Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30. It is
the first element in group 12 of the periodic table. In some respects
zinc is chemically similar to magnesium: both elements exhibit only
one normal oxidation state (+2), and the Zn2+ and Mg2+ ions are of
Zinc is the 24th most abundant element in Earth's crust
and has five stable isotopes. The most common zinc ore is sphalerite
(zinc blende), a zinc sulfide mineral. The largest workable lodes are
in Australia, Asia, and the United States.
Zinc is refined by froth
flotation of the ore, roasting, and final extraction using electricity
Brass, an alloy of copper and zinc in various proportions, was used as
early as the third millennium BC in the Aegean, Iraq, the United Arab
Turkmenistan and Georgia, and the second
millennium BC in West India, Uzbekistan, Iran, Syria, Iraq, and
Zinc metal was not produced on a large scale
until the 12th century in India, though it was known to the ancient
Romans and Greeks. The mines of
Rajasthan have given definite
evidence of zinc production going back to the 6th century BC. To
date, the oldest evidence of pure zinc comes from Zawar, in Rajasthan,
as early as the 9th century AD when a distillation process was
employed to make pure zinc. Alchemists burned zinc in air to form
what they called "philosopher's wool" or "white snow".
The element was probably named by the alchemist
Paracelsus after the
German word Zinke (prong, tooth). German chemist Andreas Sigismund
Marggraf is credited with discovering pure metallic zinc in 1746. Work
Luigi Galvani and
Alessandro Volta uncovered the electrochemical
properties of zinc by 1800. Corrosion-resistant zinc plating of iron
(hot-dip galvanizing) is the major application for zinc. Other
applications are in electrical batteries, small non-structural
castings, and alloys such as brass. A variety of zinc compounds are
commonly used, such as zinc carbonate and zinc gluconate (as dietary
supplements), zinc chloride (in deodorants), zinc pyrithione
(anti-dandruff shampoos), zinc sulfide (in luminescent paints), and
zinc methyl or zinc diethyl in the organic laboratory.
Zinc is an essential mineral, including to prenatal and postnatal
Zinc deficiency affects about two billion people in
the developing world and is associated with many diseases. In
children, deficiency causes growth retardation, delayed sexual
maturation, infection susceptibility, and diarrhea. Enzymes with a
zinc atom in the reactive center are widespread in biochemistry, such
as alcohol dehydrogenase in humans. Consumption of excess zinc can
cause ataxia, lethargy and copper deficiency.
1.1 Physical properties
2 Compounds and chemistry
2.2 Zinc(I) compounds
2.3 Zinc(II) compounds
2.4 Test for zinc
3.1 Ancient use
3.2 Early studies and naming
3.4 Later work
4.1 Mining and processing
4.2 Environmental impact
5.1 Anti-corrosion and batteries
5.3 Other industrial uses
5.4 Organic chemistry
5.5 Dietary supplement
5.5.1 Common cold
5.6 Topical use
6 Biological role
6.3 Other proteins
6.4 Dietary recommendations
6.5 Dietary intake
8 See also
12 External links
Zinc is a bluish-white, lustrous, diamagnetic metal, though most
common commercial grades of the metal have a dull finish. It is
somewhat less dense than iron and has a hexagonal crystal structure,
with a distorted form of hexagonal close packing, in which each atom
has six nearest neighbors (at 265.9 pm) in its own plane and six
others at a greater distance of 290.6 pm. The metal is hard and
brittle at most temperatures but becomes malleable between 100 and
150 °C. Above 210 °C, the metal becomes brittle
again and can be pulverized by beating.
Zinc is a fair conductor
of electricity. For a metal, zinc has relatively low melting
(419.5 °C) and boiling points (907 °C). The melting
point is the lowest of all the d-block metals aside from mercury and
cadmium; for this, among other reasons, zinc, cadmium, and mercury are
often not considered to be transition metals like the rest of the
d-block metals are.
Many alloys contain zinc, including brass. Other metals long known to
form binary alloys with zinc are aluminium, antimony, bismuth, gold,
iron, lead, mercury, silver, tin, magnesium, cobalt, nickel,
tellurium, and sodium. Although neither zinc nor zirconium are
ferromagnetic, their alloy ZrZn
2 exhibits ferromagnetism below 35 K.
A bar of zinc generates a characteristic sound when bent, similar to
Zinc makes up about 75 ppm (0.0075%) of Earth's crust,
making it the 24th most abundant element.
Soil contains zinc in
5–770 ppm with an average 64 ppm.
Seawater has only
30 ppb and the atmosphere, 0.1–4 µg/m3.
The element is normally found in association with other base metals
such as copper and lead in ores.
Zinc is a chalcophile, meaning
the element is more likely to be found in minerals together with
sulfur and other heavy chalcogens, rather than with the light
chalcogen oxygen or with non-chalcogen electronegative elements such
as the halogens. Sulfides formed as the crust solidified under the
reducing conditions of the early Earth's atmosphere. Sphalerite,
which is a form of zinc sulfide, is the most heavily mined
zinc-containing ore because its concentrate contains 60–62%
Other source minerals for zinc include smithsonite (zinc carbonate),
hemimorphite (zinc silicate), wurtzite (another zinc sulfide), and
sometimes hydrozincite (basic zinc carbonate). With the exception
of wurtzite, all these other minerals were formed by weathering of the
primordial zinc sulfides.
Identified world zinc resources total about 1.9–2.8 billion
tonnes. Large deposits are in Australia, Canada and the United
States, with the largest reserves in Iran. The most recent
estimate of reserve base for zinc (meets specified minimum physical
criteria related to current mining and production practices) was made
in 2009 and calculated to be roughly 480 Mt.
Zinc reserves, on the
other hand, are geologically identified ore bodies whose suitability
for recovery is economically based (location, grade, quality, and
quantity) at the time of determination. Since exploration and mine
development is an ongoing process, the amount of zinc reserves is not
a fixed number and sustainability of zinc ore supplies cannot be
judged by simply extrapolating the combined mine life of today's zinc
mines. This concept is well supported by data from the United States
Geological Survey (USGS), which illustrates that although refined zinc
production increased 80% between 1990 and 2010, the reserve lifetime
for zinc has remained unchanged. About 346 million tonnes have been
extracted throughout history to 2002, and scholars have estimated that
about 109–305 million tonnes are in use.
Main article: Isotopes of zinc
Five isotopes of zinc occur in nature. 64Zn is the most abundant
isotope (48.63% natural abundance). That isotope has such a long
half-life, at 7026135697680000000♠4.3×1018 years, that its
radioactivity can be ignored. Similarly, 70Zn (0.6%), with a
half-life of 7023410248800000000♠1.3×1016 years is not usually
considered to be radioactive. The other isotopes found in nature are
66Zn (28%), 67Zn (4%) and 68Zn (19%).
Several dozen radioisotopes have been characterized. 65Zn, which has a
half-life of 243.66 days, is the least active radioisotope,
followed by 72Zn with a half-life of 46.5 hours.
Zinc has 10
nuclear isomers. 69mZn has the longest half-life, 13.76 h. The
superscript m indicates a metastable isotope. The nucleus of a
metastable isotope is in an excited state and will return to the
ground state by emitting a photon in the form of a gamma ray. 61Zn has
three excited metastable states and 73Zn has two. The isotopes
65Zn, 71Zn, 77Zn and 78Zn each have only one excited metastable
The most common decay mode of a radioisotope of zinc with a mass
number lower than 66 is electron capture. The decay product resulting
from electron capture is an isotope of copper.
30Zn + e− → n
The most common decay mode of a radioisotope of zinc with mass number
higher than 66 is beta decay (β−), which produces an isotope of
30Zn → n
31Ga + e− + ν
Compounds and chemistry
Main article: Compounds of zinc
See also: Clemmensen reduction
Zinc has an electron configuration of [Ar]3d104s2 and is a member of
the group 12 of the periodic table. It is a moderately reactive metal
and strong reducing agent. The surface of the pure metal tarnishes
quickly, eventually forming a protective passivating layer of the
basic zinc carbonate, Zn
2, by reaction with atmospheric carbon dioxide. This layer helps
prevent further reaction with air and water.
Zinc burns in air with a bright bluish-green flame, giving off fumes
of zinc oxide.
Zinc reacts readily with acids, alkalis and other
non-metals. Extremely pure zinc reacts only slowly at room
temperature with acids. Strong acids, such as hydrochloric or
sulfuric acid, can remove the passivating layer and subsequent
reaction with water releases hydrogen gas.
The chemistry of zinc is dominated by the +2 oxidation state. When
compounds in this oxidation state are formed, the outer shell s
electrons are lost, yielding a bare zinc ion with the electronic
configuration [Ar]3d10. In aqueous solution an octahedral complex,
2O)6]2+ is the predominant species. The volatilization of zinc in
combination with zinc chloride at temperatures above 285 °C
indicates the formation of Zn
2, a zinc compound with a +1 oxidation state. No compounds of zinc
in oxidation states other than +1 or +2 are known. Calculations
indicate that a zinc compound with the oxidation state of +4 is
unlikely to exist.
Zinc chemistry is similar to the chemistry of the late first-row
transition metals, nickel and copper, though it has a filled d-shell
and compounds are diamagnetic and mostly colorless. The ionic
radii of zinc and magnesium happen to be nearly identical. Because of
this some of the equivalent salts have the same crystal structure,
and in other circumstances where ionic radius is a determining factor,
the chemistry of zinc has much in common with that of magnesium.
In other respects, there is little similarity with the late first-row
Zinc tends to form bonds with a greater degree of
covalency and much more stable complexes with N- and S- donors.
Complexes of zinc are mostly 4- or 6- coordinate although 5-coordinate
complexes are known.
Zinc(I) compounds are rare and need bulky ligands to stabilize the low
oxidation state. Most zinc(I) compounds contain formally the [Zn2]2+
core, which is analogous to the [Hg2]2+ dimeric cation present in
mercury(I) compounds. The diamagnetic nature of the ion confirms its
dimeric structure. The first zinc(I) compound containing the Zn–Zn
bond, (η5-C5Me5)2Zn2, is also the first dimetallocene. The [Zn2]2+
ion rapidly disproportionates into zinc metal and zinc(II), and has
been obtained only a yellow glass only by cooling a solution of
metallic zinc in molten ZnCl2.
Binary compounds of zinc are known for most of the metalloids and all
the nonmetals except the noble gases. The oxide ZnO is a white powder
that is nearly insoluble in neutral aqueous solutions, but is
amphoteric, dissolving in both strong basic and acidic solutions.
The other chalcogenides (ZnS, ZnSe, and ZnTe) have varied applications
in electronics and optics. Pnictogenides (Zn
2 and Zn
2), the peroxide (ZnO
2), the hydride (ZnH
2), and the carbide (ZnC
2) are also known. Of the four halides, ZnF
2 has the most ionic character, while the others (ZnCl
2, and ZnI
2) have relatively low melting points and are considered to have more
In weak basic solutions containing Zn2+ ions, the hydroxide Zn(OH)
2 forms as a white precipitate. In stronger alkaline solutions, this
hydroxide is dissolved to form zincates ([Zn(OH)4]2−). The
2, chlorate Zn(ClO3)
2, sulfate ZnSO
4, phosphate Zn
2, molybdate ZnMoO
4, cyanide Zn(CN)
2, arsenite Zn(AsO2)
2, arsenate Zn(AsO4)
2O and the chromate ZnCrO
4 (one of the few colored zinc compounds) are a few examples of other
common inorganic compounds of zinc. One of the simplest
examples of an organic compound of zinc is the acetate (Zn(O
Organozinc compounds are those that contain zinc–carbon covalent
2Zn) is a reagent in synthetic chemistry. It was first reported in
1848 from the reaction of zinc and ethyl iodide, and was the first
compound known to contain a metal–carbon sigma bond.
