Goa () is a state
on the southwestern coast of India
within the region known as the Konkan
, and geographically separated from the Deccan highlands
by the Western Ghats
. It is surrounded by the Indian states of Maharashtra
to the north and Karnataka
to the east and south, with the Arabian Sea
forming its western coast. It is India's smallest state
by area and its fourth-smallest by population
. Goa has the highest GDP per capita
among all Indian states, two and a half times as high as the GDP per capita of the country as a whole.
The Eleventh Finance Commission
of India named Goa the best-placed state because of its infrastructure, and India’s National Commission on Population
rated it as having the best quality of life in India (based on the commission’s “12 Indicators”).
is the state's capital, while Vasco da Gama
is its largest city. The historic city of Margão
in Goa still exhibits the cultural influence of the Portuguese
, who first voyaged to the subcontinent in the early 16th century as merchants, and conquered it soon thereafter, whereupon Goa became an overseas territory of the Portuguese Empire
, part of what was then known as Portuguese India
, and remained as such for about 450 years, until it was annexed by India
in 1961. Goa’s official language, which is spoken by a majority of its inhabitants, is Konkani
Goa is visited by large numbers of international and domestic tourists each year because of its white-sand beaches, active nightlife, places of worship, and World Heritage-listed architecture
. It also has rich flora and fauna because it lies on the Western Ghats
range, a biodiversity
After the Bahmani
-Bijapuri city of Goa was captured by Afonso de Albuquerque
in 1510, and was made the capital of the Estado da Índia
, the city gave its name to the contiguous territories. The origin of the city name ''Goa'' is unclear. In ancient literature, Goa was known by many names, such as ''Gomanchala'', ''Gopakapattana
'', ''Gopakapattam'', ''Gopakapuri'', ''Govapuri'', ''Govem'', and ''Gomantak''.
Other historical names for Goa are ''Sindapur'', ''Sandabur'', and ''Mahassapatam''.
Rock art engravings found in Goa are the earliest known traces of human life in India. Goa, situated within the Shimoga-Goa Greenstone Belt in the Western Ghats (an area composed of metavolcanics, iron formations and ferruginous quartzite), yields evidence for Acheulean
occupation. Rock art
engravings (petroglyphs) are present on laterite platforms and granite boulders in Usgalimal
near the west flowing Kushavati river and in Kajur. In Kajur, the rock engravings of animals, tectiforms and other designs in granite have been associated with what is considered to be a megalithic stone circle with a round granite stone in the centre. Petroglyph
s, cones, stone-axe, and choppers dating to 10,000 years ago have been found in various locations in Goa, including Kazur, Mauxim, and the Mandovi
Evidence of Palaeolithic
life is visible at Dabolim, Adkon, Shigao, Fatorpa, Arli, Maulinguinim, Diwar, Sanguem, Pilerne, and Aquem-Margaon. Difficulty in carbon dating the laterite rock compounds poses a problem for determining the exact time period.
Early Goan society underwent radical change when Indo-Aryan
migrants amalgamated with the aboriginal locals, forming the base of early Goan culture.
In the 3rd century BC, Goa was part of the Maurya Empire
, ruled by the Buddhist emperor, Ashoka
. Buddhist monks laid the foundation of Buddhism in Goa. Between the 2nd century BC and the 6th century AD, Goa was ruled by the Bhojas of Goa
s of Karwar
also ruled some parts as feudatories of the Satavahana
s of Kolhapur
(2nd century BC to the 2nd century AD), Western Kshatrapas
(around 150 AD), the Abhira
s of Western Maharashtra, Bhojas of the Yadav
clans of Gujarat
, and the Konkan Mauryas as feudatories of the Kalachuri
s. The rule later passed to the Chalukyas of Badami
, who controlled it between 578 and 753, and later the Rashtrakuta
s of Malkhed
from 753 to 963. From 765 to 1015, the Southern Silhara
s of Konkan
ruled Goa as the feudatories of the Chalukyas and the Rashtrakutas. Over the next few centuries, Goa was successively ruled by the Kadambas
as the feudatories of the Chalukyas of Kalyani
. They patronised Jainism in Goa
In 1312, Goa came under the governance of the Delhi Sultanate
. The kingdom's grip on the region was weak, and by 1370 it was forced to surrender it to Harihara I
of the Vijayanagara empire
. The Vijayanagara monarchs held on to the territory until 1469, when it was appropriated by the Bahmani sultans
. After that dynasty crumbled, the area fell into the hands of the Adil Shahi
s of Bijapur
, who established as their auxiliary capital the city known under the Portuguese as Velha Goa
(or Old Goa).
Mahadev Temple, Tambdi Surla (12th century).jpg|The Mahadev Temple, attributed to the Kadambas of Goa; in what is today Bhagwan Mahaveer Sanctuary and Mollem National Park.
Kadamba.PNG|Gold coins issued by the Kadamba king of Goa, Shivachitta Paramadideva. ''Circa'' 1147–1187 CE.
In 1510, the Portuguese defeated the ruling Bijapur sultan Yusuf Adil Shah
with the help of a local ally, Timoji
, a privateer
. They set up a permanent settlement in Velha Goa. This was the beginning of Portuguese colonial rule
in Goa that would last for four and a half centuries, until its annexation to India in 1961
. The Goa Inquisition
, a formal tribunal, was established in 1560, and was finally abolished in 1812.
