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Zinc
Zinc
is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30. It is the first element in group 12 of the periodic table. In some respects zinc is chemically similar to magnesium: both elements exhibit only one normal oxidation state (+2), and the Zn2+ and Mg2+ ions are of similar size. Zinc
Zinc
is the 24th most abundant element in Earth's crust and has five stable isotopes. The most common zinc ore is sphalerite (zinc blende), a zinc sulfide mineral. The largest workable lodes are in Australia, Asia, and the United States. Zinc
Zinc
is refined by froth flotation of the ore, roasting, and final extraction using electricity (electrowinning). Brass, an alloy of copper and zinc in various proportions, was used as early as the third millennium BC in the Aegean, Iraq, the United Arab Emirates, Kalmykia, Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
and Georgia, and the second millennium BC in West India, Uzbekistan, Iran, Syria, Iraq, and Israel[3] (Judea[4]).[5] Zinc
Zinc
metal was not produced on a large scale until the 12th century in India, though it was known to the ancient Romans and Greeks.[6] The mines of Rajasthan
Rajasthan
have given definite evidence of zinc production going back to the 6th century BC.[7] To date, the oldest evidence of pure zinc comes from Zawar, in Rajasthan, as early as the 9th century AD when a distillation process was employed to make pure zinc.[8] Alchemists burned zinc in air to form what they called "philosopher's wool" or "white snow". The element was probably named by the alchemist Paracelsus
Paracelsus
after the German word Zinke (prong, tooth). German chemist Andreas Sigismund Marggraf is credited with discovering pure metallic zinc in 1746. Work by Luigi Galvani
Luigi Galvani
and Alessandro Volta
Alessandro Volta
uncovered the electrochemical properties of zinc by 1800. Corrosion-resistant zinc plating of iron (hot-dip galvanizing) is the major application for zinc. Other applications are in electrical batteries, small non-structural castings, and alloys such as brass. A variety of zinc compounds are commonly used, such as zinc carbonate and zinc gluconate (as dietary supplements), zinc chloride (in deodorants), zinc pyrithione (anti-dandruff shampoos), zinc sulfide (in luminescent paints), and zinc methyl or zinc diethyl in the organic laboratory. Zinc
Zinc
is an essential mineral, including to prenatal and postnatal development.[9] Zinc deficiency affects about two billion people in the developing world and is associated with many diseases.[10] In children, deficiency causes growth retardation, delayed sexual maturation, infection susceptibility, and diarrhea.[9] Enzymes with a zinc atom in the reactive center are widespread in biochemistry, such as alcohol dehydrogenase in humans.[11] Consumption of excess zinc can cause ataxia, lethargy and copper deficiency.

Contents

1 Characteristics

1.1 Physical properties 1.2 Occurrence 1.3 Isotopes

2 Compounds and chemistry

2.1 Reactivity 2.2 Zinc(I) compounds 2.3 Zinc(II) compounds 2.4 Test for zinc

3 History

3.1 Ancient use 3.2 Early studies and naming 3.3 Isolation 3.4 Later work

4 Production

4.1 Mining and processing 4.2 Environmental impact

5 Applications

5.1 Anti-corrosion and batteries 5.2 Alloys 5.3 Other industrial uses 5.4 Organic chemistry 5.5 Dietary supplement

5.5.1 Common cold

5.6 Topical use

6 Biological role

6.1 Enzymes 6.2 Signalling 6.3 Other proteins 6.4 Dietary recommendations 6.5 Dietary intake 6.6 Deficiency 6.7 Soil
Soil
remediation 6.8 Agriculture

7 Precautions

7.1 Toxicity 7.2 Poisoning

8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 Bibliography 12 External links

Characteristics[edit] Physical properties[edit] Zinc
Zinc
is a bluish-white, lustrous, diamagnetic metal,[12] though most common commercial grades of the metal have a dull finish.[13] It is somewhat less dense than iron and has a hexagonal crystal structure, with a distorted form of hexagonal close packing, in which each atom has six nearest neighbors (at 265.9 pm) in its own plane and six others at a greater distance of 290.6 pm.[14] The metal is hard and brittle at most temperatures but becomes malleable between 100 and 150 °C.[12][13] Above 210 °C, the metal becomes brittle again and can be pulverized by beating.[15] Zinc
Zinc
is a fair conductor of electricity.[12] For a metal, zinc has relatively low melting (419.5 °C) and boiling points (907 °C).[16] The melting point is the lowest of all the d-block metals aside from mercury and cadmium; for this, among other reasons, zinc, cadmium, and mercury are often not considered to be transition metals like the rest of the d-block metals are.[16] Many alloys contain zinc, including brass. Other metals long known to form binary alloys with zinc are aluminium, antimony, bismuth, gold, iron, lead, mercury, silver, tin, magnesium, cobalt, nickel, tellurium, and sodium.[17] Although neither zinc nor zirconium are ferromagnetic, their alloy ZrZn 2 exhibits ferromagnetism below 35 K.[12] A bar of zinc generates a characteristic sound when bent, similar to tin cry. Occurrence[edit] See also: Zinc
Zinc
minerals Zinc
Zinc
makes up about 75 ppm (0.0075%) of Earth's crust, making it the 24th most abundant element. Soil
Soil
contains zinc in 5–770 ppm with an average 64 ppm. Seawater
Seawater
has only 30 ppb and the atmosphere, 0.1–4 µg/m3.[18]

Sphalerite
Sphalerite
(ZnS)

The element is normally found in association with other base metals such as copper and lead in ores.[19] Zinc
Zinc
is a chalcophile, meaning the element is more likely to be found in minerals together with sulfur and other heavy chalcogens, rather than with the light chalcogen oxygen or with non-chalcogen electronegative elements such as the halogens. Sulfides formed as the crust solidified under the reducing conditions of the early Earth's atmosphere.[20] Sphalerite, which is a form of zinc sulfide, is the most heavily mined zinc-containing ore because its concentrate contains 60–62% zinc.[19] Other source minerals for zinc include smithsonite (zinc carbonate), hemimorphite (zinc silicate), wurtzite (another zinc sulfide), and sometimes hydrozincite (basic zinc carbonate).[21] With the exception of wurtzite, all these other minerals were formed by weathering of the primordial zinc sulfides.[20] Identified world zinc resources total about 1.9–2.8 billion tonnes.[22][23] Large deposits are in Australia, Canada and the United States, with the largest reserves in Iran.[20][24][25] The most recent estimate of reserve base for zinc (meets specified minimum physical criteria related to current mining and production practices) was made in 2009 and calculated to be roughly 480 Mt.[26] Zinc
Zinc
reserves, on the other hand, are geologically identified ore bodies whose suitability for recovery is economically based (location, grade, quality, and quantity) at the time of determination. Since exploration and mine development is an ongoing process, the amount of zinc reserves is not a fixed number and sustainability of zinc ore supplies cannot be judged by simply extrapolating the combined mine life of today's zinc mines. This concept is well supported by data from the United States Geological Survey (USGS), which illustrates that although refined zinc production increased 80% between 1990 and 2010, the reserve lifetime for zinc has remained unchanged. About 346 million tonnes have been extracted throughout history to 2002, and scholars have estimated that about 109–305 million tonnes are in use.[27][28][29] Isotopes[edit] Main article: Isotopes of zinc Five isotopes of zinc occur in nature. 64Zn is the most abundant isotope (48.63% natural abundance).[30] That isotope has such a long half-life, at 7026135697680000000♠4.3×1018 years,[31] that its radioactivity can be ignored.[32] Similarly, 70Zn (0.6%), with a half-life of 7023410248800000000♠1.3×1016 years is not usually considered to be radioactive. The other isotopes found in nature are 66Zn (28%), 67Zn (4%) and 68Zn (19%). Several dozen radioisotopes have been characterized. 65Zn, which has a half-life of 243.66 days, is the least active radioisotope, followed by 72Zn with a half-life of 46.5 hours.[30] Zinc
Zinc
has 10 nuclear isomers. 69mZn has the longest half-life, 13.76 h.[30] The superscript m indicates a metastable isotope. The nucleus of a metastable isotope is in an excited state and will return to the ground state by emitting a photon in the form of a gamma ray. 61Zn has three excited metastable states and 73Zn has two.[33] The isotopes 65Zn, 71Zn, 77Zn and 78Zn each have only one excited metastable state.[30] The most common decay mode of a radioisotope of zinc with a mass number lower than 66 is electron capture. The decay product resulting from electron capture is an isotope of copper.[30]

n 30Zn + e− → n 29Cu

The most common decay mode of a radioisotope of zinc with mass number higher than 66 is beta decay (β−), which produces an isotope of gallium.[30]

