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Oregon
Oregon
(/ˈɔːrɪɡən/ ( listen)[7]) is a state in the Pacific Northwest
Pacific Northwest
region on the West Coast of the United States. The Columbia River
Columbia River
delineates much of Oregon's northern boundary along Washington state, while the Snake River
Snake River
delineates much of its eastern boundary along Idaho. The parallel 42° north delineates the southern boundary with California
California
and Nevada. Oregon
Oregon
is one of only three states of the contiguous United States
United States
to have a coastline on the Pacific Ocean. Oregon
Oregon
was inhabited by many indigenous tribes before Western traders, explorers, and settlers arrived. An autonomous government was formed in the Oregon Country
Oregon Country
in 1843 before the Oregon Territory
Oregon Territory
was created in 1848. Oregon
Oregon
became the 33rd state on February 14, 1859. Today, at 98,000 square miles (250,000 km2), Oregon
Oregon
is the ninth largest and, with a population of 4 million, 27th most populous U.S. state. The capital, Salem, is the second most populous city in Oregon, with 164,549 residents. Portland, with 632,309 residents, is the most populous and ranks as the 26th most populous city in the United States. The Portland metropolitan area, which also includes the city of Vancouver, Washington, to the north, ranks the 23rd largest metro area in the nation, with a population of 2,389,228. Oregon
Oregon
is one of the most geographically diverse states in the U.S.,[8] marked by volcanoes, abundant bodies of water, dense evergreen and mixed forests, as well as high deserts and semi-arid shrublands. At 11,249 feet (3,429 m), Mount Hood, a stratovolcano, is the state's highest point. Oregon's only national park, Crater Lake
Crater Lake
National Park, comprises the caldera surrounding Crater Lake, the deepest lake in the United States. The state is also home to the single largest organism in the world, Armillaria ostoyae, a fungus that runs beneath 8.9 km2 (2,200 acres) of the Malheur National Forest.[9] Because of its diverse landscapes and waterways, Oregon's economy is largely powered by various forms of agriculture, fishing, and hydroelectric power. Oregon
Oregon
is also the top timber producer of the contiguous United States, and the timber industry dominated the state's economy in the 20th century.[10] Technology is another one of Oregon's major economic forces, beginning in the 1970s with the establishment of the Silicon Forest
Silicon Forest
and the expansion of Tektronix
Tektronix
and Intel. Sportswear company Nike, Inc., headquartered in Beaverton, is the state's largest public corporation with an annual revenue of $30.6 billion.[11]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Geography

2.1 Geology and terrain 2.2 Flora and fauna 2.3 Climate

3 History

3.1 Earliest inhabitants 3.2 European and pioneer settlement 3.3 Statehood 3.4 Post-Reconstruction

4 Cities and towns 5 Law and government

5.1 Federal representation 5.2 Politics

6 Economy

6.1 Agriculture 6.2 Forestry and fisheries 6.3 Tourism and entertainment 6.4 Technology 6.5 Corporate headquarters 6.6 Taxes and budgets

7 Demographics

7.1 Population 7.2 Religious and secular communities 7.3 Birth data

7.3.1 Future projections

8 Education

8.1 Primary and secondary 8.2 Colleges and universities

9 Sports 10 Sister regions 11 See also 12 Notes 13 References 14 External links

Etymology[edit] Main article: Oregon
Oregon
(toponym)

Oregon
Oregon
border welcome sign at Denio, Nevada

The earliest evidence of the name Oregon
Oregon
has Spanish origins. The term "orejón" comes from the historical chronicle Relación de la Alta y Baja California
California
(1598)[12] written by the new Spaniard Rodrigo Motezuma and made reference to the Columbia River
Columbia River
when the Spanish explorers penetrated into the actual North American territory that became part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. This chronicle is the first topographical and linguistic source with respect to the place name Oregon. There are also two other sources with Spanish origins, such as the name Oregano, which grows in the southern part of the region. It is most probable that the American territory was named by the Spaniards, as there are some populations in Spain such as "Arroyo del Oregón" (which is situated in the province of Ciudad Real), also considering that the individualization in Spanish language "El Orejón" with the mutation of the letter "g" instead of "j".[13] Another early use of the name, spelled Ouragon, was in a 1765 petition by Major Robert Rogers to the Kingdom of Great Britain. The term referred to the then-mythical River of the West (the Columbia River). By 1778 the spelling had shifted to Oregon.[14] In his 1765 petition, Rogers wrote:

The rout [sic]...is from the Great Lakes towards the Head of the Mississippi, and from thence to the River called by the Indians Ouragon...[15]

One theory is that the name comes from the French word ouragan ("windstorm" or "hurricane"), which was applied to the River of the West based on Native American tales of powerful Chinook winds on the lower Columbia River, or perhaps from firsthand French experience with the Chinook winds of the Great Plains. At the time, the River of the West was thought to rise in western Minnesota
Minnesota
and flow west through the Great Plains.[16] Joaquin Miller
Joaquin Miller
explained in Sunset magazine, in 1904, how Oregon's name was derived:

The name, Oregon, is rounded down phonetically, from Aure il agua—Oragua, Or-a-gon, Oregon—given probably by the same Portuguese navigator that named the Farallones after his first officer, and it literally, in a large way, means cascades: 'Hear the waters.' You should steam up the Columbia and hear and feel the waters falling out of the clouds of Mount Hood
Mount Hood
to understand entirely the full meaning of the name Aure il agua, Oregon.[17]

Another account, endorsed as the "most plausible explanation" in the book Oregon
Oregon
Geographic Names, was advanced by George R. Stewart
George R. Stewart
in a 1944 article in American Speech. According to Stewart, the name came from an engraver's error in a French map published in the early 18th century, on which the Ouisiconsink (Wisconsin) River was spelled "Ouaricon-sint", broken on two lines with the -sint below, so there appeared to be a river flowing to the west named "Ouaricon." According to the Oregon
Oregon
Tourism Commission, present-day Oregonians /ˌɒrɪˈɡoʊniənz/[18] pronounce the state's name as "or-uh-gun, never or-ee-gone."[7] After being drafted by the Detroit Lions
Detroit Lions
in 2002, former Oregon Ducks
Oregon Ducks
quarterback Joey Harrington distributed "Orygun" stickers to members of the media as a reminder of how to pronounce the name of his home state.[19][20] The stickers are sold by the University of Oregon
University of Oregon
Bookstore.[21] Geography[edit] See also: List of regions of Oregon

Crater Lake
Crater Lake
during summer

Oregon
Oregon
is 295 miles (475 km) north to south at longest distance, and 395 miles (636 km) east to west at longest distance. With an area of 98,381 square miles (254,810 km2), Oregon
Oregon
is slightly larger than the United Kingdom. It is the ninth largest state in the United States.[22] Oregon's highest point is the summit of Mount Hood, at 11,249 feet (3,429 m), and its lowest point is the sea level of the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
along the Oregon
Oregon
Coast.[23] Oregon's mean elevation is 3,300 feet (1,006 m). Crater Lake National Park
Crater Lake National Park
is the state's only national park and the site of Crater Lake, the deepest lake in the United States
United States
at 1,943 feet (592 m).[24] Oregon
Oregon
claims the D River
D River
as the shortest river in the world,[25] though the state of Montana
Montana
makes the same claim of its Roe River.[26] Oregon
Oregon
is also home to Mill Ends Park
Mill Ends Park
(in Portland),[27] the smallest park in the world at 452 square inches (0.29 m2). Oregon
Oregon
is split into eight geographical regions. In Western Oregon: Oregon Coast
Oregon Coast
(west of the Coast Range), the Willamette Valley, Rogue Valley, Cascade Range
Cascade Range
and Klamath Mountains; and in Central and Eastern Oregon: the Columbia Plateau, the High Desert, and the Blue Mountains. Oregon
Oregon
lies in two time zones. Most of Malheur County is in the Mountain Time Zone, while the rest of the state lies in the Pacific Time Zone. Geology and terrain[edit] See also: List of rivers in Oregon, List of Oregon
Oregon
mountain ranges, and List of Oregon
Oregon
state parks

