Oregon (/ˈɔːrɪɡən/ ( listen)) is a state in the
Pacific Northwest region on the West Coast of the United States. The
Columbia River delineates much of Oregon's northern boundary along
Washington state, while the
Snake River delineates much of its eastern
boundary along Idaho. The parallel 42° north delineates the southern
California and Nevada.
Oregon is one of only three
states of the contiguous
United States to have a coastline on the
Oregon was inhabited by many indigenous tribes before Western traders,
explorers, and settlers arrived. An autonomous government was formed
Oregon Country in 1843 before the
Oregon Territory was created
Oregon became the 33rd state on February 14, 1859. Today, at
98,000 square miles (250,000 km2),
Oregon is the ninth largest
and, with a population of 4 million, 27th most populous U.S.
state. The capital, Salem, is the second most populous city in Oregon,
with 164,549 residents. Portland, with 632,309 residents, is the most
populous and ranks as the 26th most populous city in the United
States. The Portland metropolitan area, which also includes the city
of Vancouver, Washington, to the north, ranks the 23rd largest metro
area in the nation, with a population of 2,389,228.
Oregon is one of the most geographically diverse states in the
U.S., marked by volcanoes, abundant bodies of water, dense
evergreen and mixed forests, as well as high deserts and semi-arid
shrublands. At 11,249 feet (3,429 m), Mount Hood, a
stratovolcano, is the state's highest point. Oregon's only national
Crater Lake National Park, comprises the caldera surrounding
Crater Lake, the deepest lake in the United States. The state is also
home to the single largest organism in the world, Armillaria ostoyae,
a fungus that runs beneath 8.9 km2 (2,200 acres) of the Malheur
Because of its diverse landscapes and waterways, Oregon's economy is
largely powered by various forms of agriculture, fishing, and
Oregon is also the top timber producer of the
contiguous United States, and the timber industry dominated the
state's economy in the 20th century. Technology is another
one of Oregon's major economic forces, beginning in the 1970s with the
establishment of the
Silicon Forest and the expansion of
Intel. Sportswear company Nike, Inc., headquartered in Beaverton, is
the state's largest public corporation with an annual revenue of
2.1 Geology and terrain
2.2 Flora and fauna
3.1 Earliest inhabitants
3.2 European and pioneer settlement
4 Cities and towns
5 Law and government
5.1 Federal representation
6.2 Forestry and fisheries
6.3 Tourism and entertainment
6.5 Corporate headquarters
6.6 Taxes and budgets
7.2 Religious and secular communities
7.3 Birth data
7.3.1 Future projections
8.1 Primary and secondary
8.2 Colleges and universities
10 Sister regions
11 See also
14 External links
Oregon border welcome sign at Denio, Nevada
The earliest evidence of the name
Oregon has Spanish origins. The term
"orejón" comes from the historical chronicle Relación de la Alta y
California (1598) written by the new Spaniard Rodrigo
Motezuma and made reference to the
Columbia River when the Spanish
explorers penetrated into the actual North American territory that
became part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. This chronicle is the
first topographical and linguistic source with respect to the place
name Oregon. There are also two other sources with Spanish origins,
such as the name Oregano, which grows in the southern part of the
region. It is most probable that the American territory was named by
the Spaniards, as there are some populations in Spain such as "Arroyo
del Oregón" (which is situated in the province of Ciudad Real), also
considering that the individualization in Spanish language "El
Orejón" with the mutation of the letter "g" instead of "j".
Another early use of the name, spelled Ouragon, was in a 1765 petition
by Major Robert Rogers to the Kingdom of Great Britain. The term
referred to the then-mythical River of the West (the Columbia River).
By 1778 the spelling had shifted to Oregon. In his 1765 petition,
The rout [sic]...is from the Great Lakes towards the Head of the
Mississippi, and from thence to the River called by the Indians
One theory is that the name comes from the French word ouragan
("windstorm" or "hurricane"), which was applied to the River of the
West based on Native American tales of powerful Chinook winds on the
lower Columbia River, or perhaps from firsthand French experience with
the Chinook winds of the Great Plains. At the time, the River of the
West was thought to rise in western
Minnesota and flow west through
the Great Plains.
Joaquin Miller explained in Sunset magazine, in 1904, how Oregon's
name was derived:
The name, Oregon, is rounded down phonetically, from Aure il
agua—Oragua, Or-a-gon, Oregon—given probably by the same
Portuguese navigator that named the Farallones after his first
officer, and it literally, in a large way, means cascades: 'Hear the
waters.' You should steam up the Columbia and hear and feel the waters
falling out of the clouds of
Mount Hood to understand entirely the
full meaning of the name Aure il agua, Oregon.
Another account, endorsed as the "most plausible explanation" in the
Oregon Geographic Names, was advanced by
George R. Stewart
George R. Stewart in a
1944 article in American Speech. According to Stewart, the name came
from an engraver's error in a French map published in the early
18th century, on which the Ouisiconsink (Wisconsin) River was
spelled "Ouaricon-sint", broken on two lines with the -sint below, so
there appeared to be a river flowing to the west named "Ouaricon."
According to the
Oregon Tourism Commission, present-day Oregonians
/ˌɒrɪˈɡoʊniənz/ pronounce the state's name as "or-uh-gun,
never or-ee-gone." After being drafted by the
Detroit Lions in
Oregon Ducks quarterback
Joey Harrington distributed
"Orygun" stickers to members of the media as a reminder of how to
pronounce the name of his home state. The stickers are sold by
University of Oregon
University of Oregon Bookstore.