n 30Zn → n 31Ga + e− + ν e

Compounds and chemistry[edit] Main article: Compounds of zinc Reactivity[edit] See also: Clemmensen reduction Zinc
Zinc
has an electron configuration of [Ar]3d104s2 and is a member of the group 12 of the periodic table. It is a moderately reactive metal and strong reducing agent.[34] The surface of the pure metal tarnishes quickly, eventually forming a protective passivating layer of the basic zinc carbonate, Zn 5(OH) 6(CO3) 2, by reaction with atmospheric carbon dioxide.[35] This layer helps prevent further reaction with air and water. Zinc
Zinc
burns in air with a bright bluish-green flame, giving off fumes of zinc oxide.[36] Zinc
Zinc
reacts readily with acids, alkalis and other non-metals.[37] Extremely pure zinc reacts only slowly at room temperature with acids.[36] Strong acids, such as hydrochloric or sulfuric acid, can remove the passivating layer and subsequent reaction with water releases hydrogen gas.[36] The chemistry of zinc is dominated by the +2 oxidation state. When compounds in this oxidation state are formed, the outer shell s electrons are lost, yielding a bare zinc ion with the electronic configuration [Ar]3d10.[38] In aqueous solution an octahedral complex, [Zn(H 2O)6]2+ is the predominant species.[39] The volatilization of zinc in combination with zinc chloride at temperatures above 285 °C indicates the formation of Zn 2Cl 2, a zinc compound with a +1 oxidation state.[36] No compounds of zinc in oxidation states other than +1 or +2 are known.[40] Calculations indicate that a zinc compound with the oxidation state of +4 is unlikely to exist.[41] Zinc
Zinc
chemistry is similar to the chemistry of the late first-row transition metals, nickel and copper, though it has a filled d-shell and compounds are diamagnetic and mostly colorless.[42] The ionic radii of zinc and magnesium happen to be nearly identical. Because of this some of the equivalent salts have the same crystal structure,[43] and in other circumstances where ionic radius is a determining factor, the chemistry of zinc has much in common with that of magnesium.[36] In other respects, there is little similarity with the late first-row transition metals. Zinc
Zinc
tends to form bonds with a greater degree of covalency and much more stable complexes with N- and S- donors.[42] Complexes of zinc are mostly 4- or 6- coordinate although 5-coordinate complexes are known.[36] Zinc(I) compounds[edit] Zinc(I) compounds are rare and need bulky ligands to stabilize the low oxidation state. Most zinc(I) compounds contain formally the [Zn2]2+ core, which is analogous to the [Hg2]2+ dimeric cation present in mercury(I) compounds. The diamagnetic nature of the ion confirms its dimeric structure. The first zinc(I) compound containing the Zn–Zn bond, (η5-C5Me5)2Zn2, is also the first dimetallocene. The [Zn2]2+ ion rapidly disproportionates into zinc metal and zinc(II), and has been obtained only a yellow glass only by cooling a solution of metallic zinc in molten ZnCl2.[44] Zinc(II) compounds[edit]

Zinc
Zinc
acetate

Zinc
Zinc
chloride

Binary compounds of zinc are known for most of the metalloids and all the nonmetals except the noble gases. The oxide ZnO is a white powder that is nearly insoluble in neutral aqueous solutions, but is amphoteric, dissolving in both strong basic and acidic solutions.[36] The other chalcogenides (ZnS, ZnSe, and ZnTe) have varied applications in electronics and optics.[45] Pnictogenides (Zn 3N 2, Zn 3P 2, Zn 3As 2 and Zn 3Sb 2),[46][47] the peroxide (ZnO 2), the hydride (ZnH 2), and the carbide (ZnC 2) are also known.[48] Of the four halides, ZnF 2 has the most ionic character, while the others (ZnCl 2, ZnBr 2, and ZnI 2) have relatively low melting points and are considered to have more covalent character.[49] In weak basic solutions containing Zn2+ ions, the hydroxide Zn(OH) 2 forms as a white precipitate. In stronger alkaline solutions, this hydroxide is dissolved to form zincates ([Zn(OH)4]2−).[36] The nitrate Zn(NO3) 2, chlorate Zn(ClO3) 2, sulfate ZnSO 4, phosphate Zn 3(PO4) 2, molybdate ZnMoO 4, cyanide Zn(CN) 2, arsenite Zn(AsO2) 2, arsenate Zn(AsO4) 2·8H 2O and the chromate ZnCrO 4 (one of the few colored zinc compounds) are a few examples of other common inorganic compounds of zinc.[50][51] One of the simplest examples of an organic compound of zinc is the acetate (Zn(O 2CCH3) 2). Organozinc compounds are those that contain zinc–carbon covalent bonds. Diethylzinc
Diethylzinc
((C 2H5) 2Zn) is a reagent in synthetic chemistry. It was first reported in 1848 from the reaction of zinc and ethyl iodide, and was the first compound known to contain a metal–carbon sigma bond.[52] Test for zinc[edit] Cobalticyanide paper (Rinnmann's test for Zn) can be used as a chemical indicator for zinc. 4 g of K3Co(CN)6 and 1 g of KClO3 is dissolved on 100 ml of water. Paper is dipped in the solution and dried at 100 °C. One drop of the sample is dropped onto the dry paper and heated. A green disc indicates the presence of zinc.[53]

History[edit] Ancient use[edit]

Late Roman brass bucket – the Hemmoorer Eimer from Warstade, Germany, second to third century AD

Various isolated examples of the use of impure zinc in ancient times have been discovered. Zinc
Zinc
ores were used to make the zinc–copper alloy brass thousands of years prior to the discovery of zinc as a separate element. Judean brass from the 14th to 10th centuries BC contains 23% zinc.[4] Knowledge of how to produce brass spread to Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece
by the 7th century BC, but few varieties were made.[5] Ornaments made of alloys containing 80–90% zinc, with lead, iron, antimony, and other metals making up the remainder, have been found that are 2,500 years old.[19] A possibly prehistoric statuette containing 87.5% zinc was found in a Dacian archaeological site.[54] The oldest known pills were made of the zinc carbonates hydrozincite and smithsonite. The pills were used for sore eyes and were found aboard the Roman ship Relitto del Pozzino, wrecked in 140 BC.[55][56] The manufacture of brass was known to the Romans by about 30 BC.[57] They made brass by heating powdered calamine (zinc silicate or carbonate), charcoal and copper together in a crucible.[57] The resulting calamine brass was then either cast or hammered into shape for use in weaponry.[58] Some coins struck by Romans in the Christian era are made of what is probably calamine brass.[59] Strabo
Strabo
writing in the 1st century BC (but quoting a now lost work of the 4th century BC historian Theopompus) mentions "drops of false silver" which when mixed with copper make brass. This may refer to small quantities of zinc that is a by-product of smelting sulfide ores.[60] Zinc
Zinc
in such remnants in smelting ovens was usually discarded as it was thought to be worthless.[61] The Berne zinc tablet
Berne zinc tablet
is a votive plaque dating to Roman Gaul
Roman Gaul
made of an alloy that is mostly zinc.[62] The Charaka Samhita, thought to have been written between 300 and 500 AD,[63] mentions a metal which, when oxidized, produces pushpanjan, thought to be zinc oxide.[64] Zinc
Zinc
mines at Zawar, near Udaipur
Udaipur
in India, have been active since the Mauryan period
Mauryan period
(c.  322 and 187 BCE). The smelting of metallic zinc here, however, appears to have begun around the 12th century AD.[65][66] One estimate is that this location produced an estimated million tonnes of metallic zinc and zinc oxide from the 12th to 16th centuries.[21] Another estimate gives a total production of 60,000 tonnes of metallic zinc over this period.[65] The Rasaratna Samuccaya, written in approximately the 13th century AD, mentions two types of zinc-containing ores: one used for metal extraction and another used for medicinal purposes.[66] Early studies and naming[edit] Zinc
Zinc
was distinctly recognized as a metal under the designation of Yasada or Jasada in the medical Lexicon ascribed to the Hindu king Madanapala (of Taka dynasty) and written about the year 1374.[67] Smelting and extraction of impure zinc by reducing calamine with wool and other organic substances was accomplished in the 13th century in India.[12][68] The Chinese did not learn of the technique until the 17th century.[68]

Various alchemical symbols for the element zinc

Alchemists burned zinc metal in air and collected the resulting zinc oxide on a condenser. Some alchemists called this zinc oxide lana philosophica, Latin for "philosopher's wool", because it collected in wooly tufts, whereas others thought it looked like white snow and named it nix album.[69] The name of the metal was probably first documented by Paracelsus, a Swiss-born German alchemist, who referred to the metal as "zincum" or "zinken" in his book Liber Mineralium II, in the 16th century.[68][70] The word is probably derived from the German zinke, and supposedly meant "tooth-like, pointed or jagged" (metallic zinc crystals have a needle-like appearance).[71] Zink could also imply "tin-like" because of its relation to German zinn meaning tin.[72] Yet another possibility is that the word is derived from the Persian word سنگ seng meaning stone.[73] The metal was also called Indian tin, tutanego, calamine, and spinter.[19] German metallurgist Andreas Libavius
Andreas Libavius
received a quantity of what he called "calay" of Malabar from a cargo ship captured from the Portuguese in 1596.[74] Libavius described the properties of the sample, which may have been zinc. Zinc
Zinc
was regularly imported to Europe from the Orient in the 17th and early 18th centuries,[68] but was at times very expensive.[note 1] Isolation[edit]

