parasol Metropol Parasol is a wooden structure located at ''La Encarnación'' square, in the old quarter of Seville Seville (; es, Sevilla, Castilian Spanish , Andalusian Spanish (with yeísmo) ) is the capital and largest city of the Spain, Spanish ...

Metropol Parasol
project, commonly known as ''Las Setas'' (''The Mushrooms''), due to the appearance of the structure, was launched to revitalise the Plaza de la Encarnación, for years used as a car park and seen as a dead spot between more popular tourist destinations in the city. The Metropol Parasol was completed in March 2011, costing just over €102 million in total, more than twice as much as originally planned. Constructed from crossed wooden beams, ''Las Setas'' is said to be the largest timber-framed structure in the world.


Geography


Location

Seville has an area of , according to the National Topographic Map ''(Mapa Topográfico Nacional)'' series from the ''Instituto Geográfico Nacional – Centro Nacional de Información Geográfica'', the country's civilian survey organisation (pages 984, 985 and 1002). The city is situated in the fertile valley of the River Guadalquivir. The average height Above mean sea level, above sea level is . Most of the city is on the east side of the river, while Triana, Seville, Triana, La Cartuja, Seville, La Cartuja and Los Remedios, Seville, Los Remedios are on the west side. The Albaida del Aljarafe, Aljarafe region lies further west, and is considered part of the metropolitan area. The city has boundaries on the north with La Rinconada, La Algaba and
Santiponce Santiponce is a town located in the province of Seville, Spain. According to the 2006 census A census is the procedure of systematically enumerating, and acquiring and recording information about the members of a given Statistical population, popu ...
; on the east with Alcalá de Guadaira; on the south with Dos Hermanas and Gelves and on the west with San Juan de Aznalfarache, Tomares and Camas, Seville, Camas. Seville is on the same 37th parallel north, parallel as United States west coast city San Jose, California, San Jose in central California. São Miguel Island, São Miguel, the main island of the Azores archipelago, lies on the same latitude. Further east from Seville in the Mediterranean Basin, it is on the same latitude as Catania in Sicily, Italy and just south of Athens, the capital of Greece. Beyond that, it is located on the same parallel as South Korean capital, Seoul. Seville is located inland, not very far from the Andalusian coast, but still sees a much more continental climate than the nearest port cities,
Cádiz Cádiz (, also , ; see more below) is a city and port in southwestern Spain. It is the capital of the Province of Cádiz, one of eight that make up the autonomous community of Andalusia Andalusia (, ; es, Andalucía ) is the southernmost ...

Cádiz
and Huelva. Its distance from the sea makes summers in Sevilla much hotter than along the coastline.


Climate

Seville has a Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification ''Csa''), featuring very hot, dry summers and mild winters with moderate rainfall. Like most Mediterranean climates, Seville is drier during summers and wetter during winters. The annual average temperature is during the day and at night. Summer is the dominant season and lasts from May to October. With an annual average of Seville is the warmest city in Spain. After the city of Córdoba, Andalusia, Córdoba (also in Andalusia), Seville has the hottest summer in continental Europe among all cities with a population over 100,000 people, with average daily highs of in July. Average daily lows in July are and every year the temperature exceeds on several occasions. The coldest temperature extreme of was registered by the weather station at Seville Airport on 12 February 1956. A historical record high (disputed) of was recorded on 4 August 1881, according to the NOAA Satellite and Information Service. There is an unaccredited record by the National Institute of Meteorology of on 1 August during the 2003 European heat wave, 2003 heat wave, according to a weather station (83910 LEZL) located in the southern part of Seville Airport, near the abandoned military zone. This temperature would be one of the highest ever recorded in Spain. The average sunshine hours in Seville are approximately 3000 per year. Snowfall is virtually unknown, and the last important snowfall occurred in 1954. Since the year 1500, only 10 snowfalls have been recorded/reported in Seville. During the 20th century, Seville registered just 2 snowfalls, being the last one on 2 February 1954. * Winters are mild: January is the coolest month, with average maximum temperatures of and minimum of . * Precipitation (meteorology), Precipitation varies from per year, with frequent torrential rain. December is the wettest month, with an average rainfall of . On average there are 50.5 days of rain.


Government


Municipal government and administration

Seville is a Municipalities of Spain, municipality, the basic level of local government in Spain. The Ayuntamiento (Spain), Ayuntamiento is the body charged with the municipal government and administration. The Plenary of the ''ayuntamiento'' is formed by 31 elected municipal councillors, who in turn invest the Alcalde, mayor. The 2019 Seville City Council election, last municipal election took place on 26 May 2019. The current mayor is Juan Espadas (Spanish Socialist Workers' Party), who has held the post since 2015.


Regional and provincial capital

Seville is the capital of the autonomous community of
Andalusia Andalusia (, ; es, Andalucía ) is the southernmost autonomous community eu, autonomia erkidegoa ca, comunitat autònoma gl, comunidade autónoma oc, comunautat autonòma an, comunidat autonoma ast, comunidá autónoma , alt_name ...
, according to Article 4 of the Statute of Autonomy of Andalusia of 2007, and is the capital of the Province of Seville as well. The historical building of the Palace of San Telmo is now the seat of the presidency of the Andalusian Autonomous Government. The administrative headquarters are in Torre Triana, in La Cartuja, Seville, La Cartuja. The Hospital de las Cinco Llagas (literally, "Hospital of the Five Holy Wounds") is the current seat of the Parliament of Andalusia.