Mount Hood
Mount Hood
is the highest peak in Oregon

Western Oregon's mountainous regions, home to three of the most prominent mountain peaks of the United States
United States
including Mount Hood, were formed by the volcanic activity of the Juan de Fuca Plate, a tectonic plate that poses a continued threat of volcanic activity and earthquakes in the region. The most recent major activity was the 1700 Cascadia earthquake. Washington's Mount St. Helens
Mount St. Helens
erupted in 1980, an event visible from northern Oregon
Oregon
and affecting some areas there.[28] The Columbia River, which forms much of Oregon's northern border, also played a major role in the region's geological evolution, as well as its economic and cultural development. The Columbia is one of North America's largest rivers, and one of two rivers to cut through the Cascades (the Klamath River
Klamath River
in southern Oregon
Oregon
is the other). About 15,000 years ago, the Columbia repeatedly flooded much of Oregon during the Missoula Floods; the modern fertility of the Willamette Valley is largely a result of those floods. Plentiful salmon made parts of the river, such as Celilo Falls, hubs of economic activity for thousands of years. Today, Oregon's landscape varies from rain forest in the Coast Range to barren desert in the southeast, which still meets the technical definition of a frontier. Oregon's geographical center is further west than any of the other 48 contiguous states (although the westernmost point of the lower 48 states is in Washington). Central Oregon's geographical features range from high desert and volcanic rock formations resulting from lava beds. The Oregon Badlands Wilderness
Oregon Badlands Wilderness
is in this region of the state.[29] Flora and fauna[edit] Typical of a western state, Oregon
Oregon
is home to a unique and diverse array of wildlife. Roughly 60 percent of the state is covered in forest,[30] while the areas west of the Cascades are more densely populated by forest, making up around 80 percent of the landscape. Some 60 percent of Oregon's forests are within federal land.[30] Oregon
Oregon
is the top timber producer of the lower 48 states.[10][31]

Typical tree species include the Douglas fir, the state tree, as well as redwood, ponderosa pine (generally east of the Cascades), western red cedar, and hemlock.[32] Ponderosa pine
Ponderosa pine
are more common in the Blue Mountains in the eastern part of the state and firs are more common in the west.

Pronghorn antelope
Pronghorn antelope
in Fort Rock

There are many species of mammals that live in the state, which include, but are not limited to, opossums, shrews, moles, little pocket mice, great basin pocket mice, dark kangaroo mouse, California kangaroo rat, chisel-toothed kangaroo rat, ord's kangaroo rat,[33] bats, rabbits, pikas, mountain beavers, chipmunks, western gray squirrels, yellow-bellied marmots, beavers, porcupines, coyotes, wolves, red foxes, common grey fox, kit fox,[34] black bears, raccoons, badgers, skunks, antelopes, cougars, bobcats, lynxes, deer, elk, and moose. Marine mammals include seals, sea lions, humpback whales, killer whales, gray whales, blue whales, sperm whales, pacific white-sided dolphin, and bottlenose dolphin.[35] Notable birds include American widgeons, mallard ducks, great blue herons, bald eagles, golden eagles, western meadowlarks (the state bird), barn owls, great horned owls, rufous hummingbirds, pileated woodpeckers, wrens, towhees, sparrows, and buntings.[36]

Moose
Moose
have not always inhabited the state but came to Oregon
Oregon
in the 1960s; the Wallowa Valley
Wallowa Valley
herd numbered about 60 as of 2013.[37] Gray wolves were extirpated from Oregon
Oregon
around 1930 but have since found their way back; most of them reside in northeast Oregon, but there are now two packs living in the south-central part of the state.[38] Although their existence in Oregon
Oregon
is unconfirmed, reports of grizzly bears still turn up, and it is probable some still move into eastern Oregon
Oregon
from Idaho.[39] Oregon
Oregon
is home to what is considered the largest single organism in the world, an Armillaria solidipes
Armillaria solidipes
fungus beneath the Malheur National Forest of eastern Oregon.[9] Oregon
Oregon
has three national park sites: Crater Lake National Park
Crater Lake National Park
in the southern part of the Cascades, John Day Fossil Beds National Monument east of the Cascades, and Lewis and Clark National and State Historical Parks on the north coast.[40][41] Climate[edit] Main article: Climate of Oregon

Köppen climate types in Oregon

Most of Oregon
Oregon
has a generally mild climate, though there is significant variation given the variety of landscapes across the state.[42] The state's western region (west of the Cascade Range) has an oceanic climate, populated by dense evergreen mixed forests. Western Oregon's climate is heavily influenced by the Pacific Ocean; the western third of Oregon
Oregon
is very wet in the winter, moderately to very wet during the spring and fall, and dry during the summer. The relative humidity of Western Oregon is high except during summer days, which are semi-dry to semi-humid; Eastern Oregon
Eastern Oregon
typically sees low humidity year-round.[43] The state's southwestern portion, particularly the Rogue Valley, has a Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
with drier and sunnier winters and hotter summers, similar to Northern California.[44] Oregon's northeastern portion has a steppe climate, and its high terrain regions have a subarctic climate. Like Western Europe, Oregon, and the Pacific Northwest
Pacific Northwest
in general, is considered warm for its latitude, and the state has far milder winters at a given elevation than comparable latitudes elsewhere in North America, such as the Upper Midwest, Ontario, Quebec
Quebec
and New England.[43] However, the state ranks fifth for coolest summer temperatures of any state in the country, after Maine, Idaho, Wyoming, and Alaska.[45] The eastern two thirds of Oregon, which largely comprise high desert, have cold, snowy winters and very dry summers. Much of the east is semiarid to arid like the rest of the Great Basin, though the Blue Mountains are wet enough to support extensive forests. Most of Oregon receives significant snowfall, but the Willamette Valley, where 60 percent of the population lives,[46] has considerably milder winters for its latitude and typically only sees light snowfall.[43] Oregon's highest recorded temperature is 119 °F (48 °C) at Pendleton on August 10, 1898, and the lowest recorded temperature is −54 °F (−48 °C) at Seneca on February 10, 1933.[47] History[edit] Main article: History of Oregon Humans have inhabited the area that is now Oregon
Oregon
for at least 15,000 years. In recorded history, mentions of the land date to as early as the 16th century. During the 18th and 19th centuries, European powers – and later the United States
United States
– quarreled over possession of the region until 1846, when the U.S. and Great Britain finalized division of the region. Oregon
Oregon
became a state on February 14, 1859, and as of 2015 is home to over 4 million residents.[48] Earliest inhabitants[edit] See also: Native American peoples of Oregon and Kennewick Man

Paul Shoaway, a Native of the Umatilla tribe in the Columbia Plateau region, 1899

While there is considerable evidence that Paleo-Indians
Paleo-Indians
inhabited the region, the oldest evidence of habitation in Oregon
Oregon
was found at Fort Rock Cave and the Paisley Caves
Paisley Caves
in Lake County. Archaeologist Luther Cressman dated material from Fort Rock
Fort Rock
to 13,200 years ago,[49] and there is evidence supporting inhabitants in the region at least 15,000 years ago.[50] By 8000 BC there were settlements throughout the state, with populations concentrated along the lower Columbia River, in the western valleys, and around coastal estuaries. During the prehistoric period, the Willamette Valley
Willamette Valley
region was flooded after the collapse of glacial dams from Lake Missoula, located in what would later become Montana. These massive floods occurred during the last glacial period and filled the valley with 300 to 400 feet (91 to 122 m) of water.[51] By the 16th century, Oregon
Oregon
was home to many Native American groups, including the Chinook, Coquille (Ko-Kwell), Bannock, Chasta, Kalapuya, Klamath, Klickitat, Molalla, Nez Perce, Takelma, Killamuk, Neah-kah-nie, Umatilla, and Umpqua.[52][53][54][55] European and pioneer settlement[edit] See also: History of the United States
United States
(1789–1849) and Oregon pioneer history The first Europeans to visit Oregon
Oregon
were Spanish explorers led by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, who sighted southern Oregon
Oregon
off the Pacific coast in 1543.[56] Francis Drake made his way to Nehalem Bay in 1579 and spent five weeks in the middle of summer repairing his ship. He claimed the land between 38–48 degrees north latitude as a Symbolic Sovereign Act for England.[57] Exploration was retaken routinely in 1774, starting with the expedition of the frigate Santiago by Juan José Pérez Hernández (see Spanish expeditions to the Pacific Northwest), and the coast of Oregon
Oregon
became a valuable trading route to Asia. In 1778, British captain James Cook
James Cook
also explored the coast.[58] French Canadian and métis trappers and missionaries arrived in the eastern part of the state in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, many having travelled as members of Lewis and Clark and the 1811 Astor expeditions. Some stayed permanently, including Étienne Lussier, believed to be the first European farmer in the state of Oregon. The evidence of this French Canadian presence can be found in the numerous names of French origin in that part of the state, including Malheur Lake
Malheur Lake
and the Malheur River, the Grande Ronde and Deschutes rivers, and the city of La Grande.