From the latter decades of the eighteenth century, the territory of Goa was composed of two segments: the central nucleus of the Velhas Conquistas (Old Conquests) - Bardez, Ilhas of Tiswadi, and Salsete), these territories had been under Portuguese administration since the sixteenth century; and the Novas Conquistas (New Conquests) - Bicholim, Canacona, Pernem, Quepem, Sattari, Sanguem - territories which had been successively added through the eighteenth century.
In 1843, the Portuguese moved the capital to the ''Cidade da Nova Goa'', today known as Panaji
, from Velha Goa. By the mid-18th century, Portuguese Goa had expanded to most of the present-day state limits. Simultaneously, the Portuguese lost other possessions in India until their borders stabilized and formed the Estado da Índia Portuguesa
or ''State of Portuguese India''.
After India gained independence
from British rule
in 1947, India requested that Portuguese territories on the Indian subcontinent be ceded to India. Portugal refused to negotiate on the sovereignty of its Indian enclaves. On 19 December 1961, the Indian Army invaded with Operation Vijay
resulting in the annexation of Goa, and of Daman and Diu
islands into the Indian union. Goa, along with Daman and Diu
, was organised as a centrally administered union territory
On 30 May 1987, the union territory was split, and Goa was made India's twenty-fifth state, with Daman and Diu remaining a union territory.
Geography and climate
Goa encompasses an area of . It lies between the latitudes 14°53′54″ N and 15°40′00″ N and longitudes 73°40′33″ E and 74°20′13″ E.
Goa is a part of the coastal country known as the Konkan
, which is an escarpment rising up to the Western Ghats range of mountains, which separate it from the Deccan Plateau
. The highest point is the Sonsogor
, with an altitude of . Goa has a coastline of .
Goa's seven major rivers are the Zuari
, Galgibag, Kumbarjua canal, Talpona and the Sal
The Zuari and the Mandovi are the most important rivers, interspaced by the Kumbarjua canal, forming a major estuarine complex.
These rivers are fed by the Southwest monsoon rain and their basin covers 69% of the state's geographical area.
These rivers are some of the busiest in India. Goa has more than 40 estuarine, eight marine, and about 90 riverine islands. The total navigable length of Goa's rivers is . Goa has more than 300 ancient water-tanks built during the rule of the Kadamba dynasty and over 100 medicinal springs.
The Mormugao harbour on the mouth of the River Zuari
is one of the best natural harbours in South Asia.
Most of Goa's soil cover is made up of laterite
s rich in ferric-aluminum oxides and reddish in colour. Further inland and along the riverbanks, the soil is mostly alluvial
y. The soil is rich in minerals and humus, thus conducive to agriculture. Some of the oldest rocks in the Indian subcontinent are found in Goa between Molem
on Goa's border with Karnataka
. The rocks are classified as Trondjemeitic Gneiss
estimated to be 3,600 million years old, dated by rubidium isotope dating. A specimen of the rock is exhibited at Goa University
Dudhsagar Falls at Bhagwan Mahaveer Sanctuary and Mollem National Park" style="font-size:88%; line-height:130%; border-bottom:1px #aaa solid;" heights="150">
Doodhsagar Waterfalls.jpg|Dudhsagar Waterfalls in August.
Dudhsagar Falls Triplet.jpg|Train passing next to the Dudhsagar Falls.
Dudhsagar Falls triplet, 2009.JPG|Lower half of Dudhsagar Falls.
Goa features a tropical monsoon climate
under the Köppen climate classification
. Goa, being in the tropical zone and near the Arabian Sea, has a hot and humid climate for most of the year. The month of May is usually the hottest, seeing daytime temperatures of over coupled with high humidity. The state's three seasons are Southwest monsoon period (June – September), post-monsoon period (October – January), and pre-monsoon period (February – May).
Over 90% of the average annual rainfall (120 inches) is received during the monsoon season.
The state is divided into two districts
: North Goa
and South Goa
. Each district is administered by a district collector, appointed by the Indian government.
is the headquarters of North Goa district and is also the capital of Goa.
North Goa is further divided into three subdivisions – Panaji, Mapusa
, and Bicholim
; and five ''talukas
'' (subdistricts) – Tiswadi/''Ilhas de Goa''
, and Sattari
is the headquarters of South Goa district.
South Goa is further divided into five subdivisions – Ponda
, Margao, Quepem
, and Dharbandora
; and seven ''talukas'' – Ponda
, and Canacona
, and Dharbandora
. (Ponda taluka was shifted from North Goa to South Goa in January 2015).
Goa's major cities include Panaji
, Bicholim, and Valpoi
has the only Municipal Corporation in Goa.
There are thirteen Municipal Councils: Margao, Mormugao (including Vasco), Pernem, Mapusa, Bicholim, Sanquelim
, Valpoi, Ponda, Cuncolim
, Quepem, Curchorem
, Sanguem, and Canacona. Goa has a total number of 334 villages.
Government and politics
The politics of Goa are a result of the uniqueness of this region due to 450 years of Portuguese rule, in comparison to three centuries of British rule experienced by the rest of India. The Indian National Congress
was unable to achieve electoral success in the first two decades after the State's incorporation into India. Instead, the state was dominated by the regional political parties like Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party
and the United Goans Party
In the Parliament of India
, Goa has two seats in the Lok Sabha
(House of the People) The lower house of the Indian Parliament, one representing each district, and one seat in the Rajya Sabha
(Council of the States) The Upper House of the Indian Parliament.
Goa's administrative capital is Panaji
in English, Panjim also spelt as Pangim in Portuguese
, and Ponjê in the local language. It lies on the left bank of the Mandovi
river. The seat of the Goa Legislative Assembly
is in Porvorim
, across the Mandovi from Panaji. As the state comes under the Bombay High Court
, Panaji has a bench in it. Unlike other states, which follow the model of civil laws framed for individual religions introduced in the days of Raj
, the Portuguese Goa civil code
, a uniform code based on the Napoleonic code
, has been retained in Goa.