Test for zinc
Cobalticyanide paper (Rinnmann's test for Zn) can be used as a
chemical indicator for zinc. 4 g of K3Co(CN)6 and 1 g of
KClO3 is dissolved on 100 ml of water. Paper is dipped in the
solution and dried at 100 °C. One drop of the sample is dropped
onto the dry paper and heated. A green disc indicates the presence of
Late Roman brass bucket – the Hemmoorer Eimer from Warstade,
Germany, second to third century AD
Various isolated examples of the use of impure zinc in ancient times
have been discovered.
Zinc ores were used to make the zinc–copper
alloy brass thousands of years prior to the discovery of zinc as a
separate element. Judean brass from the 14th to 10th centuries BC
contains 23% zinc.
Knowledge of how to produce brass spread to
Ancient Greece by the
7th century BC, but few varieties were made. Ornaments
made of alloys containing 80–90% zinc, with lead, iron, antimony,
and other metals making up the remainder, have been found that are
2,500 years old. A possibly prehistoric statuette containing 87.5%
zinc was found in a Dacian archaeological site.
The oldest known pills were made of the zinc carbonates hydrozincite
and smithsonite. The pills were used for sore eyes and were found
aboard the Roman ship Relitto del Pozzino, wrecked in 140 BC.
The manufacture of brass was known to the Romans by about
30 BC. They made brass by heating powdered calamine (zinc
silicate or carbonate), charcoal and copper together in a
crucible. The resulting calamine brass was then either cast or
hammered into shape for use in weaponry. Some coins struck by
Romans in the Christian era are made of what is probably calamine
Strabo writing in the 1st century BC (but quoting a now lost work of
the 4th century BC historian Theopompus) mentions "drops of false
silver" which when mixed with copper make brass. This may refer to
small quantities of zinc that is a by-product of smelting sulfide
Zinc in such remnants in smelting ovens was usually
discarded as it was thought to be worthless.
Berne zinc tablet
Berne zinc tablet is a votive plaque dating to
Roman Gaul made of
an alloy that is mostly zinc.
The Charaka Samhita, thought to have been written between 300 and 500
AD, mentions a metal which, when oxidized, produces pushpanjan,
thought to be zinc oxide.
Zinc mines at Zawar, near
India, have been active since the
Mauryan period (c. 322 and 187
BCE). The smelting of metallic zinc here, however, appears to have
begun around the 12th century AD. One estimate is that this
location produced an estimated million tonnes of metallic zinc and
zinc oxide from the 12th to 16th centuries. Another estimate gives
a total production of 60,000 tonnes of metallic zinc over this
period. The Rasaratna Samuccaya, written in approximately the 13th
century AD, mentions two types of zinc-containing ores: one used for
metal extraction and another used for medicinal purposes.
Early studies and naming
Zinc was distinctly recognized as a metal under the designation of
Yasada or Jasada in the medical Lexicon ascribed to the Hindu king
Madanapala (of Taka dynasty) and written about the year 1374.
Smelting and extraction of impure zinc by reducing calamine with wool
and other organic substances was accomplished in the 13th century in
India. The Chinese did not learn of the technique until the
Various alchemical symbols for the element zinc
Alchemists burned zinc metal in air and collected the resulting zinc
oxide on a condenser. Some alchemists called this zinc oxide lana
philosophica, Latin for "philosopher's wool", because it collected in
wooly tufts, whereas others thought it looked like white snow and
named it nix album.
The name of the metal was probably first documented by Paracelsus, a
Swiss-born German alchemist, who referred to the metal as "zincum" or
"zinken" in his book Liber Mineralium II, in the 16th century.
The word is probably derived from the German zinke, and supposedly
meant "tooth-like, pointed or jagged" (metallic zinc crystals have a
needle-like appearance). Zink could also imply "tin-like" because
of its relation to German zinn meaning tin. Yet another
possibility is that the word is derived from the Persian word سنگ
seng meaning stone. The metal was also called Indian tin,
tutanego, calamine, and spinter.
Andreas Libavius received a quantity of what he
called "calay" of Malabar from a cargo ship captured from the
Portuguese in 1596. Libavius described the properties of the
sample, which may have been zinc.
Zinc was regularly imported to
Europe from the Orient in the 17th and early 18th centuries, but
was at times very expensive.[note 1]
Andreas Sigismund Marggraf
Andreas Sigismund Marggraf is given credit for first isolating pure
Metallic zinc was isolated in
India by 1300 AD, much
earlier than in the West. Before it was isolated in Europe, it was
India in about 1600 CE. Postlewayt's Universal
Dictionary, a contemporary source giving technological information in
Europe, did not mention zinc before 1751 but the element was studied
Flemish metallurgist and alchemist
P. M. de Respour reported that he
had extracted metallic zinc from zinc oxide in 1668. By the start
of the 18th century,
Étienne François Geoffroy
Étienne François Geoffroy described how zinc
oxide condenses as yellow crystals on bars of iron placed above zinc
ore that is being smelted. In Britain, John Lane is said to have
carried out experiments to smelt zinc, probably at Landore, prior to
his bankruptcy in 1726.
In 1738 in Great Britain, William Champion patented a process to
extract zinc from calamine in a vertical retort style smelter. His
technique resembled that used at Zawar zinc mines in Rajasthan, but no
evidence suggests he visited the Orient. Champion's process was
used through 1851.
German chemist Andreas Marggraf normally gets credit for discovering
pure metallic zinc, even though Swedish chemist Anton von Swab had
distilled zinc from calamine four years previously. In his 1746
experiment, Marggraf heated a mixture of calamine and charcoal in a
closed vessel without copper to obtain a metal. This procedure
became commercially practical by 1752.
Galvanization was named after Luigi Galvani.
William Champion's brother, John, patented a process in 1758 for
calcining zinc sulfide into an oxide usable in the retort process.
Prior to this, only calamine could be used to produce zinc. In 1798,
Johann Christian Ruberg improved on the smelting process by building
the first horizontal retort smelter. Jean-Jacques Daniel Dony
built a different kind of horizontal zinc smelter in Belgium that
processed even more zinc. Italian doctor
Luigi Galvani discovered
in 1780 that connecting the spinal cord of a freshly dissected frog to
an iron rail attached by a brass hook caused the frog's leg to
twitch. He incorrectly thought he had discovered an ability of
nerves and muscles to create electricity and called the effect "animal
electricity". The galvanic cell and the process of galvanization
were both named for Luigi Galvani, and his discoveries paved the way
for electrical batteries, galvanization, and cathodic protection.
Galvani's friend, Alessandro Volta, continued researching the effect
and invented the
Voltaic pile in 1800. The basic unit of Volta's
pile was a simplified galvanic cell, made of plates of copper and zinc
separated by an electrolyte and connected by a conductor externally.
The units were stacked in series to make the Voltaic cell, which
produced electricity by directing electrons from the zinc to the
copper and allowing the zinc to corrode.
The non-magnetic character of zinc and its lack of color in solution
delayed discovery of its importance to biochemistry and nutrition.
This changed in 1940 when carbonic anhydrase, an enzyme that scrubs
carbon dioxide from blood, was shown to have zinc in its active
site. The digestive enzyme carboxypeptidase became the second
known zinc-containing enzyme in 1955.
Mining and processing
Top zinc output countries 2014
Zinc mining and
See also: List of countries by zinc production
Percentage of zinc output in 2006 by countries
World production trend
Zinc Mine Rosh Pinah, Namibia
27°57′17″S 016°46′00″E / 27.95472°S 16.76667°E /
-27.95472; 16.76667 (Rosh Pinah)
Zinc Mine Skorpion, Namibia
27°49′09″S 016°36′28″E / 27.81917°S 16.60778°E /
-27.81917; 16.60778 (Skorpion)
Zinc is the fourth most common metal in use, trailing only iron,
aluminium, and copper with an annual production of about 13 million
tonnes. The world's largest zinc producer is Nyrstar, a merger of
OZ Minerals and the Belgian Umicore. About 70% of
the world's zinc originates from mining, while the remaining 30% comes
from recycling secondary zinc. Commercially pure zinc is known as
Special High Grade, often abbreviated SHG, and is 99.995% pure.
Worldwide, 95% of new zinc is mined from sulfidic ore deposits, in
which sphalerite (ZnS) is nearly always mixed with the sulfides of
copper, lead and iron.
Zinc mines are scattered throughout the
world, with the main areas being China, Australia, and Peru. China
produced 38% of the global zinc output in 2014.
Zinc metal is produced using extractive metallurgy. The ore is
finely ground, then put through froth flotation to separate minerals
from gangue (on the property of hydrophobicity), to get a zinc sulfide
ore concentrate consisting of about 50% zinc, 32% sulfur, 13%
iron, and 5% SiO
Roasting converts the zinc sulfide concentrate to zinc oxide:
2 ZnS + 3 O
2 → 2 ZnO + 2 SO
The sulfur dioxide is used for the production of sulfuric acid, which
is necessary for the leaching process. If deposits of zinc carbonate,
zinc silicate, or zinc spinel (like the Skorpion Deposit in Namibia)
are used for zinc production, the roasting can be omitted.
For further processing two basic methods are used: pyrometallurgy or
Pyrometallurgy reduces zinc oxide with carbon or
carbon monoxide at 950 °C (1,740 °F) into the metal, which
is distilled as zinc vapor to separate it from other metals, which are
not volatile at those temperatures. The zinc vapor is collected in
a condenser. The equations below describe this process:
2 ZnO + C → 2 Zn + CO
ZnO + CO → Zn + CO
In electrowinning, zinc is leached from the ore concentrate by
ZnO + H
4 → ZnSO
4 + H
Finally, the zinc is reduced by electrolysis.
4 + 2 H
2O → 2 Zn + 2 H
4 + O
The sulfuric acid is regenerated and recycled to the leaching step.
When galvanised feedstock is fed to an electric arc furnace, the zinc
is recovered from the dust by a number of processes, predominately the
Waelz process (90% as of 2014).
Refinement of sulfidic zinc ores produces large volumes of sulfur
dioxide and cadmium vapor. Smelter slag and other residues contain
significant quantities of metals. About 1.1 million tonnes of metallic
zinc and 130 thousand tonnes of lead were mined and smelted in the
Belgian towns of La Calamine and
Plombières between 1806 and
1882. The dumps of the past mining operations leach zinc and
cadmium, and the sediments of the
Geul River contain non-trivial
amounts of metals. About two thousand years ago, emissions of zinc
from mining and smelting totaled 10 thousand tonnes a year. After
increasing 10-fold from 1850, zinc emissions peaked at 3.4 million
tonnes per year in the 1980s and declined to 2.7 million tonnes in the
1990s, although a 2005 study of the Arctic troposphere found that the
concentrations there did not reflect the decline. Anthropogenic and
natural emissions occur at a ratio of 20 to 1.
Zinc in rivers flowing through industrial and mining areas can be as
high as 20 ppm. Effective sewage treatment greatly reduces
this; treatment along the Rhine, for example, has decreased zinc
levels to 50 ppb. Concentrations of zinc as low as 2 ppm
adversely affects the amount of oxygen that fish can carry in their
Historically responsible for high metal levels in the Derwent
River, the zinc works at
Lutana is the largest exporter in
Tasmania, generating 2.5% of the state's GDP, and producing more than
250 000 tonnes of zinc per year.
Soils contaminated with zinc from mining, refining, or fertilizing
with zinc-bearing sludge can contain several grams of zinc per
kilogram of dry soil. Levels of zinc in excess of 500 ppm in soil
interfere with the ability of plants to absorb other essential metals,
such as iron and manganese.
Zinc levels of 2000 ppm to
180,000 ppm (18%) have been recorded in some soil samples.
Major applications of zinc include (numbers are given for the US)
Brass and bronze (16%)
Other alloys (21%)
Anti-corrosion and batteries
Hot-dip handrail galvanized crystalline surface
Zinc is most commonly used as an anti-corrosion agent, and
galvanization (coating of iron or steel) is the most familiar form. In
2009 in the United States, 55% or 893 thousand tonnes of the zinc
metal was used for galvanization.
