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Nice (, ; ; Nissard oc, Niça, classical norm, or ', nonstandard, ; it, Nizza ; el, Νίκαια; la, Nicaea) is the seventh most populous urban area in
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metropolitan France and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of Fr ...
and the capital of the
Alpes-Maritimes Alpes-Maritimes (; oc, Aups Maritims; it, Alpi Marittime, "Maritime Alps") is a department of France located in the extreme southeast corner of the country, on the border with Italy and on the Mediterranean coast. Part of the Provence-Alpes-Côte ...
department. The metropolitan area of Nice extends beyond the administrative city limits, with a population of nearly 1 millionDemographia: World Urban Areas
Demographia.com, April 2016
Comparateur de territoire: Unité urbaine de Nice (06701)
INSEE, retrieved 10 September 2020
on an area of . Located in the
French Riviera The French Riviera (known in French as the ; oc, Còsta d'Azur ; literal translation "Azure Coast") is the Mediterranean coastline of the southeast corner of France. There is no official boundary, but it is usually considered to extend from Ca ...
, on the south east coast of France on the
Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa, and on the east ...
, at the foot of the
Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe, stretching approximately across eight Alpine countries (from west to east): France, Switzerland ...

Alps
, Nice is the second-largest French city on the Mediterranean coast and the second-largest city in the
Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur (; oci, Provença-Aups-Còsta d'Azur, ; commonly shortened to PACA; also known as Région Sud) is one of the eighteen administrative regions of France, the far southeastern on the mainland. Its prefecture and largest cit ...
region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment (environmental geography). Geographic reg ...
after
Marseille Marseille ( , also spelled in English as ''Marseilles''; , ; oc, Marselha ) is the prefecture of the department of Bouches-du-Rhône and region of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur in France. It is located on the coast of the Gulf of Lion, part of th ...
. Nice is approximately from the
principality A principality (or sometimes princedom) can either be a monarchical feudatory or a sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a regnant-monarch with the title of prince and/or princess, or by a monarch with another title considered to fall under ...
of
Monaco Monaco (; ), officially the Principality of Monaco (french: Principauté de Monaco), is a sovereign city-state and microstate on the French Riviera close to the Italian region of Liguria, in Western Europe. Bordered by France to the north, east ...
and from the French-Italian border. Nice's airport serves as a gateway to the region. The city is nicknamed ''Nice la Belle'' (''
Nissa La Bella "Nissa la Bella" (Nice the Beautiful) is the unofficial anthem of the city of Nice, France. It is written in Niçard, a dialect of Occitan that is the original language of the city. It was written by Menica Rondelly in 1903, first under the title of ...
'' in Niçard), which means ''Nice the Beautiful'', which is also the title of the unofficial anthem of Nice, written by
Menica Rondelly Menica Rondelly (6 January 1854, Nice Nice (, ; ; Nissard oc, Niça, classical norm, or ', nonstandard, ; it, Nizza ; el, Νίκαια; la, Nicaea) is the seventh most populous urban area in France and the capital of the Alpes-Maritimes depart ...
in 1912. The area of today's Nice contains Terra Amata, an archaeological site which displays evidence of a very early use of fire 380,000 years ago. Around 350 BC, Greeks of Marseille founded a permanent settlement and called it Nikaia, after ''
Nike Nike often refers to: * Nike (mythology), a Greek goddess who personifies victory * Nike, Inc., a major American marketer of athletic shoes, apparel, and sports equipment Nike may also refer to: People * Nike (name), a surname and feminine given n ...
'', the goddess of victory. Through the ages, the town has changed hands many times. Its strategic location and port significantly contributed to its maritime strength. For centuries it was a dominion of
Savoy Savoy (; frp, Savouè ; french: Savoie ; it, Savoia ; pms, Savòja ; ) is a cultural-historical region in the Western Alps. Situated on the cultural boundary between Franco-Provençal, Occitan and Piedmontese, the area is now divided by the Fr ...
, and was then part of France between 1792 and 1815, when it was returned to the
Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia The Kingdom of Sardinia,The name of the state was originally Latin: , or when the kingdom was still considered to include Corsica. In Italian it is , in French , in Sardinian , and in Piedmontese . also referred to as Kingdom of Savoy-Sardinia ...
until its re-annexation by France in 1860. The natural environment of the Nice area and its mild Mediterranean climate came to the attention of the English upper classes in the second half of the 18th century, when an increasing number of aristocratic families took to spending their winters there. In 1931 following its refurbishment the city's main seaside promenade, the
Promenade des Anglais View from the ''Château'' hill The ''Promenade des Anglais'' (; Niçard: ''Camin dei Anglés''; literally: ''Walkway of the English'') is a promenade along the Mediterranean at Nice, France. It extends from the airport on the west to the Quai d ...
("Walkway of the English") was inaugurated by
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn (Arthur William Patrick Albert; 1 May 185016 January 1942), was the seventh child and third son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. He served as the Governor General of Canada, the tenth since Canad ...

Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
, and owes its name to visitors to the resort. These included
Queen Victoria Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death in 1901. Known as the Victorian era, her reign of 63 years and seven months was lo ...