See also: List of regions of Oregon
Crater Lake during summer
Oregon is 295 miles (475 km) north to south at longest distance,
and 395 miles (636 km) east to west at longest distance. With an
area of 98,381 square miles (254,810 km2),
Oregon is slightly
larger than the United Kingdom. It is the ninth largest state in the
United States. Oregon's highest point is the summit of Mount Hood,
at 11,249 feet (3,429 m), and its lowest point is the sea level
Pacific Ocean along the
Oregon Coast. Oregon's mean
elevation is 3,300 feet (1,006 m).
Crater Lake National Park
Crater Lake National Park is
the state's only national park and the site of Crater Lake, the
deepest lake in the
United States at 1,943 feet (592 m).
Oregon claims the
D River as the shortest river in the world,
though the state of
Montana makes the same claim of its Roe River.
Oregon is also home to
Mill Ends Park
Mill Ends Park (in Portland), the smallest
park in the world at 452 square inches (0.29 m2).
Oregon is split into eight geographical regions. In Western Oregon:
Oregon Coast (west of the Coast Range), the Willamette Valley, Rogue
Cascade Range and Klamath Mountains; and in Central and
Eastern Oregon: the Columbia Plateau, the High Desert, and the Blue
Oregon lies in two time zones. Most of Malheur County is in the
Mountain Time Zone, while the rest of the state lies in the Pacific
Geology and terrain
See also: List of rivers in Oregon, List of
Oregon mountain ranges,
and List of
Oregon state parks
Mount Hood is the highest peak in Oregon
Western Oregon's mountainous regions, home to three of the most
prominent mountain peaks of the
United States including Mount Hood,
were formed by the volcanic activity of the Juan de Fuca Plate, a
tectonic plate that poses a continued threat of volcanic activity and
earthquakes in the region. The most recent major activity was the 1700
Cascadia earthquake. Washington's
Mount St. Helens
Mount St. Helens erupted in 1980, an
event visible from northern
Oregon and affecting some areas there.
The Columbia River, which forms much of Oregon's northern border, also
played a major role in the region's geological evolution, as well as
its economic and cultural development. The Columbia is one of North
America's largest rivers, and one of two rivers to cut through the
Klamath River in southern
Oregon is the other). About
15,000 years ago, the Columbia repeatedly flooded much of Oregon
during the Missoula Floods; the modern fertility of the Willamette
Valley is largely a result of those floods. Plentiful salmon made
parts of the river, such as Celilo Falls, hubs of economic activity
for thousands of years.
Today, Oregon's landscape varies from rain forest in the Coast Range
to barren desert in the southeast, which still meets the technical
definition of a frontier. Oregon's geographical center is further west
than any of the other 48 contiguous states (although the westernmost
point of the lower 48 states is in Washington). Central Oregon's
geographical features range from high desert and volcanic rock
formations resulting from lava beds. The
Oregon Badlands Wilderness
Oregon Badlands Wilderness is
in this region of the state.
Flora and fauna
Typical of a western state,
Oregon is home to a unique and diverse
array of wildlife. Roughly 60 percent of the state is covered in
forest, while the areas west of the Cascades are more densely
populated by forest, making up around 80 percent of the
landscape. Some 60 percent of Oregon's forests are within federal
Oregon is the top timber producer of the lower 48
Typical tree species include the Douglas fir, the state tree, as well
as redwood, ponderosa pine (generally east of the Cascades), western
red cedar, and hemlock.
Ponderosa pine are more common in the Blue
Mountains in the eastern part of the state and firs are more common in
Pronghorn antelope in Fort Rock
There are many species of mammals that live in the state, which
include, but are not limited to, opossums, shrews, moles, little
pocket mice, great basin pocket mice, dark kangaroo mouse, California
kangaroo rat, chisel-toothed kangaroo rat, ord's kangaroo rat,
bats, rabbits, pikas, mountain beavers, chipmunks, western gray
squirrels, yellow-bellied marmots, beavers, porcupines, coyotes,
wolves, red foxes, common grey fox, kit fox, black bears,
raccoons, badgers, skunks, antelopes, cougars, bobcats, lynxes, deer,
elk, and moose.
Marine mammals include seals, sea lions, humpback whales, killer
whales, gray whales, blue whales, sperm whales, pacific white-sided
dolphin, and bottlenose dolphin.
Notable birds include American widgeons, mallard ducks, great blue
herons, bald eagles, golden eagles, western meadowlarks (the state
bird), barn owls, great horned owls, rufous hummingbirds, pileated
woodpeckers, wrens, towhees, sparrows, and buntings.
Moose have not always inhabited the state but came to
Oregon in the
Wallowa Valley herd numbered about 60 as of 2013. Gray
wolves were extirpated from
Oregon around 1930 but have since found
their way back; most of them reside in northeast Oregon, but there are
now two packs living in the south-central part of the state.
Although their existence in
Oregon is unconfirmed, reports of grizzly
bears still turn up, and it is probable some still move into eastern
Oregon from Idaho.
Oregon is home to what is considered the largest single organism in
the world, an
Armillaria solidipes fungus beneath the Malheur National
Forest of eastern Oregon.
Oregon has three national park sites:
Crater Lake National Park
Crater Lake National Park in the
southern part of the Cascades, John Day Fossil Beds National Monument
east of the Cascades, and Lewis and Clark National and State
Historical Parks on the north coast.
Main article: Climate of Oregon
Köppen climate types in Oregon
Oregon has a generally mild climate, though there is
significant variation given the variety of landscapes across the
state. The state's western region (west of the Cascade Range) has
an oceanic climate, populated by dense evergreen mixed forests.