Andreas Sigismund Marggraf
Andreas Sigismund Marggraf
is given credit for first isolating pure zinc

Metallic zinc was isolated in India
India
by 1300 AD,[75][76][77] much earlier than in the West. Before it was isolated in Europe, it was imported from India
India
in about 1600 CE.[78] Postlewayt's Universal Dictionary, a contemporary source giving technological information in Europe, did not mention zinc before 1751 but the element was studied before then.[66][79] Flemish metallurgist and alchemist P. M. de Respour reported that he had extracted metallic zinc from zinc oxide in 1668.[21] By the start of the 18th century, Étienne François Geoffroy
Étienne François Geoffroy
described how zinc oxide condenses as yellow crystals on bars of iron placed above zinc ore that is being smelted.[21] In Britain, John Lane is said to have carried out experiments to smelt zinc, probably at Landore, prior to his bankruptcy in 1726.[80] In 1738 in Great Britain, William Champion patented a process to extract zinc from calamine in a vertical retort style smelter.[81] His technique resembled that used at Zawar zinc mines in Rajasthan, but no evidence suggests he visited the Orient.[78] Champion's process was used through 1851.[68] German chemist Andreas Marggraf normally gets credit for discovering pure metallic zinc, even though Swedish chemist Anton von Swab had distilled zinc from calamine four years previously.[68] In his 1746 experiment, Marggraf heated a mixture of calamine and charcoal in a closed vessel without copper to obtain a metal.[61] This procedure became commercially practical by 1752.[82] Later work[edit]

Galvanization
Galvanization
was named after Luigi Galvani.

William Champion's brother, John, patented a process in 1758 for calcining zinc sulfide into an oxide usable in the retort process.[19] Prior to this, only calamine could be used to produce zinc. In 1798, Johann Christian Ruberg improved on the smelting process by building the first horizontal retort smelter.[83] Jean-Jacques Daniel Dony built a different kind of horizontal zinc smelter in Belgium that processed even more zinc.[68] Italian doctor Luigi Galvani
Luigi Galvani
discovered in 1780 that connecting the spinal cord of a freshly dissected frog to an iron rail attached by a brass hook caused the frog's leg to twitch.[84] He incorrectly thought he had discovered an ability of nerves and muscles to create electricity and called the effect "animal electricity".[85] The galvanic cell and the process of galvanization were both named for Luigi Galvani, and his discoveries paved the way for electrical batteries, galvanization, and cathodic protection.[85] Galvani's friend, Alessandro Volta, continued researching the effect and invented the Voltaic pile
Voltaic pile
in 1800.[84] The basic unit of Volta's pile was a simplified galvanic cell, made of plates of copper and zinc separated by an electrolyte and connected by a conductor externally. The units were stacked in series to make the Voltaic cell, which produced electricity by directing electrons from the zinc to the copper and allowing the zinc to corrode.[84] The non-magnetic character of zinc and its lack of color in solution delayed discovery of its importance to biochemistry and nutrition.[86] This changed in 1940 when carbonic anhydrase, an enzyme that scrubs carbon dioxide from blood, was shown to have zinc in its active site.[86] The digestive enzyme carboxypeptidase became the second known zinc-containing enzyme in 1955.[86]

Production[edit] Mining and processing[edit]

Top zinc output countries 2014[22]

Rank Country Tonnes

1 China 5,000,000

2 Australia 1,500,000

3 Peru 1,300,000

4 India 820,000

5 United States 700,000

6 Mexico 700,000

Main articles: Zinc mining
Zinc mining
and Zinc
Zinc
smelting See also: List of countries by zinc production

Percentage of zinc output in 2006 by countries[87]

World production trend

Zinc
Zinc
Mine Rosh Pinah, Namibia 27°57′17″S 016°46′00″E / 27.95472°S 16.76667°E / -27.95472; 16.76667 (Rosh Pinah)

Zinc
Zinc
Mine Skorpion, Namibia 27°49′09″S 016°36′28″E / 27.81917°S 16.60778°E / -27.81917; 16.60778 (Skorpion)

Zinc
Zinc
is the fourth most common metal in use, trailing only iron, aluminium, and copper with an annual production of about 13 million tonnes.[22] The world's largest zinc producer is Nyrstar, a merger of the Australian OZ Minerals
OZ Minerals
and the Belgian Umicore.[88] About 70% of the world's zinc originates from mining, while the remaining 30% comes from recycling secondary zinc.[89] Commercially pure zinc is known as Special
Special
High Grade, often abbreviated SHG, and is 99.995% pure.[90] Worldwide, 95% of new zinc is mined from sulfidic ore deposits, in which sphalerite (ZnS) is nearly always mixed with the sulfides of copper, lead and iron.[91] Zinc
Zinc
mines are scattered throughout the world, with the main areas being China, Australia, and Peru. China produced 38% of the global zinc output in 2014.[22] Zinc
Zinc
metal is produced using extractive metallurgy.[92] The ore is finely ground, then put through froth flotation to separate minerals from gangue (on the property of hydrophobicity), to get a zinc sulfide ore concentrate[92] consisting of about 50% zinc, 32% sulfur, 13% iron, and 5% SiO 2.[92] Roasting converts the zinc sulfide concentrate to zinc oxide:[91]

2 ZnS + 3 O 2 → 2 ZnO + 2 SO 2

The sulfur dioxide is used for the production of sulfuric acid, which is necessary for the leaching process. If deposits of zinc carbonate, zinc silicate, or zinc spinel (like the Skorpion Deposit in Namibia) are used for zinc production, the roasting can be omitted.[93] For further processing two basic methods are used: pyrometallurgy or electrowinning. Pyrometallurgy reduces zinc oxide with carbon or carbon monoxide at 950 °C (1,740 °F) into the metal, which is distilled as zinc vapor to separate it from other metals, which are not volatile at those temperatures.[94] The zinc vapor is collected in a condenser.[91] The equations below describe this process:[91]

2 ZnO + C → 2 Zn + CO 2 ZnO + CO → Zn + CO 2

In electrowinning, zinc is leached from the ore concentrate by sulfuric acid:[95]

ZnO + H 2SO 4 → ZnSO 4 + H 2O

Finally, the zinc is reduced by electrolysis.[91]

2 ZnSO 4 + 2 H 2O → 2 Zn + 2 H 2SO 4 + O 2

The sulfuric acid is regenerated and recycled to the leaching step. When galvanised feedstock is fed to an electric arc furnace, the zinc is recovered from the dust by a number of processes, predominately the Waelz process (90% as of 2014).[96] Environmental impact[edit] Refinement of sulfidic zinc ores produces large volumes of sulfur dioxide and cadmium vapor. Smelter slag and other residues contain significant quantities of metals. About 1.1 million tonnes of metallic zinc and 130 thousand tonnes of lead were mined and smelted in the Belgian towns of La Calamine and Plombières
Plombières
between 1806 and 1882.[97] The dumps of the past mining operations leach zinc and cadmium, and the sediments of the Geul River
Geul River
contain non-trivial amounts of metals.[97] About two thousand years ago, emissions of zinc from mining and smelting totaled 10 thousand tonnes a year. After increasing 10-fold from 1850, zinc emissions peaked at 3.4 million tonnes per year in the 1980s and declined to 2.7 million tonnes in the 1990s, although a 2005 study of the Arctic troposphere found that the concentrations there did not reflect the decline. Anthropogenic and natural emissions occur at a ratio of 20 to 1.[98] Zinc
Zinc
in rivers flowing through industrial and mining areas can be as high as 20 ppm.[99] Effective sewage treatment greatly reduces this; treatment along the Rhine, for example, has decreased zinc levels to 50 ppb.[99] Concentrations of zinc as low as 2 ppm adversely affects the amount of oxygen that fish can carry in their blood.[100]

Historically responsible for high metal levels in the Derwent River,[101] the zinc works at Lutana
Lutana
is the largest exporter in Tasmania, generating 2.5% of the state's GDP, and producing more than 250 000 tonnes of zinc per year.[102]

Soils contaminated with zinc from mining, refining, or fertilizing with zinc-bearing sludge can contain several grams of zinc per kilogram of dry soil. Levels of zinc in excess of 500 ppm in soil interfere with the ability of plants to absorb other essential metals, such as iron and manganese. Zinc
Zinc
levels of 2000 ppm to 180,000 ppm (18%) have been recorded in some soil samples.[99] Applications[edit] Major applications of zinc include (numbers are given for the US)[103]

Galvanizing (55%) Brass
Brass
and bronze (16%) Other alloys (21%) Miscellaneous (8%)

Anti-corrosion and batteries[edit]