Districts and neighbourhoods

The municipal administration is decentralized into 11 districts, further divided into 108 neighbourhoods. * Casco Antiguo * Distrito Sur * Triana, Seville, Triana * Macarena, Seville, Macarena * Nervión, Seville, Nervión * Los Remedios, Seville, Los Remedios * Este-Alcosa-Torreblanca * Cerro-Amate * Bellavista-La Palmera * San Pablo-Santa Justa


Main sights

Seville is a big tourist centre in Spain. In 2018, there were over 2.5 million travellers and tourists who stayed at a tourist accommodation, placing it third in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona. The city has an overall low level of seasonality, so there are tourists year-round. There are many landmarks, museums, parks, gardens and other kinds of tourist spots around the city so there is something for everyone. The
Alcázar An alcázar (; ) is a type of Moors, Moorish castle or palace in Spain and Portugal built during al-Andalus, Muslim rule although the term is also used for many medieval castles built by Reconquista, Christians on earlier Roman, Visigothic o ...

Alcázar
, the
Cathedral A cathedral is a church Church may refer to: Religion * Church (building) A church building, church house, or simply church, is a building used for Christian worship services and other Christian religious activities. The term is used ...
, and the ''Archivo General de Indias'' (General Archive of the Indies) are UNESCO World Heritage Sites.


Landmarks

The Seville Cathedral, St. Mary of the See Cathedral was built from 1401 to 1519 after the ''Reconquista'' on the former site of the city's mosque. It is among the largest of all medieval and
Gothic Gothic or Gothics may refer to: People and languages *Goths or Gothic people, the ethnonym of a group of East Germanic tribes **Gothic language, an extinct East Germanic language spoken by the Goths **Crimean Gothic, the Gothic language spoken by ...
cathedrals, in terms of both area and volume. The interior is the longest nave in Spain and is lavishly decorated, with a large quantity of gold evident. La Giralda is a tower attached to the Cathedral that dates back to the twelfth century. It was originally built as part of a mosque when the Moors ruled in Spain and was later added onto by the Christians. Tourists today can climb the tower by walking up a series of ramps that were previously used by officials who rode their horses to the top of the tower. The overall tower construction is consistent with Roman lighthouse construction methods such as with the Tower of Hercules (circa 2nd century CE) built on the northwest coast of Spain. La Giralda gets its name from the weathervane attached to the very top of it, as "gira" means "turning one" in the Spanish language. The ''
Alcázar An alcázar (; ) is a type of Moors, Moorish castle or palace in Spain and Portugal built during al-Andalus, Muslim rule although the term is also used for many medieval castles built by Reconquista, Christians on earlier Roman, Visigothic o ...

Alcázar
'' facing the cathedral was developed from a previous Moorish Palace which was developed from a Visigoth establishment which was itself developed from an existing Roman construction. The redevelopment was started in 1181 and continued for over 500 years, mainly in the
Mudéjar Mudéjar (, also , , ; ca, mudèjar ; from ar, مدجن, mudajjan, subjugated; tamed; domesticated) refers to the group of Muslims who remained in Iberia in the Late Middle Ages, late medieval period despite the Reconquista, Christian reconques ...
style, but also in the Renaissance style. The TV show Game of Thrones has shot many scenes at this location. The ''Torre del Oro'' was built as a watchtower and defensive barrier on the river. The river was used as a mode of defense. A chain was strung through the water from the base of the tower to prevent boats from traveling into the river port. The Casa consistorial de Sevilla, City Hall was built in the 16th century in high Plateresque style by master architect Diego de Riaño. The façade to Plaza Nueva was built in the 19th century in Neoclassical architecture, Neoclassical style. The Palacio de San Telmo, formerly the University of Sailors, and later the Seminary, is now the seat for the Andalusian Autonomous Government. It is one of the most emblematic buildings of baroque architecture, mainly to its world-renowned churrigueresque principal façade and the impressive chapel. The Royal Tobacco Factory is housed on the original site of the first tobacco factory in Europe, a vast 18th-century building in Baroque style and the purported inspiration for the opera ''Carmen''. The ''
Metropol Parasol Metropol Parasol is a wooden structure located at ''La Encarnación'' square, in the old quarter of Seville Seville (; es, Sevilla, Castilian Spanish , Andalusian Spanish (with yeísmo) ) is the capital and largest city of the Spain, Spanish ...

Metropol Parasol
'', in La Encarnación square, is the world's largest wooden structure. A monumental umbrella-like building designed by the German architect Jürgen Mayer (architect), Jürgen Mayer, finished in 2011. This modern architecture structure houses the central market and an underground archaeological complex. The terrace roof is a city viewpoint. The General Archive of the Indies, is the repository of extremely valuable archival documents illustrating the history of the Spanish Empire in the Americas and the Philippines. The building itself, an unusually serene and Italianate example of Spanish Renaissance architecture, was designed by Juan de Herrera. The ''Plaza de España (Seville), Plaza de España'' in the ''Parque de María Luisa'' (María Luisa Park) was built by the architect Aníbal González for the 1929 Ibero-American Exposition of 1929, Exposición Ibero-Americana. It is an outstanding example of Regionalist Revival Architecture, a bizarre and loftily conceived mixture of diverse historic styles, such as Art Deco and lavishly ornamented with typical glazed tiles. The Moorish urban influences continued and are present in contemporary Seville, for instance in the custom of decorating with plants and small fountains in the courtyards of the houses. However, most buildings of the Moorish aesthetic actually belong to the
Mudéjar Mudéjar (, also , , ; ca, mudèjar ; from ar, مدجن, mudajjan, subjugated; tamed; domesticated) refers to the group of Muslims who remained in Iberia in the Late Middle Ages, late medieval period despite the Reconquista, Christian reconques ...
style of Islamic art, developed under Christian rule and inspired by the Arabic style. Original Moorish architecture, Moorish buildings are the ''Patio del Yeso'' in the
Alcázar An alcázar (; ) is a type of Moors, Moorish castle or palace in Spain and Portugal built during al-Andalus, Muslim rule although the term is also used for many medieval castles built by Reconquista, Christians on earlier Roman, Visigothic o ...