Western Oregon's climate is heavily influenced by the Pacific Ocean;
the western third of
Oregon is very wet in the winter, moderately to
very wet during the spring and fall, and dry during the summer. The
relative humidity of
Western Oregon is high except during summer days,
which are semi-dry to semi-humid;
Eastern Oregon typically sees low
The state's southwestern portion, particularly the Rogue Valley, has a
Mediterranean climate with drier and sunnier winters and hotter
summers, similar to Northern California.
Oregon's northeastern portion has a steppe climate, and its high
terrain regions have a subarctic climate. Like Western Europe, Oregon,
Pacific Northwest in general, is considered warm for its
latitude, and the state has far milder winters at a given elevation
than comparable latitudes elsewhere in North America, such as the
Upper Midwest, Ontario,
Quebec and New England. However, the state
ranks fifth for coolest summer temperatures of any state in the
country, after Maine, Idaho, Wyoming, and Alaska.
The eastern two thirds of Oregon, which largely comprise high desert,
have cold, snowy winters and very dry summers. Much of the east is
semiarid to arid like the rest of the Great Basin, though the Blue
Mountains are wet enough to support extensive forests. Most of Oregon
receives significant snowfall, but the Willamette Valley, where
60 percent of the population lives, has considerably milder
winters for its latitude and typically only sees light snowfall.
Oregon's highest recorded temperature is 119 °F (48 °C) at
Pendleton on August 10, 1898, and the lowest recorded temperature is
−54 °F (−48 °C) at Seneca on February 10, 1933.
Main article: History of Oregon
Humans have inhabited the area that is now
Oregon for at least 15,000
years. In recorded history, mentions of the land date to as early as
the 16th century. During the 18th and 19th centuries,
European powers – and later the
United States – quarreled over
possession of the region until 1846, when the U.S. and Great Britain
finalized division of the region.
Oregon became a state on February
14, 1859, and as of 2015 is home to over 4 million residents.
Native American peoples of Oregon and Kennewick Man
Paul Shoaway, a Native of the Umatilla tribe in the Columbia Plateau
While there is considerable evidence that
Paleo-Indians inhabited the
region, the oldest evidence of habitation in
Oregon was found at Fort
Rock Cave and the
Paisley Caves in Lake County. Archaeologist Luther
Cressman dated material from
Fort Rock to 13,200 years ago, and
there is evidence supporting inhabitants in the region at least 15,000
years ago. By 8000 BC there were settlements throughout the state,
with populations concentrated along the lower Columbia River, in the
western valleys, and around coastal estuaries.
During the prehistoric period, the
Willamette Valley region was
flooded after the collapse of glacial dams from Lake Missoula, located
in what would later become Montana. These massive floods occurred
during the last glacial period and filled the valley with 300 to 400
feet (91 to 122 m) of water.
By the 16th century,
Oregon was home to many Native American
groups, including the Chinook, Coquille (Ko-Kwell), Bannock, Chasta,
Kalapuya, Klamath, Klickitat, Molalla, Nez Perce, Takelma, Killamuk,
Neah-kah-nie, Umatilla, and Umpqua.
European and pioneer settlement
See also: History of the
United States (1789–1849) and Oregon
The first Europeans to visit
Oregon were Spanish explorers led by Juan
Rodríguez Cabrillo, who sighted southern
Oregon off the Pacific coast
in 1543. Francis Drake made his way to Nehalem Bay in 1579 and
spent five weeks in the middle of summer repairing his ship. He
claimed the land between 38–48 degrees north latitude as a Symbolic
Sovereign Act for England. Exploration was retaken routinely in
1774, starting with the expedition of the frigate Santiago by Juan
José Pérez Hernández (see Spanish expeditions to the Pacific
Northwest), and the coast of
Oregon became a valuable trading route to
Asia. In 1778, British captain
James Cook also explored the coast.
French Canadian and métis trappers and missionaries arrived in the
eastern part of the state in the late 18th and early
19th centuries, many having travelled as members of Lewis and
Clark and the 1811 Astor expeditions. Some stayed permanently,
including Étienne Lussier, believed to be the first European farmer
in the state of Oregon. The evidence of this French Canadian presence
can be found in the numerous names of French origin in that part of
the state, including
Malheur Lake and the Malheur River, the Grande
Ronde and Deschutes rivers, and the city of La Grande.
Fort Astoria, as established by
John Jacob Astor
John Jacob Astor in 1813
Lewis and Clark Expedition
Lewis and Clark Expedition travelled through northern
in search of the Northwest Passage. They built their winter fort in
1805–06 at Fort Clatsop, near the mouth of the Columbia River,
staying at the encampment from December until March.
British explorer David Thompson also conducted overland exploration.
In 1811, while working for the North West Company, Thompson became the
first European to navigate the entire Columbia River. Stopping on
the way, at the junction of the Snake River, he posted a claim to the
region for Great Britain and the North West Company. Upon returning to
Montreal, he publicized the abundance of fur-bearing animals in the
Also in 1811, New Yorker
John Jacob Astor
John Jacob Astor financed the establishment
Fort Astoria at the mouth of the
Columbia River as a western
outpost to his Pacific Fur Company; this was the first permanent
European settlement in Oregon.