Goa has a unicameral legislature
, the Goa Legislative Assembly
, of 40 members, headed by a speaker. The Chief Minister heads the executive, which is made up of the party or coalition elected with a majority in the legislature. The Governor, the head of the state, is appointed by the President of India. After having stable governance for nearly thirty years up to 1990, Goa is now notorious for its political instability having seen fourteen governments in the span of the fifteen years between 1990 and 2005.
In March 2005, the assembly was dissolved by the Governor and President's Rule
was declared, which suspended the legislature. A by-election in June 2005 saw the Indian National Congress coming back to power after winning three of the five seats that went to polls. The Congress Party
and the Bharatiya Janata Party
(BJP) are the two largest parties in the state. In the assembly poll of 2007, the INC-led coalition won and formed the government. In the 2012 Vidhan Sabha Elections, the Bharatiya Janata Party along with the Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party
won a clear majority, forming the new government with Manohar Parrikar
as the Chief Minister. Other parties include the United Goans Democratic Party
, the Nationalist Congress Party
In the 2017 assembly elections
, the Indian National Congress
gained the most seats, with the BJP coming in second. However, no party was able to gain a majority in the 40 member house. The BJP was invited to form the Government by Governor Mridula Sinha
. The Congress claimed the use of money power on the part of the BJP and took the case to the Supreme Court. However, the Manohar Parikkar led Government was able to prove its majority in the Supreme Court
mandated "floor test".
Flora and fauna
cover in Goa stands at ,
most of which is owned by the government. Government-owned forest is estimated at whilst private is given as . Most of the forests in the state are located in the interior eastern regions of the state. The Western Ghats
, which form most of eastern Goa, have been internationally recognised as one of the biodiversity hotspots of the world. In the February 1999 issue of ''National Geographic Magazine'', Goa was compared with the Amazon and the Congo basins for its rich tropical biodiversity.
Goa's wildlife sanctuaries boast of more than 1512 documented species of plants, over 275 species of birds, over 48 kinds of animals and over 60 genera of reptiles.
Goa is also known for its coconut cultivation. The coconut tree has been reclassified by the government as a palm (like grass), enabling farmers and real estate developers to clear land with fewer restrictions.
Rice is the main food crop, and pulses (legume), ''Ragi'' (Finger Millet), and other food crops are also grown. Main cash crops are coconut, cashewnut, areca nut, sugarcane, and fruits like pineapple, mango and banana.
Goa's state animal is the Gaur
, the state bird is the Ruby Throated Yellow Bulbul, which is a variation of Black-crested Bulbul
, and the state tree is the Matti (Asna)
The important forest products are bamboo canes, Maratha
barks, chillar barks, and the bhirand
. Coconut trees are ubiquitous and are present in almost all areas of Goa barring the elevated regions. A variety of deciduous
trees, such as teak, Sal tree, cashew, and mango trees are present. Fruits include jackfruit, mango, pineapple, and "black-berry" ("podkoam" in Konkani language). Goa's forests are rich in medicinal plants.
Foxes, wild boar and migratory birds are found in the jungles of Goa. The avifauna (bird species) includes kingfisher, ''myna'' and parrot. Numerous types of fish are also caught off the coast of Goa and in its rivers. Crab, lobster, shrimp, jellyfish, oysters, and catfish are the basis of the marine fishery. Goa also has a high snake population. Goa has many famous "National Parks", including the renowned Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary
on the island of Chorão
. Other wildlife sanctuaries include the Bondla Wildlife Sanctuary
, Molem Wildlife Sanctuary
, Cotigao Wildlife Sanctuary
, Madei Wildlife Sanctuary
, Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary
, and Mahaveer Wildlife Sanctuary
Goa has more than 33% of its geographic area under government forests (1224.38 km2
) of which about 62% has been brought under Protected Areas (PA) of Wildlife Sanctuaries and National Park. Since there is a substantial area under private forests and a large tract under cashew, mango, coconut, etc. plantations, the total forest and tree cover constitutes 56.6% of the geographic area.
Goa's state domestic product for 2017 is estimated at $11 billion at current prices. Goa is India's richest state with the highest GDP per capita – two and a half times that of the country – with one of its fastest growth rates: 8.23% (yearly average 1990–2000).
Tourism is Goa's primary industry: it gets 12% of foreign tourist arrivals in India. Goa has two main tourist seasons: winter and summer. In winter, tourists from abroad (mainly Europe) come, and summer (which, in Goa, is the rainy season) sees tourists from across India. Goa's net state domestic product
(NSDP) was around US$7.24 billion in 2015–16.
The land away from the coast is rich in minerals and ores, and mining forms the second largest industry. Iron, bauxite, manganese, clays, limestone, and silica are mined. The Mormugao
port handled 31.69 million tonnes of cargo in 2007, which was 39% of India's total iron ore exports. Sesa Goa
(now owned by Vedanta Resources) and Dempo are the lead miners. Rampant mining has been depleting the forest cover as well as posing a health hazard to the local population. Corporations are also mining illegally in some areas. During 2015–16, the total traffic handled by Mormugao port was recorded to be 20.78 million tonnes.
Agriculture, while of shrinking importance to the economy over the past four decades, offers part-time employment to a sizeable portion of the populace. Rice is the main agricultural crop, followed by areca
, and coconut
. Fishing employs about 40,000 people, though recent official figures indicate a decline of the importance of this sector and also a fall in the catch, due perhaps, to traditional fishing giving way to large-scale mechanised trawling.