Alcázar
, the city walls, and the main section of the Giralda, the bell tower of the
Seville Cathedral The Cathedral of Saint Mary of the See ( es, Catedral de Santa María de la Sede), better known as Seville Cathedral, is a Roman Catholic Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from ...
. The neighbourhood of ''Triana, Seville, Triana'', situated on the west bank of the River Guadalquivir, had an important role in the history of the city and constitutes by itself a folk, monumental and cultural centre. On the other hand, ''Macarena, Seville, La Macarena'' neighbourhood is located on the northern side of the city centre. It contains some important monuments and religious buildings, such as the Museum and Catholic Church of ''La Macarena'' or the ''Hospital de las Cinco Llagas''.


Museums

The most important art collection of Seville is the Museum of Fine Arts of Seville. It was established in 1835 in the former Convent of ''La Merced''. It holds many masterworks by Bartolomé Esteban Murillo, Murillo, Francisco Pacheco, Pacheco, Zurbarán, Valdés Leal, and others masters of the Baroque Sevillian School, containing also Flemish paintings of the 15th and 16th centuries. Other museums in Seville are: * The Archeological Museum of Seville, Archaeological Museum, which contains collections from the ,
Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Laz ...

Roman
and some of Almohad and Christian periods, located in ''América'' square at the ''Parque de María Luisa'' (María Luisa Park). * The Museum of Arts and Traditions of Sevilla, Museum of Arts and Traditions, also in América Square, in front of the Archaeological Museum. * The Monastery of Santa Maria de las Cuevas, Andalusian Contemporary Art Centre, situated in the neighbourhood of La Cartuja, Seville, La Cartuja. * The Naval Museum, housed in the golden Torre del Oro, next to the River Guadalquivir. * The Carriages Museum, in the Los Remedios neighbourhood. * The Flamenco Art Museum * The Bullfighting Museum, in the Plaza de toros de la Real Maestranza de Caballería de Sevilla, La Maestranza bullring * The Palace of the Countess of Lebrija, a private collection that contains many of the mosaic floors discovered in the nearby Roman town of Italica. * The ''Centro Velázquez'' (Velázquez Centre) located at the Old Priests Hospital in the touristic Santa Cruz, Seville, Santa Cruz neighbourhood. * The ''Antiquarium'' in
Metropol Parasol Metropol Parasol is a wooden structure located at ''La Encarnación'' square, in the old quarter of Seville Seville (; es, Sevilla, Castilian Spanish , Andalusian Spanish (with yeísmo) ) is the capital and largest city of the Spain, Spanish ...

Metropol Parasol
, an underground museum which is composed of the most important archaeological site of the ancient Roman stage of Seville and remains preserved. * The ''Castle of San Jorge, Castillo de San Jorge'' (Castle of St. George) is situated near the Triana market, next to the Isabel II bridge. It was the last seat for the Spanish Inquisition. * The Macarena, Seville#Monuments and landmarks, Museum and Treasure of ''La Macarena'', where the collection of the Hermandad de la Esperanza Macarena (Seville), Macarena brotherhood is exhibited. This exhibition gives visitors an accurate impression of Seville's Holy Week in Seville, Holy Week. * ''La Casa de la Ciencia'' (The House of Science), a science centre and museum opposite the María Luisa Park. * Museum of Pottery in Triana. * ''Pabellon de la Navegación'' (Pavilion of Navigation).


Parks and gardens

* The ''Parque de María Luisa'' (María Luisa Park), is a monumental park built for the 1929 World's Fair held in Seville, the Ibero-American Exposition of 1929, Exposición Ibero-Americana. The so-called ''Jardines de las Delicias'' (literally, Delighting Gardens), closer to the river, are part of the ''Parque de María Luisa''. * The Alcázar Gardens, within the grounds of the ''
Alcázar An alcázar (; ) is a type of Moors, Moorish castle or palace in Spain and Portugal built during al-Andalus, Muslim rule although the term is also used for many medieval castles built by Reconquista, Christians on earlier Roman, Visigothic o ...

Alcázar
'' palace, consist of several sectors developed in different historical styles. * The Gardens of Murillo and the Gardens of Catalina de Ribera, both along and outside the South wall of the Alcázar, lie next to the ''Santa Cruz'' quarter. * The ''Parque del Alamillo y San Jerónimo'', the largest park in Andalusia, was originally built for Seville Expo '92 to reproduce the Andalusian native flora. It lines both Guadalquivir shores around the ''San Jerónimo'' meander. The 32-metres-high bronze sculpture, ''Birth of a New Man, The Birth of a New Man'' (popularly known as Columbus's Egg, ''el Huevo de Colón''), by the Georgian sculptor Zurab Tsereteli, is located in its northwestern sector. * The American Garden, also completed for Expo '92, is in La Cartuja. It is a public botanical garden, with a representative collection of American plants donated by different countries on the occasion of the world exposition. Despite its extraordinary botanical value, it remains a mostly abandoned place.


Culture


Theaters

The Lope de Vega Theatre (Seville), Teatro Lope de Vega is located on Avenida de María Luisa avenue (next to ''Parque de María Luisa''). It was built in 1929, being its architect Vicente Traver y Tomás. It was the auditorium of the pavilion of the city in the Ibero-American Exhibition. This pavilion had a large room that became the Casino of the Exhibition. The theater occupied an area of 4600 m2 and could accommodate 1100 viewers. Its architecture is Spanish Baroque architecture, Spanish Baroque Revival, being the building faithful to this style both in the set and in its ornamentation. It has hosted varied performances, including theater, dance, opera, jazz, and flamenco and nowadays the most outstanding of the panorama is its programming national and international, becoming one of the most important theaters in Spain. Others important theatres are Teatro de la Maestranza, Auditorio Rocío Jurado and Teatro Central. Seville also has a corral de comedias theatre, which is the Corral del Coliseo, now used as a residential building.