Oregon Country, 1818–46
In the War of 1812, the British gained control of all Pacific Fur
Company posts. The
Treaty of 1818
Treaty of 1818 established joint British and
American occupancy of the region west of the
Rocky Mountains to the
Pacific Ocean. By the 1820s and 1830s, the Hudson's Bay Company
Pacific Northwest from its Columbia District
Fort Vancouver (built in 1825 by the district's chief
factor, John McLoughlin, across the Columbia from present-day
In 1841, the expert trapper and entrepreneur
Ewing Young died leaving
considerable wealth and no apparent heir, and no system to probate his
estate. A meeting followed Young's funeral, at which a probate
government was proposed. Doctor
Ira Babcock of Jason Lee's
Methodist Mission was elected supreme judge. Babcock chaired two
meetings in 1842 at Champoeg, (halfway between Lee's mission and
Oregon City), to discuss wolves and other animals of contemporary
concern. These meetings were precursors to an all-citizen meeting in
1843, which instituted a provisional government headed by an executive
committee made up of David Hill, Alanson Beers, and Joseph Gale.
This government was the first acting public government of the Oregon
Country before annexation by the government of the United States. It
was succeeded by a Second Executive Committee, made up of Peter G.
Stewart, Osborne Russell, and William J. Bailey, and this committee
was itself succeeded by George Abernethy, who was the first and only
Governor of Oregon
Governor of Oregon under the provisional government.
Also in 1841, Sir George Simpson, governor of the Hudson's Bay
Company, reversed the Hudson's Bay Company's long-standing policy of
discouraging settlement because it interfered with the lucrative fur
trade. He directed that some 200
Red River Colony
Red River Colony settlers be
relocated to HBC farms near Fort Vancouver, (the James Sinclair
expedition), in an attempt to hold Columbia District.
Starting in 1842–43, the
Oregon Trail brought many new American
settlers to the
Oregon Country. For some time, it seemed that Britain
United States would go to war for a third time in 75 years
Oregon boundary dispute), but the border was defined peacefully
in 1846 by the
Oregon Treaty. The border between the
United States and
British North America
British North America was set at the 49th parallel. The Oregon
Territory was officially organized on August 13, 1848.
Settlement increased with the
Donation Land Claim Act
Donation Land Claim Act of 1850 and the
forced relocation of the native population to Indian reservations in
In December 1844,
Oregon passed its Black Exclusion Law, which
African Americans from entering the territory while
simultaneously prohibiting slavery. Slave owners who brought their
slaves with them were given three years before they were forced to
free them. Any
African Americans in the region after the law was
passed were forced to leave, and those who did not comply were
arrested and beaten. They received no less than twenty and no more
than thirty-nine stripes across their bare back. If they still did not
leave, this process could be repeated every six months. Slavery
played a major part in Oregon's history and even influenced its path
to statehood. The territory's request for statehood was delayed
several times, as members of Congress argued among themselves whether
the territory should be admitted as a "free" or "slave" state.
Eventually politicians from the south agreed to allow
Oregon to enter
as a "free" state, in exchange for opening slavery to the southwest
Oregon was admitted to the Union on February 14, 1859. Founded as a
refuge from disputes over slavery,
Oregon had a "whites only" clause
in its original state Constitution. At the outbreak of the
American Civil War, regular U.S. troops were withdrawn and sent east.
Volunteer cavalry recruited in
California were sent north to
keep peace and protect the populace. The First
Oregon Cavalry served
until June 1865.
Downtown Portland in 1898
Beginning in the 1880s, the growth of railroads expanded the state's
lumber, wheat, and other agricultural markets, and the rapid growth of
its cities. Due to the abundance of timber and waterway access via
the Willamette River, Portland became a major force in the lumber
industry of the Pacific Northwest, and quickly became the state's
largest city. It would earn the nickname "Stumptown," and would
later become recognized as one of the most dangerous port cities in
United States due to racketeering and illegal activities at the
turn of the 20th century. In 1902,
Oregon introduced direct
legislation by the state's citizens through initiatives and referenda,
known as the
On May 5, 1945, six people were killed by a Japanese bomb that
exploded on Gearhart Mountain near Bly. This is the only fatal
attack on the
United States mainland committed by a foreign nation
since the Mexican–American War, making
Oregon the only U.S. state
that has experienced fatal casualties by a foreign army since 1848, as
Hawaii was not yet a state when
Pearl Harbor was attacked in 1941. The
bombing site is now called the Mitchell Recreation Area.
Industrial expansion began in earnest following the 1933–37
construction of the
Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River.
Hydroelectric power, food, and lumber provided by
Oregon helped fuel
the development of the West, although the periodic fluctuations in the
U.S. building industry have hurt the state's economy on multiple
occasions. Portland in particular experienced a population boom
between 1900 and 1930, tripling in size; the arrival of World War II
also provided the northwest region of the state with an industrial
boom, where Liberty ships and aircraft carriers were constructed.
During the 1970s, the
Pacific Northwest was particularly affected by
the 1973 oil crisis, with
Oregon suffering a substantial shortage.
Oregon became the first
U.S. state to legalize
physician-assisted suicide through the
Oregon Death with Dignity Act.
A measure to legalize recreational use of marijuana in
approved on November 4, 2014, making
Oregon only the second state at
the time to have legalized gay marriage, physician-assisted suicide,
and recreational marijuana.
Cities and towns
Further information: List of cities and unincorporated communities in
Oregon's population is largely concentrated in the Willamette Valley,
which stretches from Eugene in the south (home of the University of
Oregon) through Corvallis (home of
Oregon State University) and Salem
(the capital) to Portland (Oregon's largest city).
Astoria, at the mouth of the Columbia River, was the first permanent
English-speaking settlement west of the Rockies in what is now the
Oregon City, at the end of the
Oregon Trail, was the
Oregon Territory's first incorporated city, and was its first capital
from 1848 until 1852, when the capital was moved to Salem. Bend, near
the geographic center of the state, is one of the ten fastest-growing
metropolitan areas in the United
States.[better source needed] In southern Oregon,
Medford is a rapidly growing metro area and is home to the Rogue
Valley International-Medford Airport, the state's third-busiest
airport. To the south, near the
California border, are the communities
of Ashland and Grants Pass.