Queen Victoria
along with her son
Edward VII Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death in 1910. The eldest son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert ...
who spent winters there, and Nice born
Henry Cavendish Henry Cavendish FRS (; 10 October 1731 – 24 February 1810) was an English natural philosopher, scientist, and an important experimental and theoretical chemist and physicist. He is noted for his discovery of hydrogen, which he termed "inflammab ...
, who discovered hydrogen. The clear air and soft light have particularly appealed to notable painters, such as
Marc Chagall Marc Chagall; russian: Марк Заха́рович Шага́л ; be, Марк Захаравіч Шагал . (born Moishe Shagal; 28 March 1985) was a Russian-French artist of Belarusian Jewish origin. An early modernist, he was associated wi ...
,
Henri Matisse Henri Émile Benoît Matisse (; 31 December 1869 – 3 November 1954) was a French artist, known for both his use of colour and his fluid and original draughtsmanship. He was a draughtsman, printmaker, and sculptor, but is known primarily as a p ...
,
Niki de Saint Phalle#REDIRECT Niki de Saint Phalle {{R from other capitalisation ...
and
Arman Arman (November 17, 1928 – October 22, 2005) was a French-born American artist. Born Armand Fernandez in Nice, France, Arman was a painter who moved from using objects for the ink or paint traces they leave ("cachet", "allures d'objet") to using ...
. Their work is commemorated in many of the city's museums, including Musée Marc Chagall, Musée Matisse and Musée des Beaux-Arts. International writers have also been attracted and inspired by the city.
Frank Harris Frank Harris (14 February 1855 – 26 August 1931) was an Irish-American editor, novelist, short story writer, journalist and publisher, who was friendly with many well-known figures of his day. Born in Ireland, he emigrated to the United States ...
wrote several books including his autobiography ''
My Life and Loves ''My Life and Loves'' is the autobiography of the Ireland-born, naturalized-American writer and editor Frank Harris (1856–1931). As published privately by Harris between 1922 and 1927, and by Jack Kahane's Obelisk Press in 1931, the work consis ...
'' in Nice.
Friedrich Nietzsche Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (; or ; 15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, writer, and philologist whose work has exerted a profound influence on modern intellectual history.Wilkerson, Dal ...
spent six consecutive winters in Nice, and wrote ''
Thus Spoke Zarathustra ''Thus Spoke Zarathustra: A Book for All and None'' (german: Also sprach Zarathustra: Ein Buch für Alle und Keinen, also translated as ''Thus Spake Zarathustra'') is a philosophical novel by German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, composed in fou ...
'' here. Additionally, Russian writer
Anton Chekhov Anton Pavlovich Chekhov ( rus, links=no, Антон Павлович ЧеховIn Chekhov's day, his name was written Антонъ Павловичъ Чеховъ. See, for instanceАнтонъ Павловичъ Чеховъ. 1898. ''Мужик ...
completed his play '' Three Sisters'' while living in Nice. Nice's appeal extended to the Russian upper classes, Prince Nicholas Alexandrovich, heir apparent to
Imperial Russia The Russian Empire, . was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the Februar ...
died in Nice and was a patron of the Russian Orthodox Cemetery, Nice where Catherine Dolgorukov, Princess Catherine Dolgorukova, Morganatic marriage, morganatic wife of the Tsar Alexander II of Russia, is buried. As are Dmitry Shcherbachev, General Dmitry Shcherbachev and Nikolai Yudenich, General Nikolai Yudenich leaders of the anti-Communist White movement, White Movement. Those interred in Nice at the Cimetière du Château, include celebrated jeweler Alfred Van Cleef, Emil Jellinek-Mercedes, founder of the Mercedes car company, film director Louis Feuillade, poet Agathe-Sophie Sasserno, dancer Carolina Otero, ''Asterix'' comics creator René Goscinny, ''The Phantom of the Opera'' author Gaston Leroux, French prime minister Léon Gambetta, and the first president of the International Court of Justice José Gustavo Guerrero. Nice has the second largest hotel capacity in the country and it is one of its most visited cities, receiving 4 million tourists every year. It also has the third busiest Nice Côte d'Azur Airport, airport in France, after the two main Parisian ones. It is the historical capital city of the County of Nice (''Comté de Nice'').


History


Foundation

The first known hominid settlements in the Nice area date back about 400,000 years; the '' Terra Amata'' archeological site shows one of the earliest uses of fire, construction of houses, and flint findings dated to around 230,000 years ago. Nice was probably founded around 350 BC by colonists from the Greek city of Phocaea in western Anatolia, and was given the name of ''Nikaia'' (Νίκαια) in honour of a victory over the neighbouring Ligures, Ligurians (Italic peoples in north west of Italy, probably the Vediantii kingdom);
Nike Nike often refers to: * Nike (mythology), a Greek goddess who personifies victory * Nike, Inc., a major American marketer of athletic shoes, apparel, and sports equipment Nike may also refer to: People * Nike (name), a surname and feminine given n ...
(Νίκη) was the Greek mythology, Greek goddess of victory. The city soon became one of the busiest trading ports on the Ligurian coast; but it had an important rival in the Roman town of Cemenelum, which continued to exist as a separate city until the time of the Lombards, Lombard invasions. The ruins of Cemenelum are in Cimiez, now a district of Nice.


Early development

In the 7th century, Nice joined the Genoa, Genoese League formed by the towns of Liguria. In 729 the city repulsed the Saracens; but in 859 and again in 880 the Saracens pillaged and burned it, and for most of the 10th century remained masters of the surrounding country. During the Middle Ages, Nice participated in the wars and history of Italy. As an ally of Pisa it was the enemy of Genoa, and both the King of France and the Holy Roman Empire, Holy Roman Emperor endeavoured to subjugate it; but in spite of this it maintained its municipal liberties. During the 13th and 14th centuries the city fell more than once into the hands of the Counts of Provence, but it regained its independence even though related to Genoa. The medieval city walls surrounded the Old Town. The landward side was protected by the River Paillon, which was later covered over and is now the tram route towards the Acropolis. The east side of the town was protected by fortifications on Castle of Nice#Castle Hill, Castle Hill. Another river flowed into the port on the east side of Castle Hill. Engravings suggest that the port area was also defended by walls. Under Monoprix in Place de Garibaldi are excavated remains of a well-defended city gate on the main road from Turin.