Hot-dip handrail galvanized crystalline surface

Zinc
Zinc
is most commonly used as an anti-corrosion agent,[104] and galvanization (coating of iron or steel) is the most familiar form. In 2009 in the United States, 55% or 893 thousand tonnes of the zinc metal was used for galvanization.[103] Zinc
Zinc
is more reactive than iron or steel and thus will attract almost all local oxidation until it completely corrodes away.[105] A protective surface layer of oxide and carbonate (Zn 5(OH) 6(CO 3) 2) forms as the zinc corrodes.[106] This protection lasts even after the zinc layer is scratched but degrades through time as the zinc corrodes away.[106] The zinc is applied electrochemically or as molten zinc by hot-dip galvanizing or spraying. Galvanization
Galvanization
is used on chain-link fencing, guard rails, suspension bridges, lightposts, metal roofs, heat exchangers, and car bodies.[18] The relative reactivity of zinc and its ability to attract oxidation to itself makes it an efficient sacrificial anode in cathodic protection (CP). For example, cathodic protection of a buried pipeline can be achieved by connecting anodes made from zinc to the pipe.[106] Zinc
Zinc
acts as the anode (negative terminus) by slowly corroding away as it passes electric current to the steel pipeline.[106][note 2] Zinc
Zinc
is also used to cathodically protect metals that are exposed to sea water.[107] A zinc disc attached to a ship's iron rudder will slowly corrode while the rudder stays intact.[105] Similarly, a zinc plug attached to a propeller or the metal protective guard for the keel of the ship provides temporary protection. With a standard electrode potential (SEP) of −0.76 volts, zinc is used as an anode material for batteries. (More reactive lithium (SEP −3.04 V) is used for anodes in lithium batteries ). Powdered zinc is used in this way in alkaline batteries and the case (which also serves as the anode) of zinc–carbon batteries is formed from sheet zinc.[108][109] Zinc
Zinc
is used as the anode or fuel of the zinc-air battery/fuel cell.[110][111][112] The zinc-cerium redox flow battery also relies on a zinc-based negative half-cell.[113] Alloys[edit] A widely used zinc alloy is brass, in which copper is alloyed with anywhere from 3% to 45% zinc, depending upon the type of brass.[106] Brass
Brass
is generally more ductile and stronger than copper, and has superior corrosion resistance.[106] These properties make it useful in communication equipment, hardware, musical instruments, and water valves.[106]

Cast brass microstructure at magnification 400x

Other widely used zinc alloys include nickel silver, typewriter metal, soft and aluminium solder, and commercial bronze.[12] Zinc
Zinc
is also used in contemporary pipe organs as a substitute for the traditional lead/tin alloy in pipes.[114] Alloys of 85–88% zinc, 4–10% copper, and 2–8% aluminium find limited use in certain types of machine bearings. Zinc
Zinc
is the primary metal in American one cent coins (pennies) since 1982.[115] The zinc core is coated with a thin layer of copper to give the appearance of a copper coin. In 1994, 33,200 tonnes (36,600 short tons) of zinc were used to produce 13.6 billion pennies in the United States.[116] Alloys of zinc with small amounts of copper, aluminium, and magnesium are useful in die casting as well as spin casting, especially in the automotive, electrical, and hardware industries.[12] These alloys are marketed under the name Zamak.[117] An example of this is zinc aluminium. The low melting point together with the low viscosity of the alloy makes possible the production of small and intricate shapes. The low working temperature leads to rapid cooling of the cast products and fast production for assembly.[12][118] Another alloy, marketed under the brand name Prestal, contains 78% zinc and 22% aluminium, and is reported to be nearly as strong as steel but as malleable as plastic.[12][119] This superplasticity of the alloy allows it to be molded using die casts made of ceramics and cement.[12] Similar alloys with the addition of a small amount of lead can be cold-rolled into sheets. An alloy of 96% zinc and 4% aluminium is used to make stamping dies for low production run applications for which ferrous metal dies would be too expensive.[120] For building facades, roofing, and other applications for sheet metal formed by deep drawing, roll forming, or bending, zinc alloys with titanium and copper are used.[121] Unalloyed zinc is too brittle for these manufacturing processes.[121] As a dense, inexpensive, easily worked material, zinc is used as a lead replacement. In the wake of lead concerns, zinc appears in weights for various applications ranging from fishing[122] to tire balances and flywheels.[123] Cadmium
Cadmium
zinc telluride (CZT) is a semiconductive alloy that can be divided into an array of small sensing devices.[124] These devices are similar to an integrated circuit and can detect the energy of incoming gamma ray photons.[124] When behind an absorbing mask, the CZT sensor array can determine the direction of the rays.[124] Other industrial uses[edit]

Zinc oxide
Zinc oxide
is used as a white pigment in paints.

Roughly one quarter of all zinc output in the United States
United States
in 2009 was consumed in zinc compounds;[103] a variety of which are used industrially. Zinc oxide
Zinc oxide
is widely used as a white pigment in paints and as a catalyst in the manufacture of rubber to disburse heat. Zinc oxide is used to protect rubber polymers and plastics from ultraviolet radiation (UV).[18] The semiconductor properties of zinc oxide make it useful in varistors and photocopying products.[125] The zinc zinc-oxide cycle is a two step thermochemical process based on zinc and zinc oxide for hydrogen production.[126] Zinc chloride
Zinc chloride
is often added to lumber as a fire retardant[127] and sometimes as a wood preservative.[128] It is used in the manufacture of other chemicals.[127] Zinc methyl
Zinc methyl
(Zn(CH3) 2) is used in a number of organic syntheses.[129] Zinc sulfide
Zinc sulfide
(ZnS) is used in luminescent pigments such as on the hands of clocks, X-ray and television screens, and luminous paints.[130] Crystals of ZnS are used in lasers that operate in the mid-infrared part of the spectrum.[131] Zinc sulfate
Zinc sulfate
is a chemical in dyes and pigments.[127] Zinc pyrithione
Zinc pyrithione
is used in antifouling paints.[132] Zinc
Zinc
powder is sometimes used as a propellant in model rockets.[133] When a compressed mixture of 70% zinc and 30% sulfur powder is ignited there is a violent chemical reaction.[133] This produces zinc sulfide, together with large amounts of hot gas, heat, and light.[133] Zinc
Zinc
sheet metal is used to make zinc bars.[134] 64Zn, the most abundant isotope of zinc, is very susceptible to neutron activation, being transmuted into the highly radioactive 65Zn, which has a half-life of 244 days and produces intense gamma radiation. Because of this, zinc oxide used in nuclear reactors as an anti-corrosion agent is depleted of 64Zn before use, this is called depleted zinc oxide. For the same reason, zinc has been proposed as a salting material for nuclear weapons (cobalt is another, better-known salting material).[135] A jacket of isotopically enriched 64Zn would be irradiated by the intense high-energy neutron flux from an exploding thermonuclear weapon, forming a large amount of 65Zn significantly increasing the radioactivity of the weapon's fallout.[135] Such a weapon is not known to have ever been built, tested, or used.[135] 65Zn is used as a tracer to study how alloys that contain zinc wear out, or the path and the role of zinc in organisms.[136] Zinc
Zinc
dithiocarbamate complexes are used as agricultural fungicides; these include Zineb, Metiram, Propineb and Ziram.[137] Zinc naphthenate is used as wood preservative.[138] Zinc
Zinc
in the form of ZDDP, is used as an anti-wear additive for metal parts in engine oil.[139] Organic chemistry[edit]

Addition of diphenylzinc to an aldehyde

Organozinc chemistry is the science of compounds that contain carbon-zinc bonds, describing the physical properties, synthesis, and chemical reactions.Many organozinc compounds are important.[140][141][142][143] Among important applications are

The Frankland-Duppa Reaction in which an oxalate ester (ROCOCOOR) reacts with an alkyl halide R'X, zinc and hydrochloric acid to form the α-hydroxycarboxylic esters RR'COHCOOR[144] The Reformatskii reaction
Reformatskii reaction
in which α-halo-esters and aldehydes are converted to β-hydroxy-esters The Simmons–Smith reaction
Simmons–Smith reaction
in which the carbenoid (iodomethyl)zinc iodide reacts with alkene(or alkyne) and converts them to cyclopropane The Addition reaction of organozinc compounds to form carbonyl compounds The Barbier reaction
Barbier reaction
(1899), which is the zinc equivalent of the magnesium Grignard reaction
Grignard reaction
and is the better of the two. In presence of water, formation of the organomagnesium halide will fail, whereas the Barbier reaction
Barbier reaction
can take place in water. On the downside, organozincs are much less nucleophilic than Grignards, and they are expensive and difficult to handle. Commercially available diorganozinc compounds are dimethylzinc, diethylzinc and diphenylzinc. In one study,[145][146] the active organozinc compound is obtained from much cheaper organobromine precursors The Negishi coupling
Negishi coupling
is also an important reaction for the formation of new carbon-carbon bonds between unsaturated carbon atoms in alkenes, arenes and alkynes. The catalysts are nickel and palladium. A key step in the catalytic cycle is a transmetalation in which a zinc halide exchanges its organic substituent for another halogen with the palladium (nickel) metal center. The Fukuyama coupling
Fukuyama coupling
is another coupling reaction, but it uses a thioester as reactant and produces a ketone.