Largest cities or towns in Oregon
Law and government
See also: Government of Oregon
Golden Pioneer atop the
Oregon State Capitol
A writer in the
Oregon Country book A Pacific Republic, written in
1839, predicted the territory was to become an independent republic.
Four years later, in 1843, settlers of the
Willamette Valley voted in
majority for a republic government. The
Oregon Country functioned
in this way until August 13, 1848, when
Oregon was annexed by the
United States and a territorial government was established. Oregon
maintained a territorial government until February 14, 1859, when it
was granted statehood.
Oregon state government has a separation of powers similar to the
federal government. It has three branches:
a legislative branch (the bicameral
Oregon Legislative Assembly),
an executive branch which includes an "administrative department" and
Oregon's governor serving as chief executive, and
a judicial branch, headed by the Chief Justice of the
Oregon serve four-year terms and are limited to two
consecutive terms, but an unlimited number of total terms.
no lieutenant governor; in the event that the office of governor is
vacated, Article V, Section 8a of the
Oregon Constitution specifies
that the Secretary of State is first in line for succession. The
other statewide officers are Treasurer, Attorney General,
Superintendent, and Labor Commissioner. The biennial Oregon
Legislative Assembly consists of a thirty-member Senate and a
sixty-member House. The state supreme court has seven elected
justices, currently including the only two openly gay state supreme
court justices in the nation. They choose one of their own to serve a
six-year term as Chief Justice. The only court that may reverse or
modify a decision of the
Oregon Supreme Court
Oregon Supreme Court is the Supreme Court of
the United States.
The debate over whether to move to annual sessions is a long-standing
Oregon politics, but the voters have resisted the move from
citizen legislators to professional lawmakers. Because Oregon's state
budget is written in two-year increments and, there being no sales
tax, state revenue is based largely on income taxes, it is often
significantly over- or under-budget. Recent legislatures have had to
be called into special session repeatedly to address revenue
shortfalls resulting from economic downturns, bringing to a head the
need for more frequent legislative sessions.
passed in 2010, mandates the legislature to begin meeting every year,
for 160 days in odd-numbered years, and 35 days in even-numbered
Federally recognized tribes in Oregon
Burns Paiute Tribe
Confederated Tribes of Coos, Lower Umpqua and Siuslaw Indians
Confederated Tribes of Grand Ronde
Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians
Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs
Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation
Cow Creek Band of Umpqua Tribe of Indians
Coquille Indian Tribe
Oregonians have voted for the Democratic presidential candidate in
every election since 1988. In 2004 and 2006, Democrats won control of
the state Senate and then the House. Since the late 1990s,
been represented by four Democrats and one Republican in the U.S.
House of Representatives. Since 2009, the state has had two Democratic
Ron Wyden and Jeff Merkley.
Oregon voters have elected
Democratic governors in every election since 1986, most recently
Kate Brown over Republican
Bud Pierce in a 2016 special
The base of Democratic support is largely concentrated in the urban
centers of the Willamette Valley. The eastern two-thirds of the state
beyond the Cascade Mountains typically votes Republican; in 2000 and
George W. Bush
George W. Bush carried every county east of the Cascades.
However, the region's sparse population means that the more populous
counties in the
Willamette Valley usually outweigh the eastern
counties in statewide elections.
In the 2002 general election,
Oregon voters approved a ballot measure
to increase the state minimum wage automatically each year according
to inflationary changes, which are measured by the consumer price
index (CPI). In the 2004 general election,
Oregon voters passed
ballot measures banning same-sex marriage and restricting land use
regulation. In the 2006 general election, voters restricted the
use of eminent domain and extended the state's discount prescription
Like all U.S. states,
Oregon is represented by two senators. Since the
Oregon has had five congressional districts. After Oregon
was admitted to the Union, it began with a single member in the House
of Representatives (La Fayette Grover, who served in the 35th United
States Congress for less than a month). Congressional apportionment
increased the size of the delegation following the censuses of 1890,
1910, 1940, and 1980. A detailed list of the past and present
Congressional delegations from
Oregon is available.
United States District Court for the District of
federal cases in the state. The court has courthouses in Portland,
Eugene, Medford, and Pendleton. Also in Portland is the federal
bankruptcy court, with a second branch in Eugene.
other western states and territories) is in the 9th Court of Appeals.
One of the court's meeting places is at the
Pioneer Courthouse in
downtown Portland, a National Historic Landmark built in 1869.
Main article: Politics of Oregon
See also: Political party strength in Oregon
Treemap of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential election.
Party registration in Oregon, 1950–2006
non-affiliated and minor parties
Gubernatorial election results
Presidential election results
Political opinions in
Oregon are geographically split by the Cascade
Range, with western
Oregon being more liberal and
Eastern Oregon being
conservative. In a 2008 analysis of the 2004 presidential
election, a political analyst found that according to the application
of a Likert scale,
Oregon boasted both the most liberal Kerry voters
and the most conservative Bush voters, making it the most politically
polarized state in the country.
While Republicans typically win more counties by running up huge
margins in the east, the Democratic tilt of the more populated west is
usually enough to swing the entire state Democratic. In 2008, for
instance, Republican Senate incumbent
Gordon H. Smith
Gordon H. Smith lost his bid for
a third term even though he carried all but eight counties. His
Democratic challenger, Jeff Merkley, won Multnomah County by 142,000
votes, more than double the overall margin of victory.