Nice and Savoy

In 1388, the commune placed itself under the protection of the County of Savoy, Counts of Savoy. Nice participated – directly or indirectly – in the history of Savoy until 1860. The maritime strength of Nice now rapidly increased until it was able to cope with the Barbary pirates; the fortifications were largely extended and the roads to the city improved. In 1561 Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy abolished the use of Latin as an administrative language and established the Italian language as the official language of government affairs in Nice. During the struggle between Francis I of France, Francis I and Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V great damage was caused by the passage of the armies invading Provence; infectious disease, pestilence and famine raged in the city for several years. In 1538, in the nearby town of Villeneuve-Loubet, through the mediation of Pope Paul III, the two monarchs concluded a Truce of Nice, ten years' truce. In 1543, Nice was attacked by the united Franco-Ottoman alliance, Franco-Ottoman forces of Francis I and Hayreddin Barbarossa, Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha, in the Siege of Nice; though the inhabitants repulsed the assault which followed the terrible bombardment, they were ultimately compelled to surrender, and Barbarossa was allowed to pillage the city and to carry off 2,500 captives. Pestilence appeared again in 1550 and 1580. In 1600, Nice was briefly taken by the House of Guise, Duke of Guise. By opening the ports of the county to all nations, and proclaiming full freedom of trade (1626), the commerce of the city was given great stimulus, the noble families taking part in its mercantile enterprises. Captured by Nicolas Catinat in 1691, Nice was restored to Savoy in 1696; but Siege of Nice (1705), it was again besieged by the French in 1705, and in the following year its citadel and Defensive wall, ramparts were demolished. The Treaty of Utrecht (1713) once more gave the city back to the Duke of Savoy, who was on that same occasion recognised as King of Sicily. In the peaceful years which followed, the "new town" was built. From 1744 until the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748) the French and Spaniards were again in possession. In 1775 the king, who in 1718 had swapped his sovereignty of Sicily for the Kingdom of Sardinia, destroyed all that remained of the ancient liberties of the Commune in France, commune. Conquered in 1792 by the armies of the First French Republic, the County of Nice continued to be part of France until 1814; but after that date it reverted to the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia.


French Nice

After the Treaty of Turin (1860), Treaty of Turin was signed in 1860 between the Victor Emmanuel II of Italy, Sardinian king and Napoleon III, the county was again and definitively ceded to France as a territorial reward for French assistance in the Second Italian War of Independence against Austrian Empire, Austria, which saw Lombardy united with Piedmont-Sardinia. The cession was ratified by a regional referendum: over 25,000 electors out of a total of 30,700 were in favour of the attachment to
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metropolitan France and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of Fr ...
. Savoy was also transferred to the French crown by similar means. Giuseppe Garibaldi, born in Nice, opposed the cession to France, arguing that the ballot was rigged by the French. Many Italians from Nizza then moved to the Ligurian towns of Ventimiglia, Bordighera and Ospedaletti, giving rise to a local branch of the movement of the Italia irredenta, Italian irredentists which considered the re-acquisition of Nice to be one of their nationalist goals. In 1900, the Trams in Nice, Tramway de Nice electrified its horse-drawn streetcars and spread its network to the entire ''département'' from Menton to Cagnes-sur-Mer. By the 1930s more bus connections were added in the area. In the 1930s, Nice hosted international car racing in the Formula Libre (predecessor to Formula One) on the so-called Circuit Nice. The circuit started along the waterfront just south of the Jardin Albert I, then headed westward along the
Promenade des Anglais View from the ''Château'' hill The ''Promenade des Anglais'' (; Niçard: ''Camin dei Anglés''; literally: ''Walkway of the English'') is a promenade along the Mediterranean at Nice, France. It extends from the airport on the west to the Quai d ...
followed by a hairpin turn at the Hotel Negresco to come back eastward and around the Jardin Albert I before heading again east along the beach on the Quai des Etats-Unis. As war broke out in September 1939, Nice became a city of refuge for many displaced foreigners, notably Jews fleeing the Nazi progression into Eastern Europe. From Nice many sought further shelter in the French colonial empire, French colonies, Morocco and North and South America. After July 1940 and the establishment of the Vichy France, Vichy Regime, antisemitism, antisemitic aggressions accelerated the exodus, starting in July 1941 and continuing through 1942. On 26 August 1942, 655 Jews of foreign origin were rounded up by the Laval government and interned in the Auvare barracks. Of these, 560 were deported to Drancy internment camp on 31 August 1942. Due to the activity of the Jewish banker Angelo Donati and of the Capuchin friar Père Marie-Benoît the local authorities hindered the application of anti-Jewish Vichy laws. The first French Resistance, ''résistants'' to the new regime were a group of High School seniors of the Lycée de Nice, now , in September 1940, later arrested and executed in 1944 near Verdon Gorge, Castellane. The first public demonstrations occurred on 14 July 1942 when several hundred protesters took to the streets along the Avenue de la Victoire and in the Place Masséna. In November 1942 German troops moved into most of unoccupied France, but Italian troops moved into a smaller zone including Nice. A certain ambivalence remained among the population, many of whom were recent immigrants of Italian ancestry. However, the resistance gained momentum after the Italian surrender in 1943 when the German army occupied the former Italian zone. Reprisals intensified between December 1943 and July 1944, when many partisans were tortured and executed by the local Gestapo and the Milice, French Milice. Nice was also heavily bombarded by American aircraft in preparation for the Allied Operation Dragoon, landing in Provence (1000 dead or wounded and more than 5600 people homeless) and famine ensued during summer 1944. American paratroopers entered the city on 30 August 1944 and Nice was finally liberated. The consequences of the war were heavy: the population decreased by 15% and economic life was totally disrupted. In the second half of the 20th century, Nice enjoyed an economic boom primarily driven by tourism and construction. Two men dominated this period: Jean Médecin, Mayor (France), mayor for 33 years from 1928 to 1943 and from 1947 to 1965, and his son Jacques Médecin, Jacques, mayor for 24 years from 1966 to 1990. Under their leadership, there was extensive urban renewal, including many new constructions. These included the convention centre, theatres, new thoroughfares and expressways. The arrival of the Pied-Noir, Pieds-Noirs, refugees from Algeria after 1962 independence, also gave the city a boost and somewhat changed the make-up of its population and traditional views. By the late 1980s, rumors of political corruption in the city government surfaced; and eventually formal accusations against Jacques Médecin forced him to flee France in 1990. Later arrested in Uruguay in 1993, he was extradited back to France in 1994, convicted of several counts of corruption and associated crimes and sentenced to imprisonment. On 16 October 1979, a landslide and an undersea slide caused two tsunamis that hit the western coast of Nice; these 1979 Nice events, events killed between 8 and 23 people. In February 2001, European leaders met in Nice to negotiate and sign what is now the Treaty of Nice, amending the institutions of the European Union. In 2003, local Chief Prosecutor Éric de Montgolfier alleged that some judicial cases involving local personalities had been suspiciously derailed by the local judiciary, which he suspected of having unhealthy contacts through Freemasonry, Masonic lodges with the defendants. A controversial official report stated later that Montgolfier had made unwarranted accusations. On 14 July 2016, a truck was 2016 Nice truck attack, deliberately driven into a crowd of people by Mohamed Lahouaiej-Bouhlel on the
Promenade des Anglais View from the ''Château'' hill The ''Promenade des Anglais'' (; Niçard: ''Camin dei Anglés''; literally: ''Walkway of the English'') is a promenade along the Mediterranean at Nice, France. It extends from the airport on the west to the Quai d ...
. The crowd was watching a fireworks display in celebration of Bastille Day. A total of 87 people were killed, including the perpetrator, who was shot dead by police. Another 434 were injured, with 52 in critical care and 25 in intensive care, according to the Paris prosecutor. On 29 October 2020, 2020 Nice stabbing, a stabbing attack killed three people at the local Notre-Dame de Nice. One of the victims, a woman, was beheaded by the attacker. Several additional victims were injured. The attacker, who was shot by the police, was taken into custody. The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, Islamic state claimed responsibility for both attacks.