Zinc is more reactive than iron or steel and thus will attract almost
all local oxidation until it completely corrodes away. A
protective surface layer of oxide and carbonate (Zn
2) forms as the zinc corrodes. This protection lasts even after
the zinc layer is scratched but degrades through time as the zinc
corrodes away. The zinc is applied electrochemically or as molten
zinc by hot-dip galvanizing or spraying.
Galvanization is used on
chain-link fencing, guard rails, suspension bridges, lightposts, metal
roofs, heat exchangers, and car bodies.
The relative reactivity of zinc and its ability to attract oxidation
to itself makes it an efficient sacrificial anode in cathodic
protection (CP). For example, cathodic protection of a buried pipeline
can be achieved by connecting anodes made from zinc to the pipe.
Zinc acts as the anode (negative terminus) by slowly corroding away as
it passes electric current to the steel pipeline.[note 2]
also used to cathodically protect metals that are exposed to sea
water. A zinc disc attached to a ship's iron rudder will slowly
corrode while the rudder stays intact. Similarly, a zinc plug
attached to a propeller or the metal protective guard for the keel of
the ship provides temporary protection.
With a standard electrode potential (SEP) of −0.76 volts, zinc is
used as an anode material for batteries. (More reactive lithium (SEP
−3.04 V) is used for anodes in lithium batteries ). Powdered zinc is
used in this way in alkaline batteries and the case (which also serves
as the anode) of zinc–carbon batteries is formed from sheet
Zinc is used as the anode or fuel of the zinc-air
battery/fuel cell. The zinc-cerium redox flow battery
also relies on a zinc-based negative half-cell.
A widely used zinc alloy is brass, in which copper is alloyed with
anywhere from 3% to 45% zinc, depending upon the type of brass.
Brass is generally more ductile and stronger than copper, and has
superior corrosion resistance. These properties make it useful in
communication equipment, hardware, musical instruments, and water
Cast brass microstructure at magnification 400x
Other widely used zinc alloys include nickel silver, typewriter metal,
soft and aluminium solder, and commercial bronze.
Zinc is also
used in contemporary pipe organs as a substitute for the traditional
lead/tin alloy in pipes. Alloys of 85–88% zinc, 4–10% copper,
and 2–8% aluminium find limited use in certain types of machine
Zinc is the primary metal in American one cent coins
(pennies) since 1982. The zinc core is coated with a thin layer
of copper to give the appearance of a copper coin. In 1994, 33,200
tonnes (36,600 short tons) of zinc were used to produce 13.6 billion
pennies in the United States.
Alloys of zinc with small amounts of copper, aluminium, and magnesium
are useful in die casting as well as spin casting, especially in the
automotive, electrical, and hardware industries. These alloys are
marketed under the name Zamak. An example of this is zinc
aluminium. The low melting point together with the low viscosity of
the alloy makes possible the production of small and intricate shapes.
The low working temperature leads to rapid cooling of the cast
products and fast production for assembly. Another alloy,
marketed under the brand name Prestal, contains 78% zinc and 22%
aluminium, and is reported to be nearly as strong as steel but as
malleable as plastic. This superplasticity of the alloy
allows it to be molded using die casts made of ceramics and
Similar alloys with the addition of a small amount of lead can be
cold-rolled into sheets. An alloy of 96% zinc and 4% aluminium is used
to make stamping dies for low production run applications for which
ferrous metal dies would be too expensive. For building facades,
roofing, and other applications for sheet metal formed by deep
drawing, roll forming, or bending, zinc alloys with titanium and
copper are used. Unalloyed zinc is too brittle for these
As a dense, inexpensive, easily worked material, zinc is used as a
lead replacement. In the wake of lead concerns, zinc appears in
weights for various applications ranging from fishing to tire
balances and flywheels.
Cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) is a semiconductive alloy that can be
divided into an array of small sensing devices. These devices are
similar to an integrated circuit and can detect the energy of incoming
gamma ray photons. When behind an absorbing mask, the CZT sensor
array can determine the direction of the rays.
Other industrial uses
Zinc oxide is used as a white pigment in paints.
Roughly one quarter of all zinc output in the
United States in 2009
was consumed in zinc compounds; a variety of which are used
Zinc oxide is widely used as a white pigment in paints
and as a catalyst in the manufacture of rubber to disburse heat. Zinc
oxide is used to protect rubber polymers and plastics from ultraviolet
radiation (UV). The semiconductor properties of zinc oxide make it
useful in varistors and photocopying products. The zinc
zinc-oxide cycle is a two step thermochemical process based on zinc
and zinc oxide for hydrogen production.
Zinc chloride is often added to lumber as a fire retardant and
sometimes as a wood preservative. It is used in the manufacture
of other chemicals.
Zinc methyl (Zn(CH3)
2) is used in a number of organic syntheses.
Zinc sulfide (ZnS)
is used in luminescent pigments such as on the hands of clocks, X-ray
and television screens, and luminous paints. Crystals of ZnS are
used in lasers that operate in the mid-infrared part of the
Zinc sulfate is a chemical in dyes and pigments.
Zinc pyrithione is used in antifouling paints.
Zinc powder is sometimes used as a propellant in model rockets.
When a compressed mixture of 70% zinc and 30% sulfur powder is ignited
there is a violent chemical reaction. This produces zinc sulfide,
together with large amounts of hot gas, heat, and light.
Zinc sheet metal is used to make zinc bars.
64Zn, the most abundant isotope of zinc, is very susceptible to
neutron activation, being transmuted into the highly radioactive 65Zn,
which has a half-life of 244 days and produces intense gamma
radiation. Because of this, zinc oxide used in nuclear reactors as an
anti-corrosion agent is depleted of 64Zn before use, this is called
depleted zinc oxide. For the same reason, zinc has been proposed as a
salting material for nuclear weapons (cobalt is another, better-known
salting material). A jacket of isotopically enriched 64Zn would
be irradiated by the intense high-energy neutron flux from an
exploding thermonuclear weapon, forming a large amount of 65Zn
significantly increasing the radioactivity of the weapon's
fallout. Such a weapon is not known to have ever been built,
tested, or used.
65Zn is used as a tracer to study how alloys that contain zinc wear
out, or the path and the role of zinc in organisms.
Zinc dithiocarbamate complexes are used as agricultural fungicides;
these include Zineb, Metiram, Propineb and Ziram. Zinc
naphthenate is used as wood preservative.
Zinc in the form of
ZDDP, is used as an anti-wear additive for metal parts in engine
Addition of diphenylzinc to an aldehyde
Organozinc chemistry is the science of compounds that contain
carbon-zinc bonds, describing the physical properties, synthesis, and
chemical reactions.Many organozinc compounds are
important. Among important applications are
The Frankland-Duppa Reaction in which an oxalate ester (ROCOCOOR)
reacts with an alkyl halide R'X, zinc and hydrochloric acid to form
the α-hydroxycarboxylic esters RR'COHCOOR
Reformatskii reaction in which α-halo-esters and aldehydes are
converted to β-hydroxy-esters
Simmons–Smith reaction in which the carbenoid (iodomethyl)zinc
iodide reacts with alkene(or alkyne) and converts them to cyclopropane
Addition reaction of organozinc compounds to form carbonyl
Barbier reaction (1899), which is the zinc equivalent of the
Grignard reaction and is the better of the two. In presence
of water, formation of the organomagnesium halide will fail, whereas
Barbier reaction can take place in water.
On the downside, organozincs are much less nucleophilic than
Grignards, and they are expensive and difficult to handle.
Commercially available diorganozinc compounds are dimethylzinc,
diethylzinc and diphenylzinc. In one study, the active
organozinc compound is obtained from much cheaper organobromine
Negishi coupling is also an important reaction for the formation
of new carbon-carbon bonds between unsaturated carbon atoms in
alkenes, arenes and alkynes. The catalysts are nickel and palladium. A
key step in the catalytic cycle is a transmetalation in which a zinc
halide exchanges its organic substituent for another halogen with the
palladium (nickel) metal center.
Fukuyama coupling is another coupling reaction, but it uses a
thioester as reactant and produces a ketone.
Zinc has found many applications as catalyst in organic synthesis
including asymmetric synthesis, being cheap and easily available
alternative to precious metal complexes. The results (yield and ee)
obtained with chiral zinc catalysts are comparable to those achieved
with palladium, ruthenium, iridium and others, and zinc becomes metal
catalyst of choice.
GNC zinc 50 mg tablets. The amount exceeds what is deemed the
safe upper limit in the
United States (40 mg) and European Union (25
Zinc gluconate is one compound used for the delivery of zinc as a
Zinc sulfate (medical use)
In most single-tablet, over-the-counter, daily vitamin and mineral
supplements, zinc is included in such forms as zinc oxide, zinc
acetate, or zinc gluconate.
Zinc is generally considered to be an
antioxidant. However, it is redox inert and thus can serve such a
function only indirectly.
Zinc deficiency has been associated with major depressive disorder
(MDD), and zinc supplements may be an effective treatment.
Zinc serves as a simple, inexpensive, and critical tool for treating
diarrheal episodes among children in the developing world. Zinc
becomes depleted in the body during diarrhea, but recent studies
suggest that replenishing zinc with a 10- to 14-day course of
treatment can reduce the duration and severity of diarrheal episodes
and may also prevent future episodes for as long as three months.
A Cochrane review stated that people taking zinc supplement may be
less likely to progress to age-related macular degeneration.
Zinc supplement is an effective treatment for acrodermatitis
enteropathica, a genetic disorder affecting zinc absorption that was
previously fatal to affected infants.
Gastroenteritis is strongly attenuated by ingestion of zinc, possibly
by direct antimicrobial action of the ions in the gastrointestinal
tract, or by the absorption of the zinc and re-release from immune
cells (all granulocytes secrete zinc), or both.
In 2011, researchers reported that adding large amounts of zinc to a
urine sample masked detection of drugs. The researchers did not test
whether orally consuming a zinc dietary supplement could have the same
This section is transcluded from
Zinc and the common cold. (edit
Zinc supplements (frequently zinc acetate or zinc gluconate lozenges)
are a group of dietary supplements that are commonly used for the
treatment of the common cold. The use of zinc supplements at
doses in excess of 75 mg/day within 24 hours of the onset of
symptoms has been shown to reduce the duration of cold symptoms by
about 1 day. Due to a lack of data, there is
insufficient evidence to determine whether the preventative use of
zinc supplements reduces the likelihood of contracting a cold.
Adverse effects with zinc supplements by mouth include bad taste and
nausea. The intranasal use of zinc-containing nasal sprays
has been associated with the loss of the sense of smell;
consequently, in June 2009, the
United States Food and Drug
Administration (USFDA) warned consumers to stop using intranasal zinc
The human rhinovirus – the most common viral pathogen in
humans – is the predominant cause of the common cold. The
hypothesized mechanism of action by which zinc reduces the severity
and/or duration of cold symptoms is the suppression of nasal
inflammation and the direct inhibition of rhinoviral receptor binding
and rhinoviral replication in the nasal mucosa.
Zinc oxide § Medicine
Topical preparations of zinc include those used on the skin, often in
the form of zinc oxide.
Zinc preparations can protect against sunburn
in the summer and windburn in the winter. Applied thinly to a
baby's diaper area (perineum) with each diaper change, it can protect
against diaper rash.
Chelated zinc is used in toothpastes and mouthwashes to prevent bad
Zinc pyrithione is widely included in shampoos to prevent
Zinc is an essential trace element for humans and other
animals, for plants and for microorganisms.
required for the function of over 300 enzymes and 1000 transcription
factors, and is stored and transferred in
metallothioneins. It is the second most abundant trace metal
in humans after iron and it is the only metal which appears in all
In proteins, zinc ions are often coordinated to the amino acid side
chains of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, cysteine and histidine. The
theoretical and computational description of this zinc binding in
proteins (as well as that of other transition metals) is
Roughly 2–4 grams of zinc are distributed throughout the
human body. Most zinc is in the brain, muscle, bones, kidney, and
liver, with the highest concentrations in the prostate and parts of
the eye. Semen is particularly rich in zinc, a key factor in
prostate gland function and reproductive organ growth.