During Oregon's history it has adopted many electoral reforms proposed
during the Progressive Era, through the efforts of William S. U'Ren
and his Direct Legislation League. Under his leadership, the state
overwhelmingly approved a ballot measure in 1902 that created the
initiative and referendum for citizens to introduce or approve
proposed laws or amendments to the state constitution directly, making
Oregon the first state to adopt such a system. Today, roughly half of
U.S. states do so.
In following years, the primary election to select party candidates
was adopted in 1904, and in 1908 the
Oregon Constitution was amended
to include recall of public officials. More recent amendments include
the nation's first doctor-assisted suicide law, called the Death
with Dignity Act (which was challenged, unsuccessfully, in 2005 by the
Bush administration in a case heard by the U.S. Supreme Court),
legalization of medical cannabis, and among the nation's strongest
anti-urban sprawl and pro-environment laws. More
recently, 2004's Measure 37 reflects a backlash against such land-use
laws. However, a further ballot measure in 2007, Measure 49, curtailed
many of the provisions of 37.
Of the measures placed on the ballot since 1902, the people have
passed 99 of the 288 initiatives and 25 of the 61 referendums on the
ballot, though not all of them survived challenges in courts (see
Pierce v. Society of Sisters, for an example). During the same period,
the legislature has referred 363 measures to the people, of which 206
Oregon pioneered the American use of postal voting, beginning with
experimentation approved by the
Oregon Legislative Assembly
Oregon Legislative Assembly in 1981
and culminating with a 1998 ballot measure mandating that all counties
conduct elections by mail. It remains one of just two states, the
other being Washington, where voting by mail is the only method of
Oregon adopted the
Oregon Health Plan, which made health care
available to most of its citizens without private health
In the U.S. Electoral College,
Oregon casts seven votes.
supported Democratic candidates in the last eight elections.
Barack Obama won the state by a margin of twelve
percentage points, with over 54% of the popular vote in 2012. In the
2016 election, Hillary Clinton won
Oregon by 11 percentage points.
Main article: Economy of Oregon
Oregon locations by per capita income
As of 2015,
Oregon ranks as the 17th highest in median household
income at $60,834. The gross domestic product (GDP) of
2013 was $219.6 billion, a 2.7% increase from 2012;
Oregon is the
25th wealthiest state by GDP. In 2003,
Oregon was 28th in the U.S. by
GDP. The state's per capita personal income (PCPI) in 2013 was
$39,848, a 1.5% increase from 2012.
Oregon ranks 33rd in the U.S. by
PCPI, compared to 31st in 2003. The national PCPI in 2013 was
Oregon's unemployment rate was 5.5% in September 2016, while the
U.S. unemployment rate was 5.0% that month.
Oregon has the third
largest amount of food stamp users in the nation (21% of the
Teenagers harvesting berries in Boring in 1946
Oregon's diverse landscapes provide ideal environments for various
types of farming. Land in the
Willamette Valley owes its fertility to
the Missoula Floods, which deposited lake sediment from Glacial Lake
Missoula in western
Montana onto the valley floor. In 2016, the
Willamette Valley region produced over 100 million pounds
(45 kt) of blueberries.
Oregon is also one of four major world hazelnut growing regions, and
produces 95% of the domestic hazelnuts in the United States. While the
history of the wine production in
Oregon can be traced to before
Prohibition, it became a significant industry beginning in the 1970s.
Oregon ranked third among U.S. states with 303 wineries.
Due to regional similarities in climate and soil, the grapes planted
Oregon are often the same varieties found in the French regions of
Alsace and Burgundy. In 2014, 71 wineries opened in the state. The
total is currently 676, which represents growth of 12% over 2013.
In the southern
Oregon coast, commercially cultivated cranberries
account for about 7 percent of U.S. production, and the cranberry
ranks 23rd among Oregon's top 50 agricultural commodities. Cranberry
Oregon uses about 27,000 acres (110 square kilometers)
in southern Coos and northern Curry counties, centered around the
coastal city of Bandon. In the northeastern region of the state,
particularly around Pendleton, both irrigated and dry land wheat is
Oregon farmers and ranchers also produce cattle, sheep,
dairy products, eggs and poultry.
Forestry and fisheries
See also: List of freshwater fishes of Oregon
Fish ladder at Bonneville Dam, Multnomah County
Vast forests have historically made
Oregon one of the nation's major
timber-producing and logging states, but forest fires (such as the
Tillamook Burn), over-harvesting, and lawsuits over the proper
management of the extensive federal forest holdings have reduced the
timber produced. According to 1914 data,
Australia was the single
largest purchaser of the state's lumber. Between 1989 and 2011,
the amount of timber harvested from federal lands in
about 90%, although harvest levels on private land have remained
Even the shift in recent years towards finished goods such as paper
and building materials has not slowed the decline of the timber
industry in the state. The effects of this decline have included
Weyerhaeuser's acquisition of Portland-based
Willamette Industries in
January 2002, the relocation of Louisiana-Pacific's corporate
headquarters from Portland to Nashville, and the decline of former
lumber company towns such as Gilchrist. Despite these changes, Oregon
still leads the
United States in softwood lumber production; in 2011,
4,134 million board feet (9,760,000 m3) was produced in
Oregon, compared with 3,685 million board feet
(8,700,000 m3) in Washington, 1,914 million board feet
(4,520,000 m3) in Georgia, and 1,708 million board feet
(4,030,000 m3) in Mississippi. The slowing of the timber and
lumber industry has caused high unemployment rates in rural
Oregon has one of the largest salmon-fishing industries in the world,
although ocean fisheries have reduced the river fisheries in recent
years. Because of the abundance of waterways in the state, it is
also a major producer of hydroelectric energy.