Fort Astoria, as established by John Jacob Astor
John Jacob Astor
in 1813

The Lewis and Clark Expedition
Lewis and Clark Expedition
travelled through northern Oregon
Oregon
also in search of the Northwest Passage. They built their winter fort in 1805–06 at Fort Clatsop, near the mouth of the Columbia River, staying at the encampment from December until March.[59] British explorer David Thompson also conducted overland exploration. In 1811, while working for the North West Company, Thompson became the first European to navigate the entire Columbia River.[60] Stopping on the way, at the junction of the Snake River, he posted a claim to the region for Great Britain and the North West Company. Upon returning to Montreal, he publicized the abundance of fur-bearing animals in the area.[61] Also in 1811, New Yorker John Jacob Astor
John Jacob Astor
financed the establishment of Fort Astoria
Fort Astoria
at the mouth of the Columbia River
Columbia River
as a western outpost to his Pacific Fur Company;[62] this was the first permanent European settlement in Oregon.

Map of Oregon
Oregon
Country, 1818–46

In the War of 1812, the British gained control of all Pacific Fur Company posts. The Treaty of 1818
Treaty of 1818
established joint British and American occupancy of the region west of the Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
to the Pacific Ocean. By the 1820s and 1830s, the Hudson's Bay Company dominated the Pacific Northwest
Pacific Northwest
from its Columbia District headquarters at Fort Vancouver
Fort Vancouver
(built in 1825 by the district's chief factor, John McLoughlin, across the Columbia from present-day Portland). In 1841, the expert trapper and entrepreneur Ewing Young
Ewing Young
died leaving considerable wealth and no apparent heir, and no system to probate his estate. A meeting followed Young's funeral, at which a probate government was proposed.[63] Doctor Ira Babcock
Ira Babcock
of Jason Lee's Methodist Mission
Methodist Mission
was elected supreme judge.[64] Babcock chaired two meetings in 1842 at Champoeg, (halfway between Lee's mission and Oregon
Oregon
City), to discuss wolves and other animals of contemporary concern. These meetings were precursors to an all-citizen meeting in 1843, which instituted a provisional government headed by an executive committee made up of David Hill, Alanson Beers, and Joseph Gale.[65] This government was the first acting public government of the Oregon Country before annexation by the government of the United States. It was succeeded by a Second Executive Committee, made up of Peter G. Stewart, Osborne Russell, and William J. Bailey, and this committee was itself succeeded by George Abernethy, who was the first and only Governor of Oregon
Governor of Oregon
under the provisional government. Also in 1841, Sir George Simpson, governor of the Hudson's Bay Company, reversed the Hudson's Bay Company's long-standing policy of discouraging settlement because it interfered with the lucrative fur trade.[66] He directed that some 200 Red River Colony
Red River Colony
settlers be relocated to HBC farms near Fort Vancouver, (the James Sinclair expedition), in an attempt to hold Columbia District. Starting in 1842–43, the Oregon Trail
Oregon Trail
brought many new American settlers to the Oregon
Oregon
Country. For some time, it seemed that Britain and the United States
United States
would go to war for a third time in 75 years (see Oregon
Oregon
boundary dispute), but the border was defined peacefully in 1846 by the Oregon
Oregon
Treaty. The border between the United States
United States
and British North America
British North America
was set at the 49th parallel.[67] The Oregon Territory was officially organized on August 13, 1848.[68] Settlement increased with the Donation Land Claim Act
Donation Land Claim Act
of 1850 and the forced relocation of the native population to Indian reservations in Oregon. Statehood[edit] In December 1844, Oregon
Oregon
passed its Black Exclusion Law, which prohibited African Americans
African Americans
from entering the territory while simultaneously prohibiting slavery. Slave owners who brought their slaves with them were given three years before they were forced to free them. Any African Americans
African Americans
in the region after the law was passed were forced to leave, and those who did not comply were arrested and beaten. They received no less than twenty and no more than thirty-nine stripes across their bare back. If they still did not leave, this process could be repeated every six months.[69] Slavery played a major part in Oregon's history and even influenced its path to statehood. The territory's request for statehood was delayed several times, as members of Congress argued among themselves whether the territory should be admitted as a "free" or "slave" state. Eventually politicians from the south agreed to allow Oregon
Oregon
to enter as a "free" state, in exchange for opening slavery to the southwest United States.[70] Oregon
Oregon
was admitted to the Union on February 14, 1859. Founded as a refuge from disputes over slavery, Oregon
Oregon
had a "whites only" clause in its original state Constitution.[71] At the outbreak of the American Civil War, regular U.S. troops were withdrawn and sent east. Volunteer cavalry recruited in California
California
were sent north to Oregon
Oregon
to keep peace and protect the populace. The First Oregon
Oregon
Cavalry served until June 1865. Post-Reconstruction[edit]

Downtown Portland in 1898

Beginning in the 1880s, the growth of railroads expanded the state's lumber, wheat, and other agricultural markets, and the rapid growth of its cities.[72] Due to the abundance of timber and waterway access via the Willamette River, Portland became a major force in the lumber industry of the Pacific Northwest, and quickly became the state's largest city. It would earn the nickname "Stumptown,"[73] and would later become recognized as one of the most dangerous port cities in the United States
United States
due to racketeering and illegal activities at the turn of the 20th century.[74] In 1902, Oregon
Oregon
introduced direct legislation by the state's citizens through initiatives and referenda, known as the Oregon
Oregon
System.[75] On May 5, 1945, six people were killed by a Japanese bomb that exploded on Gearhart Mountain near Bly.[76][77] This is the only fatal attack on the United States
United States
mainland committed by a foreign nation since the Mexican–American War, making Oregon
Oregon
the only U.S. state that has experienced fatal casualties by a foreign army since 1848, as Hawaii
Hawaii
was not yet a state when Pearl Harbor
Pearl Harbor
was attacked in 1941. The bombing site is now called the Mitchell Recreation Area. Industrial expansion began in earnest following the 1933–37 construction of the Bonneville Dam
Bonneville Dam
on the Columbia River. Hydroelectric power, food, and lumber provided by Oregon
Oregon
helped fuel the development of the West, although the periodic fluctuations in the U.S. building industry have hurt the state's economy on multiple occasions. Portland in particular experienced a population boom between 1900 and 1930, tripling in size; the arrival of World War II also provided the northwest region of the state with an industrial boom, where Liberty ships and aircraft carriers were constructed.[78] During the 1970s, the Pacific Northwest
Pacific Northwest
was particularly affected by the 1973 oil crisis, with Oregon
Oregon
suffering a substantial shortage.[79] In 1994, Oregon
Oregon
became the first U.S. state
U.S. state
to legalize physician-assisted suicide through the Oregon
Oregon
Death with Dignity Act. A measure to legalize recreational use of marijuana in Oregon
Oregon
was approved on November 4, 2014, making Oregon
Oregon
only the second state at the time to have legalized gay marriage, physician-assisted suicide, and recreational marijuana.[80] Cities and towns[edit] Further information: List of cities and unincorporated communities in Oregon Oregon's population is largely concentrated in the Willamette Valley, which stretches from Eugene in the south (home of the University of Oregon) through Corvallis (home of Oregon
Oregon
State University) and Salem (the capital) to Portland (Oregon's largest city).[81] Astoria, at the mouth of the Columbia River, was the first permanent English-speaking settlement west of the Rockies in what is now the United States. Oregon
Oregon
City, at the end of the Oregon
Oregon
Trail, was the Oregon
Oregon
Territory's first incorporated city, and was its first capital from 1848 until 1852, when the capital was moved to Salem. Bend, near the geographic center of the state, is one of the ten fastest-growing metropolitan areas in the United States.[82][better source needed] In southern Oregon, Medford is a rapidly growing metro area and is home to the Rogue Valley International-Medford Airport, the state's third-busiest airport. To the south, near the California
California
border, are the communities of Ashland and Grants Pass.

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in Oregon Source:[83]

Rank Name County Pop.