Architecture

The
Promenade des Anglais View from the ''Château'' hill The ''Promenade des Anglais'' (; Niçard: ''Camin dei Anglés''; literally: ''Walkway of the English'') is a promenade along the Mediterranean at Nice, France. It extends from the airport on the west to the Quai d ...
("Promenade of the English") is a promenade along the Baie des Anges ("Bay of the Angels"), which is a bay of the Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean in Nice. Before Nice was urbanised, the coastline at Nice was just bordered by a deserted stretch of shingle beach (covered with large pebbles). The first houses were located on higher ground well away from the sea, as wealthy tourists visiting Nice in the 18th century did not come for the beach, but for the gentle winter weather. The areas close to the water were home to Nice's dockworkers and fishermen. In the second half of the 18th century, many wealthy English people took to spending the winter in Nice, enjoying the panorama along the coast. This early aristocratic English colony conceived the building of a promenade with the leadership and financial support of Lewis Way, Rev. Lewis Way. With the initial promenade completed, the city of Nice, intrigued by the prospect, greatly increased the scope of the work. The Promenade was first called the ''Camin dei Anglès'' (the English Way) by the Niçois in their native dialect Niçard, Nissart. In 1823, the promenade was named ''La Promenade des Anglais'' by the French, a name that would stick after the annexation of Nice by France in 1860. The Hotel Negresco on the Promenade des Anglais was named after Henri Negresco (1868–1920) who had the palatial hotel constructed in 1912. In keeping with the conventions of the time, when the Negresco first opened in 1913 its front opened on the side opposite the Mediterranean. Another place worth mentioning is the small street parallel to the Promenade des Anglais, leading from Nice's downtown, beginning at Place Masséna and running parallel to the promenade in the direction of the airport for a short distance of about 4 blocks. This section of the city is referred to as the "Zone Pietonne", or "Pedestrian Zone". Cars are not allowed (with exception to delivery trucks), making this avenue a popular walkway. Old Nice is also home to the Opéra de Nice. It was constructed at the end of the 19th century under the design of François Aune, to replace King Charles Félix's Maccarani Theater. Today, it is open to the public and provides a regular program of performances.


Religious


Museums


Squares


Place Masséna

The ''Place Masséna'' is the main square of the city. Before the Paillon River was covered over, the Pont-Neuf was the only practicable way between the old town and the modern one. The square was thus divided into two parts (North and South) in 1824. With the demolition of the Masséna Casino in 1979, the Place Masséna became more spacious and less dense and is now bordered by red ochre buildings of Italian architecture. The recent rebuilding of the tramline gave the square back to the pedestrians, restoring its status as a real Mediterranean square. It is lined with palm trees and stone pines, instead of being the rectangular roundabout of sorts it had become over the years. Since its construction, the Place Masséna has always been the spot for great public events. It is used for concerts, and particularly during the summer festivals, the ''Nice Carnival, Corso carnavalesque'' (carnival parade) in February, the military procession of 14 July (Bastille Day) or other traditional celebrations and banquets. The Place Masséna is a two-minute walk from the
Promenade des Anglais View from the ''Château'' hill The ''Promenade des Anglais'' (; Niçard: ''Camin dei Anglés''; literally: ''Walkway of the English'') is a promenade along the Mediterranean at Nice, France. It extends from the airport on the west to the Quai d ...
, old town, town centre, and Albert I Garden (''Jardin Albert Ier''). It is also a large crossroads between several of the main streets of the city: avenue Jean Médecin, ''avenue Félix Faure'', ''boulevard Jean Jaurès'', ''avenue de Verdun'' and ''rue Gioffredo''.