Medium-scale industries include the manufacturing of pesticides, fertilisers, tyres, tubes, footwear, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, wheat products, steel rolling, fruits and fish canning, cashew nuts, textiles, brewery products.
Currently, there are 16 planned SEZs in Goa. The Goa government has recently decided to not allow any more Special Economic Zone
s (SEZs) in Goa after strong opposition to them by political parties and the Goa Catholic Church.
Goa is also notable for its low priced beer, wine, and spirits prices due to its very low excise duty on alcohol. Another main source of cash inflow to the state is remittance, from many of its citizens who work abroad, to their families. It is said to have some of the largest bank savings in the country.
In 1976 Goa became the first state in India to legalize some types of gambling. This enabled the state to levy taxes on gambling, thereby strengthening the economy.
Goa is the second state in India to achieve a 100 percent automatic telephone system with a solid network of telephone exchanges. As of September 2017, Goa had a total installed power generation capacity of 547.88 MW. Goa is also one of the few states in India to achieve 100 percent rural electrification.
Iron Ore Train Goa.jpg|Train carrying iron ore to Marmagao Port, Vasco.
Panjim Downtown.JPG|Commercial area in Panaji.
A native of Goa is called a Goan
. Goa has a population of 1.459 million residents as of 2011, making it India's fourth smallest (after Sikkim
and Arunachal Pradesh
). There are currently 394 people for each square kilometre of land which is higher than national average 382 per km2
. Goa is the state with highest proportion of urban population with 62.17% of the population living in urban areas. The sex ratio
is 973 females to 1,000 males. The birth rate is 15.70 per 1,000 people in 2007. Goa also is the state with lowest proportion of Scheduled Tribe
s at 0.04%.
Estimates put the migrant, or non-Goan Indian origin, population at over 40% of the resident population, with a state government study projecting that by 2021 the migrant community will outnumber the native population.
The Goa, Daman and Diu Official Language Act, 1987 makes Konkani
in the Devanagari
script the sole official language of Goa, but provides that Marathi
may also be used "for all or any of the official purposes". Portuguese
was the sole official language during Portuguese colonial rule
. The government also has a policy of replying in Marathi to correspondence received in Marathi. There have been demands for according Konkani in the Roman script
official status in the state. There is widespread support for keeping Konkani as the sole official language of Goa
. The entire liturgy and communication of the Catholic church
in Goa is done solely in Konkani in the Roman script
Konkani is spoken as a native language by about 66.11% of the people in the state, but almost all Goans can speak and understand Konkani. Other linguistic groups in the state per the 2011 census are speakers of Marathi (10.89%), Hindi
(4.66%) and Urdu
Historically, Konkani was neither the official nor the administrative language of the many rulers of the State. Under the Kadambas
(c. 960 – 1310), the court language was Kannada. When under Muslim rule (1312 - 1370 and 1469 - 1510), the official and cultural language was Persian
. Various stones in the Archaeological Museum and Portrait Gallery
from the period are inscribed in Kannada and Persian.
During the period in between the two periods of Muslim rule, the Vijayanagara Empire
, which had control of the state, mandated the use of Kannada and Telugu
According to the 2011 census, in a population of 1,458,545 people, 66.1% were Hindu
, 25.1% were Christian
, 8.3% were Muslim
and 0.1% were Sikh
Due to the economic decline of Portuguese India
from the 18th century, there was a large-scale migration of Goan Catholics. The local Indian Christians were called "indiacatos" and the mixed population, mestiços
by the Portuguese. The population moved from 64.5% Christian and 35% Hindu in 1851 to 50% Christian and 50% Hindu in 1900, with a steady increase in the Hindu proportion from then onwards.
The Catholics in Goa state and Daman and Diu
union territory are served by the Metropolitan Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Goa and Daman
, the primatial see
of India, in which the titular Patriarchate of the East Indies
Tourism is generally focused on the coastal areas of Goa, with lower tourist activity inland. In 2010, there were more than 2 million tourists reported to have visited Goa, about 1.2 million of whom were from abroad.
, Goa was a destination of choice for Indian and foreign tourists, particularly Britons and Russians, with limited means who wanted to party. The state was hopeful that changes could be made which would attract a more upscale demographic.
Goa stands 6th in the Top 10 Nightlife cities in the world in National Geographic Travel
. Notable nightclubs in Goa include Chronicle, Mambos and Sinq.
One of the biggest tourist attractions in Goa is water sports. Beaches like Baga and Calangute offer jet-skiing, parasailing, banana boat rides, water scooter rides, and more. Patnem beach in Palolem
stood third in CNN Travel
's Top 20 Beaches in Asia
Over 450 years of Portuguese rule and the influence of the Portuguese culture presents to visitors to Goa a cultural environment that is not found elsewhere in India. Goa is often described as a fusion between Eastern and Western culture with Portuguese culture having a dominant position in the state be it in its architectural, cultural or social settings. The state of Goa is famous for its excellent beaches, churches, and temples. The Bom Jesus Cathedral, Fort Aguada and a new wax museum on Indian history, culture and heritage in Old Goa are other tourism destinations.
Historic sites and neighbourhoods
Goa has two World Heritage Sites
: the Bom Jesus Basilica
and churches and convents of Old Goa
. The basilica holds the mortal remains of St. Francis Xavier
, regarded by many Catholics as the patron saint
of Goa (the patron of the Archdiocese of Goa
is actually Saint Joseph Vaz
). These are both Portuguese-era monuments and reflect a strong European character. The relics are taken down for veneration and for public viewing, per the prerogative of the Church in Goa, not every ten or twelve years as popularly thought and propagated. The last exposition was held in 2014.