Portland

Salem 1 Portland Multnomah 639,863[84]

Eugene

Gresham

2 Salem Marion 167,419

3 Eugene Lane 166,575

4 Gresham Multnomah 111,523

5 Hillsboro Washington 105,164

6 Beaverton Washington 97,590

7 Bend Deschutes 91,112

8 Medford Jackson 81,636

9 Springfield Lane 61,893

10 Corvallis Benton 57,110

Law and government[edit] See also: Government of Oregon

Golden Pioneer atop the Oregon
Oregon
State Capitol

A writer in the Oregon Country
Oregon Country
book A Pacific Republic, written in 1839, predicted the territory was to become an independent republic. Four years later, in 1843, settlers of the Willamette Valley
Willamette Valley
voted in majority for a republic government.[85] The Oregon Country
Oregon Country
functioned in this way until August 13, 1848, when Oregon
Oregon
was annexed by the United States
United States
and a territorial government was established. Oregon maintained a territorial government until February 14, 1859, when it was granted statehood.[86] Oregon
Oregon
state government has a separation of powers similar to the federal government. It has three branches:

a legislative branch (the bicameral Oregon
Oregon
Legislative Assembly), an executive branch which includes an "administrative department" and Oregon's governor serving as chief executive, and a judicial branch, headed by the Chief Justice of the Oregon
Oregon
Supreme Court.

Governors in Oregon
Oregon
serve four-year terms and are limited to two consecutive terms, but an unlimited number of total terms. Oregon
Oregon
has no lieutenant governor; in the event that the office of governor is vacated, Article V, Section 8a of the Oregon Constitution
Oregon Constitution
specifies that the Secretary of State is first in line for succession.[87] The other statewide officers are Treasurer, Attorney General, Superintendent, and Labor Commissioner. The biennial Oregon Legislative Assembly consists of a thirty-member Senate and a sixty-member House. The state supreme court has seven elected justices, currently including the only two openly gay state supreme court justices in the nation. They choose one of their own to serve a six-year term as Chief Justice. The only court that may reverse or modify a decision of the Oregon Supreme Court
Oregon Supreme Court
is the Supreme Court of the United States. The debate over whether to move to annual sessions is a long-standing battle in Oregon
Oregon
politics, but the voters have resisted the move from citizen legislators to professional lawmakers. Because Oregon's state budget is written in two-year increments and, there being no sales tax, state revenue is based largely on income taxes, it is often significantly over- or under-budget. Recent legislatures have had to be called into special session repeatedly to address revenue shortfalls resulting from economic downturns, bringing to a head the need for more frequent legislative sessions. Oregon
Oregon
Initiative
Initiative
71, passed in 2010, mandates the legislature to begin meeting every year, for 160 days in odd-numbered years, and 35 days in even-numbered years.

Federally recognized tribes in Oregon

Burns Paiute Tribe

Confederated Tribes of Coos, Lower Umpqua and Siuslaw Indians

Confederated Tribes of Grand Ronde

Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians

Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs

Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation

Cow Creek Band of Umpqua Tribe of Indians

Klamath Tribes

Coquille Indian Tribe

Oregonians have voted for the Democratic presidential candidate in every election since 1988. In 2004 and 2006, Democrats won control of the state Senate and then the House. Since the late 1990s, Oregon
Oregon
has been represented by four Democrats and one Republican in the U.S. House of Representatives. Since 2009, the state has had two Democratic U.S. senators, Ron Wyden
Ron Wyden
and Jeff Merkley. Oregon
Oregon
voters have elected Democratic governors in every election since 1986, most recently electing Kate Brown
Kate Brown
over Republican Bud Pierce
Bud Pierce
in a 2016 special election. The base of Democratic support is largely concentrated in the urban centers of the Willamette Valley. The eastern two-thirds of the state beyond the Cascade Mountains typically votes Republican; in 2000 and 2004, George W. Bush
George W. Bush
carried every county east of the Cascades. However, the region's sparse population means that the more populous counties in the Willamette Valley
Willamette Valley
usually outweigh the eastern counties in statewide elections. In the 2002 general election, Oregon
Oregon
voters approved a ballot measure to increase the state minimum wage automatically each year according to inflationary changes, which are measured by the consumer price index (CPI).[88] In the 2004 general election, Oregon
Oregon
voters passed ballot measures banning same-sex marriage[89] and restricting land use regulation.[90] In the 2006 general election, voters restricted the use of eminent domain and extended the state's discount prescription drug coverage.[91] Federal representation[edit] Like all U.S. states, Oregon
Oregon
is represented by two senators. Since the 1980 census, Oregon
Oregon
has had five congressional districts. After Oregon was admitted to the Union, it began with a single member in the House of Representatives (La Fayette Grover, who served in the 35th United States Congress for less than a month). Congressional apportionment increased the size of the delegation following the censuses of 1890, 1910, 1940, and 1980. A detailed list of the past and present Congressional delegations from Oregon
Oregon
is available. The United States
United States
District Court for the District of Oregon
Oregon
hears federal cases in the state. The court has courthouses in Portland, Eugene, Medford, and Pendleton. Also in Portland is the federal bankruptcy court, with a second branch in Eugene.[92] Oregon
Oregon
(among other western states and territories) is in the 9th Court of Appeals. One of the court's meeting places is at the Pioneer Courthouse
Pioneer Courthouse
in downtown Portland, a National Historic Landmark built in 1869. Politics[edit] Main article: Politics of Oregon See also: Political party strength in Oregon

Treemap
Treemap
of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential election.

Party registration in Oregon, 1950–2006   total   Democratic Party   Republican Party   non-affiliated and minor parties

Gubernatorial election results[93]

Year Democratic Republican

1950 34.0% 171,750 66.0% 334,160

1954 43.1% 244,170 56.9% 322,522

1958 44.7% 267,934 55.3% 331,900

1962 41.6% 265,359 54.2% 345,497

1966 44.7% 305,008 55.3% 377,346

1970 44.2% 293,892 55.6% 369,964

1974 57.7% 444,812 42.1% 324,751

1978 45.1% 409,411 54.9% 498,452

1982 35.9% 374,316 61.4% 639,841

1986 51.9% 549,456 47.9% 506,989

1990 45.7% 508,749 40.0% 444,646

1994 51.0% 622,083 42.4% 517,874

1998 64.4% 717,061 30.0% 334,001

2002 49.0% 618,004 46.2% 581,785

2006 50.7% 699,786 42.8% 589,748

2010 49.3% 716,525 47.8% 694,287

2014 49.9% 733,230 44.1% 648,542

Presidential election results[93]

