Electron Configuration
In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule (or other physical structure) in atomic or molecular orbitals. For example, the electron configuration of the neon atom is , meaning that the 1s, 2s and 2p subshells are occupied by 2, 2 and 6 electrons respectively. Electronic configurations describe each electron as moving independently in an orbital, in an average field created by all other orbitals. Mathematically, configurations are described by Slater determinants or configuration state functions. According to the laws of quantum mechanics, for systems with only one electron, a level of energy is associated with each electron configuration and in certain conditions, electrons are able to move from one configuration to another by the emission or absorption of a quantum of energy, in the form of a photon. Knowledge of the electron configuration of different atoms is useful in understanding the str ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Electron Orbitals s
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An electron orbital may refer to: * An atomic orbital, describing the behaviour of an electron in an atom * A molecular orbital, describing the behaviour of an electron in a molecule See also * Electron configuration, the arrangement of electrons in structures such as atoms or molecules * Orbital hybridization, a combining of atomic orbitals to form an equal number of hybrid orbitals when forming certain molecule A molecule is a group of two or more atoms held together by attractive forces known as chemical bonds; depending on context, the term may or may not include ions which satisfy this criterion. In quantum physics, organic chemistry, and b ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Semiconductors
A semiconductor is a material which has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor, such as copper, and an insulator, such as glass. Its resistivity falls as its temperature rises; metals behave in the opposite way. Its conducting properties may be altered in useful ways by introducing impurities (" doping") into the crystal structure. When two differently doped regions exist in the same crystal, a semiconductor junction is created. The behavior of charge carriers, which include electrons, ions, and electron holes, at these junctions is the basis of diodes, transistors, and most modern electronics. Some examples of semiconductors are silicon, germanium, gallium arsenide, and elements near the socalled "metalloid staircase" on the periodic table. After silicon, gallium arsenide is the secondmost common semiconductor and is used in laser diodes, solar cells, microwavefrequency integrated circuits, and others. Silicon is a critical element for fabric ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Electron Shell
In chemistry and atomic physics, an electron shell may be thought of as an orbit followed by electrons around an atom's nucleus. The closest shell to the nucleus is called the "1 shell" (also called the "K shell"), followed by the "2 shell" (or "L shell"), then the "3 shell" (or "M shell"), and so on farther and farther from the nucleus. The shells correspond to the principal quantum numbers (''n'' = 1, 2, 3, 4 ...) or are labeled alphabetically with the letters used in Xray notation (K, L, M, ...). A useful guide when understanding electron shells in atoms is to note that each row on the conventional periodic table of elements represents an electron shell. Each shell can contain only a fixed number of electrons: the first shell can hold up to two electrons, the second shell can hold up to eight (2 + 6) electrons, the third shell can hold up to 18 (2 + 6 + 10) and so on. The general formula is that the ''n''th shell can in principle hold up to 2( ''n''2) electrons. [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Atomic Orbital
In atomic theory and quantum mechanics, an atomic orbital is a function describing the location and wavelike behavior of an electron in an atom. This function can be used to calculate the probability of finding any electron of an atom in any specific region around the atom's nucleus. The term ''atomic orbital'' may also refer to the physical region or space where the electron can be calculated to be present, as predicted by the particular mathematical form of the orbital. Each orbital in an atom is characterized by a set of values of the three quantum numbers , , and , which respectively correspond to the electron's energy, angular momentum, and an angular momentum vector component ( magnetic quantum number). Alternative to the magnetic quantum number, the orbitals are often labeled by the associated harmonic polynomials (e.g., ''xy'', ). Each such orbital can be occupied by a maximum of two electrons, each with its own projection of spin m_s. The simple names s orbita ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Spin Quantum Number
In atomic physics, the spin quantum number is a quantum number (designated ) which describes the intrinsic angular momentum (or spin angular momentum, or simply spin) of an electron or other particle. The phrase was originally used to describe the fourth of a set of quantum numbers (the principal quantum number , the azimuthal quantum number , the magnetic quantum number , and the spin quantum number ), which completely describe the quantum state of an electron in an atom. The name comes from a physical spinning of the electron about an axis, as proposed by Uhlenbeck and Goudsmit. The value of is the component of spin angular momentum parallel to a given direction (the –axis), which can be either +1/2 or –1/2 (in units of the reduced Planck constant). However this simplistic picture was quickly realized to be physically impossible because it would require the electrons to rotate faster than the speed of light. It was therefore replaced by a more abstract quantummechan ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Principal Quantum Number