Goa has the Sanctuary of Saint Joseph Vaz in Sancoale
monastery which holds novenas of Venerable Padre Agnelo Gustavo de Souza
from 10 to 20 November yearly. There is a claimed Marian Apparition
at the Church of Saints Simon and Jude
, near Pilar
, where Goans and non-resident Goans visit. There is the statue of the bleeding Jesus
on the Crucifix
at the Santa Monica Convent
in Velha Goa
. There are churches (''Igorzo''), like the baroque styled ''Nixkollounk Gorb-Sombhov Saibinnich Igorz'' (Church of the Our Lady of Immaculate Conception
) in Panaji
, the Gothic
styled ''Mater Dei'' (''Dêv Matechi Igorz''/ Mother of God
and each church having its own style and heritage, besides ''Kopelam/ Irmidi'' (chapels).
The Velhas Conquistas
regions are known for Goa-Portuguese style architecture. There are many forts in Goa such as Tiracol
, Reis Magos
, Fort Gaspar Dias and Cabo de Rama
In many parts of Goa, mansions constructed in the Indo-Portuguese style architecture still stand, though in some villages, most of them are in a dilapidated condition. Fontainhas
in Panaji has been declared a cultural quarter, showcasing the life, architecture and culture of Goa. Influences from the Portuguese era are visible in some of Goa's temples, notably the Shanta Durga Temple
, the Mangueshi Temple
, the Shri Damodar Temple
and the Mahalasa
Temple. After 1961, many of these were demolished and reconstructed in the indigenous Indian style.
Museums and science centre
Goa has three important museums: the Goa State Museum
, the Naval Aviation Museum
and the National Institute of Oceanography
. The aviation museum is one of three in India (the others are in Delhi
). The Goa Science Centre
is in Miramar, Panaji.
[, Nehru Science Centre website. Retrieved 4 August 2010.]
The National Institute of Oceanography, India
(NIO) is in Dona Paula.
[NIO website](_blank) Museum of Goa
. Retrieved 4 August 2010.
is a privately owned contemporary art gallery in Pilerne Industrial Estate, near Calangute
Having been a Portuguese territory
for over 450 years, Goan culture is an amalgamation of both Eastern
styles, with the latter having a more dominant role. The tableau of Goa showcases religious harmony by focusing on the Deepastambha, the Cross, and Ghode Modni followed by a chariot. Western royal attire of kings is as much part of Goa's cultural heritage as are regional dances performed depicting a unique blend of different religions and cultures of this State. Prominent local festivals are Christmas
, Samvatsar Padvo
etc. The Goan Carnival and Christmas-new year celebrations attract many tourists.
The Gomant Vibhushan Award
, the highest civilian honour of the State of Goa, is given annually by Government of Goa
Dance and music
Traditional Goan art forms are Dekhnni
. Goan Catholics are fond of social gatherings and Tiatr
(Teatro). As part of its Portuguese history, music is an integral part of Goan homes. It is often said that "Goans are born with music and sport". Western musical instruments like the piano, guitars and violins are widely used in most religious and social functions of the Catholics.
Goan Hindus are very fond of Natak
. Many famous Indian classical
singers hail from Goa, including Mogubai Kurdikar
, Kishori Amonkar
, Kesarbai Kerkar
, Jitendra Abhisheki
and Pandit Prabhakar Karekar.
Goa is also known as the origin of Goa trance
(most popular) and Jagor are the chief forms of Goa's traditional performance arts. Other forms are Ranmale, Dashavatari, Kalo, Goulankala, Lalit, Kala and Rathkala. Stories from the Ramayana
and the Mahabharata
along with more modern social subjects are narrated with song and dance.
"Jagor", the traditional folk dance-drama, is performed by the Hindu Kunbi and Christian Gauda community of Goa, to seek the Divine Grace for protection and prosperity of the crop. Literal meaning of Jagor is "jagran" or wakeful nights. The strong belief is that the night-long performance awakens the deities once a year and they continue to remain awake throughout the year guarding the village.
Perni Jagor is the ancient mask dance – drama of Goa, performed by Perni families, using well-crafted and painted wooden masks, depicting various animals, birds, super natural power, deities, demons, and social characters.
Gauda Jagor is an impression of social life, that displays all the existing moods and modes of human characters. It is predominantly based on three main characters, Gharasher, Nikhandar and Parpati wearing shining dresses and headgears. The performance is accompanied by vibrant tunes of Goan folk instruments like Nagara/Dobe, Ghumat, Madale, and Kansale.
In some places, Jagor performances are held with the participation of both Hindus and the Christian community, whereby, characters are played by Hindus and musical support is provided by Christian artistes.
''Tiatr (Teatro)'' and its artists play a major role in keeping the Konkani language and music alive. Tiatrs are conducted solely in the Roman script of Konkani as it is primarily a Christian community-based act. They are played in scenes with music at regular intervals, the scenes are portrayals of daily life and are known to depict social and cultural scenarios. Tiatrs are regularly held especially on weekends mainly at Kala Academy, Panaji, Pai Tiatrist Hall at Ravindra Bhavan, Margao and most recent shows have also started at the new Ravindra Bhavan, Baina, Vasco. Western Musical Instruments such as Drums, Bass, Keyboards, and Trumpets. are part of the show and most of them are played acoustically. It is one of Goa's few art forms that is renowned across the world with performances popular among Goans in the Middle-East, Americas and Europe.
is an Indian film
industry, where film
s are made in the Konkani language
, which is spoken mainly in the India
n states of Goa, Maharashtra
and to a smaller extent in Kerala
. Konkani films have been produced in Goa, Karnataka
The first full-length Konkani film was ''Mogacho Anvddo
'', released on 24 April 1950, and was produced and directed by A. L.Jerry Braganza, a native of Mapusa
, under the banner of ETICA Pictures. Hence, 24 April is celebrated as Konkani Film Day.