Year Democratic Republican

1952 38.9% 270,579 60.5% 420,815

1956 44.8% 329,204 55.3% 406,393

1960 47.3% 367,402 52.6% 408,060

1964 63.7% 501,017 36.0% 282,779

1968 43.8% 358,866 49.8% 408,433

1972 42.3% 392,760 52.5% 486,686

1976 47.6% 490,407 47.8% 492,120

1980 38.7% 456,890 48.3% 571,044

1984 43.7% 536,479 55.9% 685,700

1988 51.3% 616,206 46.6% 560,126

1992 42.5% 621,314 32.5% 475,757

1996 47.2% 649,641 39.1% 538,152

2000 47.0% 720,342 46.5% 713,577

2004 51.4% 943,163 47.2% 866,831

2008 56.8% 1,037,291 40.4% 738,475

2012 54.3% 970,343 42.2% 754,095

2016 50.1% 1,002,106 39.1% 782,403

Political opinions in Oregon
Oregon
are geographically split by the Cascade Range, with western Oregon
Oregon
being more liberal and Eastern Oregon
Eastern Oregon
being conservative.[94] In a 2008 analysis of the 2004 presidential election, a political analyst found that according to the application of a Likert scale, Oregon
Oregon
boasted both the most liberal Kerry voters and the most conservative Bush voters, making it the most politically polarized state in the country.[95] While Republicans typically win more counties by running up huge margins in the east, the Democratic tilt of the more populated west is usually enough to swing the entire state Democratic. In 2008, for instance, Republican Senate incumbent Gordon H. Smith
Gordon H. Smith
lost his bid for a third term even though he carried all but eight counties. His Democratic challenger, Jeff Merkley, won Multnomah County by 142,000 votes, more than double the overall margin of victory. During Oregon's history it has adopted many electoral reforms proposed during the Progressive Era, through the efforts of William S. U'Ren and his Direct Legislation League. Under his leadership, the state overwhelmingly approved a ballot measure in 1902 that created the initiative and referendum for citizens to introduce or approve proposed laws or amendments to the state constitution directly, making Oregon
Oregon
the first state to adopt such a system. Today, roughly half of U.S. states do so.[96] In following years, the primary election to select party candidates was adopted in 1904, and in 1908 the Oregon Constitution
Oregon Constitution
was amended to include recall of public officials. More recent amendments include the nation's first doctor-assisted suicide law,[97] called the Death with Dignity Act (which was challenged, unsuccessfully, in 2005 by the Bush administration in a case heard by the U.S. Supreme Court), legalization of medical cannabis, and among the nation's strongest anti-urban sprawl and pro-environment laws.[citation needed] More recently, 2004's Measure 37 reflects a backlash against such land-use laws. However, a further ballot measure in 2007, Measure 49, curtailed many of the provisions of 37. Of the measures placed on the ballot since 1902, the people have passed 99 of the 288 initiatives and 25 of the 61 referendums on the ballot, though not all of them survived challenges in courts (see Pierce v. Society of Sisters, for an example). During the same period, the legislature has referred 363 measures to the people, of which 206 have passed. Oregon
Oregon
pioneered the American use of postal voting, beginning with experimentation approved by the Oregon Legislative Assembly
Oregon Legislative Assembly
in 1981 and culminating with a 1998 ballot measure mandating that all counties conduct elections by mail. It remains one of just two states, the other being Washington, where voting by mail is the only method of voting. In 1994, Oregon
Oregon
adopted the Oregon
Oregon
Health Plan, which made health care available to most of its citizens without private health insurance.[98] In the U.S. Electoral College, Oregon
Oregon
casts seven votes. Oregon
Oregon
has supported Democratic candidates in the last eight elections. Democratic incumbent Barack Obama
Barack Obama
won the state by a margin of twelve percentage points, with over 54% of the popular vote in 2012. In the 2016 election, Hillary Clinton won Oregon
Oregon
by 11 percentage points.[99] Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Oregon See also: Oregon
Oregon
locations by per capita income As of 2015, Oregon
Oregon
ranks as the 17th highest in median household income at $60,834.[3] The gross domestic product (GDP) of Oregon
Oregon
in 2013 was $219.6 billion, a 2.7% increase from 2012; Oregon
Oregon
is the 25th wealthiest state by GDP. In 2003, Oregon
Oregon
was 28th in the U.S. by GDP. The state's per capita personal income (PCPI) in 2013 was $39,848, a 1.5% increase from 2012. Oregon
Oregon
ranks 33rd in the U.S. by PCPI, compared to 31st in 2003. The national PCPI in 2013 was $44,765.[100] Oregon's unemployment rate was 5.5% in September 2016,[101] while the U.S. unemployment rate was 5.0% that month.[102] Oregon
Oregon
has the third largest amount of food stamp users in the nation (21% of the population).[103] Agriculture[edit]

Teenagers harvesting berries in Boring in 1946

Oregon's diverse landscapes provide ideal environments for various types of farming. Land in the Willamette Valley
Willamette Valley
owes its fertility to the Missoula Floods, which deposited lake sediment from Glacial Lake Missoula in western Montana
Montana
onto the valley floor.[104] In 2016, the Willamette Valley
Willamette Valley
region produced over 100 million pounds (45 kt) of blueberries.[105] Oregon
Oregon
is also one of four major world hazelnut growing regions, and produces 95% of the domestic hazelnuts in the United States. While the history of the wine production in Oregon
Oregon
can be traced to before Prohibition, it became a significant industry beginning in the 1970s. In 2005, Oregon
Oregon
ranked third among U.S. states with 303 wineries.[106] Due to regional similarities in climate and soil, the grapes planted in Oregon
Oregon
are often the same varieties found in the French regions of Alsace and Burgundy. In 2014, 71 wineries opened in the state. The total is currently 676, which represents growth of 12% over 2013.[107] In the southern Oregon
Oregon
coast, commercially cultivated cranberries account for about 7 percent of U.S. production, and the cranberry ranks 23rd among Oregon's top 50 agricultural commodities. Cranberry cultivation in Oregon
Oregon
uses about 27,000 acres (110 square kilometers) in southern Coos and northern Curry counties, centered around the coastal city of Bandon. In the northeastern region of the state, particularly around Pendleton, both irrigated and dry land wheat is grown.[108] Oregon
Oregon
farmers and ranchers also produce cattle, sheep, dairy products, eggs and poultry. Forestry and fisheries[edit] See also: List of freshwater fishes of Oregon

Fish ladder
Fish ladder
at Bonneville Dam, Multnomah County

Vast forests have historically made Oregon
Oregon
one of the nation's major timber-producing and logging states, but forest fires (such as the Tillamook Burn), over-harvesting, and lawsuits over the proper management of the extensive federal forest holdings have reduced the timber produced. According to 1914 data, Australia
Australia
was the single largest purchaser of the state's lumber.[109] Between 1989 and 2011, the amount of timber harvested from federal lands in Oregon
Oregon
dropped about 90%, although harvest levels on private land have remained relatively constant.[110] Even the shift in recent years towards finished goods such as paper and building materials has not slowed the decline of the timber industry in the state. The effects of this decline have included Weyerhaeuser's acquisition of Portland-based Willamette Industries
Willamette Industries
in January 2002, the relocation of Louisiana-Pacific's corporate headquarters from Portland to Nashville, and the decline of former lumber company towns such as Gilchrist. Despite these changes, Oregon still leads the United States
United States
in softwood lumber production; in 2011, 4,134 million board feet (9,760,000 m3) was produced in Oregon, compared with 3,685 million board feet (8,700,000 m3) in Washington, 1,914 million board feet (4,520,000 m3) in Georgia, and 1,708 million board feet (4,030,000 m3) in Mississippi.[111] The slowing of the timber and lumber industry has caused high unemployment rates in rural areas.[112] Oregon
Oregon
has one of the largest salmon-fishing industries in the world, although ocean fisheries have reduced the river fisheries in recent years.[113] Because of the abundance of waterways in the state, it is also a major producer of hydroelectric energy.[114] Tourism and entertainment[edit] See also: Tourism near Portland and Tourism in Portland

The Oregon Shakespeare Festival
Oregon Shakespeare Festival
is in Ashland

Tourism is also a strong industry in the state. Much of this is centered on the state's natural features; Oregon's mountains, forests, waterfalls, rivers, beaches and lakes, including Crater Lake
Crater Lake
National Park, Multnomah Falls, the Painted Hills, the Deschutes River, and the Oregon
Oregon
Caves National Monument and Preserve. Mount Hood, and Mount Bachelor also draw visitors year round for skiing and snow activities.[115]