Zinc
Zinc
has found many applications as catalyst in organic synthesis including asymmetric synthesis, being cheap and easily available alternative to precious metal complexes. The results (yield and ee) obtained with chiral zinc catalysts are comparable to those achieved with palladium, ruthenium, iridium and others, and zinc becomes metal catalyst of choice.[147] Dietary supplement[edit]

GNC zinc 50 mg tablets. The amount exceeds what is deemed the safe upper limit in the United States
United States
(40 mg) and European Union (25 mg)

Zinc gluconate
Zinc gluconate
is one compound used for the delivery of zinc as a dietary supplement.

See also: Zinc sulfate
Zinc sulfate
(medical use) In most single-tablet, over-the-counter, daily vitamin and mineral supplements, zinc is included in such forms as zinc oxide, zinc acetate, or zinc gluconate.[148] Zinc
Zinc
is generally considered to be an antioxidant. However, it is redox inert and thus can serve such a function only indirectly.[149] Zinc deficiency has been associated with major depressive disorder (MDD), and zinc supplements may be an effective treatment.[150] Zinc
Zinc
serves as a simple, inexpensive, and critical tool for treating diarrheal episodes among children in the developing world. Zinc becomes depleted in the body during diarrhea, but recent studies suggest that replenishing zinc with a 10- to 14-day course of treatment can reduce the duration and severity of diarrheal episodes and may also prevent future episodes for as long as three months.[151] A Cochrane review stated that people taking zinc supplement may be less likely to progress to age-related macular degeneration.[152] Zinc
Zinc
supplement is an effective treatment for acrodermatitis enteropathica, a genetic disorder affecting zinc absorption that was previously fatal to affected infants.[57] Gastroenteritis
Gastroenteritis
is strongly attenuated by ingestion of zinc, possibly by direct antimicrobial action of the ions in the gastrointestinal tract, or by the absorption of the zinc and re-release from immune cells (all granulocytes secrete zinc), or both.[153][154] In 2011, researchers reported that adding large amounts of zinc to a urine sample masked detection of drugs. The researchers did not test whether orally consuming a zinc dietary supplement could have the same effect.[155] Common cold[edit] This section is transcluded from Zinc
Zinc
and the common cold. (edit history) Zinc
Zinc
supplements (frequently zinc acetate or zinc gluconate lozenges) are a group of dietary supplements that are commonly used for the treatment of the common cold.[156] The use of zinc supplements at doses in excess of 75 mg/day within 24 hours of the onset of symptoms has been shown to reduce the duration of cold symptoms by about 1 day.[156][157] Due to a lack of data, there is insufficient evidence to determine whether the preventative use of zinc supplements reduces the likelihood of contracting a cold.[157] Adverse effects with zinc supplements by mouth include bad taste and nausea.[156][157] The intranasal use of zinc-containing nasal sprays has been associated with the loss of the sense of smell;[156] consequently, in June 2009, the United States
United States
Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) warned consumers to stop using intranasal zinc products.[156] The human rhinovirus – the most common viral pathogen in humans – is the predominant cause of the common cold.[158] The hypothesized mechanism of action by which zinc reduces the severity and/or duration of cold symptoms is the suppression of nasal inflammation and the direct inhibition of rhinoviral receptor binding and rhinoviral replication in the nasal mucosa.[156] Topical use[edit] Further information: Zinc oxide
Zinc oxide
§ Medicine Topical preparations of zinc include those used on the skin, often in the form of zinc oxide. Zinc
Zinc
preparations can protect against sunburn in the summer and windburn in the winter.[57] Applied thinly to a baby's diaper area (perineum) with each diaper change, it can protect against diaper rash.[57] Chelated zinc is used in toothpastes and mouthwashes to prevent bad breath.[159] Zinc pyrithione
Zinc pyrithione
is widely included in shampoos to prevent dandruff.[160] Biological role[edit] Zinc
Zinc
is an essential trace element for humans[161][162][163] and other animals,[164] for plants[98] and for microorganisms.[165] Zinc
Zinc
is required for the function of over 300 enzymes and 1000 transcription factors,[163] and is stored and transferred in metallothioneins.[166][167] It is the second most abundant trace metal in humans after iron and it is the only metal which appears in all enzyme classes.[98][163] In proteins, zinc ions are often coordinated to the amino acid side chains of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, cysteine and histidine. The theoretical and computational description of this zinc binding in proteins (as well as that of other transition metals) is difficult.[168] Roughly 2–4 grams of zinc[169] are distributed throughout the human body. Most zinc is in the brain, muscle, bones, kidney, and liver, with the highest concentrations in the prostate and parts of the eye.[170] Semen is particularly rich in zinc, a key factor in prostate gland function and reproductive organ growth.[171] In humans, the biological roles of zinc are ubiquitous.[9][162] It interacts with "a wide range of organic ligands",[9] and has roles in the metabolism of RNA and DNA, signal transduction, and gene expression. It also regulates apoptosis. A 2006 study estimated that about 10% of human proteins (2800) potentially bind zinc, in addition to hundreds more that transport and traffic zinc; a similar in silico study in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana found 2367 zinc-related proteins.[98] In the brain, zinc is stored in specific synaptic vesicles by glutamatergic neurons and can modulate neuronal excitability.[162][163][172] It plays a key role in synaptic plasticity and so in learning.[162][173] Zinc
Zinc
homeostasis also plays a critical role in the functional regulation of the central nervous system.[162][172][163] Dysregulation of zinc homeostasis in the central nervous system that results in excessive synaptic zinc concentrations is believed to induce neurotoxicity through mitochondrial oxidative stress (e.g., by disrupting certain enzymes involved in the electron transport chain, including complex I, complex III, and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase), the dysregulation of calcium homeostasis, glutamatergic neuronal excitotoxicity, and interference with intraneuronal signal transduction.[162][174] L- and D-histidine facilitate brain zinc uptake.[175] SLC30A3
SLC30A3
is the primary zinc transporter involved in cerebral zinc homeostasis.[162] Enzymes[edit]

Ribbon diagram
Ribbon diagram
of human carbonic anhydrase II, with zinc atom visible in the center

Zinc fingers
Zinc fingers
help read DNA
DNA
sequences.

Zinc
Zinc
is an efficient Lewis acid, making it a useful catalytic agent in hydroxylation and other enzymatic reactions.[176] The metal also has a flexible coordination geometry, which allows proteins using it to rapidly shift conformations to perform biological reactions.[177] Two examples of zinc-containing enzymes are carbonic anhydrase and carboxypeptidase, which are vital to the processes of carbon dioxide (CO 2) regulation and digestion of proteins, respectively.[178] In vertebrate blood, carbonic anhydrase converts CO 2 into bicarbonate and the same enzyme transforms the bicarbonate back into CO 2 for exhalation through the lungs.[179] Without this enzyme, this conversion would occur about one million times slower[180] at the normal blood pH of 7 or would require a pH of 10 or more.[181] The non-related β-carbonic anhydrase is required in plants for leaf formation, the synthesis of indole acetic acid (auxin) and alcoholic fermentation.[182] Carboxypeptidase
Carboxypeptidase
cleaves peptide linkages during digestion of proteins. A coordinate covalent bond is formed between the terminal peptide and a C=O group attached to zinc, which gives the carbon a positive charge. This helps to create a hydrophobic pocket on the enzyme near the zinc, which attracts the non-polar part of the protein being digested.[178] Signalling[edit] Zinc
Zinc
has been recognized as a messenger, able to activate signalling pathways. Many of these pathways provide the driving force in aberrant cancer growth. They can be targeted through ZIP transporters.[183] Other proteins[edit] Zinc
Zinc
serves a purely structural role in zinc fingers, twists and clusters.[184] Zinc fingers
Zinc fingers
form parts of some transcription factors, which are proteins that recognize DNA
DNA
base sequences during the replication and transcription of DNA. Each of the nine or ten Zn2+ ions in a zinc finger helps maintain the finger's structure by coordinately binding to four amino acids in the transcription factor.[180] The transcription factor wraps around the DNA
DNA
helix and uses its fingers to accurately bind to the DNA
DNA
sequence. In blood plasma, zinc is bound to and transported by albumin (60%, low-affinity) and transferrin (10%).[169] Because transferrin also transports iron, excessive iron reduces zinc absorption, and vice versa. A similar antagonism exists with copper.[185] The concentration of zinc in blood plasma stays relatively constant regardless of zinc intake.[186] Cells in the salivary gland, prostate, immune system, and intestine use zinc signaling to communicate with other cells.[187] Zinc
Zinc
may be held in metallothionein reserves within microorganisms or in the intestines or liver of animals.[188] Metallothionein
Metallothionein
in intestinal cells is capable of adjusting absorption of zinc by 15–40%.[189] However, inadequate or excessive zinc intake can be harmful; excess zinc particularly impairs copper absorption because metallothionein absorbs both metals.[190] The human dopamine transporter contains a high affinity extracellular zinc binding site which, upon zinc binding, inhibits dopamine reuptake and amplifies amphetamine-induced dopamine efflux in vitro.[191][192][193] The human serotonin transporter and norepinephrine transporter do not contain zinc binding sites.[193] Dietary recommendations[edit] The U.S. Institute of Medicine (IOM) updated Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) and Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for zinc in 2001. The current EARs for zinc for women and men ages 14 and up is 6.8 and 9.4 mg/day, respectively. The RDAs are 8 and 11 mg/day. RDAs are higher than EARs so as to identify amounts that will cover people with higher than average requirements. RDA for pregnancy is 11 mg/day. RDA for lactation is 12 mg/day. For infants up to 12 months the RDA is 3 mg/day. For children ages 1–13 years the RDA increases with age from 3 to 8 mg/day. As for safety, the IOM sets Tolerable upper intake levels (ULs) for vitamins and minerals when evidence is sufficient. In the case of zinc the adult UL is 40 mg/day (lower for children). Collectively the EARs, RDAs, AIs and ULs are referred to as Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs).[194] The European Food Safety Authority
European Food Safety Authority
(EFSA) refers to the collective set of information as Dietary Reference Values, with Population Reference Intake (PRI) instead of RDA, and Average Requirement instead of EAR. AI and UL are defined the same as in United States. For people ages 18 and older the PRI calculations are complex, as the EFSA has set higher and higher values as the phytate content of the diet increases. For women, PRIs increase from 7.5 to 12.7 mg/day as phytate intake increases from 300 to 1200 mg/day; for men the range is 9.4 to 16.3 mg/day. These PRIs are higher than the U.S. RDAs.[195] The EFSA reviewed the same safety question and set its UL at 25 mg/day, which is much lower than the U.S. value.[196] For U.S. food and dietary supplement labeling purposes the amount in a serving is expressed as a percent of Daily Value (%DV). For zinc labeling purposes 100% of the Daily Value was 15 mg, but as of May 27, 2016 it has been revised to 11 mg.[197] A table of the old and new adult Daily Values is provided at Reference Daily Intake. Food and supplement companies have until January 1, 2020 to comply with the change.[198] Dietary intake[edit]