In humans, the biological roles of zinc are ubiquitous. It
interacts with "a wide range of organic ligands", and has roles in
the metabolism of RNA and DNA, signal transduction, and gene
expression. It also regulates apoptosis. A 2006 study estimated that
about 10% of human proteins (2800) potentially bind zinc, in addition
to hundreds more that transport and traffic zinc; a similar in silico
study in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana found 2367 zinc-related
In the brain, zinc is stored in specific synaptic vesicles by
glutamatergic neurons and can modulate neuronal
excitability. It plays a key role in synaptic
plasticity and so in learning.
Zinc homeostasis also plays a
critical role in the functional regulation of the central nervous
system. Dysregulation of zinc homeostasis in the
central nervous system that results in excessive synaptic zinc
concentrations is believed to induce neurotoxicity through
mitochondrial oxidative stress (e.g., by disrupting certain enzymes
involved in the electron transport chain, including complex I, complex
III, and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase), the dysregulation of calcium
homeostasis, glutamatergic neuronal excitotoxicity, and interference
with intraneuronal signal transduction. L- and D-histidine
facilitate brain zinc uptake.
SLC30A3 is the primary zinc
transporter involved in cerebral zinc homeostasis.
Ribbon diagram of human carbonic anhydrase II, with zinc atom visible
in the center
Zinc fingers help read
Zinc is an efficient Lewis acid, making it a useful catalytic agent in
hydroxylation and other enzymatic reactions. The metal also has a
flexible coordination geometry, which allows proteins using it to
rapidly shift conformations to perform biological reactions. Two
examples of zinc-containing enzymes are carbonic anhydrase and
carboxypeptidase, which are vital to the processes of carbon dioxide
2) regulation and digestion of proteins, respectively.
In vertebrate blood, carbonic anhydrase converts CO
2 into bicarbonate and the same enzyme transforms the bicarbonate back
2 for exhalation through the lungs. Without this enzyme, this
conversion would occur about one million times slower at the
normal blood pH of 7 or would require a pH of 10 or more. The
non-related β-carbonic anhydrase is required in plants for leaf
formation, the synthesis of indole acetic acid (auxin) and alcoholic
Carboxypeptidase cleaves peptide linkages during digestion of
proteins. A coordinate covalent bond is formed between the terminal
peptide and a C=O group attached to zinc, which gives the carbon a
positive charge. This helps to create a hydrophobic pocket on the
enzyme near the zinc, which attracts the non-polar part of the protein
Zinc has been recognized as a messenger, able to activate signalling
pathways. Many of these pathways provide the driving force in aberrant
cancer growth. They can be targeted through ZIP transporters.
Zinc serves a purely structural role in zinc fingers, twists and
Zinc fingers form parts of some transcription factors,
which are proteins that recognize
DNA base sequences during the
replication and transcription of DNA. Each of the nine or ten Zn2+
ions in a zinc finger helps maintain the finger's structure by
coordinately binding to four amino acids in the transcription
factor. The transcription factor wraps around the
DNA helix and
uses its fingers to accurately bind to the
In blood plasma, zinc is bound to and transported by albumin (60%,
low-affinity) and transferrin (10%). Because transferrin also
transports iron, excessive iron reduces zinc absorption, and vice
versa. A similar antagonism exists with copper. The concentration
of zinc in blood plasma stays relatively constant regardless of zinc
intake. Cells in the salivary gland, prostate, immune system, and
intestine use zinc signaling to communicate with other cells.
Zinc may be held in metallothionein reserves within microorganisms or
in the intestines or liver of animals.
intestinal cells is capable of adjusting absorption of zinc by
15–40%. However, inadequate or excessive zinc intake can be
harmful; excess zinc particularly impairs copper absorption because
metallothionein absorbs both metals.
The human dopamine transporter contains a high affinity extracellular
zinc binding site which, upon zinc binding, inhibits dopamine reuptake
and amplifies amphetamine-induced dopamine efflux in
vitro. The human serotonin transporter and
norepinephrine transporter do not contain zinc binding sites.
The U.S. Institute of Medicine (IOM) updated Estimated Average
Requirements (EARs) and Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for zinc
in 2001. The current EARs for zinc for women and men ages 14 and up is
6.8 and 9.4 mg/day, respectively. The RDAs are 8 and 11 mg/day. RDAs
are higher than EARs so as to identify amounts that will cover people
with higher than average requirements. RDA for pregnancy is 11 mg/day.
RDA for lactation is 12 mg/day. For infants up to 12 months the RDA is
3 mg/day. For children ages 1–13 years the RDA increases with age
from 3 to 8 mg/day. As for safety, the IOM sets Tolerable upper intake
levels (ULs) for vitamins and minerals when evidence is sufficient. In
the case of zinc the adult UL is 40 mg/day (lower for children).
Collectively the EARs, RDAs, AIs and ULs are referred to as Dietary
Reference Intakes (DRIs).
European Food Safety Authority
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) refers to the collective set
of information as Dietary Reference Values, with Population Reference
Intake (PRI) instead of RDA, and Average Requirement instead of EAR.
AI and UL are defined the same as in United States. For people ages 18
and older the PRI calculations are complex, as the EFSA has set higher
and higher values as the phytate content of the diet increases. For
women, PRIs increase from 7.5 to 12.7 mg/day as phytate intake
increases from 300 to 1200 mg/day; for men the range is 9.4 to 16.3
mg/day. These PRIs are higher than the U.S. RDAs. The EFSA
reviewed the same safety question and set its UL at 25 mg/day,
which is much lower than the U.S. value.
For U.S. food and dietary supplement labeling purposes the amount in a
serving is expressed as a percent of Daily Value (%DV). For zinc
labeling purposes 100% of the Daily Value was 15 mg, but as of
May 27, 2016 it has been revised to 11 mg. A table of the
old and new adult Daily Values is provided at Reference Daily Intake.
Food and supplement companies have until January 1, 2020 to comply
with the change.
Foods and spices containing zinc
Animal products such as meat, fish, shellfish, fowl, eggs, and dairy
contain zinc. The concentration of zinc in plants varies with the
level in the soil. With adequate zinc in the soil, the food plants
that contain the most zinc are wheat (germ and bran) and various
seeds, including sesame, poppy, alfalfa, celery, and mustard.
Zinc is also found in beans, nuts, almonds, whole grains, pumpkin
seeds, sunflower seeds, and blackcurrant. Plant phytates
interfere with zinc absorption, so people consuming a vegetarian or
vegan diet may need to increase zinc intake.
Other sources include fortified food and dietary supplements in
various forms. A 1998 review concluded that zinc oxide, one of the
most common supplements in the United States, and zinc carbonate are
nearly insoluble and poorly absorbed in the body. This review
cited studies that found lower plasma zinc concentrations in the
subjects who consumed zinc oxide and zinc carbonate than in those who
took zinc acetate and sulfate salts. For fortification, however,
a 2003 review recommended cereals (containing zinc oxide) as a cheap,
stable source that is as easily absorbed as the more expensive
forms. A 2005 study found that various compounds of zinc,
including oxide and sulfate, did not show statistically significant
differences in absorption when added as fortificants to maize
Zinc deficiency is usually due to insufficient dietary intake, but can
be associated with malabsorption, acrodermatitis enteropathica,
chronic liver disease, chronic renal disease, sickle cell disease,
diabetes, malignancy, and other chronic illnesses. Groups at risk
of zinc deficiency include the elderly, children in developing
countries, and those with renal dysfunction.
In the United States, a federal survey of food consumption determined
that for women and men over the age of 19, average consumption was 9.7
and 14.2 mg/day, respectively. For women, 17% consumed less than
the EAR, for men 11%. The percentages below EAR increased with
age. The most recent published update of the survey (NHANES
2013–2014) reported lower averages – 9.3 and 13.2 mg/day –
again with intake decreasing with age.
Symptoms of mild zinc deficiency are diverse. Clinical outcomes
include depressed growth, diarrhea, impotence and delayed sexual
maturation, alopecia, eye and skin lesions, impaired appetite, altered
cognition, impaired host defense properties, defects in carbohydrate
utilization, and reproductive teratogenesis. Mild zinc deficiency
depresses immunity, although excessive zinc does also.
Animals with a zinc deficiency require twice as much food to attain
the same weight gain as animals with sufficient zinc.
Despite some concerns, western vegetarians and vegans do not
suffer any more from overt zinc deficiency than meat-eaters.
Major plant sources of zinc include cooked dried beans, sea
vegetables, fortified cereals, soy foods, nuts, peas, and seeds.
However, phytates in many whole-grains and fibers may interfere with
zinc absorption and marginal zinc intake has poorly understood
effects. The zinc chelator phytate, found in seeds and cereal bran,
can contribute to zinc malabsorption. Some evidence suggests that
more than the US RDA (15 mg) of zinc daily may be needed in those
whose diet is high in phytates, such as some vegetarians. These
considerations must be balanced against the paucity of adequate zinc
biomarkers, and the most widely used indicator, plasma zinc, has poor
sensitivity and specificity. Diagnosing zinc deficiency is a
Nearly two billion people in the developing world are deficient in
zinc. In children, it causes an increase in infection and diarrhea
and contributes to the death of about 800,000 children worldwide per
year. The World Health Organization advocates zinc supplementation
for severe malnutrition and diarrhea.
Zinc supplements help
prevent disease and reduce mortality, especially among children with
low birth weight or stunted growth. However, zinc supplements
should not be administered alone, because many in the developing world
have several deficiencies, and zinc interacts with other
Species of Calluna,
Vaccinium can grow in zinc metalliferous
soils, because translocation of toxic ions is prevented by the action
of ericoid mycorrhizal fungi.
Zinc deficiency appears to be the most common micronutrient deficiency
in crop plants; it is particularly common in high-pH soils.
Zinc-deficient soil is cultivated in the cropland of about half of
Turkey and India, a third of China, and most of Western Australia.
Substantial responses to zinc fertilization have been reported in
these areas. Plants that grow in soils that are zinc-deficient are
more susceptible to disease.
Zinc is added to the soil primarily
through the weathering of rocks, but humans have added zinc through
fossil fuel combustion, mine waste, phosphate fertilizers, pesticide
(zinc phosphide), limestone, manure, sewage sludge, and particles from
galvanized surfaces. Excess zinc is toxic to plants, although zinc
toxicity is far less widespread.
Although zinc is an essential requirement for good health, excess zinc
can be harmful. Excessive absorption of zinc suppresses copper and
iron absorption. The free zinc ion in solution is highly toxic to
plants, invertebrates, and even vertebrate fish. The Free Ion
Activity Model is well-established in the literature, and shows that
just micromolar amounts of the free ion kills some organisms. A recent
example showed 6 micromolar killing 93% of all
Daphnia in water.
The free zinc ion is a powerful
Lewis acid up to the point of being
corrosive. Stomach acid contains hydrochloric acid, in which metallic
zinc dissolves readily to give corrosive zinc chloride. Swallowing a
post-1982 American one cent piece (97.5% zinc) can cause damage to the
stomach lining through the high solubility of the zinc ion in the
Evidence shows that people taking 100–300 mg of zinc daily may
suffer induced copper deficiency. A 2007 trial observed that elderly
men taking 80 mg daily were hospitalized for urinary
complications more often than those taking a placebo. Levels of
100–300 mg may interfere with the utilization of copper and
iron or adversely affect cholesterol.
Zinc in excess of
500 ppm in soil interferes with the plant absorption of other
essential metals, such as iron and manganese. A condition called
the zinc shakes or "zinc chills" can be induced by inhalation of zinc
fumes while brazing or welding galvanized materials.
Zinc is a
common ingredient of denture cream which may contain between 17 and
38 mg of zinc per gram. Disability and even deaths from excessive
use of these products have been claimed.