Place Garibaldi

The ''Place Garibaldi'' also stands out for its architecture and history. It is named after Giuseppe Garibaldi, hero of the Italian unification (born in Nice in 1807 when Nice was part of the Napoleonic Empire, before reverting to the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia). The square was built at the end of the 18th century and served as the entry gate to the city and end of the road from Turin. It took several names between 1780 and 1870 (Plaça Pairoulièra, Place de la République, Place Napoléon, Place d'Armes, Place Saint-Augustin, Piazza Vittorio) and finally Place Garibaldi in September 1870. A statue of Garibaldi, who was fiercely in favour of the union of Nice with Italy, stands in the centre of the square. The recent rebuilding of the area to accommodate the new tramway line gave mostly the entire square to pedestrians. The architecture is in line with the Turin model, which was the norm of urban renewal throughout the entire realm of the House of Savoy. It is a crossroads between the ''Vieux Nice'' (old town) and the town centre. Place Garibaldi is close to the eastern districts of Nice, ''Port Lympia'' (Lympia Harbour), and the TNL commercial centre. This square is also a junction of several important streets: the ''boulevard Jean-Jaurès'', the ''avenue de la République'', the ''rue Cassini'' and the ''rue Catherine-Ségurane''.


Place Rossetti

Entirely enclosed and pedestrianised, this square is located in the heart of the old town. With typical buildings in red and yellow ochres surrounding the square, the ''cathédrale Sainte-Réparate'' and the fountain in the centre, ''place Rossetti'' is a must-see spot in the old town. By day, the place is invaded by the terraces of traditional restaurants and the finest ice-cream makers. By night, the environment changes radically, with tourists and youths flocking to the square, where music reverberates on the walls of the small square. The square's lighting at night gives it a magical aspect. Place Rossetti is in the centre of the old town, streets ''Jesus'', ''Rossetti'', ''Mascoïnat'' and the ''Pont-vieux'' (old bridge)


Cours Saleya

The Cours Saleya is situated parallel to the ''Quai des États-Unis''. In the past, it belonged to the upper classes. It is probably the most traditional square of the town, with its daily flower market. The ''Cours Saleya'' also opens on the ''Palais des Rois Sardes'' (Palace of the Kings of Sardinia). In the present, the ''court'' is mostly a place of entertainment.


Place du Palais

As its name indicates, the ''Place du Palais'' is where the ''Palais de la Justice'' (Law courts) of Nice is located. On this square, there also is the ''Palais Rusca'', which also belongs to the justice department (home of the ''tribunal de grande instance''). The square is also notable due to the presence of the city clock. Today, the ''Place du Palais'' is alive day and night. Often, groups of youths will hangout on the steps leading to the ''Palais de la Justice''. Concerts, films, and other major public events frequently occur in this space. It is situated halfway between the ''Cours Saleya'' and ''Place Masséna''.


Administration

Located in the
Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur (; oci, Provença-Aups-Còsta d'Azur, ; commonly shortened to PACA; also known as Région Sud) is one of the eighteen administrative regions of France, the far southeastern on the mainland. Its prefecture and largest cit ...
region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment (environmental geography). Geographic reg ...
, Nice is a Communes of France, commune and the Prefectures in France, prefecture (administrative capital) of the
Alpes-Maritimes Alpes-Maritimes (; oc, Aups Maritims; it, Alpi Marittime, "Maritime Alps") is a department of France located in the extreme southeast corner of the country, on the border with Italy and on the Mediterranean coast. Part of the Provence-Alpes-Côte ...
département. However, it is also the largest city in France that is not a regional capital; the much larger
Marseille Marseille ( , also spelled in English as ''Marseilles''; , ; oc, Marselha ) is the prefecture of the department of Bouches-du-Rhône and region of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur in France. It is located on the coast of the Gulf of Lion, part of th ...
is its regional capital. Christian Estrosi, its mayor, is a member of the Republicans (France), the Republicans (formerly the Union for a Popular Movement), the party supporting former President Nicolas Sarkozy. The city is divided into nine cantons of France, cantons: Canton of Nice-1, Nice-1, Canton of Nice-2, 2, Canton of Nice-3, 3, Canton of Nice-4, 4, Canton of Nice-5, 5, Canton of Nice-6, 6, Canton of Nice-7, 7, Canton of Nice-8, 8 and Canton of Nice-9, 9.


Coat of arms

The Coat of Arms of Nice appeared for the first time in a copy of the ''Regulations'' of Amadeus VIII of Savoy, Amadeus VIII, probably written around 1430.Ralph Schor (Edited by), ''Dictionnaire historique et biographique du comté de Nice''(''Historical and biographical dictionary of the County of Nice''), Nice, Serre, 2002, , pp.22–23 The Nice is symbolised by a red eagle on silver background, placed on three mountains, which can be described in French heraldic language as "d'argent à une aigle de gueule posée sur trois coupeaux". ("Upon silver a red eagle is displayed, posed upon three mounds.") The arms have only undergone minor changes: the eagle has become more and more stylised, it now "wears" a coronet for the County of Nice, and the three mountains are now surrounded by a stylised sea. The presence of the eagle, an imperial emblem, shows that these arms are related to the power of the House of Savoy. The eagle standing over the three hills is a depiction of Savoy, referring to its domination over the country around Nice. The combination of silver and red (argent and gules) is a reference to the colours of the Savoy, flag of Savoy. The three mountains symbolise a territorial honour, without concern for geographic realism.


Geography

Nice consists of two large bays. Villefranche-sur-Mer sits on an enclosed bay, while the main expanse of the city lies between the old port city and the Aeroport de Côte d'Azur, across a gently curving bay. The city rises from the flat beach into gentle rising hills, then is bounded by surrounding mountains that represent the Southern and nearly the Western extent of the Ligurian Alps range.


Flora

The natural vegetation of Nice is typical for a Mediterranean landscape, with a heavy representation of broadleaf evergreen shrubs. Trees tend to be scattered but form dense forests in some areas. Large native tree species include evergreens such as Quercus ilex, holm oak, stone pine and arbutus. Many introduced species grow in parks and gardens. Palm tree, Palms, eucalyptus and citrus fruits are among the trees which give Nice a subtropical appearance. But there are also species familiar to temperate areas around the world; examples include Horse-chestnut (tree), horse chestnut, Tilia, linden and even Norway spruce.