Foods and spices containing zinc

Animal products such as meat, fish, shellfish, fowl, eggs, and dairy contain zinc. The concentration of zinc in plants varies with the level in the soil. With adequate zinc in the soil, the food plants that contain the most zinc are wheat (germ and bran) and various seeds, including sesame, poppy, alfalfa, celery, and mustard.[199] Zinc
Zinc
is also found in beans, nuts, almonds, whole grains, pumpkin seeds, sunflower seeds, and blackcurrant.[200] Plant phytates interfere with zinc absorption, so people consuming a vegetarian or vegan diet may need to increase zinc intake. Other sources include fortified food and dietary supplements in various forms. A 1998 review concluded that zinc oxide, one of the most common supplements in the United States, and zinc carbonate are nearly insoluble and poorly absorbed in the body.[201] This review cited studies that found lower plasma zinc concentrations in the subjects who consumed zinc oxide and zinc carbonate than in those who took zinc acetate and sulfate salts.[201] For fortification, however, a 2003 review recommended cereals (containing zinc oxide) as a cheap, stable source that is as easily absorbed as the more expensive forms.[202] A 2005 study found that various compounds of zinc, including oxide and sulfate, did not show statistically significant differences in absorption when added as fortificants to maize tortillas.[203] Deficiency[edit] Main article: Zinc
Zinc
deficiency Zinc deficiency is usually due to insufficient dietary intake, but can be associated with malabsorption, acrodermatitis enteropathica, chronic liver disease, chronic renal disease, sickle cell disease, diabetes, malignancy, and other chronic illnesses.[10] Groups at risk of zinc deficiency include the elderly, children in developing countries, and those with renal dysfunction. In the United States, a federal survey of food consumption determined that for women and men over the age of 19, average consumption was 9.7 and 14.2 mg/day, respectively. For women, 17% consumed less than the EAR, for men 11%. The percentages below EAR increased with age.[204] The most recent published update of the survey (NHANES 2013–2014) reported lower averages – 9.3 and 13.2 mg/day – again with intake decreasing with age.[205] Symptoms of mild zinc deficiency are diverse.[206] Clinical outcomes include depressed growth, diarrhea, impotence and delayed sexual maturation, alopecia, eye and skin lesions, impaired appetite, altered cognition, impaired host defense properties, defects in carbohydrate utilization, and reproductive teratogenesis.[186] Mild zinc deficiency depresses immunity,[207] although excessive zinc does also.[169] Animals with a zinc deficiency require twice as much food to attain the same weight gain as animals with sufficient zinc.[130] Despite some concerns,[208] western vegetarians and vegans do not suffer any more from overt zinc deficiency than meat-eaters.[209] Major plant sources of zinc include cooked dried beans, sea vegetables, fortified cereals, soy foods, nuts, peas, and seeds.[208] However, phytates in many whole-grains and fibers may interfere with zinc absorption and marginal zinc intake has poorly understood effects. The zinc chelator phytate, found in seeds and cereal bran, can contribute to zinc malabsorption.[10] Some evidence suggests that more than the US RDA (15 mg) of zinc daily may be needed in those whose diet is high in phytates, such as some vegetarians.[208] These considerations must be balanced against the paucity of adequate zinc biomarkers, and the most widely used indicator, plasma zinc, has poor sensitivity and specificity.[210] Diagnosing zinc deficiency is a persistent challenge.[9] Nearly two billion people in the developing world are deficient in zinc.[10] In children, it causes an increase in infection and diarrhea and contributes to the death of about 800,000 children worldwide per year.[9] The World Health Organization advocates zinc supplementation for severe malnutrition and diarrhea.[211] Zinc
Zinc
supplements help prevent disease and reduce mortality, especially among children with low birth weight or stunted growth.[211] However, zinc supplements should not be administered alone, because many in the developing world have several deficiencies, and zinc interacts with other micronutrients.[212] Soil
Soil
remediation[edit] Species of Calluna, Erica
Erica
and Vaccinium
Vaccinium
can grow in zinc metalliferous soils, because translocation of toxic ions is prevented by the action of ericoid mycorrhizal fungi.[213] Agriculture[edit] Zinc deficiency appears to be the most common micronutrient deficiency in crop plants; it is particularly common in high-pH soils.[214] Zinc-deficient soil is cultivated in the cropland of about half of Turkey and India, a third of China, and most of Western Australia. Substantial responses to zinc fertilization have been reported in these areas.[98] Plants that grow in soils that are zinc-deficient are more susceptible to disease. Zinc
Zinc
is added to the soil primarily through the weathering of rocks, but humans have added zinc through fossil fuel combustion, mine waste, phosphate fertilizers, pesticide (zinc phosphide), limestone, manure, sewage sludge, and particles from galvanized surfaces. Excess zinc is toxic to plants, although zinc toxicity is far less widespread.[98] Precautions[edit] Main article: Zinc
Zinc
toxicity Toxicity[edit] Although zinc is an essential requirement for good health, excess zinc can be harmful. Excessive absorption of zinc suppresses copper and iron absorption.[190] The free zinc ion in solution is highly toxic to plants, invertebrates, and even vertebrate fish.[215] The Free Ion Activity Model is well-established in the literature, and shows that just micromolar amounts of the free ion kills some organisms. A recent example showed 6 micromolar killing 93% of all Daphnia
Daphnia
in water.[216] The free zinc ion is a powerful Lewis acid
Lewis acid
up to the point of being corrosive. Stomach acid contains hydrochloric acid, in which metallic zinc dissolves readily to give corrosive zinc chloride. Swallowing a post-1982 American one cent piece (97.5% zinc) can cause damage to the stomach lining through the high solubility of the zinc ion in the acidic stomach.[217] Evidence shows that people taking 100–300 mg of zinc daily may suffer induced copper deficiency. A 2007 trial observed that elderly men taking 80 mg daily were hospitalized for urinary complications more often than those taking a placebo.[218] Levels of 100–300 mg may interfere with the utilization of copper and iron or adversely affect cholesterol.[190] Zinc
Zinc
in excess of 500 ppm in soil interferes with the plant absorption of other essential metals, such as iron and manganese.[99] A condition called the zinc shakes or "zinc chills" can be induced by inhalation of zinc fumes while brazing or welding galvanized materials.[130] Zinc
Zinc
is a common ingredient of denture cream which may contain between 17 and 38 mg of zinc per gram. Disability and even deaths from excessive use of these products have been claimed.[219] The U.S. Food and Drug Administration
Food and Drug Administration
(FDA) states that zinc damages nerve receptors in the nose, causing anosmia. Reports of anosmia were also observed in the 1930s when zinc preparations were used in a failed attempt to prevent polio infections.[220] On June 16, 2009, the FDA ordered removal of zinc-based intranasal cold products from store shelves. The FDA said the loss of smell can be life-threatening because people with impaired smell cannot detect leaking gas or smoke, and cannot tell if food has spoiled before they eat it.[221] Recent research suggests that the topical antimicrobial zinc pyrithione is a potent heat shock response inducer that may impair genomic integrity with induction of PARP-dependent energy crisis in cultured human keratinocytes and melanocytes.[222] Poisoning[edit] In 1982, the US Mint began minting pennies coated in copper but containing primarily zinc. Zinc
Zinc
pennies pose a risk of zinc toxicosis, which can be fatal. One reported case of chronic ingestion of 425 pennies (over 1 kg of zinc) resulted in death due to gastrointestinal bacterial and fungal sepsis. Another patient who ingested 12 grams of zinc showed only lethargy and ataxia (gross lack of coordination of muscle movements).[223] Several other cases have been reported of humans suffering zinc intoxication by the ingestion of zinc coins.[224][225] Pennies and other small coins are sometimes ingested by dogs, requiring veterinary removal of the foreign objects. The zinc content of some coins can cause zinc toxicity, commonly fatal in dogs through severe hemolytic anemia and liver or kidney damage; vomiting and diarrhea are possible symptoms.[226] Zinc
Zinc
is highly toxic in parrots and poisoning can often be fatal.[227] The consumption of fruit juices stored in galvanized cans has resulted in mass parrot poisonings with zinc.[57] See also[edit]