Tourism and entertainment
See also: Tourism near Portland and Tourism in Portland
Oregon Shakespeare Festival
Oregon Shakespeare Festival is in Ashland
Tourism is also a strong industry in the state. Much of this is
centered on the state's natural features; Oregon's mountains, forests,
waterfalls, rivers, beaches and lakes, including
Crater Lake National
Park, Multnomah Falls, the Painted Hills, the Deschutes River, and the
Oregon Caves National Monument and Preserve. Mount Hood, and Mount
Bachelor also draw visitors year round for skiing and snow
Oceanarium at the
Oregon Coast Aquarium
Portland is home to the
Oregon Museum of Science and Industry, the
Portland Art Museum, and the
Oregon Zoo, which is the oldest zoo west
Mississippi river. The
International Rose Test Garden
International Rose Test Garden is
another prominent attraction in the city. Portland has also been named
the best city in the world for street food by several publications,
including the U.S. News & World Report and CNN. Oregon
is home to many breweries and Portland has the largest number of
breweries of any city in the world.
The state's coastal region produces significant tourism as well.
Oregon Coast Aquarium comprises 23 acres (9.3 ha) along
Yaquina Bay in Newport, and was also home to Keiko the orca
whale. It has been noted as one of the top ten aquariums in North
Fort Clatsop in Warrenton features a replica of Lewis
and Clark's encampment at the mouth of the
Columbia River in 1805. The
Sea Lion Caves
Sea Lion Caves in Florence are the largest system of sea caverns in
the United States, and also attract many visitors.
In Southern Oregon, the
Oregon Shakespeare Festival, held in Ashland,
is also a tourist draw, as is the
Oregon Vortex and the Wolf Creek Inn
State Heritage Site, a historic inn where
Jack London wrote his 1913
novel Valley of the Moon.
Oregon has also historically been a popular region for film shoots due
to its diverse landscapes, as well as its proximity to
List of films shot in Oregon). Movies filmed in
Animal House, Free Willy, The General, The Goonies, Kindergarten Cop,
One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, and Stand By Me.
Oregon native Matt
Groening, creator of The Simpsons, has incorporated many references
from his hometown of Portland into the TV series. The
Museum is located in the old Clatsop County Jail in Astoria.
High technology industries located in
Silicon Forest have been a major
employer since the 1970s.
Tektronix was the largest private employer
Oregon until the late 1980s. Intel's creation and expansion of
several facilities in eastern Washington County continued the growth
Tektronix had started. Intel, the state's largest for-profit
private employer, operates four large facilities, with
Ronler Acres, Jones Farm and Hawthorn Farm all located in
The spinoffs and startups that were produced by these two companies
led to the establishment in that area of the so-called Silicon Forest.
The recession and dot-com bust of 2001 hit the region hard; many high
technology employers reduced the number of their employees or went out
Open Source Development Labs made news in 2004 when they
hired Linus Torvalds, developer of the Linux kernel. In 2010,
Genentech opened a $400-million facility in
Hillsboro to expand its production capabilities.
Oregon is home
to several large datacenters that take advantage of cheap power and a
Central Oregon conducive to reducing cooling costs. Google
has a large datacenter in The Dalles and Facebook has built a large
datacenter in Prineville. In 2011, Amazon began operating a datacenter
Oregon near Boardman.
Nike headquarters near Beaverton
Largest Public Corporations Headquartered in
Market cap (USD$billion)
2. FLIR Systems
3. Portland General Electric
4. Columbia Sportswear
5. Umpqua Holdings Corporation
6. Lithia Motors
7. Northwest Natural Gas
8. The Greenbrier Companies
Oregon is also the home of large corporations in other industries. The
world headquarters of Nike are located near Beaverton. Medford is home
to Harry and David, which sells gift items under several brands.
Medford is also home to the national headquarters of Lithia Motors.
Portland is home to one of the West's largest trade book publishing
houses, Graphic Arts Center Publishing.
Oregon is also home to Mentor
Graphics Corporation, a world leader in electronic design automation
located in Wilsonville and employs roughly 4,500 people worldwide.
Adidas Corporations American Headquarters is located in Portland and
employs roughly 900 full-time workers at its Portland campus.
Nike, located in Beaverton, employs roughly 5,000 full-time employees
at its 200-acre (81 ha) campus. Nike's Beaverton campus is
continuously ranked as a top employer in the Portland area-along with
Intel Corporation employs 18,600 in
Oregon with the majority of these employees located at the
company's Hillsboro campus located about 30 minutes west of Portland.
Intel has been a top employer in
Oregon since 1974.
The U.S. Federal Government and Providence Health systems are
respective contenders for top employers in
Oregon with roughly 12,000
federal workers and 14,000 Providence Health workers.
In 2015, a total of seven companies headquartered in
Oregon landed in
the Fortune 1000: Nike, at 106;
Precision Castparts Corp.
Precision Castparts Corp. at 302;
Lithia Motors at 482;
StanCorp Financial Group at 804; Schnitzer Steel
Industries at 853;
The Greenbrier Companies
The Greenbrier Companies at 948; and Columbia
Sportswear at 982.
Taxes and budgets
Oregon's biennial state budget, $2.6 billion in 2017, comprises
General Funds, Federal Funds, Lottery Funds, and Other Funds.
Oregon is one of only five states that have no sales tax. Oregon
voters have been resolute in their opposition to a sales tax, voting
proposals down each of the nine times they have been presented.