Food and Drug Administration
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) states that zinc damages
nerve receptors in the nose, causing anosmia. Reports of anosmia were
also observed in the 1930s when zinc preparations were used in a
failed attempt to prevent polio infections. On June 16, 2009, the
FDA ordered removal of zinc-based intranasal cold products from store
shelves. The FDA said the loss of smell can be life-threatening
because people with impaired smell cannot detect leaking gas or smoke,
and cannot tell if food has spoiled before they eat it.
Recent research suggests that the topical antimicrobial zinc
pyrithione is a potent heat shock response inducer that may impair
genomic integrity with induction of PARP-dependent energy crisis in
cultured human keratinocytes and melanocytes.
In 1982, the US Mint began minting pennies coated in copper but
containing primarily zinc.
Zinc pennies pose a risk of zinc toxicosis,
which can be fatal. One reported case of chronic ingestion of 425
pennies (over 1 kg of zinc) resulted in death due to
gastrointestinal bacterial and fungal sepsis. Another patient who
ingested 12 grams of zinc showed only lethargy and ataxia (gross
lack of coordination of muscle movements). Several other cases
have been reported of humans suffering zinc intoxication by the
ingestion of zinc coins.
Pennies and other small coins are sometimes ingested by dogs,
requiring veterinary removal of the foreign objects. The zinc content
of some coins can cause zinc toxicity, commonly fatal in dogs through
severe hemolytic anemia and liver or kidney damage; vomiting and
diarrhea are possible symptoms.
Zinc is highly toxic in parrots
and poisoning can often be fatal. The consumption of fruit juices
stored in galvanized cans has resulted in mass parrot poisonings with
List of countries by zinc production
Wet storage stain
Zinc alloy electroplating
^ An East
India Company ship carrying a cargo of nearly pure zinc
metal from the Orient sank off the coast
Sweden in 1745.(Emsley 2001,
^ Electric current will naturally flow between zinc and steel but in
some circumstances inert anodes are used with an external DC source.
^ Meija, J.; et al. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013
(IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 88 (3):
^ Weast, Robert (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca
Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110.
^ Thornton, C. P. (2007). "Of brass and bronze in prehistoric
Southwest Asia" (PDF). Papers and Lectures Online. Archetype
Publications. ISBN 1-904982-19-0. Archived (PDF) from the
original on September 24, 2015.
^ a b Greenwood 1997, p. 1201
^ a b Craddock, Paul T. (1978). "The composition of copper alloys used
by the Greek, Etruscan and Roman civilizations. The origins and early
use of brass". Journal of Archaeological Science. 5 (1): 1–16.
^ "Royal Society Of Chemistry". Archived from the original on July 11,
India Was the First to Smelt
Zinc by Distillation Process".
Infinityfoundation.com. Archived from the original on May 16, 2016.
Retrieved April 25, 2014.
^ Kharakwal, J. S. & Gurjar, L. K. (December 1, 2006). "
Brass in Archaeological Perspective". Ancient Asia. 1: 139–159.
doi:10.5334/aa.06112. Archived from the original on December 3,
^ a b c d e f Hambidge, K. M. & Krebs, N. F. (2007). "Zinc
deficiency: a special challenge". J. Nutr. 137 (4): 1101–5.
^ a b c d Prasad, A. S. (2003). "
Zinc deficiency : Has been known
of for 40 years but ignored by global health organisations". British
Medical Journal. 326 (7386): 409–10. doi:10.1136/bmj.326.7386.409.
PMC 1125304 . PMID 12595353.
^ Maret, Wolfgang (2013). "Chapter 14
Zinc and the
Zinc Proteome". In
Banci, Lucia. Metallomics and the Cell.
Metal Ions in Life Sciences.
12. Springer. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-5561-10_14.
^ a b c d e f g h i j CRC 2006, p. 4–41
^ a b Heiserman 1992, p. 123
^ Wells A.F. (1984) Structural Inorganic Chemistry 5th edition p 1277
Oxford Science Publications ISBN 0-19-855370-6
^ Scoffern, John (1861). The Useful Metals and Their Alloys. Houlston
and Wright. pp. 591–603. Retrieved April 6, 2009.
^ a b "
Metal Properties". American Galvanizers Association. 2008.
Archived from the original on April 7, 2015. Retrieved April 7,
^ Ingalls, Walter Renton (1902). Production and Properties of Zinc: A
Treatise on the Occurrence and Distribution of
Zinc Ore, the
Commercial and Technical Conditions Affecting the Production of the
Spelter, Its Chemical and Physical Properties and Uses in the Arts,
Together with a Historical and Statistical Review of the Industry. The
Engineering and Mining Journal. pp. 142–6.
^ a b c Emsley 2001, p. 503
^ a b c d e Lehto 1968, p. 822
^ a b c Greenwood 1997, p. 1202
^ a b c d Emsley 2001, p. 502
^ a b c d Tolcin, A. C. (2015). "Mineral Commodity Summaries 2015:
United States Geological Survey. Archived (PDF) from the
original on May 25, 2015. Retrieved May 27, 2015.
^ Erickson, R. L. (1973). "Crustal Abundance of Elements, and Mineral
Reserves and Resources". U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper
Country Partnership Strategy—Iran: 2011–12". ECO Trade and
development bank. Archived from the original on October 26, 2011.
Retrieved June 6, 2011. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status
^ "IRAN – a growing market with enormous potential". IMRG. July
5, 2010. Archived from the original on February 17, 2013. Retrieved
March 3, 2010.
^ Tolcin, A. C. (2009). "Mineral Commodity Summaries 2009: Zinc"
United States Geological Survey. Archived (PDF) from the
original on July 2, 2016. Retrieved August 4, 2016.
^ Gordon, R. B.; Bertram, M.; Graedel, T. E. (2006). "
Metal stocks and
sustainability". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 103
(5): 1209–14. Bibcode:2006PNAS..103.1209G.
doi:10.1073/pnas.0509498103. PMC 1360560 .
^ Gerst, Michael (2008). "In-Use Stocks of Metals: Status and
Implications". Environmental Science and Technology. 42 (19):
7038–45. Bibcode:2008EnST...42.7038G. doi:10.1021/es800420p.
^ Meylan, Gregoire (2016). "The anthropogenic cycle of zinc: Status
quo and perspectives". Resources, Conservation and Recycling: In
^ a b c d e f NNDC contributors (2008). Alejandro A. Sonzogni
(Database Manager), ed. "Chart of Nuclides". Upton (NY): National
Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory. Archived from the
original on May 22, 2008. Retrieved September 13, 2008.
^ CRC 2006, p. 11–70
NASA contributors. "Five-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe
(WMAP) Observations: Data Processing, Sky Maps, and Basic Results"
(PDF). NASA. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 9, 2008.
Retrieved March 6, 2008.
^ Audi, Georges; Bersillon, O.; Blachot, J.; Wapstra, A. H. (2003).
"The NUBASE Evaluation of Nuclear and Decay Properties". Nuclear
Physics A. Atomic Mass Data Center. 729 (1): 3–128.
Archived from the original on January 3, 2017.
^ CRC 2006, pp. 8–29
^ Porter, Frank C. (1994).
Corrosion Resistance of
Zinc and Zinc
Alloys. CRC Press. p. 121. ISBN 0-8247-9213-0.
^ a b c d e f g h Holleman, Arnold F.; Wiberg, Egon; Wiberg, Nils
(1985). "Zink". Lehrbuch der Anorganischen Chemie (in German)
(91–100 ed.). Walter de Gruyter. pp. 1034–1041.
^ Hinds, John Iredelle Dillard (1908). Inorganic Chemistry: With the
Elements of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry (2nd ed.). New York:
John Wiley & Sons. pp. 506–508.
^ Ritchie, Rob (2004). Chemistry (2nd ed.). Letts and Lonsdale.
p. 71. ISBN 1-84315-438-2.
^ Burgess, John (1978).
Metal ions in solution. New York: Ellis
Horwood. p. 147. ISBN 0-470-26293-1.
^ Brady, James E.; Humiston, Gerard E.; Heikkinen, Henry (1983).
General Chemistry: Principles and Structure (3rd ed.). John Wiley
& Sons. p. 671. ISBN 0-471-86739-X.
^ Kaupp M.; Dolg M.; Stoll H.; Von Schnering H. G. (1994). "Oxidation
state +IV in group 12 chemistry. Ab initio study of zinc(IV),
cadmium(IV), and mercury(IV) fluorides". Inorganic Chemistry. 33 (10):
^ a b Greenwood 1997, p. 1206
^ CRC 2006, pp. 12–11–12
^ Housecroft, C. E.; Sharpe, A. G. (2008). Inorganic Chemistry (3rd
ed.). Prentice Hall. p. 739–741, 843.
Zinc Sulfide". American Elements. Archived from the original on
July 17, 2012. Retrieved February 3, 2009.
^ Grolier contributors (1994). Academic American Encyclopedia.
Danbury, Connecticut: Grolier Inc. p. 202.
Zinc Phosphide". American Elements. Archived from the original on
July 17, 2012. Retrieved February 3, 2009.
^ Shulzhenko, A. A.; Ignatyeva, I. Yu.; Osipov, A. S.; Smirnova, T. I.
(2000). "Peculiarities of interaction in the Zn–C system under high
pressures and temperatures". Diamond and Related Materials. 9 (2):
^ Greenwood 1997, p. 1211
^ Rasmussen, J. K.; Heilmann, S. M. (1990). "In situ Cyanosilylation
Carbonyl Compounds: O-Trimethylsilyl-4-Methoxymandelonitrile".
Organic Syntheses, Collected Volume. 7: 521. Archived from the
original on September 30, 2007.
^ Perry, D. L. (1995). Handbook of Inorganic Compounds. CRC Press.
pp. 448–458. ISBN 0-8493-8671-3.
^ Frankland, E. (1850). "On the isolation of the organic radicals".
Quarterly Journal of the Chemical Society. 2 (3): 263.
^ Lide, David (1998). CRC- Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. CRC
press. pp. Section 8 Page 1. ISBN 0-8493-0479-2.
^ Weeks 1933, p. 20
^ "World's oldest pills treated sore eyes". New Scientist. January 7,
2013. Archived from the original on January 22, 2013. Retrieved
February 5, 2013.
^ "Ingredients of a 2,000-y-old medicine revealed by chemical,
mineralogical, and botanical investigations".
^ a b c d e f Emsley 2001, p. 501
^ "How is zinc made?". How Products are Made. The Gale Group. 2002.
Archived from the original on April 11, 2006. Retrieved February 21,
2009. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
^ Chambers 1901, p. 799
^ Craddock, P. T. (1998). "
Zinc in classical antiquity". In Craddock,
P.T. 2000 years of zinc and brass (rev. ed.). London: British Museum.
pp. 3–5. ISBN 0-86159-124-0.
^ a b Weeks 1933, p. 21
^ Rehren, Th. (1996). S. Demirci; et al., eds. A Roman zinc tablet
from Bern, Switzerland: Reconstruction of the Manufacture.
Archaeometry 94. The Proceedings of the 29th International Symposium
on Archaeometry. pp. 35–45.
^ Meulenbeld, G. J. (1999). A History of Indian Medical Literature.
IA. Groningen: Forsten. pp. 130–141. OCLC 165833440.
^ Craddock, P. T.; et al. (1998). "
Zinc in India". 2000 years of zinc
and brass (rev. ed.). London: British Museum. p. 27.
^ a b p. 46, Ancient mining and metallurgy in Rajasthan, S. M. Gandhi,
chapter 2 in Crustal Evolution and Metallogeny in the Northwestern
Indian Shield: A Festschrift for Asoke Mookherjee, M. Deb, ed., Alpha
Science Int'l Ltd., 2000, ISBN 1-84265-001-7.
^ a b c Craddock, P. T.; Gurjar L. K.; Hegde K. T. M. (1983). "Zinc
production in medieval India". World Archaeology. Taylor &
Francis. 15 (2): 211–217. doi:10.1080/00438243.1983.9979899.