List of countries by zinc production Spelter Wet storage stain Zinc
Zinc
alloy electroplating

Notes[edit]

^ An East India
India
Company ship carrying a cargo of nearly pure zinc metal from the Orient sank off the coast Sweden
Sweden
in 1745.(Emsley 2001, p. 502) ^ Electric current will naturally flow between zinc and steel but in some circumstances inert anodes are used with an external DC source.

References[edit]

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and the immune system". Proc Nutr Soc. 59 (4): 541–52. doi:10.1017/S0029665100000781. PMID 11115789.  ^ Wapnir, Raul A. (1990). Protein Nutrition and Mineral Absorption. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-5227-4.  ^ Berdanier, Carolyn D.; Dwyer, Johanna T.; Feldman, Elaine B. (2007). Handbook of Nutrition and Food. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-9218-7.  ^ a b Bitanihirwe BK, Cunningham MG (November 2009). "Zinc: the brain's dark horse". Synapse. 63 (11): 1029–1049. doi:10.1002/syn.20683. PMID 19623531.  ^ Nakashima AS; Dyck RH (2009). " Zinc
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and cortical plasticity". Brain Res Rev. 59 (2): 347–73. doi:10.1016/j.brainresrev.2008.10.003. PMID 19026685.  ^ Tyszka-Czochara M, Grzywacz A, Gdula-Argasińska J, Librowski T, Wiliński B, Opoka W (May 2014). "The role of zinc in the pathogenesis and treatment of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Implications of zinc homeostasis for proper CNS function" (PDF). Acta. Pol. Pharm. 71 (3): 369–377. PMID 25265815. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 29, 2017.  ^ PMID 17119290 ^ NRC 2000, p. 443 ^ Stipanuk, Martha H. (2006). Biochemical, Physiological & Molecular Aspects of Human Nutrition. W. B. Saunders Company. pp. 1043–1067. ISBN 978-0-7216-4452-3.  ^ a b Greenwood 1997, pp. 1224–1225 ^ Kohen, Amnon; Limbach, Hans-Heinrich (2006). Isotope
Isotope
Effects in Chemistry and Biology. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. p. 850. ISBN 0-8247-2449-6.  ^ a b Greenwood 1997, p. 1225 ^ Cotton 1999, p. 627 ^ Gadallah, M. A. A. (2000). "Effects of indole-3-acetic acid and zinc on the growth, osmotic potential and soluble carbon and nitrogen components of soybean plants growing under water deficit". Journal of Arid Environments. 44 (4): 451–467. doi:10.1006/jare.1999.0610.  ^ Ziliotto, Silvia; Ogle, Olivia; Yaylor, Kathryn M. (2018). "Chapter 17. Targeting Zinc(II) Signalling to Prevent Cancer". In Sigel, Astrid; Sigel, Helmut; Freisinger, Eva; Sigel, Roland K. O. Metallo-Drugs: Development and Action of Anticancer Agents. 18. Berlin: de Gruyter GmbH. pp. 507–529. doi:10.1515/9783110470734-023.  ^ Cotton 1999, p. 628 ^ Whitney, Eleanor Noss; Rolfes, Sharon Rady (2005). Understanding Nutrition (10th ed.). Thomson Learning. pp. 447–450. ISBN 978-1-4288-1893-4.  ^ a b NRC 2000, p. 447 ^ Hershfinkel, Michal; Silverman, William F.; Sekler, Israel
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toxicity". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 51 (2): 225–7. PMID 2407097.  ^ Krause J (April 2008). "SPECT and PET of the dopamine transporter in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder". Expert Rev. Neurother. 8 (4): 611–625. doi:10.1586/14737175.8.4.611. PMID 18416663.  ^ Sulzer D (February 2011). "How addictive drugs disrupt presynaptic dopamine neurotransmission". Neuron. 69 (4): 628–649. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2011.02.010. PMC 3065181 . PMID 21338876.  ^ a b Scholze P, Nørregaard L, Singer EA, Freissmuth M, Gether U, Sitte HH (June 2002). "The role of zinc ions in reverse transport mediated by monoamine transporters". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (24): 21505–21513. doi:10.1074/jbc.M112265200. PMID 11940571. The human dopamine transporter (hDAT) contains an endogenous high affinity Zn2+ binding site with three coordinating residues on its extracellular face (His193, His375, and Glu396). ... Thus, when Zn2+ is co-released with glutamate, it may greatly augment the efflux of dopamine.  ^ "Zinc" Archived September 19, 2017, at the Wayback Machine., pp. 442–501 in Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. National Academy Press. 2001. ^ "Overview on Dietary Reference Values for the EU population as derived by the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies" (PDF). 2017. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 28, 2017.  ^ Tolerable Upper Intake Levels For Vitamins And Minerals (PDF), European Food Safety Authority, 2006, archived (PDF) from the original on March 16, 2016  ^ "Federal Register May 27, 2016 Food Labeling: Revision of the Nutrition and Supplement Facts Labels. FR page 33982" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on August 8, 2016.  ^ "Changes to the Nutrition Facts Panel – Compliance Date" Archived March 12, 2017, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Ensminger, Audrey H.; Konlande, James E. (1993). Foods & Nutrition Encyclopedia (2nd ed.). Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. pp. 2368–2369. ISBN 0-8493-8980-1.  ^ " Zinc
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Zinc
and copper: proposed fortification levels and recommended zinc compounds". Journal of Nutrition. 133 (9): 2985S–9S. PMID 12949397.  ^ Hotz, C.; DeHaene, J.; Woodhouse, L. R.; Villalpando, S.; Rivera, J. A.; King, J. C. (2005). " Zinc
Zinc
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Bibliography[edit]

Chambers, William and Robert (1901). Chambers's Encyclopaedia: A Dictionary of Universal Knowledge (Revised ed.). London and Edinburgh: J. B. Lippincott Company.  Cotton, F. Albert; Wilkinson, Geoffrey; Murillo, Carlos A.; Bochmann, Manfred (1999). Advanced Inorganic Chemistry (6th ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN 0-471-19957-5.  CRC contributors (2006). David R. Lide, ed. Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (87th ed.). Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group. ISBN 0-8493-0487-3.  Emsley, John (2001). "Zinc". Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. Oxford, England, UK: Oxford University Press. pp. 499–505. ISBN 0-19-850340-7.  Greenwood, N. N.; Earnshaw, A. (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0-7506-3365-4.  Heiserman, David L. (1992). "Element 30: Zinc". Exploring Chemical Elements and their Compounds. New York: TAB Books. ISBN 0-8306-3018-X.  Lehto, R. S. (1968). "Zinc". In Clifford A. Hampel. The Encyclopedia of the Chemical Elements. New York: Reinhold Book Corporation. pp. 822–830. ISBN 0-442-15598-0. LCCN 68-29938.  United States
United States
National Research Council, Institute of Medicine (2000). Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. National Academies Press. pp. 442–455.  Stwertka, Albert (1998). "Zinc". Guide to the Elements (Revised ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-508083-1.  Weeks, Mary Elvira (1933). "III. Some Eighteenth-Century Metals". The Discovery of the Elements. Easton, PA: Journal of Chemical Education. ISBN 0-7661-3872-0. 