Festivals

There are many entertainment options around the city of Seville and one of its biggest attractions is the numerous festivals that happen around the year. Some of the festivals concentrate on religion and culture, others focus on the folklore of the area, traditions, and entertainment.


Bienal de Flamenco

Seville is home to the bi-annual flamenco festival La Bienal, which claims to be "the biggest flamenco event worldwide" and lasts for nearly a month.


Velá de Santiago y Santa Ana

In the district of Triana, the Velá de Santiago y Santa Ana is held every July and includes sporting events, performances, and cultural activities as the city honors St. James and St. Ana.


Holy Week in Seville

Semana Santa is celebrated all over Spain and Latin America, but the celebration in Seville is large and well known as a Fiesta of International Tourist Interest. 54 local brotherhoods, or "cofradías", organize floats and processions throughout the week, reenacting the story of the Passion of Christ. There is traditional music and art incorporated into the processions, making Semana Santa an important source of both material and immaterial Sevillian cultural identity.


Feria de Abril

The April Fair (''Feria de Abril'') is a huge celebration that takes place in Seville about two weeks after the Holy Week. It was previously associated with celebrating livestock; however, nowadays its purpose is to create a fun cheerful environment tied to the appreciation of the Spanish folklore. During the Feria, families, businesses, and organisations set up ''casetas'' (Tent#Marquees and larger tents, marquees) in which they spend the week dancing, drinking, and socialising. Traditionally, women wear elaborate flamenco dresses and men dress in their best suits. The marquees are set up on a permanent fairground in the district of Los Remedios, in which each street is named after a famous bullfighter.


Salón Náutico Internacional de Sevilla

The International Boat Show of Seville is an annual event that takes place in the only indoor maritime port of the country, which is one of the most important in Europe.


Music

Seville had a vibrant rock music scene in the 1970s and 1980s with bands like Triana (band), Triana, Alameda (band), Alameda and Smash (British band), Smash, who fused Andalusia's traditional flamenco music with British-style progressive rock. The punk rock group Reincidentes and indie band Sr Chinarro, as well as singer Kiko Veneno, rose to prominence in the early 1990s. The city's music scene now features rap acts such as SFDK (band), SFDK, Mala Rodríguez, Dareysteel, Tote King, Dogma Crew, Bisley DeMarra, :es:Haze (MC), Haze and Jesuly. Seville's diverse music scene is reflected in the variety of its club-centred nightlife. The city is also home to many theatres and performance spaces where classical music is performed, including Teatro Lope de Vega, Seville, Teatro Lope de Vega, Teatro La Maestranza, Teatro Central, the Real Alcazar Gardens and the Sala Joaquín Turina. Despite its name, the sevillana dance, commonly presented as flamenco, is not thought to be of Sevillan origin. However, the folksongs called ''sevillanas'' are authentically Sevillan, as is the four-part dance performed with them.


Flamenco

The Triana, Seville, Triana district in Seville is considered a birthplace of flamenco, where it found its beginning as an expression of the poor and marginalized. Seville's Gypsy population, known as Flamencos, were instrumental in the development of the art form. While it began as and remains a representation of Andalusian culture, it has also become a national heritage symbol of Spain. There are more flamenco artists in Seville than anywhere else in the country, supporting an entire industry surrounding it and drawing in a significant amount of tourism for the city.


Gastronomy

The ''tapas'' scene is one of the main cultural attractions of the city: people go from one bar to another, enjoying small dishes called tapas (literally "lids" or "covers" in Spanish, referring to their probable origin as snacks served on small plates used to cover drinks). Local specialities include fried and grilled seafood (including squid, ''choco'' (cuttlefish), swordfish, marinated Squalidae, dogfish, and ''Snakelocks anemone#Gastronomy, ortiguillas''), grilled and stewed meat, spinach with chickpeas, ''Jamón ibérico'', lamb kidneys in sherry sauce, Land snail#Snails as human food, snails, ''puchero, caldo de puchero'', and ''gazpacho''. A sandwich known as a ''serranito'' is the typical and popular version of fast food. Typical desserts from Seville include ''pestiños'', a honey-coated sweet fritter; ''torrijas'', fried slices of bread with honey; ''roscos fritos'', deep-fried sugar-coated ring doughnuts; ''magdalenas'' or fairy cakes; ''yemas de San Leandro'', which provide the city's convents with a source of revenue; and ''tortas de aceite'', a thin sugar-coated cake made with olive oil. ''Polvorones'' and ''mantecados'' are traditional Christmas products, whereas ''pestiños'' and ''torrijas'' are typically consumed during the Holy Week in Seville, Holy Week. Bitter Seville oranges grow on trees lining the city streets. Large quantities are collected and exported to Britain to be used in marmalade. Locally, the fruit is used predominantly in aromatherapy, herbal medicine, and dietary diet products, rather than as a foodstuff. According to legend, the Arabs brought the bitter orange to Seville from East Asia via Iraq around the 10th century to beautify and perfume their patios and gardens, as well as to provide shade. The flowers of the tree are a source of neroli oil, commonly used in perfumery and in skin lotions for massage. In 2021, the municipal water company, Emasesa, began a pilot scheme to use the methane produced as the fruit ferments to generate clean electricity. The company plans to use 35 tonnes of fruit to generate clean energy to power one of the city's water purification plants.