Since 2004, starting from the 35th edition, the International Film Festival of India
moved its permanent venue to Goa, it is annually held in the months of November and December.
Konkani film Paltadcho manis
has been included in the world's best films of 2009 list.
Konkani films are eligible for the National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Konkani
. The most commercially successful Konkani film (as of June 2011) is O Maria
directed by Rajendra Talak.
In 2012, the whole new change adopted in Konkani Cinema by introducing Digital Theatrical Film "The Victim
" directed by Milroy Goes
Some old Konkani films are ''Sukhachem Sopon'', ''Amchem Noxib
'', ''Mhoji Ghorkarn'', ''Kortubancho Sonvsar'', ''Jivit Amchem Oxem'', ''Mog ani Moipas'', ''Bhuierantlo Munis
'', ''Suzanne'', ''Boglantt
'' and ''Bhogsonne''. Ujwadu
is a 2011 Konkani film directed by Kasargod Chinna and produced by KJ Dhananjaya and Anuradha Padiyar.
Goan prawn curry.jpg|Goan prawn curry, a popular dish throughout the state.
Vindalho.jpg|Pork ''vindaloo'' is a popular Goan curry dish in the state and around the world.
Chamuças.jpg|''Chamuças'', Goan samosas
Goan Fish Curry.jpg|Traditional Goan fish curry
Prawns tandoori and Lobster.jpg| Tandoori lobster with fries and vegetables.
Tandoori prawns with sauce.
Rice with fish curry
(''xit koddi'' in Konkani
) is the staple diet in Goa. Goan cuisine
is famous for its rich variety of fish dishes cooked with elaborate recipes. Coconut
and coconut oil
are widely used in Goan cooking along with chili pepper
s, and vinegar
is used in the Catholic cuisine, giving the food a unique flavour. The Goan cuisine is heavily influenced by Portuguese cuisine
Goan food may be divided into Goan Catholic and Goan Hindu cuisine with each showing very distinct tastes, characteristics, and cooking styles. Pork
dishes such as Vindalho
, and Sorpotel
are cooked for major occasions among the Goan Catholics
. An exotic Goan vegetable stew, known as Khatkhate
, is a very popular dish during the celebrations of festivals, Hindu and Christian alike. Khatkhate contains at least five vegetables, fresh coconut, and special Goan spices that add to the aroma.
, ''Hitt'', are variants of idli
and ''Polle'', ''Amboli'', and ''Kailoleo'' are variants of dosa
; all are native to Goa. A rich egg
-based, multi-layered sweet dish known as bebinca
is a favourite at Christmas.
There are some places in Goa which are famous for Goa's traditional & special cuisines. Ros omelette
is one of the most popular snacks and street foods in Goa, it is traditionally sold on food carts on streets.
The most popular alcoholic beverage in Goa is feni
; cashew feni is made from the fermentation of the fruit of the cashew tree, while coconut feni is made from the sap of toddy palms. Urrak is another local liquor prepared from Cashew fruit. In fact the bar culture is one of the unique aspects of the Goan villages where a local bar serves as a meeting point for villagers to unwind. Goa also has a rich wine culture.
Costa Residence Margao.jpg|''The House of the Seven Gables'' in Margao.
Galeria_em_Fontainhas.jpg|''Velha Goa Galeria'', in Panaji.
The architecture of Goa is a combination of Goan, Ottoman
styles. Since the Portuguese ruled and governed for four centuries, many churches and houses bear a striking element of the Portuguese style of architecture. Goan Hindu houses do not show any Portuguese influence, though the modern temple architecture is an amalgam of original Goan temple style with Dravidian
, Islamic, and Portuguese architecture.
The original Goan temple architecture fell into disuse as the temples were demolished by the Portuguese and the ''Sthapati
'' known as ''Thavayi'' in Konkani were converted to Christianity though the wooden work and the ''Kavi
'' murals can still be seen.
Media and communication
Goa is served by almost all television channel
s available in India. Channels are received through cable in most parts of Goa. In the interior regions, channels are received via satellite dish
, the national television broadcaster, has two free terrestrial channels on air.
DTH (Direct To Home
) TV services are available from Dish TV
, Videocon D2H
, Tata Sky
& DD Direct Plus
. The All India Radio
is the only radio channel
in the state that broadcasts on both FM
bands. Two AM channels are broadcast, the primary channel at 1287 kHz and the Vividh Bharati channel at 1539 kHz. AIR's FM channel is called FM Rainbow and is broadcast at 105.4 MHz. A number of private FM radio channels are available, Big FM
at 92.7 and Radio Indigo
at 91.9 MHz. There is also an educational radio channel, Gyan Vani
, run by IGNOU
broadcast from Panaji at 107.8 MHz. In 2006, St Xavier's College, Mapusa, became the first college in the state to launch a campus community radio station "Voice of Xavier's".