Climate

Nice has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification, Köppen: ''Csa'') with characteristics of a warm-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification, Köppen : ''Csb''), enjoying mild winters with moderate rainfall. It is one of the warmest Mediterranean climates for its latitude. Summers are warm to hot, dry, and sunny. Rainfall is rare in this season, and a typical July month only records one or two days with measurable rainfall. The temperature is typically above but rarely above . The climate data is recorded from the airport, located just metres from the sea. Summer temperatures, therefore, are often higher in the city. The average maximum temperature in the warmest months of July and August is about . The highest recorded temperature was on 1 August 2006. Autumn generally starts sunny in September and becomes more cloudy and rainy towards October, while temperatures usually remain above until November where days start to cool down to around . Winters are characterised by mild days (), cool nights (), and variable weather. Days can be either sunny and dry or damp and rainy. The average minimum temperature in January is around . Frost is unusual and snowfalls are rare. The most recent snowfall in Nice was on 26 February 2018. Nice also received a dusting of snow in 2005, 2009 and 2010. Spring starts cool and rainy in late March, and Nice becomes increasingly warm and sunny around June.


Economy and tourism

Nice is the seat of the Chambre de commerce et d'industrie Nice Côte d'Azur, which manages the Port of Nice. Investors from France and abroad can benefit from the assistance of the Côte d'Azur Economic Development Agency Team Côte d'Azur. Nice has one conference centre: the Palais des Congrès Acropolis. The city also has several business parks, including Districts of businesses Niçoise L' Arenas, l'Arenas, Districts of Niçoise Nice businesses Plaine, Nice the Plain, Districts of businesses Niçoise Nice Méridia, Nice Méridia, Districts of businesses Niçoise Saint Isidore, Saint Isidore, and the Northern Forum. In addition, the city features several shopping centres such as Nicetoile, Nice TNL, Nice Lingostière, Northern Forum, St-Isidore, the Trinity (around the Auchan hypermarket), Cap3000 in Saint-Laurent-du-Var and Polygone Riviera in Cagnes-sur-Mer. Sophia Antipolis is a technology park northwest of Antibes. Much of the park is within the commune of Valbonne. Established between 1970 and 1984, it primarily houses companies in the fields of computing, electronics, pharmacology and biotechnology. Several institutions of higher learning are also located here, along with the European headquarters of W3C. The Nice metropolitan area had a List of cities by GDP, GDP amounting to $47.7 billion, and $34,480 per capita, slightly lower than the French average.


Transport


Port

The main port of Nice is also known as Lympia port. This name comes from the Lympia spring which fed a small lake in a marshy zone where work on the port was started in 1745. Today this is the principal harbour installation of Nice – there is also a small port in the Carras district. The port is the first port cement manufacturer in France, linked to the treatment plants of the rollers of the valley of Paillon. Fishing activities remain but the number of professional fishermen is now less than 10. Nice, being the point of continental France nearest to Corsica, has ferry connections with the island developed with the arrival of NGV (''navires à grande vitesse'') or high-speed craft. The connections are provided by Corsica Ferries - Sardinia Ferries. Located in front of the port, the Place Cassini has been renamed Place of Corsica.


Airport

Nice Côte d'Azur Airport is the third busiest airport in France after Charles de Gaulle Airport and Orly Airport, both near Paris. It is on the
Promenade des Anglais View from the ''Château'' hill The ''Promenade des Anglais'' (; Niçard: ''Camin dei Anglés''; literally: ''Walkway of the English'') is a promenade along the Mediterranean at Nice, France. It extends from the airport on the west to the Quai d ...
, near l'Arénas and has two Airport terminal, terminals. Due to its proximity to the Principality of
Monaco Monaco (; ), officially the Principality of Monaco (french: Principauté de Monaco), is a sovereign city-state and microstate on the French Riviera close to the Italian region of Liguria, in Western Europe. Bordered by France to the north, east ...
, it also serves as that city–state's airport. A helicopter service provided by Heli Air Monaco and Monacair links the city and airport. It is run by the ACA (Aéroports Côte d'Azur), which includes Cannes - Mandelieu Airport and La Môle – Saint-Tropez Airport. Public transportation into the city proper is serviced by the Nice tramway, Tramway line 2 (T2).


Rail

The main railway station is Gare de Nice-Ville, Nice-Ville, served both by high speed TGV trains connecting Paris and Nice in less than 6 hours and by local commuter TER Provence-Alpes-Côte-d'Azur, TER services. Gare de Marseille-Saint-Charles, Marseille is reached in 2.5 hours. Nice also has international connections to Italy, Switzerland, Belgium, and Russia. Nice is also served by several suburban stations including Gare de Nice-Saint-Augustin, Nice St-Augustin, Nice St-Roch and Gare de Nice-Riquier, Nice Riquier. Nice is also the southern terminus of the independently run Chemins de Fer de Provence railway line which connects the city with Digne in approximatively 4 hours. A metro-like suburban service is also provided on the southern part of the line.


Tram

Trams in Nice, Tramway de Nice began operating horse-drawn trams in 1879. Electrified in 1900, the combined length of the network reached by 1930. The replacement of trams with trolleybuses began in 1948 and was completed in 1953. In 2007, the new Nice tramway, Tramway de Nice linked the northern and eastern suburbs via the city centre. Two other lines are currently under construction and partly operating. The second line runs east–west from Avenue Jean Médecin, Jean Médecin to the Nice Côte d'Azur Airport (and will reach the Port at the end of 2019), while the third line will provide a connection to the future TGV Nice Saint-Augustin and to Lingostière railway station. A fourth line is set to run from the future TGV Nice Saint-Augustin to Cagnes-sur-Mer.


Road

The A8 autoroute and the Route nationale 7 pass through the Nice agglomeration.