Economy

Seville is the most populated city in southern Spain, and has the largest GDP (gross domestic product) of any in Andalusia, accounting for one-quarter of its total GDP. All municipalities in the metropolitan area depend directly or indirectly on Seville's economy, while agriculture dominates the economy of the smaller villages, with some industrial activity localised in industrial parks. The ''Diputacion de Sevilla'' (Deputation of Seville), with provincial headquarters in the Antiguo Cuartel de Caballería (Old Cavalry Barracks) on Avenida Menendez Pelayo, provides public services to distant villages that they can not provide themselves. The economic activity of Seville cannot be detached from the geographical and urban context of the city; the capital of Andalusia is the centre of a growing metropolitan area. Aside from traditional neighbourhoods such as Santa Cruz, Seville, Santa Cruz, Triana and others, those further away from the centre, such as Nervión, Seville, Nervión, Sevilla Este, and El Porvenir have seen recent economic growth. Until the economic crisis of 2007, this urban area saw significant population growth and the development of new industrial and commercial parks. During this period, availability of infrastructure in the city contributed to the growth of an economy dominated by the service sector, but in which industry still holds a considerable place.


Infrastructure

The 1990s saw massive growth in investment in infrastructure in Seville, largely due to its hosting of the Seville Expo '92, Universal Exposition of Seville in 1992. This economic development of the city and its urban area is supported by good transportation links to other Spanish cities, including a high-speed AVE railway connection to Madrid, and a new international San Pablo Airport, airport. Seville has the only inland port in Spain, located from the mouth of the River Guadalquivir. This harbour complex offers access to the Atlantic and the Mediterranean and allows trade in goods between the south of Spain (Andalusia, Extremadura) and Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. The port has undergone reorganisation. Annual tonnage rose to 5.3 million tonnes of goods in 2006. Cartuja 93 is a research and development park. employing 15,000 persons. The ''Parque Tecnológico y Aeronáutico Aerópolis'' (Technological and Aeronautical Park) is focused on the aircraft industry. Outside of Seville are nine PS20 solar power towers which use the city's sunny weather to provide most of it with clean and renewable energy. The Sevilla Tower skyscraper was started in March 2008 and was completed in 2015. With a height of and 40 Storey, floors, it's the tallest building in
Andalusia Andalusia (, ; es, Andalucía ) is the southernmost autonomous community eu, autonomia erkidegoa ca, comunitat autònoma gl, comunidade autónoma oc, comunautat autonòma an, comunidat autonoma ast, comunidá autónoma , alt_name ...
. Seville has conference facilities, including the FIBES Conference and Exhibition Centre, Conference and Convention Centre.


Research and development

The ''Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas en Sevilla'' (CSIC) is based in the former Pavilion of Peru, Seville, Pavilion of Peru in the Maria Luisa Park. In April 2008 the city council of Seville provided a grant to renovate the building to create the ''La Casa de la Ciencia, Casa de la Ciencia'' (Science Centre) to encourage popular interest in science. The internationally recognised company ''Neocodex'' has its headquarters in Seville; it maintains the first and largest DNA bank in Spain and has made significant contributions to scientific research in genetics. Seville is also considered an important technological and research centre for renewable energy and the aeronautics industry. The output of the research centres in Sevillan universities working in tandem with city government, and the numerous local technology companies, have made Seville a leader among Spanish cities in technological research and development. The ''Parque Científico Tecnológico Cartuja 93'' is a nexus of private and public investment in various fields of research. Principal fields of innovation and research are telecommunications, new technologies, biotechnology (with applications in local agricultural practices), environment and renewable energy.


Transport


Bus

Seville is served by the TUSSA
(Transportes Urbanos de Sevilla)
transit bus, bus network which runs buses throughout the city. The Consorcio de Transportes de Sevilla communicates by bus with all the satellite towns of Seville. Two bus stations serve transportation between surrounding areas and other cities: ''Plaza de Armas'' Station, with destinations north and west, and ''Prado de San Sebastián'' Station, covering routes to the south and east. ''Plaza de Armas'' station has direct bus lines to many Spanish cities as well as Lisbon, Portugal.


Metro

The Seville metro ("Metro de Sevilla" in Spanish) is a light metro network serving the city of Seville and its metropolitan area. The system is totally independent of any other rail or street traffic. All stations were built with platform screen doors. It was the sixth Metro system to be built in Spain, after those in Madrid Metro, Madrid, Barcelona Metro, Barcelona, Valencia Metro (Spain), Valencia, Metro Bilbao, Bilbao and Palma de Mallorca Metro, Palma de Mallorca. Currently, it is the fifth-biggest Metro company in Spain by the number of passengers carried (more than 12,000,000 in 2009). The metro of Sevilla has 1 line with 22 stations and is currently expanding, with 3 more different lines projected.


Tram

MetroCentro (Seville), MetroCentro is a surface tramway serving the centre of the city. It began operating in October 2007. The service has just five stops: Plaza Nueva, Archivo de Indias, Puerta de Jerez, Prado de San Sebastián and San Bernardo, all as part of ''Phase I'' of the project. It is expected to be extended to Santa Justa Alta Velocidad Española, AVE station, including four new stops: San Francisco Javier, Eduardo Dato, Luis de Morales, and Santa Justa. This extension was postponed although the City Council had made expanding the metro lines a priority.


Train

The Seville-Santa Justa railway station is served by the AVE high-speed rail system, operated by the Spanish state-owned rail company Renfe. A five-line commuter rail service (''Cercanías Sevilla, Cercanías'') joins the city with the Metropolitan area. Seville is on the Red Ciudades AVE, a net created with Seville connected to 17 major cities of Spain with high-speed rail. Although Seville is close to the Portuguese city of Faro, Portugal, Faro, it is not possible to cross the border by train.


Bicycle

The Sevici community bicycle program has integrated bicycles into the public transport network. Bicycles are available for hire around the city at low cost, and green curb-raised bicycle lanes can be seen on most major streets. The number of people using bicycles as a means of transport in Seville has increased substantially in recent years, multiplying tenfold from 2006 to 2011. , an estimated 9 percent of all mechanized trips in the city (and 5.6 percent of all trips including those on foot) are made by bicycle. The city council signed a contract with the multinational corporation JCDecaux, an outdoor advertising company. The public bicycle rental system is financed by a local advertising operator in return for the city signing over a 10-year licence to exploit citywide billboards. The overall scheme is called Cyclocity by JCDecaux, but each city's system is branded under an individual name.