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Zinc
Zinc
Fact Sheet from the U.S. National Institutes of Health History & Etymology of Zinc Statistics and Information from the U.S. Geological Survey Reducing Agents > Zinc American Zinc
Zinc
Association Information about the uses and properties of zinc. Outline safety data for zinc ISZB International Society for Zinc
Zinc
Biology, founded in 2008. An international, nonprofit organization bringing together scientists working on the biological actions of zinc. Zinc-UK Founded in 2010 to bring together scientists in the United Kingdom working on zinc. Zinc
Zinc
at The Periodic Table of Videos
The Periodic Table of Videos
(University of Nottingham)

v t e

Periodic table
Periodic table
(Large cells)

1 2 3

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

1 H

He

2 Li Be

B C N O F Ne

3 Na Mg

Al Si P S Cl Ar

4 K Ca Sc

Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr

5 Rb Sr Y

Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe

6 Cs Ba La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn

7 Fr Ra Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Cn Nh Fl Mc Lv Ts Og

Alkali metal Alkaline earth metal Lan­thanide Actinide Transition metal Post-​transition metal Metalloid Polyatomic nonmetal Diatomic nonmetal Noble gas Unknown chemical properties

v t e

Zinc
Zinc
compounds

Zinc(I)

Organozinc(I) compounds

Zn2(C5(CH3)5)2

Zinc(II)

ZnBr2 Zn(CN)2 ZnCl2 Zn(ClO3)2 ZnCrO4 ZnF2 ZnH2 ZnI2 ZnMoO4 Zn(NO3)2 ZnO ZnO2 Zn(OH)2 ZnS ZnSO4 ZnSe ZnTe Zn2P2O7 Zn3Sb2 Zn3As2 Zn3N2 Zn3P2 Zn3(PO4)2

Organozinc(II) compounds

Zn(CH3)2 Zn(C2H5)2 Zn(CH(CH3)2)2 Zn(C(CH3)3)2 Zn(C6H5)2 ZnCIH2I

v t e

Ionotropic glutamate receptor
Ionotropic glutamate receptor
modulators

AMPAR

Agonists: Main site agonists: 5-Fluorowillardiine Acromelic acid (acromelate) AMPA BOAA Domoic acid Glutamate Ibotenic acid Proline Quisqualic acid Willardiine; Positive allosteric modulators: Aniracetam Cyclothiazide CX-516 CX-546 CX-614 Farampator
Farampator
(CX-691, ORG-24448) CX-717 CX-1739 CX-1942 Diazoxide Hydrochlorothiazide
Hydrochlorothiazide
(HCTZ) IDRA-21 LY-392098 LY-395153 LY-404187 LY-451646 LY-503430 Mibampator
Mibampator
(LY-451395) Nooglutyl ORG-26576 Oxiracetam PEPA PF-04958242 Piracetam Pramiracetam S-18986 Tulrampator
Tulrampator
(S-47445, CX-1632)

Antagonists: ACEA-1011 ATPO Becampanel Caroverine CNQX Dasolampanel DNQX Fanapanel
Fanapanel
(MPQX) GAMS Kaitocephalin Kynurenic acid Kynurenine Licostinel
Licostinel
(ACEA-1021) NBQX PNQX Selurampanel Tezampanel Theanine Topiramate YM90K Zonampanel; Negative allosteric modulators: Barbiturates
Barbiturates
(e.g., pentobarbital, sodium thiopental) Cyclopropane Enflurane Ethanol (alcohol) Evans blue GYKI-52466 GYKI-53655 Halothane Irampanel Isoflurane Perampanel Pregnenolone sulfate Sevoflurane Talampanel; Unknown/unsorted antagonists: Minocycline

KAR

Agonists: Main site agonists: 5-Bromowillardiine 5-Iodowillardiine Acromelic acid (acromelate) AMPA ATPA Domoic acid Glutamate Ibotenic acid Kainic acid LY-339434 Proline Quisqualic acid SYM-2081; Positive allosteric modulators: Cyclothiazide Diazoxide Enflurane Halothane Isoflurane

Antagonists: ACEA-1011 CNQX Dasolampanel DNQX GAMS Kaitocephalin Kynurenic acid Licostinel
Licostinel
(ACEA-1021) LY-382884 NBQX NS102 Selurampanel Tezampanel Theanine Topiramate UBP-302; Negative allosteric modulators: Barbiturates
Barbiturates
(e.g., pentobarbital, sodium thiopental) Enflurane Ethanol (alcohol) Evans blue NS-3763 Pregnenolone sulfate

NMDAR

Agonists: Main site agonists: AMAA Aspartate Glutamate Homocysteic acid
Homocysteic acid
(L-HCA) Homoquinolinic acid Ibotenic acid NMDA Proline Quinolinic acid Tetrazolylglycine Theanine; Glycine
Glycine
site agonists: β-Fluoro-D-alanine ACBD ACC (ACPC) ACPD AK-51 Apimostinel
Apimostinel
(NRX-1074) B6B21 CCG D-Alanine D-Cycloserine D-Serine DHPG Dimethylglycine Glycine HA-966 L-687414 L-Alanine L-Serine Milacemide Neboglamine
Neboglamine
(nebostinel) Rapastinel
Rapastinel
(GLYX-13) Sarcosine; Polyamine site agonists: Neomycin Spermidine Spermine; Other positive allosteric modulators: 24S-Hydroxycholesterol DHEA (prasterone) DHEA sulfate
DHEA sulfate
(prasterone sulfate) Epipregnanolone sulfate Pregnenolone sulfate SAGE-201 SAGE-301 SAGE-718

Antagonists: Competitive antagonists: AP5
AP5
(APV) AP7 CGP-37849 CGP-39551 CGP-39653 CGP-40116 CGS-19755 CPP Kaitocephalin LY-233053 LY-235959 LY-274614 MDL-100453 Midafotel
Midafotel
(d-CPPene) NPC-12626 NPC-17742 PBPD PEAQX Perzinfotel PPDA SDZ-220581 Selfotel; Glycine
Glycine
site antagonists: 4-Cl-KYN (AV-101) 5,7-DCKA 7-CKA ACC ACEA-1011 ACEA-1328 Apimostinel
Apimostinel
(NRX-1074) AV-101 Carisoprodol CGP-39653 CNQX D-Cycloserine DNQX Felbamate Gavestinel GV-196771 Harkoseride Kynurenic acid Kynurenine L-689560 L-701324 Licostinel
Licostinel
(ACEA-1021) LU-73068 MDL-105519 Meprobamate MRZ 2/576 PNQX Rapastinel
Rapastinel
(GLYX-13) ZD-9379; Polyamine site antagonists: Arcaine Co 101676 Diaminopropane Diethylenetriamine Huperzine A Putrescine; Uncompetitive pore blockers (mostly dizocilpine site): 2-MDP 3-HO-PCP 3-MeO-PCE 3-MeO-PCMo 3-MeO-PCP 4-MeO-PCP 8A-PDHQ 18-MC α-Endopsychosin Alaproclate Alazocine
Alazocine
(SKF-10047) Amantadine Aptiganel Argiotoxin-636 Arketamine ARL-12495 ARL-15896-AR ARL-16247 Budipine Coronaridine Delucemine
Delucemine
(NPS-1506) Dexoxadrol Dextrallorphan Dextromethadone Dextromethorphan Dextrorphan Dieticyclidine Diphenidine Dizocilpine Ephenidine Esketamine Etoxadrol Eticyclidine Fluorolintane Gacyclidine Ibogaine Ibogamine Indantadol Ketamine Ketobemidone Lanicemine Levomethadone Levomethorphan Levomilnacipran Levorphanol Loperamide Memantine Methadone Methorphan Methoxetamine Methoxphenidine Milnacipran Morphanol NEFA Neramexane Nitromemantine Noribogaine Norketamine Orphenadrine PCPr PD-137889 Pethidine
Pethidine
(meperidine) Phencyclamine Phencyclidine Propoxyphene Remacemide Rhynchophylline Rimantadine Rolicyclidine Sabeluzole Tabernanthine Tenocyclidine Tiletamine Tramadol; Ifenprodil (NR2B) site antagonists: Besonprodil Buphenine
Buphenine
(nylidrin) CO-101244 (PD-174494) Eliprodil Haloperidol Isoxsuprine Radiprodil (RGH-896) Rislenemdaz
Rislenemdaz
(CERC-301, MK-0657) Ro 8-4304 Ro 25-6981 Safaprodil Traxoprodil
Traxoprodil
(CP-101606); NR2A-selective antagonists: MPX-004 MPX-007 TCN-201 TCN-213; Cations: Hydrogen Magnesium Zinc; Alcohols/volatile anesthetics/related: Benzene Butane Chloroform Cyclopropane Desflurane Diethyl ether Enflurane Ethanol (alcohol) Halothane Hexanol Isoflurane Methoxyflurane Nitrous oxide Octanol Sevoflurane Toluene Trichloroethane Trichloroethanol Trichloroethylene Urethane Xenon Xylene; Unknown/unsorted antagonists: ARR-15896 Bumetanide Caroverine Conantokin D-αAA Dexanabinol Flufenamic acid Flupirtine FPL-12495 FR-115427 Furosemide Hodgkinsine Ipenoxazone (MLV-6976) MDL-27266 Metaphit Minocycline MPEP Niflumic acid Pentamidine Pentamidine
Pentamidine
isethionate Piretanide Psychotridine Transcrocetin
Transcrocetin
(saffron)

See also: Receptor/signaling modulators Metabotropic glutamate receptor modulators Glutamate
Glutamate
metabolism/transport modulators

Authority control

LCCN: sh85149842 GND: 4137453-8 BNF: cb119731249 (data) NDL: 0056

.