Oceanarium
Oceanarium
at the Oregon Coast
Oregon Coast
Aquarium

Portland is home to the Oregon
Oregon
Museum of Science and Industry, the Portland Art Museum, and the Oregon
Oregon
Zoo, which is the oldest zoo west of the Mississippi
Mississippi
river.[116] The International Rose Test Garden
International Rose Test Garden
is another prominent attraction in the city. Portland has also been named the best city in the world for street food by several publications, including the U.S. News & World Report and CNN.[117][118] Oregon is home to many breweries and Portland has the largest number of breweries of any city in the world.[119] The state's coastal region produces significant tourism as well.[120] The Oregon Coast
Oregon Coast
Aquarium comprises 23 acres (9.3 ha) along Yaquina Bay
Yaquina Bay
in Newport, and was also home to Keiko the orca whale.[121] It has been noted as one of the top ten aquariums in North America.[122] Fort Clatsop
Fort Clatsop
in Warrenton features a replica of Lewis and Clark's encampment at the mouth of the Columbia River
Columbia River
in 1805. The Sea Lion Caves
Sea Lion Caves
in Florence are the largest system of sea caverns in the United States, and also attract many visitors.[123] In Southern Oregon, the Oregon
Oregon
Shakespeare Festival, held in Ashland, is also a tourist draw, as is the Oregon Vortex
Oregon Vortex
and the Wolf Creek Inn State Heritage Site, a historic inn where Jack London
Jack London
wrote his 1913 novel Valley of the Moon.[124] Oregon
Oregon
has also historically been a popular region for film shoots due to its diverse landscapes, as well as its proximity to Hollywood
Hollywood
(see List of films shot in Oregon).[125] Movies filmed in Oregon
Oregon
include: Animal House, Free Willy, The General, The Goonies, Kindergarten Cop, One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, and Stand By Me. Oregon
Oregon
native Matt Groening, creator of The Simpsons, has incorporated many references from his hometown of Portland into the TV series.[126] The Oregon
Oregon
Film Museum is located in the old Clatsop County Jail in Astoria. Technology[edit] High technology industries located in Silicon Forest
Silicon Forest
have been a major employer since the 1970s. Tektronix
Tektronix
was the largest private employer in Oregon
Oregon
until the late 1980s. Intel's creation and expansion of several facilities in eastern Washington County continued the growth that Tektronix
Tektronix
had started. Intel, the state's largest for-profit private employer,[127][128] operates four large facilities, with Ronler Acres, Jones Farm and Hawthorn Farm all located in Hillsboro.[129] The spinoffs and startups that were produced by these two companies led to the establishment in that area of the so-called Silicon Forest. The recession and dot-com bust of 2001 hit the region hard; many high technology employers reduced the number of their employees or went out of business. Open Source Development Labs made news in 2004 when they hired Linus Torvalds, developer of the Linux kernel. In 2010, biotechnology giant Genentech
Genentech
opened a $400-million facility in Hillsboro to expand its production capabilities.[130] Oregon
Oregon
is home to several large datacenters that take advantage of cheap power and a climate in Central Oregon
Central Oregon
conducive to reducing cooling costs. Google has a large datacenter in The Dalles and Facebook has built a large datacenter in Prineville. In 2011, Amazon began operating a datacenter in northeastern Oregon
Oregon
near Boardman.[131] Corporate headquarters[edit]

Nike headquarters near Beaverton

Largest Public Corporations Headquartered in Oregon
Oregon
(December 2016)[132]

Corporation Headquarters Market cap (USD$billion)

1. Nike Beaverton 91.35

2. FLIR Systems Wilsonville 4.77

3. Portland General Electric Portland 4.05

4. Columbia Sportswear Beaverton 4.03

5. Umpqua Holdings Corporation Portland 3.68

6. Lithia Motors Medford 2.06

7. Northwest Natural Gas Portland 1.7

8. The Greenbrier Companies Lake Oswego 1.25

Oregon
Oregon
is also the home of large corporations in other industries. The world headquarters of Nike are located near Beaverton. Medford is home to Harry and David, which sells gift items under several brands. Medford is also home to the national headquarters of Lithia Motors. Portland is home to one of the West's largest trade book publishing houses, Graphic Arts Center Publishing. Oregon
Oregon
is also home to Mentor Graphics Corporation, a world leader in electronic design automation located in Wilsonville and employs roughly 4,500 people worldwide. Adidas Corporations American Headquarters is located in Portland and employs roughly 900 full-time workers at its Portland campus.[133] Nike, located in Beaverton, employs roughly 5,000 full-time employees at its 200-acre (81 ha) campus. Nike's Beaverton campus is continuously ranked as a top employer in the Portland area-along with competitor Adidas.[134] Intel
Intel
Corporation employs 18,600 in Oregon[128] with the majority of these employees located at the company's Hillsboro campus located about 30 minutes west of Portland. Intel
Intel
has been a top employer in Oregon
Oregon
since 1974.[135] The U.S. Federal Government and Providence Health systems are respective contenders for top employers in Oregon
Oregon
with roughly 12,000 federal workers and 14,000 Providence Health workers. In 2015, a total of seven companies headquartered in Oregon
Oregon
landed in the Fortune 1000: Nike, at 106; Precision Castparts Corp.
Precision Castparts Corp.
at 302; Lithia Motors
Lithia Motors
at 482; StanCorp Financial Group at 804; Schnitzer Steel Industries at 853; The Greenbrier Companies
The Greenbrier Companies
at 948; and Columbia Sportswear at 982.[136] Taxes and budgets[edit] Oregon's biennial state budget, $2.6 billion in 2017, comprises General Funds, Federal Funds, Lottery Funds, and Other Funds.[137] Oregon
Oregon
is one of only five states that have no sales tax.[138] Oregon voters have been resolute in their opposition to a sales tax, voting proposals down each of the nine times they have been presented.[139] The last vote, for 1993's Measure 1, was defeated by a 75–25% margin.[140] The state also has a minimum corporate tax of only $150 a year[141], amounting to 5.6% of the General Fund in the 2005–7 biennium; data about which businesses pay the minimum is not available to the public.[142][better source needed] As a result, the state relies on property and income taxes for its revenue. Oregon
Oregon
has the fifth highest personal income tax in the nation. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, Oregon
Oregon
ranked 41st out of the 50 states in taxes per capita in 2005 with an average amount paid of 1,791.45.[143] A few local governments levy sales taxes on services: the city of Ashland, for example, collects a 5% sales tax on prepared food.[144] The City of Portland imposes an Arts Education and Access Income Tax on residents over 18 – a flat tax of $35 collected from individuals earning $1,000 or more per year and residing in a household with an annual income exceeding the federal poverty level. The tax funds Portland school teachers, and art focused non-profit organizations in Portland.[145] The State of Oregon
Oregon
also allows transit district to levy an income tax on employers and the self-employed. The State currently collects the tax for TriMet
TriMet
and the Lane Transit District.[146][147] Oregon
Oregon
is one of six states with a revenue limit.[148] The "kicker law" stipulates that when income tax collections exceed state economists' estimates by 2% or more, any excess must be returned to taxpayers.[149] Since the enactment of the law in 1979, refunds have been issued for seven of the eleven biennia.[150] In 2000, Ballot Measure 86 converted the "kicker" law from statute to the Oregon Constitution, and changed some of its provisions. Federal payments to county governments that were granted to replace timber revenue when logging in National Forests was restricted in the 1990s, have been under threat of suspension for several years. This issue dominates the future revenue of rural counties, which have come to rely on the payments in providing essential services.[151] 55% of state revenues are spent on public education, 23% on human services (child protective services, Medicaid, and senior services), 17% on public safety, and 5% on other services.[152] Demographics[edit] See also: List of people from Oregon; List of people from Portland, Oregon; and Oregon
Oregon
locations by per capita income Population[edit]

Graph of Oregon's population growth from 1850–2010[153]

Historical population

Census Pop.

1850 12,093

1860 52,465

333.8%

1870 90,923

73.3%

1880 174,768

92.2%

1890 317,704

81.8%

1900 413,536

30.2%

1910 672,765

62.7%

1920 783,389

16.4%

1930 953,786

21.8%

1940 1,089,684

14.2%

1950 1,521,341

39.6%

1960 1,768,687

16.3%

1970 2,091,533

18.3%

1980 2,633,156

25.9%

1990 2,842,321

7.9%

2000 3,421,399

20.4%

2010 3,831,074

12.0%

Est. 2017 4,142,776

8.1%

Sources: 1910–2010[154] 2016 estimate[48]

Oregon
Oregon
population by county using 2012 estimates[155]

The United States
United States
Census Bureau estimates that the population of Oregon
Oregon
was 4,093,465 on July 1, 2016, a 6.8% increase over the 2010 United States
United States
Census.[48] Oregon
Oregon
was the U.S.'s "Top Moving Destination" in 2014 with two families moving into the state for every one moving out of state (66.4% to 33.6%).[156] Oregon
Oregon
was also the top moving destination in 2013,[157] and second most popular destination in 2010 through 2012.[158][159] As of the 2010 Census, the population of Oregon
Oregon
was 3,831,074. The gender makeup of the state was 49.5% male and 50.5% female. 22.6% of the population were under the age of 18; 63.5% were between the ages of 18 and 64; and 12.5% were 65 years of age or older.[160] The racial makeup of Oregon
Oregon
as of the 2010 Census was:[160]

White: 83.6% (78.5% non-Hispanic) Black or African American: 1.8% American Indian and Alaska
Alaska
Native: 1.4% Asian: 3.7% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander: 0.3% Other race: 5.3% Two or more races: 3.8%

Racial breakdown of population

Racial composition 1970[161] 1990[161] 2000[162] 2010[160]