Airport

The San Pablo Airport is the main airport for Seville and is
Andalusia Andalusia (, ; es, Andalucía ) is the southernmost autonomous community eu, autonomia erkidegoa ca, comunitat autònoma gl, comunidade autónoma oc, comunautat autonòma an, comunidat autonoma ast, comunidá autónoma , alt_name ...
's second busiest airport, after Pablo Ruiz Picasso International Airport, Málaga's, and first in cargo. The airport handled 7,544,357 passengers and just under 9,891 tonnes of cargo in 2019. It has one Airport terminal, terminal and one runway. It is one of many bases for the Spanish low-cost carrier Vueling Airlines, Vueling, and from November 2010 Ryanair based aircraft at the airport.. In addition, Ryanair opened its first aircraft maintenance facility in Spain at Seville Airport in 2019. This enabled low-cost direct flights to several Spanish cities, as well as to the neighbor country of Portugal with weekly flights to Porto and to other European cities.


Port

Seville is the only commercial river port in Spain and the only inland city in the country where cruise ships can arrive in the historical centre. On 21 August 2012, the Muelle de las Delicias, controlled by the Port Authority of Seville, hosted the cruise ship Azamara Journey for two days, the largest ship ever to visit the town. This vessel belongs to the shipping company Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd., Royal Caribbean and can accommodate up to 700 passengers.


Roads

Seville has one ring road, the SE-30, which connects with the dual carriageway of the south, the A-4, that directly communicates the city with
Cádiz Cádiz (, also , ; see more below) is a city and port in southwestern Spain. It is the capital of the Province of Cádiz, one of eight that make up the autonomous community of Andalusia Andalusia (, ; es, Andalucía ) is the southernmost ...

Cádiz
, Córdoba, Andalusia, Cordoba and Madrid. Also there is another dual carriageway, the A-92, linking the city with Osuna, Antequera, Granada, Guadix and Almeria. The A-49 links Seville with Huelva and the Algarve in the south of Portugal.


Public transportation statistics

The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Sevilla, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 34 min. 7% of public transit riders, ride for more than two hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is eight minutes, while 15% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is , while 7% travel for over in a single direction.


Education

Seville is home to three public universities. The University of Seville (US), founded in 1505; as of 2019, it had 72,000 students. The Pablo de Olavide University (UPO), founded in 1997, with 9,152 students in 2019; and the International University of Andalusia (UNIA), founded in 1994. The US and the UPO are important centres of learning in Western Andalusia as they offer a wide range of academic courses; consequently, the city has a large number of students from Province of Huelva, Huelva and Province of Cádiz, Cádiz. Additionally, there is the School of Hispanic American Studies, founded in 1942, the Menéndez Pelayo International University, based in Santander, Cantabria, Santander, which operates branch campuses in Seville, and Loyola University Andalusia. ;International primary and secondary schools * Lycée Français de Séville (French school) * Deutsche Schule Sevilla (German school) * St. George's British School of Seville Seville is also home to many international schools and colleges that cater to American students who come to study abroad.


Sport

Seville is the hometown of two rival association football teams: Real Betis Balompié and Sevilla FC, Sevilla Fútbol Club, both teams play in La Liga. Both teams have only won the league once each: Betis in 1935 and Sevilla in 1946. Only Sevilla has won European competitions, winning consecutive UEFA Cup finals in 2006 UEFA Cup Final, 2006 and 2007 UEFA Cup Final, 2007 and the UEFA Europa League in 2014 UEFA Europa League Final, 2014, 2015 UEFA Europa League Final, 2015, 2016 UEFA Europa League Final, 2016 and 2020 UEFA Europa League Final, 2020. The Estadio Ramón Sánchez Pizjuán, Ramón Sánchez Pizjuán and Estadio Benito Villamarín, Benito Villamarín, stadiums of Sevilla and Betis respectively, were a venue during the 1982 FIFA World Cup. Also Sevilla's stadium hosted the 1986 European Cup Final and the multi-purpose stadium built in 1999 Estadio de La Cartuja, La Cartuja, was the venue for the 2003 UEFA Cup Final. Seville has an ACB League basketball club, the Real Betis Baloncesto. Seville has hosted both IAAF World Indoor Championships, indoor (1991 IAAF World Indoor Championships, 1991) and IAAF World Championships in Athletics, outdoor (1999 World Championships in Athletics, 1999) World Championships in athletics, while housed the tennis Davis Cup final in 2004 Davis Cup, 2004 and 2011 Davis Cup, 2011. The city unsuccessfully bid for the Bids for the 2004 Summer Olympics, 2004 and Bids for the 2008 Summer Olympics, 2008 Summer Olympics, for which the 60,000-seat Estadio de La Cartuja was designed to stage. Seville's River Guadalquivir is one of only three International Rowing Federation, FISA approved international training centres for rowing (sport), rowing and the only one in Spain; the 2002 World Rowing Championships and the 2013 European Rowing Championships were held there.