Major cellular service operators include Bharti Airtel
, Vodafone Essar
, Idea Cellular
, Reliance Infocomm
, Tata DoCoMo
, BSNL CellOne
Local publications include the English language
'' (Goa's oldest, once a Portuguese language paper), ''The Gomantak Times'' and ''The Navhind Times
''. In addition to these, ''The Times of India
'' and ''The Indian Express
'' are also received from Mumbai and Bangalore in the urban areas. ''The Times of India'' has recently started publication from Goa itself, serving the local population news directly from the state capital. Among the list of officially accredited newspapers are ''O Heraldo'', ''The Navhind Times'' and ''The Gomantak Times'' in English; ''Bhaangar Bhuin
'' in Konkani (Devanagari script); and ''Tarun Bharat
'', ''Gomantak'', ''Navprabha'', ''Goa Times'', ''Sanatan Prabhat'', ''Govadoot'' and ''Lokmat'' (all in Marathi). All are dailies. Other publications in the state include ''Planet Goa'' (English, monthly), ''Goa Today
'' (English, monthly), ''Goan Observer'' (English, weekly), ''Vauraddeancho Ixtt
'' (Roman-script Konkani
, weekly) ''Goa Messenger'', ''Vasco Watch'', ''Gulab'' (Konkani, monthly), ''Bimb'' (Devanagari-script Konkani).
Normally other states are fond of cricket but association football
is the most popular sport in Goa and is embedded in Goan culture as a result of the Portuguese influence.
Its origins in the state are traced back to 1883 when the visiting Irish priest Fr. William Robert Lyons established the sport as part of a "Christian education".
On 22 December 1959 the ''Associação de Futebol de Goa'' was formed, which continues to administer the game in the state under the new name Goa Football Association
Goa, along with West Bengal
is the locus of football in India and is home to many football clubs in the national I-League
. The state's football powerhouses include Salgaocar
, Churchill Brothers
, Sporting Clube de Goa
and FC Goa
. The first Unity World Cup
was held in Goa in 2014. The state's main football stadium, Fatorda Stadium
, is located at Margao
and also hosts cricket matches. The state hosted few matches of the 2017 FIFA U-17 World Cup
in Fatorda Stadium.
A number of Goans have represented India in football and six of them, namely Samir Naik
, Climax Lawrence
, Brahmanand Sankhwalkar
, Bruno Coutinho
, Mauricio Afonso
and Roberto Fernandes have all captained the national team. Goa has its own state football team
and league, the Goa Professional League
. It is probably the only state in India where cricket is not considered the most important of all sports. Goan's are avid football fans, particularly of the football teams from Portugal (Benfica, Sporting), and Brazil especially during major football events such as the 'European Cup' and the 'World Cup' championships. The Portuguese footballer 'Ronaldo' and Brazilian 'Neymar', are revered superstar football players in Goa.
Goa also has its own cricket team
. Dilip Sardesai
remains the only Goan to date to play international cricket for India
The Indian Olympic Association (IOA) has won the right to host the Asian Beach Games
in Goa in 2020. India (Goa) is a member of the 'Lusophony Olympic Games' which are hosted every four years in one of the Portuguese CPLP member countries, with 733 athletes from 11 countries. Most of the countries competing are countries that are members of the CPLP (Community of Portuguese Language Countries), but some are countries with significant Portuguese communities or have a history with Portugal. This event is similar in concept to the Commonwealth Games (for members of the Commonwealth of Nations) and the Jeux de la Francophonie (for the Francophone community).
Goa University, Goa.jpg|Goa University
Carmel's College for Women, Nuvem, Goa, India.jpg|Carmel College for Women is affiliated to Goa University. It was established more than 50 years to aid in closing the education gender gap.
GMC building.jpg|Goa Medical College, previously called ''Escola Médico–Cirúrgica de Goa''.
Goa had India's earliest educational institutions built with European support. The Portuguese set up seminaries for religious education and parish schools for elementary education. Founded circa 1542 by Saint Francis Xavier, Saint Paul's College, Goa
was a Jesuit school in Old Goa, which later became a college. St Paul's was once the main Jesuit institution in the whole of Asia. It housed the first printing press in India and published the first books in 1556.
Medical education began in 1801 with the offering of regular medical courses at the Royal and Military Hospital in the old City of Goa. Built in 1842 as the Escola Médico-Cirúrgica de (Nova) Goa (Medical-Surgical School of Goa), Goa Medical College
is one of Asia's oldest medical colleges and has one of the oldest medical libraries (since 1845). It houses the largest hospital in Goa and continues to provide medical training to this day.
According to the 2011 census, Goa has a literacy rate
of 87%, with 90% of males and 84% of females being literate.
Each taluka is made up of villages, each having a school run by the government. Private schools are preferred over government-run schools. All schools come under the Goa Board of Secondary & Higher Secondary Education
, whose syllabus is prescribed by the state education department. There are also a few schools that subscribe to the all-India ICSE
syllabus or the NIOS
syllabus. Most students in Goa complete their high school with English as the medium of instruction. Most primary schools, however, use Konkani and Marathi (in private, but government-aided schools). As is the case in most of India, enrolment for vernacular media has seen a fall in numbers in favour of English medium education. Per a report published in ''The Times of India
'', 84% of Goan primary schools run without an administrative head.
Some notable schools in Goa include Sharada Mandir
School in Miramar
, Loyola High School
in Margao and The King's School
in São José de Areal
. After ten years of schooling, students join a Higher Secondary school, which offers courses in popular streams such as Science
. A student may also opt for a course in vocational studies. Additionally, they may join three-year diploma
courses. Two years of college is followed by a professional degree
programme. Goa University
, the sole university
in Goa, is located in Taleigão
and most Goan colleges are affiliated with it.