White 97.2% 92.8% 86.6% 83.6%

Black or African American 1.3% 1.6% 1.6% 1.8%

American Indian and Alaska
Alaska
Native 0.6% 1.4% 1.3% 1.4%

Asian 0.7% 2.4% 3.0% 3.7%

Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander – – 0.2% 0.3%

Other race 0.2% 1.8% 4.2% 5.3%

Two or more races – – 3.1% 3.8%

Hispanic or Latino of any race were 11.7% of the population in 2010: 9.7% were of Mexican, 0.2% Puerto Rican, 0.1% Cuban, and 1.7% other Hispanic or Latino origin. According to the 2010–2015 American Community Survey, the largest ancestry groups were German (19.4%), Irish (12.0%), English (11.6%), American (5.5%), and Norwegian (3.9%).[163] The state's most populous ethnic group, non-Hispanic white, has declined from 95.8% in 1970 to 77.8% in 2012.[164][165] As of 2011, 38.7% of Oregon's children under one year of age belonged to minority groups, meaning they had at least one parent who was not a non-Hispanic white.[166] Of the state's total population, 22.6% was under the age 18, and 77.4% were 18 or older. The center of population of Oregon
Oregon
is located in Linn County, in the city of Lyons.[167] Around 60% of Oregon's population resides within the Portland metropolitan area.[168] As of 2009, Oregon's population comprised 361,393 foreign-born residents.[169] Of the foreign-born residents, the three largest groups are originally from countries in: Latin America (47.8%), Asia (27.4%), and Europe (16.5%).[169]

Percentage of population identifying as Hispanic or Latino by county.   1.0–4.9%   5.0–9.9%   10.0–19.9%   20.0%+

Religious and secular communities[edit] See also: Religion in Oregon
Religion in Oregon
and Religion in the United States

Religious affiliation in Oregon
Oregon
(2014)[170]

Affiliation % of Oregon
Oregon
population

Christianity 61 61  

Protestant 43 43  

Evangelical Protestant 29 29  

Mainline Protestant 13 13  

Black Protestant 1 1  

Catholic 12 12  

Mormon 4 4  

Orthodox 1 1  

Jehovah's Witnesses 0.5 0.5  

Other Christianity 1 1  

Judaism 2 2  

Islam 1 1  

Buddhism 0.5 0.5  

Hinduism 0.5 0.5  

Other faiths 4 4  

Unaffiliated 31 31  

Don't know/No answer 1 1  

Total 100 100  

Oregon
Oregon
has frequently been cited by statistical agencies for having a smaller percentage of religious communities than other U.S. states.[171][172] According to a 2009 Gallup poll, Oregon
Oregon
was paired with Vermont
Vermont
as the two "least religious" states in the United States.[173] In the same 2009 Gallup poll, 69% of Oregonians identified themselves as being Christian.[174] The largest Christian denominations in Oregon by number of adherents in 2010 were the Roman Catholic Church with 398,738; The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
with 147,965; and the Assemblies of God with 45,492.[175] Oregon
Oregon
also contains the largest community of Russian Old Believers
Old Believers
to be found in the United States.[176] The Northwest Tibetan Cultural Association is headquartered in Portland. There are an estimated 6,000 to 10,000 Muslims in Oregon, most of whom live in and around Portland.[177] Most of the remainder of the population had no religious affiliation; the 2008 American Religious Identification Survey (ARIS)
American Religious Identification Survey (ARIS)
placed Oregon as tied with Nevada
Nevada
in fifth place of U.S. states having the highest percentage of residents identifying themselves as "non-religious", at 24 percent.[178][179] Secular organizations include the Center for Inquiry (CFI), the Humanists of Greater Portland (HGP), and the United States
United States
Atheists (USA). During much of the 1990s, a group of conservative Christians formed the Oregon
Oregon
Citizens Alliance, and unsuccessfully tried to pass legislation to prevent "gay sensitivity training" in public schools and legal benefits for homosexual couples.[180] Birth data[edit]

Note: Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.

Live births by race/ethnicity of mother

Race 2013[181] 2014[182] 2015[183]

White 40,219 (89.1%) 40,634 (89.2%) 40,484 (88.7%)

> Non-Hispanic White 31,998 (70.8%) 32,338 (71.0%) 32,147 (70.4%)

Asian 2,696 (6.0%) 2,811 (6.2%) 2,895 (6.3%)

Black 1,331 (2.9%) 1,333 (2.9%) 1,463 (3.2%)

Native 909 (2.0%) 778 (1.7%) 813 (1.8%)

Hispanic (of any race) 8,448 (18.7%) 8,524 (18.7%) 8,518 (18.6%)

Total 45,155 (100%) 45,556 (100%) 45,655 (100%)

Future projections[edit] Projections from the U.S. Census Bureau
U.S. Census Bureau
show Oregon's population increasing to 4,833,918 by 2030, an increase of 41.3% compared to the state's population of 3,421,399 in 2000.[184] The state's own projections forecast a total population of 5,425,408 in 2040.[185] Education[edit] Primary and secondary[edit] In the 2013–2014 school year, the state had 567,000 students in public primary and secondary schools.[186] There were 197 public school districts, served by 19 education service districts.[186] In 2016, the largest school districts in the state were:[187] Portland Public Schools, comprising 47,323 students; Salem-Keizer School District, comprising 40,565 students; Beaverton School District, comprising 39,625 students; Hillsboro School District, comprising 21,118 students; and North Clackamas School District, comprising 17,053 students. Colleges and universities[edit] See also: List of colleges and universities in Oregon
List of colleges and universities in Oregon
and Oregon Office of University Coordination

Johnson Hall at the University of Oregon.

The Memorial Union at Oregon
Oregon
State University

Especially since the 1990 passage of Measure 5, which set limits on property tax levels, Oregon
Oregon
has struggled to fund higher education. Since then, Oregon
Oregon
has cut its higher education budget and now ranks 46th in the country in state spending per student. However, 2007 legislation funded the university system far beyond the governor's requested budget though still capping tuition increases at 3% per year.[188] Oregon
Oregon
supports a total of seven public universities and one affiliate. It is home to three public research universities: The University of Oregon
University of Oregon
(UO) in Eugene and Oregon State University
Oregon State University
(OSU) in Corvallis, both classified as research universities with very high research activity, and Portland State University
Portland State University
which is classified as a research university with high research activity.[189] UO is the state's highest nationally-ranked and most selective[190] public university by U.S. News & World Report and Forbes.[191] OSU is the state's only land-grant university, has the state's largest enrollment for fall 2014,[192] and is the state's highest ranking university according to Academic Ranking of World Universities, Washington Monthly, and QS World University Rankings.[193] OSU receives more annual funding for research than all other public higher education institutions in Oregon
Oregon
combined.[194] The state's urban Portland State University
Portland State University
has Oregon's second largest enrollment. The state has three regional universities: Western Oregon University in Monmouth, Southern Oregon University
Southern Oregon University
in Ashland, and Eastern Oregon University in La Grande. The Oregon Institute of Technology
Oregon Institute of Technology
has its campus in Klamath Falls. The quasi-public Oregon
Oregon
Health & Science University (OHSU) includes medical, dental, and nursing schools, and graduate programs in biomedical sciences in Portland and a science and engineering school in Hillsboro. The state also supports 17 community colleges.

Eliot Hall at Reed College

Oregon
Oregon
is home to a wide variety of private colleges, the majority of which are located in the Portland area. The University of Portland
University of Portland
and Marylhurst University
Marylhurst University
are both Catholic universities located in or near Portland, affiliated with the Congregation of Holy Cross, and the Sisters of the Holy Names of Jesus and Mary, respectively. Reed College, a rigorous liberal arts college in Portland, was ranked by Forbes
Forbes
as the 52nd best college in the country in 2015.[195] Other private institutions in Portland include Concordia University; Lewis & Clark College; Multnomah University; Portland Bible College; Warner Pacific College; Cascade College; the National University of Natural Medicine; and Western Seminary, a theological graduate school. Pacific University
Pacific University
is in the Portland suburb of Forest Grove. There are also private colleges further south in the Willamette Valley. McMinnville is home to Linfield College, while nearby Newberg is home to George Fox University. Salem is home to two private schools: Willamette University
Willamette University
(the state's oldest, established during the provisional period) and Corban University. Also located near Salem is Mount Angel Seminary, one of America's largest Roman Catholic seminaries. The state's second medical school, the College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific, Northwest, is located in Lebanon. Eugene is home to three private colleges: Northwest Christian University, New Hope Christian College, and Gutenberg College. Sports[edit] See also: Sports in Portland, Oregon

The Moda Center
Moda Center
(formerly the Rose Garden) during a Portland Trail Blazers game

Providence Park
Providence Park
during a Portland Thorns FC
Portland Thorns FC
match.