^ Ray, Prafulla Chandra (1903). A History of Hindu Chemistry from the
Earliest Times to the Middle of the Sixteenth Century, A.D.: With
Sanskrit Texts, Variants, Translation and Illustrations. 1 (2nd ed.).
The Bengal Chemical & Pharmaceutical Works, Ltd.
pp. 157–158. (public domain text)
^ a b c d e f g Habashi, Fathi. "Discovering the 8th Metal" (PDF).
Zinc Association (IZA). Archived from the original (PDF)
on March 4, 2009. Retrieved December 13, 2008.
^ Arny, Henry Vinecome (1917). Principles of Pharmacy (2nd ed.). W. B.
Saunders company. p. 483.
^ Hoover, Herbert Clark (2003). Georgius Agricola de Re Metallica.
Kessinger Publishing. p. 409. ISBN 0-7661-3197-1.
^ Gerhartz, Wolfgang; et al. (1996). Ullmann's Encyclopedia of
Industrial Chemistry (5th ed.). VHC. p. 509.
^ Skeat, W. W (2005). Concise Etymological Dictionary of the English
Language. Cosimo, Inc. p. 622. ISBN 1-59605-092-6.
^ Fathi Habashi (1997). Handbook of Extractive Metallurgy. Wiley-VHC.
p. 642. ISBN 3-527-28792-2.
^ Lach, Donald F. (1994). "Technology and the Natural Sciences". Asia
in the Making of Europe. University of Chicago Press. p. 426.
^ Vaughan, L Brent (1897). "Zincography". The Junior Encyclopedia
Britannica A Reference Library of General Knowledge Volume III P-Z.
Chicago: E. G. Melven & Company.
^ Castellani, Michael. "Transition
Metal Elements" (PDF). Archived
(PDF) from the original on October 10, 2014. Retrieved October 14,
^ Habib, Irfan (2011). Chatopadhyaya, D. P., ed. Economic History of
Medieval India, 1200–1500. New Delhi: Pearson Longman. p. 86.
ISBN 978-81-317-2791-1. Archived from the original on April 14,
^ a b Jenkins, Rhys (1945). "The
Zinc Industry in England: the early
years up to 1850". Transactions of the Newcomen Society. 25: 41–52.
^ Willies, Lynn; Craddock, P. T.; Gurjar, L. J.; Hegde, K. T. M.
Zinc Mining in Rajasthan, India". World
Archaeology. 16 (2, Mines and Quarries): 222–233.
doi:10.1080/00438243.1984.9979929. JSTOR 124574.
^ Roberts, R. O. (1951). "Dr John Lane and the foundation of the
non-ferrous metal industry in the Swansea valley". Gower. Gower
Society (4): 19.
^ Comyns, Alan E. (2007). Encyclopedic Dictionary of Named Processes
in Chemical Technology (3rd ed.). CRC Press. p. 71.
^ Heiserman 1992, p. 122
^ Gray, Leon (2005). Zinc. Marshall Cavendish. p. 8.
^ a b c Warren, Neville G. (2000). Excel Preliminary Physics. Pascal
Press. p. 47. ISBN 1-74020-085-3.
^ a b "Galvanic Cell". The New International Encyclopaedia. Dodd, Mead
and Company. 1903. p. 80.
^ a b c Cotton 1999, p. 626
^ Jasinski, Stephen M. "Mineral Commodity Summaries 2007: Zinc" (PDF).
United States Geological Survey. Archived (PDF) from the original on
December 17, 2008. Retrieved November 25, 2008.
^ Attwood, James (February 13, 2006). "Zinifex,
Umicore Combine to
Zinc Maker". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original
on January 26, 2017.
Zinc Recycling". International
Zinc Association. Archived from the
original on October 21, 2011. Retrieved November 28, 2008. CS1
maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
Special High Grade
Zinc (SHG) 99.995%" (PDF). Nyrstar. 2008.
Archived from the original (PDF) on March 4, 2009. Retrieved December
^ a b c d e Porter, Frank C. (1991).
Zinc Handbook. CRC Press.
^ a b c Rosenqvist, Terkel (1922). Principles of Extractive Metallurgy
(2nd ed.). Tapir Academic Press. pp. 7, 16, 186.
^ Borg, Gregor; Kärner, Katrin; Buxton, Mike; Armstrong, Richard; van
der Merwe, Schalk W. (2003). "Geology of the Skorpion Supergene Zinc
Deposit, Southern Namibia". Economic Geology. 98 (4): 749.
^ Bodsworth, Colin (1994). The Extraction and Refining of Metals. CRC
Press. p. 148. ISBN 0-8493-4433-6.
^ Gupta, C. K.; Mukherjee, T. K. (1990). Hydrometallurgy in Extraction
Processes. CRC Press. p. 62. ISBN 0-8493-6804-9.
^ Antrekowitsch, Jürgen; Steinlechner, Stefan; Unger, Alois; Rösler,
Gernot; Pichler, Christoph; Rumpold, Rene (2014), "9.
Zinc and Residue
Recycling", in Worrell, Ernst; Reuter, Markus, Handbook of Recycling:
State-of-the-art for Practitioners, Analysts, and Scientists
^ a b Kucha, H.; Martens, A.; Ottenburgs, R.; De Vos, W.; Viaene, W.
(1996). "Primary minerals of Zn-Pb mining and metallurgical dumps and
their environmental behavior at Plombières, Belgium". Environmental
Geology. 27 (1): 1–15. Bibcode:1996EnGeo..27....1K.
^ a b c d e f Broadley, M. R.; White, P. J.; Hammond, J. P.; Zelko I.;
Lux A. (2007). "
Zinc in plants". New Phytologist. 173 (4): 677–702.
doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.2007.01996.x. PMID 17286818.
^ a b c d Emsley 2001, p. 504
^ Heath, Alan G. (1995). Water pollution and fish physiology. Boca
Raton, Florida: CRC Press. p. 57. ISBN 0-87371-632-9.
^ "Derwent Estuary – Water Quality Improvement Plan for Heavy
Metals". Derwent Estuary Program. June 2007. Archived from the
original on March 21, 2012. Retrieved July 11, 2009. CS1 maint:
BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
Zinc Works". TChange. Archived from the original on April 27,
2009. Retrieved July 11, 2009.
^ a b c "Zinc: World Mine Production (zinc content of concentrate) by
Country" (PDF). 2009 Minerals Yearbook: Zinc. Washington, D.C.: United
States Geological Survey. February 2010. Archived (PDF) from the
original on June 8, 2011. Retrieved June 6, 2001.
^ Greenwood 1997, p. 1203
^ a b Stwertka 1998, p. 99
^ a b c d e f g Lehto 1968, p. 829
^ Bounoughaz, M.; Salhi, E.; Benzine, K.; Ghali E.; Dalard F. (2003).
"A comparative study of the electrochemical behaviour of Algerian zinc
and a zinc from a commercial sacrificial anode". Journal of Materials
Science. 38 (6): 1139–1145. Bibcode:2003JMatS..38.1139B.
^ Besenhard, Jürgen O. (1999). Handbook of Battery Materials.
Wiley-VCH. ISBN 3-527-29469-4.
^ Wiaux, J.-P.; Waefler, J. -P. (1995). "Recycling zinc batteries: an
economical challenge in consumer waste management". Journal of Power
Sources. 57 (1–2): 61–65. Bibcode:1995JPS....57...61W.
^ Culter, T. (1996). "A design guide for rechargeable zinc-air battery
technology". Southcon/96. Conference Record: 616.
doi:10.1109/SOUTHC.1996.535134. ISBN 0-7803-3268-7.
^ Whartman, Jonathan; Brown, Ian. "
Zinc Air Battery-Battery Hybrid for
Powering Electric Scooters and Electric Buses" (PDF). The 15th
International Electric Vehicle Symposium. Archived from the original
on March 12, 2006. Retrieved October 8, 2008. CS1 maint: BOT:
original-url status unknown (link)
^ Cooper, J. F.; Fleming, D.; Hargrove, D.; Koopman, R.; Peterman, K.
"A refuelable zinc/air battery for fleet electric vehicle propulsion".
Society of Automotive Engineers future transportation technology
conference and exposition. Archived from the original on January 12,
2012. Retrieved October 8, 2008.
^ Xie, Z.; Liu, Q.; Chang, Z.; Zhang, X. (2013). "The developments and
challenges of cerium half-cell in zinc–cerium redox flow battery for
energy storage". Electrochimica Acta. 90: 695–704.
^ Bush, Douglas Earl; Kassel, Richard (2006). The Organ: An
Encyclopedia. Routledge. p. 679.
^ "Coin Specifications".
United States Mint. Archived from the
original on February 18, 2015. Retrieved October 8, 2008.
^ Jasinski, Stephen M. "Mineral Yearbook 1994: Zinc" (PDF). United
States Geological Survey. Archived (PDF) from the original on October
29, 2008. Retrieved November 13, 2008.
^ Eastern Alloys contributors. "Diecasting Alloys". Maybrook, NY:
Eastern Alloys. Archived from the original on December 25, 2008.
Retrieved January 19, 2009.
^ Apelian, D.; Paliwal, M.; Herrschaft, D. C. (1981). "Casting with
Zinc Alloys". Journal of Metals. 33: 12–19.
^ Davies, Geoff (2003). Materials for automobile bodies.
Butterworth-Heinemann. p. 157. ISBN 0-7506-5692-1.
^ Samans, Carl Hubert (1949). Engineering Metals and Their Alloys.
^ a b Porter, Frank (1994). "Wrought Zinc".
Corrosion Resistance of
Zinc Alloys. CRC Press. pp. 6–7.
^ McClane, Albert Jules & Gardner, Keith (1987). The Complete book
of fishing: a guide to freshwater, saltwater & big-game fishing.
Gallery Books. ISBN 978-0-8317-1565-6. Archived from the original
on November 15, 2012. Retrieved June 26, 2012.
^ "Cast flywheel on old Magturbo trainer has been recalled since July
2000". Minoura. Archived from the original on March 23, 2013. CS1
maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
^ a b c Katz, Johnathan I. (2002). The Biggest Bangs. Oxford
University Press. p. 18. ISBN 0-19-514570-4.
^ Zhang, Xiaoge Gregory (1996).
Corrosion and Electrochemistry of
Zinc. Springer. p. 93. ISBN 0-306-45334-7.
^ Weimer, Al (May 17, 2006). "Development of Solar-powered
Thermochemical Production of
Hydrogen from Water" (PDF). U.S.
Department of Energy. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 5,
2009. Retrieved January 10, 2009.
^ a b c Heiserman 1992, p. 124
^ Blew, Joseph Oscar (1953). "Wood preservatives" (PDF). Department of
Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory. hdl:1957/816.
Archived (PDF) from the original on January 14, 2012.
^ Frankland, Edward (1849). "Notiz über eine neue Reihe organischer
Körper, welche Metalle, Phosphor u. s. w. enthalten". Liebig's
Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie (in German). 71 (2): 213–216.
^ a b c CRC 2006, p. 4-42
^ Paschotta, Rüdiger (2008). Encyclopedia of
Laser Physics and
Technology. Wiley-VCH. p. 798. ISBN 3-527-40828-2.
^ Konstantinou, I. K.; Albanis, T. A. (2004). "Worldwide occurrence
and effects of antifouling paint booster biocides in the aquatic
environment: a review". Environment International. 30 (2): 235–248.
^ a b c Boudreaux, Kevin A. "
Zinc + Sulfur". Angelo State University.
Archived from the original on December 2, 2008. Retrieved October 8,
^ "Technical Information".
Zinc Counters. 2008. Archived from the
original on November 21, 2008. Retrieved November 29, 2008.
^ a b c Win, David Tin; Masum, Al (2003). "Weapons of Mass
Destruction" (PDF). Assumption University Journal of Technology.