Other sights

File:Séville - Remparts almohades.JPG, Walls of Seville, Seville Walls File:PARROQUIA OMNIUM SANCTORUM.JPG, Iglesia de Omnium Sanctorum (1249) (Gothic-Mudéjar) File:Iglesia de San Marcos 001.jpg, Iglesia de San Marcos (14th century) File:Iglesia de Santa Catalina 001.jpg, Iglesia de Santa Catalina (14th century) File:Spain Andalusia Seville BW 2015-10-23 13-04-37.jpg, Seville Cathedral File:Iglesia de San Pedro, Sevilla 001.jpg, Iglesia de San Pedro (between 14th and 18th centuries) File:Iglesia de San Luis, Sevilla. Retablos.jpg, Iglesia de San Luis de los Franceses (1699-1730) File:Parroquia_del_Divino_Salvador_Sevilla_2.jpg, Iglesia del Salvador (1679-1712) File:Real_Maestranza_main_entrance_Seville_Spain.jpg, Maestranza (Seville), Plaza de Toros de la Real Maestranza File:Spain Andalusia Seville BW 2015-10-23 14-27-54.jpg, General Archive of the Indies File:Casa de los Pinelo. Zaguán.jpg, Casa de los Pinelo (16th century) in the Santa Cruz, Seville, Jewish Quarter File:Palacio Arzobispal de Sevilla.JPG, Archbishop's Palace, Seville, Archbishop's palace File:Canal de Alfonso XIII Torre del Oro Sevilla.jpg, River Guadalquivir over the city of Seville File:Tumba de Colon-Sevilla.jpg, The tomb of Christopher Columbus, inside the Cathedral of Seville File:Puerta_de_la_Macarena_(1).jpg, Puerta de la Macarena (Seville), Puerta de la Macarena and Basílica de la Macarena File:Altozano_Triana_Sevilla_2.jpg, Plaza del Altozano in the Triana, Seville, Triana district File:Diana Cazadora, Sevilla.jpg, Ancient Roman in the Archeological Museum of Seville, Museo Arqueológico de Sevilla File:SevillaBarrioDeSantaCruz01.jpg, Street in the Santa Cruz, Seville, Jewish Quarter File:Sevilla_Old_Town_Square_(25573993).jpeg, Spires of the Hospital de Nuestra Señora de la Paz (16th century) File:Monasterio de Santa María de las Cuevas, Sevilla. Fachada.jpg, Monastery of Santa Maria de las Cuevas, Carthusian Monastery (Cartuja) of Seville File:Plaza de España Sevilla abril 2015 (1).jpg, Plaza de España, Seville File:Sevilla_Monumental.jpg, Plaza del Triunfo


In fiction

* The picaresque novel ''Rinconete y Cortadillo'' by Miguel de Cervantes takes place in the city of Seville. * The novel ''La Femme et le pantin'' (''The Woman and the Puppet'') (1898) by Pierre Louÿs, adapted for film several times, is set mainly in Seville. * Seville is the setting for the legend of Don Juan (inspired by the real aristocrat Don Miguel de Mañara) on the Paseo Alcalde Marqués de Contadero. * Seville is the primary setting of many operas, the best known of which are Georges Bizet, Bizet's ''Carmen'' (based on Prosper Mérimée, Mérimée's Carmen (novella), novella), Gioachino Rossini, Rossini's ''The Barber of Seville'', Giuseppe Verdi, Verdi's ''La forza del destino'', Ludwig van Beethoven, Beethoven's ''Fidelio'', Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Mozart's ''Don Giovanni'' and ''The Marriage of Figaro'', and Prokofiev's ''Betrothal in a Monastery''. * Seville is the setting of the novel ''The Seville Communion'' by Arturo Pérez-Reverte. * Seville is both the location and setting for much of the 1985 ''Doctor Who'' television serial "The Two Doctors". * Seville is also used as one of the locations in Dan Brown's ''Digital Fortress''. * Seville is one of the settings in Jostein Gaarder's book ''The Orange Girl'' (''Appelsinpiken''). * Seville is the hometown of the two main characters in the 2000 film ''The Road to El Dorado'' by DreamWorks Pictures, DreamWorks. Miguel and Tulio are con artists that stow away on a ship bound for the New World and win a map for the fabled lost city of gold, El Dorado, and are invariably seen as gods by the locals. * Arthur Koestler's book ''Spanish Testament'' is based on the writer's experiences while held in the Seville prison, under a sentence of death, during the
Spanish Civil War The Spanish Civil War ( es, Guerra Civil Española)) or The Revolution ( es, La Revolución) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War ( es, Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlism, Carlists, and The Rebellion ( es, La Rebelión) or Uprising ( ...

Spanish Civil War
. * Robert Wilson (crime novelist), Robert Wilson's police novel ''The Hidden Assassins'' (2006) concerns a terrorist incident in Seville and the political context thereof, with much local colour. * The ''Plaza de España, Seville, Plaza de España'' in the ''Parque de María Luisa'' appears in George Lucas' ''Star Wars: Episode II – Attack of the Clones'', in ''The Dictator (2012 film), The Dictator'', starring Sacha Baron Cohen, as the palace of the dictator ''Aladeen'', and in ''Lawrence of Arabia (film), Lawrence of Arabia'' as the British Army headquarters in Cairo, while the courtyard was the Hotel Alfonso XIII, King Alfonso XIII Hotel. * The ''Plaza of the Americas'' also appeared in ''Lawrence'', substituting for Jerusalem, and in Anthony Mann's ''El Cid''. It also appears as the Palace of Vladek Sheybal's Bashaw in ''The Wind and the Lion'' (1975). * The
Alcázar An alcázar (; ) is a type of Moors, Moorish castle or palace in Spain and Portugal built during al-Andalus, Muslim rule although the term is also used for many medieval castles built by Reconquista, Christians on earlier Roman, Visigothic o ...

Alcázar
and other sites appear in the television series ''Game of Thrones'', in the cities of Dorne. * In the 2016 film ''Assassin's Creed (film), Assassin's Creed'', Master Assassins Aguilar de Nerha and Maria escape execution and are pursued by Templars through the city, eventually performing Leaps of Faith off of an unfinished Seville Cathedral to escape. *In ''Mission: Impossible 2'', Ethan Hunt is sent to Seville to recruit Nyah Nordoff-Hall.