Oregon
Oregon
is home to three major professional sports teams: the Portland Trail Blazers of the NBA, the Portland Thorns
Portland Thorns
of the NWSL and the Portland Timbers
Portland Timbers
of MLS.[196] Until 2011, the only major professional sports team in Oregon
Oregon
was the Portland Trail Blazers
Portland Trail Blazers
of the National Basketball Association. From the 1970s to the 1990s, the Blazers were one of the most successful teams in the NBA in terms of both win-loss record and attendance.[197] In the early 21st century, the team's popularity declined due to personnel and financial issues, but revived after the departure of controversial players and the acquisition of new players such as Brandon Roy
Brandon Roy
and LaMarcus Aldridge.[198][199] The Blazers play in the Moda Center
Moda Center
in Portland's Lloyd District, which also is home to the Portland Winterhawks
Portland Winterhawks
of the junior Western Hockey League.[200] The Portland Timbers
Portland Timbers
play at Providence Park, just west of downtown Portland. The Timbers have a strong following, with the team regularly selling out its games.[201] The Timbers repurposed the formerly multi-use stadium into a soccer-specific stadium in fall 2010, increasing the seating in the process.[202] The Timbers operate Portland Thorns
Portland Thorns
FC, a women's soccer team that has played in the National Women's Soccer League
National Women's Soccer League
since the league's first season in 2013. The Thorns, who also play at Providence Park, have won two league championships, in the inaugural 2013 season and also in 2017, and have been by far the NWSL's attendance leader in each of the league's seasons. Eugene, Salem and Hillsboro have minor-league baseball teams: the Eugene Emeralds, the Salem-Keizer Volcanoes, and the Hillsboro Hops all play in the Single-A Northwest League.[203] Portland has had minor-league baseball teams in the past, including the Portland Beavers and Portland Rockies, who played most recently at Providence Park when it was known as PGE Park. The Oregon State Beavers
Oregon State Beavers
and the University of Oregon Ducks
Oregon Ducks
football teams of the Pac-12 Conference
Pac-12 Conference
meet annually in the Civil War. Both schools have had recent success in other sports as well: Oregon
Oregon
State won back-to-back college baseball championships in 2006 and 2007,[204] and the University of Oregon
University of Oregon
won back-to-back NCAA men's cross country championships in 2007 and 2008.[205] Sister regions[edit]

 People's Republic of China, Fujian
Fujian
Province – 1984[206]  Republic of China
China
(Taiwan), Taiwan
Taiwan
Province – 1985[206]  Japan, Toyama Prefecture
Toyama Prefecture
– 1991[206][207]   South Korea
South Korea
(South Korea), Jeollanam-do
Jeollanam-do
Province – 1996[206][207]  Iraq, Iraqi Kurdistan
Iraqi Kurdistan
– 2005[208]

See also[edit]

Oregon
Oregon
portal American Old West portal

Outline of Oregon
Outline of Oregon
(organized list of topics about Oregon) Index of Oregon-related articles Bibliography of Oregon
Oregon
history

Notes[edit]

^ Hall, Calvin (January 30, 2007). "English as Oregon's official language? It could happen". The Oregon
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Daily Emerald. Retrieved May 8, 2007.  ^ " Idaho
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is Nation's Fastest-Growing State, Census Bureau Reports". U.S. Census Bureau. December 20, 2017. Retrieved January 30, 2018.  ^ a b "Median Annual Household Income". The Henry J. Kaiser Foundation. Retrieved December 9, 2016.  ^ " Mount Hood
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Fast Facts". Travel Oregon. Archived from the original on March 23, 2012.  ^ Jewell & McRae 2014, p. 4. ^ a b Beale, Bob (April 10, 2003). "Humungous fungus: world's largest organism?". Environment & Nature News. ABC. Retrieved December 9, 2016.  ^ a b "Forest Land Protection Program". Oregon
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Blue Book: Oregon
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Almanac: Mountains to National Wildlife Refuges". www.bluebook.state.or.us.  ^ Where does the name "Oregon" come from? from the online edition of the Oregon
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Blue Book. ^ Elliott, T.C. (June 1921). "The Origin of the Name Oregon". Oregon Historical Quarterly. Portland, Oregon: Oregon
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Historical Society. XXIII (2): 99–100. ISSN 0030-4727. OCLC 1714620 – via Google Books.  ^ Miller, Joaquin (September 1904). "The Sea of Silence". Sunset. XIII (5): 395–396 – via Google Books.  ^ "Oregon". Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved September 14, 2006.  ^ Banks, Don (April 21, 2002). "Harrington confident about Detroit QB challenge." Sports Illustrated. ^ Bellamy, Ron (October 6, 2003). "See no evil, hear no evil". The Register-Guard. Retrieved June 1, 2011.  ^ "Yellow/Green ORYGUN Block Letter Outside Decal". UO Duck Store. Archived from the original on December 8, 2010. Retrieved August 3, 2011.  ^ Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density (geographies ranked by total population). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 11, 2013. ^ "Elevations and Distances in the United States". U.S Geological Survey. April 29, 2005. Archived from the original on October 15, 2011. Retrieved November 7, 2006.  ^ " Crater Lake
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National Park". U.S. National Park Service. Retrieved November 22, 2006.  ^ " D River
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Wildlife Species. Retrieved November 7, 2016.  ^ "Mammals: Coyotes, wolves and foxes". Oregon
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Department of Fish and Wildlife. Oregon
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Department of Fish and Wildlife. Oregon
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Wildlife Species. Retrieved November 7, 2016.  ^ " Oregon
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Wildlife Species". Oregon
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Department of Fish and Wildlife.  ^ "Oregon's only moose herd thriving, up to about 60". The Oregonian. Retrieved September 1, 2013.  ^ "Wolves in Oregon". ODFW. Retrieved February 4, 2014.  ^ " Moose
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profits slide, company uncertain about outlook". The Oregonian. Retrieved January 16, 2009.  ^ Rogoway, Mike (April 5, 2010). " Genentech
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Legislature. 2005. Archived from the original on June 11, 2011. 

References[edit]

Allen, John Elliott; Burns, Marjorie; Sargent, Sam C. (2009). Cataclysms on the Columbia. Ooligan Press. ISBN 978-1-932010-31-2.  Ambrose, Stephen E. (1997). Undaunted Courage: Meriwether Lewis, Thomas Jefferson, and the Opening of the American West (1st Touchstone ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-82697-6.  Boone, Mary (2004). Uniquely Oregon. Chicago, Illinois: Heinemann Library. ISBN 978-1-4034-4659-6.  Carey, Charles Henry (1922). History of Oregon: Volume 1. Pioneer Historical Publishing Co.  Evans, Tony Howard (1966). Oregon
Oregon
Progressive Reform, 1902–1914. University of California
California
Press.  Hemming, John (2008). Atlas of Exploration. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-534318-2.  Jewell, Judy; McRae, W.C. (2014). Moon Oregon. Moon Travel. ISBN 978-1-61238-756-7.  Johnson, Sidona V. (1904). A Short History of Oregon. Chicago: A.C. McClurg & Co.  Loy, Willam G.; Allan, Stuart; Buckley, Aileen R.; Meacham, James E. (2001). Atlas of Oregon. University of Oregon
University of Oregon
Press. ISBN 0-87114-101-9.  McLagan, Elizabeth (1980). A Peculiar Paradise: A History of Blacks in Oregon, 1778–1940. Georgian Press. ISBN 0-9603408-2-3.  Robbins, William G. (2005). Oregon: This Storied Land. Oregon Historical Society Press. ISBN 0-87595-286-0.  Secretaría de Comunicaciones y Transportes (1988). Historia de las comunicaciones y los transportes en México (in Spanish). 5. Secretaría de Comunicaciones y Transportes. 

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Coordinates: 44°00′N 120°30′W / 44°N 120.5°W / 44; -120.5

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 129543877 LCCN: n79021953 ISNI: 0000 0004 0405 8330 GND: 4043760-7 SUDOC: 098627236 BNF: cb139055461 (d

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