Sports and entertainment

* Stade du Ray (demolished) * Allianz Riviera * Stade Charles-Ehrmann * Palais Nikaia * Nice Jazz Festival *Nice Carnival, Nice Carnaval


Sport

* The city's major association football, football club is OGC Nice. They play in Ligue 1 (the top division in France). * The Olympic Nice swimming club (french: Olympic Nice Natation) is also notable; Camille Muffat and Yannick Agnel used to train there for example. * Nice hosts the finish of the annual bicycle road racing, cycling race Paris–Nice. * The Nice Hockey Élite club play in Ligue Magnus, the top men's division of the French ice hockey pyramid. * The Stade Niçois is a rugby club playing in Fédérale 1.


Population

, the metropolitan area (''unité urbaine'') of Nice, defined by INSEE, is home to 942,886 inhabitants (sixth most populous in France) and its urban area (''aire urbaine'') totals 1,006,201 inhabitants, which makes it the seventh largest in France. Since the 1970s, the number of inhabitants has not changed significantly; the relatively high migration to Nice is balanced by a natural negative growth of the population.


Observatory

The ''Observatoire de Nice'' (Nice Observatory) is located on the summit of Mont Gros. The observatory was established in 1879 by the banker Raphaël Bischoffsheim. The architect was Charles Garnier (architect), Charles Garnier; Gustave Eiffel designed the main dome. The 76-cm (30-inch) refractor telescope that became operational in 1888 was at that time the world's largest telescope.


Culture

Terra-Amata, an archaeological site dating from the Lower Palaeolithic age, is situated near Nice. Nice itself was established by the ancient Greeks. There was also an independent Ancient Rome, Roman city, Cemenelum, near Nice, where the hill of Cimiez is located. It is an archaeological site with treasures, of which only a small part has been excavated. The excavated site includes thermal baths, arenas and Roman road. Since the 2nd century AD, the light of the city has attracted painters and sculptors such as Chagall, Matisse,
Niki de Saint Phalle#REDIRECT Niki de Saint Phalle {{R from other capitalisation ...
, Yves Klein, Klein,
Arman Arman (November 17, 1928 – October 22, 2005) was a French-born American artist. Born Armand Fernandez in Nice, France, Arman was a painter who moved from using objects for the ink or paint traces they leave ("cachet", "allures d'objet") to using ...
and Sacha Sosno, Sosno. Nice inspired many composers and intellectuals in different countries e.g. Hector Berlioz, Berlioz, Rossini, Friedrich Nietzsche, Nietzsche, etc. Nice also has numerous museums of all kinds: Musée Marc Chagall, Musée Matisse (arenas of Cimiez containing Roman ruins), Musée des Beaux-Arts, Musée international d'Art naïf Anatole Jakovsky, Musée Terra-Amata, Museum of Asian Art, Musée d'art moderne et d'art contemporain which devotes much space to the well-known '' École of Nice ''”), Museum of Natural History, Musée Masséna, Naval Museum and ''Galerie des Ponchettes''. Being a vacation resort, Nice hosts many festivals throughout the year, such as the Nice Carnival and the Nice Jazz Festival. Nice has a distinct culture due to its unique history. The local language '' Niçard (Nissart)'' is an Occitan dialect (but some Italian scholars argue that it is a Ligurian language (Romance), Ligurian dialect). It is still spoken by a substantial minority . Strong Italian culture, Italian and (to a lesser extent) Corsican influences make it more intelligible to speakers of Italian than to other extant Provençal dialects. In the past, Nice welcomed many immigrants from Italy (who continue to make up a large proportion of the population), as well as Spanish and Portuguese people, Portuguese immigrants. However, in the past few decades immigration has been opened to include immigrants from all over the world, particularly those from former Northern and Western African colonies, as well as southeast Asia. Traditions are still alive, especially in folk music and dances, including the farandole – an open-chain community dance. Since 1860 a cannon (based at the Château east of Old Nice) is shot at twelve o'clock sharp. The detonation can be heard almost all over the city. This tradition goes back to Sir Thomas Coventry, who intended to remind the citizens of having lunch on time.


Cuisine

The cuisine of Nice is especially close to those of Provence but also Liguria and Piedmont and uses local ingredients (olive oil, anchovies, fruit and vegetables) but also those from more remote regions, in particular from Northern Europe, because ships which came to pick up olive oil arrived full of food products, such as dried haddock. Nice has a few local dishes. There is a local tart made with onions and anchovies (or anchovy paste), named "Pissaladière". ''Socca'' is a type of pancake made from chickpea flour. ''Farcis niçois'' is a dish made from vegetables stuffed with a mixture of breadcrumbs, meat (generally sausage and ground beef), and herbs; and ''salade niçoise'' is a tomato salad with green peppers of the "Corne" variety, baked eggs, tuna or anchovies, and olives. Local meat comes from neighbouring valleys, such as the sheep of Sisteron. Local fish, such as mullets, bream, sea urchins, and anchovies (alevins) are used to a great extent, so much so that it has given birth to a proverb: "fish are born in the sea and die in oil". Examples of Niçois specialties include:


Flower Parade

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Education

* University of Nice Sophia Antipolis * Institut Eurécom * École des hautes études commerciales du nord * École pour l'informatique et les nouvelles technologies * Villa Arson * Ecole Supérieure de Réalisation Audiovisuelle, ESRA film school * Institut supérieur européen de formation par l'action * Supinfo * Skema Business School


International relations

Nice is Twin towns and sister cities, twinned with: * Alicante, Spain * Antananarivo, Madagascar * Can Tho, Vietnam * Cartagena, Colombia * Cuneo, Italy * Edinburgh, Scotland, UK * Gdańsk, Poland * Hangzhou, China * Houston, Texas, United States * Kamakura, Kanagawa, Kamakura, Japan * Laval, Quebec, Canada * Libreville, Gabon * Locarno, Switzerland * Louisiana, Louisiana (state), United States * Manila, Philippines * Miami, Florida, United States * Netanya, Israel * Nouméa, New Caledonia * Nuremberg, Germany * Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan * Phuket (city), Phuket, Thailand * Rio de Janeiro, Brazil * Saint-Denis, Réunion, Saint-Denis, France * Saint Petersburg, Russia * Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain * Sorrento, Italy * Szeged, Hungary * Thessaloniki, Greece * Xiamen, China * Yalta, Ukraine or Russia (disputed) * Yerevan, Armenia