In travel writing

* ''The Tomb in Seville'' by Norman Lewis (author), Norman Lewis.


Twin towns – sister cities

Seville is twin towns and sister cities, twinned with the following cities: * Angers (France), 1989. * Barcelona (Spain), 1987. * Buenos Aires (Argentina), 1976.
Hermanamientos con Latinoamérica
'' (102,91 kB). [29-9-2008]
* Columbus, Ohio (United States), 1988. * Córdoba (Spain), 1908. * Guadalajara (Mexico), 1984. * Havana (Cuba), 2007. * Kansas City, Missouri (United States), 1969. The relationship between Seville and Kansas City is due to a small replica of the Giralda tower, Sevilla's cathedral belltower, that exists in Kansas City. * Laredo, Cantabria, Laredo (Spain), 2017. *
Marrakech Marrakesh or Marrakech ( or ; ar, مراكش, murrākuš; ber, ⴰⵎⵓⵔⴰⴽⵓⵛ, amurakuš) is the fourth largest city in the Kingdom of Morocco ) , image_map = Morocco (orthographic projection, WS claimed).svg , map_caption = Lo ...

Marrakech
(Morocco), 2017. * Medina de Rioseco (Spain), 2016. * San Salvador (El Salvador), 2018. * Sevilla la Nueva (Spain). ;Partnerships * Kraków (Poland), 2002.


Titles

Seville has been given titles by Spanish monarchs and heads of state throughout its history. * Very Noble, by King Ferdinand III of Castile after his reconquest of the city. * Very Loyal, by King Alfonso X of Castile for supporting him against a rebellion. See also the Motto "NO8DO". * Very Heroic, by King Ferdinand VII of Spain by Royal Document on 13 October 1817 for support against the French invasion. * Invictus (Invincible in Latin language, Latin), by Queen Isabella II of Spain for the city's resistance against General Van Halen's asedium and bombing in 1843. * Mariana, by General Francisco Franco in 1946 for the city's devotion to the Virgin Mary.


Notable people

* Maria Antonietta of Spain, ''Queen consort of Sardinia'' (1729–1785) * Al-Mu'tamid ibn Abbad Poet and Arabic king of Sevilla 1040-1095 * Physician Ibn Zuhr, Avenzoar * The family of the Arabic historian and sociologist Ibn Khaldun * 13th-century poet Ibn Sahl of Seville * Renaissance composer Cristóbal de Morales, Francisco Guerrero (composer), Francisco Guerrero * 16th-century novelist Mateo Alemán * Playwrights Lope de Rueda and Hermanos Alvarez Quintero * Historian of New Spain Bartolomé de Las Casas * Colonial governor of La Florida and Cuba: Laureano de Torres y Ayala * Colonial governor of La Florida: Pablo de Hita y Salazar * Baroque painters Diego Velázquez, Valdés Leal and Bartolomé Esteban Murillo * Explorer and astronomer Antonio de Ulloa * Renaissance poets Fernando de Herrera and Gutierre de Cetina * Notable Costumbrista painter liked to depict the 19th century society of Seville and its buildings José Jiménez Aranda * Romantic poet Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer * Bullfighters Juan Belmonte, Curro Romero, Ignacio Sánchez Mejías, Emilio Muñoz and José Gómez Ortega * Second Spanish Republic Prime Minister Diego Martínez Barrio, Diego Martinez, communist politician José Díaz (politician), José Díaz and Carlist politician Manuel Fal Conde, Manuel Fal. * 20th-century poets: ** Vicente Aleixandre (Nobel Prize for Literature, Nobel Laureate) ** Antonio Machado, Antonio and Manuel Machado y Ruiz, Manuel Machado ** Luis Cernuda ** Jose Julio Cabanillas Serrano continuing in the 21st–century * Composer Joaquín Turina * Cartoonist William Haselden * Actors Juan Diego (actor), Juan Diego, Paco León * Actresses Soledad Miranda, Verónica Sánchez, Carmen Sevilla, Paz Vega, Azucena Hernández * Models **Teresa Sánchez López who won the title of Miss National in the Miss Spain contest 1984 and, representing Spain, was close to the crown of Miss Universe in 1985 (1st runner up). **Eva Maria González beauty queen and model who was Miss España 2003 (representing Andalusia) * Singers Isabel Pantoja, Juanita Reina, Lole y Manuel, Paquita Rico, El Caracol (singer), El Caracol, Falete, Pastora Soler, and Mala Rodríguez * Comedian Manuel Summers * Navy officer Miguel Buiza Fernández-Palacios who became Captain General of the Spanish Republican Navy * Association footballers José Antonio Reyes, Fernando Muñoz, Fernando "Nando" Muñoz, Ricardo Serna, Sergio Ramos, Jesús Navas, Antonio Puerta, Carlos Marchena, Capi (footballer, born 1977), Jesús Capitán "Capi" * Olympic swimmer Fátima Madrid * Politicians Felipe González, President of the Government of Spain from 1982 to 1996, and Alfonso Guerra, vice-president from 1982 to 1991 * Maria Pages, dancer * Jairo Barrull Fernández, Spanish Gypsy flamenco dancer *El Risitas, humorist *Crime Manuel Delgado Villegas, serial killer *Drag queen Carmen Farala, winner of the Drag Race España (season 1), first season of Drag Race España


See also

* Cadillac Seville, a car that was named after the city * Azulejo * Isla Mágica * Seville Public Library * Seville Statement on Violence


References

*


External links


Seville in the Official Website of Tourism in Spain

Official website of the city council.

Postal Codes in Seville
{{Authority control Seville, Archaeological sites in Spain Municipalities of the Province of Seville Port cities and towns on the Spanish Atlantic coast Province of Seville Roman sites in Spain