Assumption University. 6 (4): 199. Archived (PDF) from the original on
March 26, 2009. Retrieved April 6, 2009.
^ David E. Newton (1999). Chemical Elements: From
Carbon to Krypton.
U. X. L. /Gale. ISBN 0-7876-2846-8. Archived from the original on
July 10, 2008. Retrieved April 6, 2009.
^ Ullmann's Agrochemicals. Wiley-Vch (COR). 2007. pp. 591–592.
^ Walker, J. C. F. (2006). Primary Wood Processing: Principles and
Practice. Springer. p. 317. ISBN 1-4020-4392-9.
^ "ZDDP Engine Oil – The
Zinc Factor". Mustang Monthly.
Archived from the original on September 12, 2009. Retrieved September
^ Overman, Larry E.; Carpenter, Nancy E. (2005). "The Allylic
Trihaloacetimidate Rearrangement". Organic Reactions. 66: 1–107.
doi:10.1002/0471264180.or066.01. ISBN 0-471-26418-0.
^ Rappoport, Zvi; Marek, Ilan (December 17, 2007). The Chemistry of
Organozinc Compounds: R-Zn. ISBN 0-470-09337-4. Archived from the
original on April 14, 2016.
^ Knochel, Paul; Jones, Philip (1999). Organozinc reagents: A
practical approach. ISBN 0-19-850121-8. Archived from the
original on April 14, 2016.
^ Herrmann, Wolfgang A. (January 2002). Synthetic Methods of
Organometallic and Inorganic Chemistry: Catalysis.
ISBN 3-13-103061-5. Archived from the original on April 14,
^ E. Frankland, Ann. 126, 109 (1863); E. Frankland, B. F. Duppa, Ann.
135, 25 (1865)
^ Kim, Jeung Gon; Walsh, Patrick J. (2006). "From Aryl Bromides to
Enantioenriched Benzylic Alcohols in a Single Flask: Catalytic
Asymmetric Arylation of Aldehydes". Angewandte Chemie International
Edition. 45 (25): 4175–4178. doi:10.1002/anie.200600741.
^ In this one-pot reaction bromobenzene is converted to phenyllithium
by reaction with 4 equivalents of n-butyllithium, then transmetalation
with zinc chloride forms diphenylzinc that continues to react in an
asymmetric reaction first with the
MIB ligand and then with
2-naphthylaldehyde to the alcohol. In this reaction formation of
diphenylzinc is accompanied by that of lithium chloride, which if
unchecked, catalyses the reaction without MIB involvement to the
racemic alcohol. The salt is effectively removed by chelation with
tetraethylethylene diamine (TEEDA) resulting in an enantiomeric excess
^ Łowicki, Daniel; Baś, Sebastian; Mlynarski, Jacek (2015). "Chiral
zinc catalysts for asymmetric synthesis". Tetrahedron. 71 (9):
^ DiSilvestro, Robert A. (2004). Handbook of Minerals as Nutritional
Supplements. CRC Press. pp. 135, 155.
Zinc Biochemistry: From a Single
Enzyme to a Key Element of
Life. Wolfgang Maret 2013
^ Swardfager W, Herrmann N, McIntyre RS, Mazereeuw G, Goldberger K,
Cha DS, Schwartz Y, Lanctôt KL (June 2013). "Potential roles of zinc
in the pathophysiology and treatment of major depressive disorder".
Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 37 (5): 911–929.
doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2013.03.018. PMID 23567517.
^ Bhutta, Z. A.; Bird, S. M.; Black, R. E.; Brown, K. H.; Gardner, J.
M.; Hidayat, A.; Khatun, F.; Martorell, R.; et al. (2000).
"Therapeutic effects of oral zinc in acute and persistent diarrhea in
children in developing countries: pooled analysis of randomized
controlled trials". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 72
(6): 1516–22. PMID 11101480.
^ Evans JR, Lawrenson JG (2017). "Antioxidant vitamin and mineral
supplements for slowing the progression of age-related macular
degeneration". Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 7: CD000254.
doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000254.pub4. PMID 28756618.
^ Aydemir, T. B.; Blanchard, R. K.; Cousins, R. J. (2006). "Zinc
supplementation of young men alters metallothionein, zinc transporter,
and cytokine gene expression in leukocyte populations". PNAS. 103 (6):
1699–704. Bibcode:2006PNAS..103.1699A. doi:10.1073/pnas.0510407103.
PMC 1413653 . PMID 16434472.
^ Valko, M.; Morris, H.; Cronin, M. T. D. (2005). "Metals, Toxicity
and Oxidative stress" (PDF). Current Medicinal Chemistry. 12 (10):
1161–208. doi:10.2174/0929867053764635. PMID 15892631. Archived
from the original (PDF) on August 8, 2017.
^ Venkatratnam, Abhishek; Nathan Lents (July 1, 2011). "
the Detection of Cocaine, Methamphetamine, and THC by ELISA Urine
Testing". Journal of Analytical Toxicology. 35 (6): 333–340.
doi:10.1093/anatox/35.6.333. PMID 21740689.
^ a b c d e f "Zinc – Fact Sheet for Health Professionals".
Office of Dietary Supplements, US National Institutes of Health.
February 11, 2016. Retrieved January 7, 2018.
^ a b c Singh M, Das RR (June 2013). "
Zinc for the common cold". The
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (6): CD001364.
doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001364.pub4. PMID 23775705.
^ "Common Cold and Runny Nose".
United States Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention. September 26, 2017. Retrieved January 7,
^ Roldán, S.; Winkel, E. G.; Herrera, D.; Sanz, M.; Van Winkelhoff,
A. J. (2003). "The effects of a new mouthrinse containing
chlorhexidine, cetylpyridinium chloride and zinc lactate on the
microflora of oral halitosis patients: a dual-centre, double-blind
placebo-controlled study". Journal of Clinical Periodontology. 30 (5):
^ Marks, R.; Pearse, A. D.; Walker, A. P. (1985). "The effects of a
shampoo containing zinc pyrithione on the control of dandruff".
British Journal of Dermatology. 112 (4): 415–422.
^ Maret, Wolfgang (2013). "Chapter 12.
Zinc and Human Disease". In
Astrid Sigel; Helmut Sigel; Roland K. O. Sigel. Interrelations between
Metal Ions and Human Diseases.
Metal Ions in Life Sciences.
13. Springer. pp. 389–414.
^ a b c d e f g Prakash A, Bharti K, Majeed AB (April 2015). "Zinc:
indications in brain disorders". Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 29 (2):
131–149. doi:10.1111/fcp.12110. PMID 25659970.
^ a b c d e Cherasse Y, Urade Y (November 2017). "Dietary
Zinc Acts as
a Sleep Modulator". International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 18
(11): 2334. doi:10.3390/ijms18112334. PMC 5713303 .
Zinc is the second most abundant trace metal in
the human body, and is essential for many biological processes.
... The trace metal zinc is an essential cofactor for more than
300 enzymes and 1000 transcription factors . ... In the
central nervous system, zinc is the second most abundant trace metal
and is involved in many processes. In addition to its role in
enzymatic activity, it also plays a major role in cell signaling and
modulation of neuronal activity.
^ Prasad A. S. (2008). "
Zinc in Human Health: Effect of
Zinc on Immune
Cells". Mol. Med. 14 (5–6): 353–7. doi:10.2119/2008-00033.Prasad.
PMC 2277319 . PMID 18385818.
^ Zinc's role in microorganisms is particularly reviewed in: Sugarman
B (1983). "
Zinc and infection". Review of Infectious Diseases. 5 (1):
137–47. doi:10.1093/clinids/5.1.137. PMID 6338570.
^ Cotton 1999, pp. 625–629
^ Plum, Laura; Rink, Lothar; Haase, Hajo (2010). "The Essential Toxin:
Zinc on Human Health". Int J Environ Res Public Health. 7
(4): 1342–1365. doi:10.3390/ijerph7041342. PMC 2872358 .
^ Brandt, Erik G.; Hellgren, Mikko; Brinck, Tore; Bergman, Tomas;
Edholm, Olle (2009). "Molecular dynamics study of zinc binding to
cysteines in a peptide mimic of the alcohol dehydrogenase structural
zinc site". Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11 (6): 975–83.
^ a b c Rink, L.; Gabriel P. (2000). "
Zinc and the immune system".
Proc Nutr Soc. 59 (4): 541–52. doi:10.1017/S0029665100000781.
^ Wapnir, Raul A. (1990). Protein Nutrition and Mineral Absorption.
Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-5227-4.
^ Berdanier, Carolyn D.; Dwyer, Johanna T.; Feldman, Elaine B. (2007).
Handbook of Nutrition and Food. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.
^ a b Bitanihirwe BK, Cunningham MG (November 2009). "Zinc: the
brain's dark horse". Synapse. 63 (11): 1029–1049.
doi:10.1002/syn.20683. PMID 19623531.
^ Nakashima AS; Dyck RH (2009). "
Zinc and cortical plasticity". Brain
Res Rev. 59 (2): 347–73. doi:10.1016/j.brainresrev.2008.10.003.
^ Tyszka-Czochara M, Grzywacz A, Gdula-Argasińska J, Librowski T,
Wiliński B, Opoka W (May 2014). "The role of zinc in the pathogenesis
and treatment of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Implications
of zinc homeostasis for proper CNS function" (PDF). Acta. Pol. Pharm.
71 (3): 369–377. PMID 25265815. Archived (PDF) from the
original on August 29, 2017.
^ PMID 17119290
^ NRC 2000, p. 443
^ Stipanuk, Martha H. (2006). Biochemical, Physiological &
Molecular Aspects of Human Nutrition. W. B. Saunders Company.
pp. 1043–1067. ISBN 978-0-7216-4452-3.
^ a b Greenwood 1997, pp. 1224–1225
^ Kohen, Amnon; Limbach, Hans-Heinrich (2006).
Isotope Effects in
Chemistry and Biology. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. p. 850.
^ a b Greenwood 1997, p. 1225
^ Cotton 1999, p. 627
^ Gadallah, M. A. A. (2000). "Effects of indole-3-acetic acid and zinc
on the growth, osmotic potential and soluble carbon and nitrogen
components of soybean plants growing under water deficit". Journal of
Arid Environments. 44 (4): 451–467.
^ Ziliotto, Silvia; Ogle, Olivia; Yaylor, Kathryn M. (2018). "Chapter
17. Targeting Zinc(II) Signalling to Prevent Cancer". In Sigel,
Astrid; Sigel, Helmut; Freisinger, Eva; Sigel, Roland K. O.
Metallo-Drugs: Development and Action of Anticancer Agents. 18.
Berlin: de Gruyter GmbH. pp. 507–529.
^ Cotton 1999, p. 628
^ Whitney, Eleanor Noss; Rolfes, Sharon Rady (2005). Understanding
Nutrition (10th ed.). Thomson Learning. pp. 447–450.
^ a b NRC 2000, p. 447
^ Hershfinkel, Michal; Silverman, William F.; Sekler,
Zinc Sensing Receptor, a Link Between
Zinc and Cell Signaling".
Molecular Medicine. 13 (7–8): 331–6.
doi:10.2119/2006-00038.Hershfinkel. PMC 1952663 .
^ Cotton 1999, p. 629
^ Blake, Steve (2007). Vitamins and Minerals Demystified. McGraw-Hill
Professional. p. 242. ISBN 0-07-148901-0.
^ a b c Fosmire, G. J. (1990). "
Zinc toxicity". American Journal of
Clinical Nutrition. 51 (2): 225–7. PMID 2407097.
^ Krause J (April 2008). "SPECT and PET of the dopamine transporter in
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder". Expert Rev. Neurother. 8
(4): 611–625. doi:10.1586/14737188.8.131.521.
^ Sulzer D (February 2011). "How addictive drugs disrupt presynaptic
dopamine neurotransmission". Neuron. 69 (4): 628–649.
doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2011.02.010. PMC 3065181 .