Notable people

* Nicholas Alexandrovich – tsesarevich, the heir apparent, of Imperial Russia died in Nice and was patron of the Russian Orthodox Cemetery, Nice * Louis Aragon – Poet and novelist and his wife, the Russian-born writer Elsa Triolet, lived clandestinely in Nice during World War II * Jean Behra (1921–1959) – racing driver, born in Nice * Elliot Benchetrit (born 1998) – tennis player * Freda Betti (1924–1979) – opera singer * Henri Betti (1917–2005) – composer and pianist * Priscilla Betti (born 1989) – singer and actress * Jules Bianchi (1989–2015) – Formula 1 Driver * Surya Bonaly – figure skater * Alexy Bosetti (born 1993) – footballer * Véronique Bracco (born 1976) – classical pianist * Albert Calmette – physician, bacteriologist and immunologist * René Cassin – jurist, law professor and judge, former student of Nice's Lycée Massena, he received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1968 *
Henry Cavendish Henry Cavendish FRS (; 10 October 1731 – 24 February 1810) was an English natural philosopher, scientist, and an important experimental and theoretical chemist and physicist. He is noted for his discovery of hydrogen, which he termed "inflammab ...
– British scientist noted for his discovery of hydrogen * Eric Ciotti – born in Nice in 1965 * Alfred Van Cleef – jeweler buried in Nice at Cimetière du Château * Alizé Cornet – tennis player * Marc Duret (born 1957, Nice) – French-American actor and director, starring in ''The Big Blue'', ''La Femme Nikita (film), La Femme Nikita'', ''La haine'', ''Borgia (TV series), Borgia'', ''Outlander (TV series), Outlander'', etc. * Christian Estrosi – born in Nice in 1955 and the city's mayor from 2008 until 2016 and since 2017 * Jacqueline Eymar (1922–2008) – classical pianist * Léon Gambetta (1838–1881) – buried in Nice * Giuseppe Garibaldi – Italian general, politician and patriot * René Goscinny – Asterix creator buried in Nice * James Charles Harris, James C Harris – 19th century British consul at Nice; painted many scenes in and around the city * José Gustavo Guerrero – first president of the International Court of Justice buried in Nice at Cimetière du Château * Dominic Howard – drummer for Muse (band), Muse currently lives in Nice * Dominique Jean-Zéphirin – footballer * Emil Jellinek-Mercedes – General Counsel for Austria-Hungary, and founder of Mercedes car company buried in Nice at Cimetière du Château * Elton John – singer, owned a house in Mont Boron on the hills of Nice * David Kadouch (born 1985), pianist and chamber musician * Alexis Kossenko – classical flautist and conductor * Georges Lautner – director born in Nice, buried in the cemetery of the Castle * J. M. G. Le Clézio – author and professor, was awarded the 2008 Nobel Prize in Literature * Hugo Lloris – footballer * Heinrich Mann – German novelist (and brother of Thomas Mann) lived in Nice * André Masséna – 1st Duc de Rivoli, 1st Prince d'Essling, one of the original 18 Marshals of the Empire, French military commander during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, his nickname was l'Enfant chéri de la Victoire ("the Dear Child of Victory") * Jean-Pierre Mocky – film director, actor, screenwriter and producer * Amedeo Modigliani lived for a few months in Nice with his companion Jeanne Hébuterne; she gave birth to their daughter Giovanna in 1918. * Mohammed VI of Morocco, Mohammed VI, king of Morocco, obtained the title of Doctor of Law at the University of Nice Sophia Antipolis * Jacques Ochs (1883–1971) – artist and Olympic fencing champion * Clairemarie Osta – ballet dancer, ''Danseur étoile, étoile'' at Paris Opera Ballet * Pino Presti – Italian bassist, arranger, composer, conductor and record producer, has lived in Nice since 2004 * Fabio Quartararo – French MotoGP Rider * Auguste Renoir – had his studio in Nice from 1911 to 1919 at the corner of the Rue Alfred Mortier and the Quai St Jean Baptiste. A commemorative plaque is affixed to it. * Dick Rivers – born Hervé Forneri, rock singer, born in Nice in 1945 * Robert W. Service – poet and writer of the Klondike Gold Rush lived in Nice during the summers from 1916 to 1940 * Joann Sfar – comics artist, comic book creator and film director * Michel Siffre – adventurer and scientist * Gilles Simon – tennis player * Michael Sinterniklaas (born 1972) – American voice actor * Aimé Teisseire (1914–2008) – French Army officer, lived in Nice after his retirement from the military until his death at the age of 93Musée de l'Ordre de la Libération
"Aimé Teisseire"
Retrieved 19 January 2016 .
* Simone Veil – lawyer and politician who served as Minister of Health, President of the European Parliament and member of the Constitutional Council of France; survivor of the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp *
Queen Victoria Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death in 1901. Known as the Victorian era, her reign of 63 years and seven months was lo ...

Queen Victoria
– Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and the Empress of India, stayed many winters in Nice. * Valérie Zenatti (born 1970) – writer


Honorary citizens

People awarded the honorary citizenship of Nice are:


See also

* 37th G8 summit * Charles-Léonce Brossé * Cimetière du Château * European Institute of High International Studies * Le Méridien * Nice biscuit * Rugby Nice Côte d'Azur Université-Racing * Russian Orthodox Cemetery, Nice * Albert Spaggiari


References


Further reading

* Sykes, Colonel. "Statistics of Nice Maritime." ''Journal of the Statistical Society of London'' 18.1 (1855): 34–73.
online
*


External links


Official website of the City of Nice

Official website of Nice Metropolis

Visitors and Convention Bureau Nice
*
France.fr – Nice
– Official website for tourism in France {{Authority control Nice, Communes of Alpes-Maritimes Prefectures in France Massalian colonies