There are six engineering
colleges in the state. Goa Engineering College
and National Institute of Technology Goa
are government-funded colleges whereas the private engineering colleges include Don Bosco College of Engineering at Fatorda, Shree Rayeshwar Institute of Engineering and Information Technology at Shiroda, Agnel Institute of Technology and Design (AITD), Assagao, Bardez and Padre Conceicao College of Engineering
at Verna. In 2004, BITS Pilani
one of the premier institutes in India, inaugurated its second campus, the BITS Pilani Goa Campus
, at Zuarinagar near Dabolim
. The Indian Institute of Technology Goa (IIT Goa) began functioning from its temporary campus, located in Goa Engineering College since 2016. The site for permanent campus was finalised in Cotarli, Sanguem
There are colleges offering pharmacy
along with numerous private colleges offering law
. There are also two National Oceanographic Science related centres: the National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research
in Vasco da Gama and the National Institute of Oceanography
in Dona Paula
Goa Institute of Management
located at Sanquelim, near Panaji is one of India's premier business schools.
In addition to the engineering colleges, there are government polytechnic institutions in Panaji
, and aided institutions like Father Agnel Polytechnic in Verna and the Institute of Shipbuilding Technology in Vasco da Gama which impart technical and vocational training.
Other colleges in Goa include Shri Damodar College of Commerce and Economics, V.V.M's R.M. Salgaocar Higher Secondary School in Margao
, G.V.M's S.N.J.A higher secondary school, Don Bosco College, D.M.'s College of Arts, Science and Commerce, St Xavier's College, Carmel College, The Parvatibai Chowgule College
, Dhempe College, Damodar College, M. E. S. College of Arts & Commerce, S. S. Samiti's Higher Secondary School of Science and Rosary College of Commerce & Arts. As the result of renewed interest in the Portuguese language and culture, Portuguese at all levels of instruction is offered in many schools in Goa, largely private ones. In some cases, Goan students do student exchange programs in Portugal.
Goa International Airport
, is a civil enclave
at INS Hansa
, a Naval airfield located at Dabolim
near Vasco da Gama
. The airport caters to scheduled domestic and international air services. Goa has scheduled international connections to Doha
in the Middle East
by airlines like Air Arabia
, Air India
, Oman Air
and Qatar Airways
. Though night operations were not permitted till recently, the military now allows civil airlines to fly during the night.
A greenfield airport
is under construction at Mopa
It is expected to be completed by 2022.
Goa's public transport
largely consists of privately operated buses linking the major towns to rural areas. Government-run buses, maintained by the Kadamba Transport Corporation
, link major routes (like the Panaji–Margao route) and some remote parts of the state. The Corporation owns 15 bus stands, 4 depots and one Central workshop at Porvorim and a Head Office at Porvorim.
In large towns such as Panaji and Margao, intra-city buses operate. However, public transport in Goa is less developed, and residents depend heavily on their own transportation, usually motorised two-wheelers and small family cars.
Goa has four National Highways
passing through it. NH-66 (ex NH-17
) runs along India's west coast and links Goa to Mumbai
in the north and Mangalore
to the south. NH-4A
running across the state connects the capital Panaji to Belgaum
in east, linking Goa to cities in the Deccan
. The NH-366 (ex NH-17A
) connects NH-66 to Mormugao
Port from Cortalim. The new NH-566 (ex NH-17B) is a four-lane highway connecting Mormugao Port to NH-66 at Verna via Dabolim Airport
, primarily built to ease pressure on the NH-366 for traffic to Dabolim Airport and Vasco da Gama. NH-768 (ex NH-4A) links Panaji and Ponda to Belgaum and NH-4. Goa has a total of of national highways, of state highway and of district highway. National Highways in Goa are among the narrowest in the country and will remain so for the foreseeable future, as the state government has received an exemption that allows narrow national highways. In Kerala, highways are wide. In other states National Highways are grade separated highways wide with a minimum of four lanes, as well as 6 or 8 lane access-controlled expressways.
Hired forms of transport include unmetered taxis and, in urban areas, auto rickshaws
. Another form of transportation in Goa is the motorcycle taxi
, operated by drivers who are locally called "pilots". These vehicles transport a single pillion
rider, at fares that are usually negotiated. Other than buses, "pilots" tend to be the cheapest mode of transport.
River crossings in Goa are serviced by flat-bottomed ferry
boats, operated by the river navigation department.
Goa has two rail lines
– one run by the South Western Railway and the other by the Konkan Railway
. The line run by the South Western Railway
was built during the colonial era linking the port town of Vasco da Gama, Goa
. The Konkan Railway line, which was built during the 1990s, runs parallel to the coast connecting major cities on the western coast.
The Mormugao Port Trust
near the city of Vasco handles mineral ore, petroleum, coal, and international containers. Much of the shipments consist of minerals and ores from Goa's hinterland. Panaji, which is on the banks of the Mandovi, has a minor port, which used to handle passengers steamers
between Goa and Mumbai till the late 1980s. There was also a short-lived catamaran service linking Mumbai and Panaji operated by Damania Shipping in the 1990s.
, United States of America
* Civil Code of Goa and Damaon
* Outline of Goa
* Portuguese Goa and Damaon
* Andrada (undated). ''The Life of Dom John de Castro: The Fourth Vice Roy of India''. Jacinto Freire de Andrada. Translated into English by Peter Wyche. (1664). Henry Herrington, New Exchange, London. Facsimile edition (1994) AES Reprint, New Delhi. .
Government of GoaDepartment of Tourism
; General information
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