^ a b Scholze P, Nørregaard L, Singer EA, Freissmuth M, Gether U,
Sitte HH (June 2002). "The role of zinc ions in reverse transport
mediated by monoamine transporters". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (24):
21505–21513. doi:10.1074/jbc.M112265200. PMID 11940571. The
human dopamine transporter (hDAT) contains an endogenous high affinity
Zn2+ binding site with three coordinating residues on its
extracellular face (His193, His375, and Glu396). ... Thus, when
Zn2+ is co-released with glutamate, it may greatly augment the efflux
^ "Zinc" Archived September 19, 2017, at the Wayback Machine., pp.
442–501 in Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K,
Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum,
Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. National Academy Press. 2001.
^ "Overview on Dietary Reference Values for the EU population as
derived by the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and
Allergies" (PDF). 2017. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 28,
^ Tolerable Upper Intake Levels For Vitamins And Minerals (PDF),
European Food Safety Authority, 2006, archived (PDF) from the original
on March 16, 2016
^ "Federal Register May 27, 2016 Food Labeling: Revision of the
Nutrition and Supplement Facts Labels. FR page 33982" (PDF). Archived
(PDF) from the original on August 8, 2016.
^ "Changes to the Nutrition Facts Panel – Compliance Date" Archived
March 12, 2017, at the Wayback Machine.
^ Ensminger, Audrey H.; Konlande, James E. (1993). Foods &
Nutrition Encyclopedia (2nd ed.). Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.
pp. 2368–2369. ISBN 0-8493-8980-1.
Zinc content of selected foods per common measure" (PDF). USDA
National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 20. United
States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on March
5, 2009. Retrieved December 6, 2007. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url
status unknown (link)
^ a b Allen, Lindsay H. (1998). "
Zinc and micronutrient supplements
for children". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 68 (2 Suppl):
495S–498S. PMID 9701167.
^ Rosado, J. L. (2003). "
Zinc and copper: proposed fortification
levels and recommended zinc compounds". Journal of Nutrition. 133 (9):
2985S–9S. PMID 12949397.
^ Hotz, C.; DeHaene, J.; Woodhouse, L. R.; Villalpando, S.; Rivera, J.
A.; King, J. C. (2005). "
Zinc absorption from zinc oxide, zinc
sulfate, zinc oxide + EDTA, or sodium-zinc EDTA does not differ when
added as fortificants to maize tortillas". Journal of Nutrition. 135
(5): 1102–5. PMID 15867288.
^ Moshfegh, Alanna; Goldman, Joseph; and Cleveland, Linda. (2005).
What We Eat in America Archived September 10, 2016, at the Wayback
Machine.. NHANES 2001–2002: Usual Nutrient Intakes from Food
Compared to Dietary Reference Intakes. U.S. Department of Agriculture,
Agricultural Research Service. Table A13: Zinc.
^ What We Eat In America, NHANES 2013–2014 Archived February 24,
2017, at the Wayback Machine..
^ NRC 2000, p. 442
^ Ibs, K. H.; Rink, L. (2003). "Zinc-altered immune function". Journal
of Nutrition. 133 (5 Suppl 1): 1452S–6S. PMID 12730441.
^ a b c "Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians
of Canada: Vegetarian diets" (PDF). Journal of the American Dietetic
Association. 103 (6): 748–65. 2003. doi:10.1053/jada.2003.50142.
PMID 12778049. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 14,
^ Freeland-Graves J. H.; Bodzy P. W.; Epright M. A. (1980). "Zinc
status of vegetarians". Journal of the American Dietetic Association.
77 (6): 655–661. PMID 7440860.
^ Hambidge, M. (2003). "Biomarkers of trace mineral intake and
status". Journal of Nutrition. 133. 3 (3): 948S–955S.
^ a b WHO contributors (2007). "The impact of zinc supplementation on
childhood mortality and severe morbidity". World Health Organization.
Archived from the original on March 2, 2009. Retrieved March 1,
^ Shrimpton, R.; Gross, R.; Darnton-Hill, I.; Young, M. (2005). "Zinc
deficiency: what are the most appropriate interventions?". British
Medical Journal. 330 (7487): 347–9. doi:10.1136/bmj.330.7487.347.
PMC 548733 . PMID 15705693.
^ Geoffrey Michael Gadd (March 2010). "Metals, minerals and microbes:
geomicrobiology and bioremediation". Microbiology. 156 (3): 609–643.
doi:10.1099/mic.0.037143-0. PMID 20019082. Archived from the
original on October 25, 2014.
^ Alloway, Brian J. (2008). "
Zinc in Soils and Crop Nutrition,
International Fertilizer Industry Association, and International Zinc
Association". Archived from the original on February 19, 2013.
^ Eisler, Ronald (1993). "
Zinc Hazard to Fish, Wildlife, and
Invertebrates: A Synoptic Review" (PDF). Contaminant Hazard Reviews.
Laurel, Maryland: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife
Service (10). Archived from the original on March 6, 2012. CS1
maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
^ Muyssen, Brita T. A.; De Schamphelaere, Karel A. C.; Janssen, Colin
R. (2006). "Mechanisms of chronic waterborne Zn toxicity in Daphnia
magna". Aquatic Toxicology. 77 (4): 393–401.
doi:10.1016/j.aquatox.2006.01.006. PMID 16472524.
^ Bothwell, Dawn N.; Mair, Eric A.; Cable, Benjamin B. (2003).
"Chronic Ingestion of a Zinc-Based Penny". Pediatrics. 111 (3):
689–91. doi:10.1542/peds.111.3.689. PMID 12612262.
^ Johnson AR; Munoz A; Gottlieb JL; Jarrard DF (2007). "High dose zinc
increases hospital admissions due to genitourinary complications". J.
Urol. 177 (2): 639–43. doi:10.1016/j.juro.2006.09.047.
^ "Lawsuits blame denture adhesives for neurological damage". Tampa
Bay Times. February 15, 2010. Archived from the original on February
^ Oxford, J. S.; Öberg, Bo (1985). Conquest of viral diseases: a
topical review of drugs and vaccines. Elsevier. p. 142.
^ "FDA says Zicam nasal products harm sense of smell". Los Angeles
Times. June 17, 2009. Archived from the original on June 21,
^ Lamore SD; Cabello CM; Wondrak GT (2010). "The topical antimicrobial
zinc pyrithione is a heat shock response inducer that causes DNA
damage and PARP-dependent energy crisis in human skin cells". Cell
Stress Chaperones. 15 (3): 309–22. doi:10.1007/s12192-009-0145-6.
PMC 2866994 . PMID 19809895.
^ Barceloux, Donald G.; Barceloux, Donald (1999). "Zinc". Clinical
Toxicology. 37 (2): 279–292. doi:10.1081/CLT-100102426.
^ Bennett, Daniel R. M. D.; Baird, Curtis J. M.D.; Chan, Kwok-Ming;
Crookes, Peter F.; Bremner, Cedric G.; Gottlieb, Michael M.; Naritoku,
Wesley Y. M.D. (1997). "
Zinc Toxicity Following Massive Coin
Ingestion". American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology. 18
(2): 148–153. doi:10.1097/00000433-199706000-00008.
^ Fernbach, S. K.; Tucker G. F. (1986). "Coin ingestion: unusual
appearance of the penny in a child". Radiology. 158 (2): 512.
doi:10.1148/radiology.158.2.3941880. PMID 3941880.
^ Stowe, C. M.; Nelson, R.; Werdin, R.; Fangmann, G.; Fredrick, P.;
Weaver, G.; Arendt, T. D. (1978). "
Zinc phosphide poisoning in dogs".
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 173 (3): 270.
^ Reece, R. L.; Dickson, D. B.; Burrowes, P. J. (1986). "
(new wire disease) in aviary birds". Australian Veterinary Journal. 63
(6): 199. doi:10.1111/j.1751-0813.1986.tb02979.x.
Chambers, William and Robert (1901). Chambers's Encyclopaedia: A
Dictionary of Universal Knowledge (Revised ed.). London and Edinburgh:
J. B. Lippincott Company.
Cotton, F. Albert; Wilkinson, Geoffrey; Murillo, Carlos A.; Bochmann,
Manfred (1999). Advanced Inorganic Chemistry (6th ed.). New York: John
Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN 0-471-19957-5.
CRC contributors (2006). David R. Lide, ed. Handbook of Chemistry and
Physics (87th ed.). Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, Taylor &
Francis Group. ISBN 0-8493-0487-3.
Emsley, John (2001). "Zinc". Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to
the Elements. Oxford, England, UK: Oxford University Press.
pp. 499–505. ISBN 0-19-850340-7.
Greenwood, N. N.; Earnshaw, A. (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd
ed.). Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0-7506-3365-4.
Heiserman, David L. (1992). "Element 30: Zinc". Exploring Chemical
Elements and their Compounds. New York: TAB Books.
Lehto, R. S. (1968). "Zinc". In Clifford A. Hampel. The Encyclopedia
of the Chemical Elements. New York: Reinhold Book Corporation.
pp. 822–830. ISBN 0-442-15598-0. LCCN 68-29938.
United States National Research Council, Institute of Medicine (2000).
Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron,
Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel,
Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. National Academies Press.
Stwertka, Albert (1998). "Zinc". Guide to the Elements (Revised ed.).
Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-508083-1.
Weeks, Mary Elvira (1933). "III. Some Eighteenth-Century Metals". The
Discovery of the Elements. Easton, PA: Journal of Chemical Education.
Listen to this article (info/dl)
This audio file was created from a revision of the article "Zinc"
dated 2012-01-25, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the
article. (Audio help)
More spoken articles
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Zinc.
Look up zinc in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Zinc Fact Sheet from the U.S. National Institutes of Health
History & Etymology of Zinc
Statistics and Information from the U.S. Geological Survey
Reducing Agents > Zinc
Zinc Association Information about the uses and properties of
Outline safety data for zinc
ISZB International Society for
Zinc Biology, founded in 2008. An
international, nonprofit organization bringing together scientists
working on the biological actions of zinc.
Zinc-UK Founded in 2010 to bring together scientists in the United
Kingdom working on zinc.
The Periodic Table of Videos
The Periodic Table of Videos (University of Nottingham)
Periodic table (Large cells)
Alkaline earth metal
Ionotropic glutamate receptor
Ionotropic glutamate receptor modulators
Agonists: Main site agonists: 5-Fluorowillardiine
Acromelic acid (acromelate)
Willardiine; Positive allosteric modulators: Aniracetam
Farampator (CX-691, ORG-24448)
Tulrampator (S-47445, CX-1632)
Zonampanel; Negative allosteric modulators:
pentobarbital, sodium thiopental)
Talampanel; Unknown/unsorted antagonists: Minocycline
Agonists: Main site agonists: 5-Bromowillardiine
Acromelic acid (acromelate)
SYM-2081; Positive allosteric modulators: Cyclothiazide
UBP-302; Negative allosteric modulators:
pentobarbital, sodium thiopental)
Agonists: Main site agonists: AMAA
Homocysteic acid (L-HCA)
Glycine site agonists: β-Fluoro-D-alanine
Sarcosine; Polyamine site agonists: Neomycin
Spermine; Other positive allosteric modulators: 24S-Hydroxycholesterol
DHEA sulfate (prasterone sulfate)
Antagonists: Competitive antagonists:
Glycine site antagonists: 4-Cl-KYN (AV-101)
ZD-9379; Polyamine site antagonists: Arcaine
Putrescine; Uncompetitive pore blockers (mostly dizocilpine site):
Tramadol; Ifenprodil (NR2B) site antagonists:
Rislenemdaz (CERC-301, MK-0657)
Traxoprodil (CP-101606); NR2A-selective antagonists: MPX-004
TCN-213; Cations: Hydrogen
Zinc; Alcohols/volatile anesthetics/related: Benzene
Xylene; Unknown/unsorted antagonists: ARR-15896
See also: Receptor/signaling modulators
Metabotropic glutamate receptor modulators
Glutamate metabolism/transport modulators
BNF: cb119731249 (data)