In quantum mechanics, the principal quantum number (symbolized ''n'') is one of four quantum numbers assigned to each electron in an atom to describe that electron's state. Its values are natural numbers (from 1) making it a discrete variable. Apart from the principal quantum number, the other quantum numbers for bound electrons are the azimuthal quantum number ''ℓ'', the magnetic quantum number ''ml'', and the spin quantum number ''s''. Overview and history As ''n'' increases, the electron is also at a higher energy and is, therefore, less tightly bound to the nucleus. For higher ''n'' the electron is farther from the nucleus, on average. For each value of ''n'' there are ''n'' accepted ''ℓ'' (azimuthal) values ranging from 0 to ''n'' − 1 inclusively, hence higher''n'' electron states are more numerous. Accounting for two states of spin, each ''n'' shell can accommodate up to 2''n''2 electrons. In a simplistic oneelectron model described bel ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Quantum State
In quantum physics, a quantum state is a mathematical entity that provides a probability distribution for the outcomes of each possible measurement on a system. Knowledge of the quantum state together with the rules for the system's evolution in time exhausts all that can be predicted about the system's behavior. A mixture of quantum states is again a quantum state. Quantum states that cannot be written as a mixture of other states are called pure quantum states, while all other states are called mixed quantum states. A pure quantum state can be represented by a ray in a Hilbert space over the complex numbers, while mixed states are represented by density matrices, which are positive semidefinite operators that act on Hilbert spaces. Pure states are also known as state vectors or wave functions, the latter term applying particularly when they are represented as functions of position or momentum. For example, when dealing with the energy spectrum of the electron in a hydro ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Electron Shell
In chemistry and atomic physics, an electron shell may be thought of as an orbit followed by electrons around an atom's nucleus. The closest shell to the nucleus is called the "1 shell" (also called the "K shell"), followed by the "2 shell" (or "L shell"), then the "3 shell" (or "M shell"), and so on farther and farther from the nucleus. The shells correspond to the principal quantum numbers (''n'' = 1, 2, 3, 4 ...) or are labeled alphabetically with the letters used in Xray notation (K, L, M, ...). A useful guide when understanding electron shells in atoms is to note that each row on the conventional periodic table of elements represents an electron shell. Each shell can contain only a fixed number of electrons: the first shell can hold up to two electrons, the second shell can hold up to eight (2 + 6) electrons, the third shell can hold up to 18 (2 + 6 + 10) and so on. The general formula is that the ''n''th shell can in principle hold up to 2( ''n''2) electrons. [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Quantum Mechanics
Quantum mechanics is a fundamental theory in physics that provides a description of the physical properties of nature at the scale of atoms and subatomic particles. It is the foundation of all quantum physics including quantum chemistry, quantum field theory, quantum technology, and quantum information science. Classical physics, the collection of theories that existed before the advent of quantum mechanics, describes many aspects of nature at an ordinary ( macroscopic) scale, but is not sufficient for describing them at small (atomic and subatomic) scales. Most theories in classical physics can be derived from quantum mechanics as an approximation valid at large (macroscopic) scale. Quantum mechanics differs from classical physics in that energy, momentum, angular momentum, and other quantities of a bound system are restricted to discrete values ( quantization); objects have characteristics of both particles and waves ( wave–particle duality); and there are lim ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Bohr Model
In atomic physics, the Bohr model or Rutherford–Bohr model, presented by Niels Bohr and Ernest Rutherford in 1913, is a system consisting of a small, dense nucleus surrounded by orbiting electrons—similar to the structure of the Solar System, but with attraction provided by electrostatic forces in place of gravity. It came after the solar system Joseph Larmor model (1897), the solar system Jean Perrin model (1901), the cubical model (1902), the Hantaro Nagaoka Saturnian model (1904), the plum pudding model (1904), the quantum Arthur Haas model (1910), the Rutherford model (1911), and the nuclear quantum John William Nicholson model (1912). The improvement over the 1911 Rutherford model mainly concerned the new quantum physical interpretation introduced by Haas and Nicholson, but forsaking any attempt to align with classical physics radiation. The model's key success lay in explaining the Rydberg formula for the spectral emission lines of atomic hydrogen. While the Ry ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 