The last vote, for 1993's Measure 1, was defeated by a 75–25%
The state also has a minimum corporate tax of only $150 a year,
amounting to 5.6% of the General Fund in the 2005–7 biennium; data
about which businesses pay the minimum is not available to the
public.[better source needed] As a result, the state
relies on property and income taxes for its revenue.
Oregon has the
fifth highest personal income tax in the nation. According to the U.S.
Oregon ranked 41st out of the 50 states in taxes per
capita in 2005 with an average amount paid of 1,791.45.
A few local governments levy sales taxes on services: the city of
Ashland, for example, collects a 5% sales tax on prepared food.
The City of Portland imposes an Arts Education and Access Income Tax
on residents over 18 – a flat tax of $35 collected from individuals
earning $1,000 or more per year and residing in a household with an
annual income exceeding the federal poverty level. The tax funds
Portland school teachers, and art focused non-profit organizations in
The State of
Oregon also allows transit district to levy an income tax
on employers and the self-employed. The State currently collects the
TriMet and the Lane Transit District.
Oregon is one of six states with a revenue limit. The "kicker
law" stipulates that when income tax collections exceed state
economists' estimates by 2% or more, any excess must be returned to
taxpayers. Since the enactment of the law in 1979, refunds have
been issued for seven of the eleven biennia. In 2000, Ballot
Measure 86 converted the "kicker" law from statute to the Oregon
Constitution, and changed some of its provisions.
Federal payments to county governments that were granted to replace
timber revenue when logging in National Forests was restricted in the
1990s, have been under threat of suspension for several years. This
issue dominates the future revenue of rural counties, which have come
to rely on the payments in providing essential services.
55% of state revenues are spent on public education, 23% on human
services (child protective services, Medicaid, and senior services),
17% on public safety, and 5% on other services.
See also: List of people from Oregon; List of people from Portland,
Oregon locations by per capita income
Graph of Oregon's population growth from 1850–2010
Oregon population by county using 2012 estimates
United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of
Oregon was 4,093,465 on July 1, 2016, a 6.8% increase over the 2010
United States Census.
Oregon was the U.S.'s "Top Moving Destination" in 2014 with two
families moving into the state for every one moving out of state
(66.4% to 33.6%).
Oregon was also the top moving destination in
2013, and second most popular destination in 2010 through
As of the 2010 Census, the population of
Oregon was 3,831,074. The
gender makeup of the state was 49.5% male and 50.5% female. 22.6% of
the population were under the age of 18; 63.5% were between the ages
of 18 and 64; and 12.5% were 65 years of age or older.
The racial makeup of
Oregon as of the 2010 Census was:
White: 83.6% (78.5% non-Hispanic)
Black or African American: 1.8%
American Indian and
Alaska Native: 1.4%
Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander: 0.3%
Other race: 5.3%
Two or more races: 3.8%
Racial breakdown of population
Black or African American
American Indian and
Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
Two or more races
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 11.7% of the population in 2010:
9.7% were of Mexican, 0.2% Puerto Rican, 0.1% Cuban, and 1.7% other
Hispanic or Latino origin. According to the 2010–2015 American
Community Survey, the largest ancestry groups were German (19.4%),
Irish (12.0%), English (11.6%), American (5.5%), and Norwegian
The state's most populous ethnic group, non-Hispanic white, has
declined from 95.8% in 1970 to 77.8% in 2012.
As of 2011, 38.7% of Oregon's children under one year of age belonged
to minority groups, meaning they had at least one parent who was not a
non-Hispanic white. Of the state's total population, 22.6% was
under the age 18, and 77.4% were 18 or older.
The center of population of
Oregon is located in Linn County, in the
city of Lyons. Around 60% of Oregon's population resides within
the Portland metropolitan area.
As of 2009, Oregon's population comprised 361,393 foreign-born
residents. Of the foreign-born residents, the three largest
groups are originally from countries in: Latin America (47.8%), Asia
(27.4%), and Europe (16.5%).
Percentage of population identifying as Hispanic or Latino by county.
Religious and secular communities
Religion in Oregon
Religion in Oregon and Religion in the United States
Religious affiliation in
Don't know/No answer
Oregon has frequently been cited by statistical agencies for having a
smaller percentage of religious communities than other U.S.
states. According to a 2009 Gallup poll,
Oregon was paired
Vermont as the two "least religious" states in the United
In the same 2009 Gallup poll, 69% of Oregonians identified themselves
as being Christian. The largest Christian denominations in Oregon
by number of adherents in 2010 were the Roman Catholic Church with
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 147,965;
and the Assemblies of God with 45,492.
Oregon also contains the
largest community of Russian
Old Believers to be found in the United
States. The Northwest Tibetan Cultural Association is
headquartered in Portland. There are an estimated 6,000 to 10,000
Muslims in Oregon, most of whom live in and around Portland.
Most of the remainder of the population had no religious affiliation;
American Religious Identification Survey (ARIS)
American Religious Identification Survey (ARIS) placed Oregon
as tied with
Nevada in fifth place of U.S. states having the highest
percentage of residents identifying themselves as "non-religious", at
24 percent. Secular organizations include the Center
for Inquiry (CFI), the Humanists of Greater Portland (HGP), and the
United States Atheists (USA).
During much of the 1990s, a group of conservative Christians formed
Oregon Citizens Alliance, and unsuccessfully tried to pass
legislation to prevent "gay sensitivity training" in public schools
and legal benefits for homosexual couples.
Note: Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both
by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.
Live births by race/ethnicity of mother
> Non-Hispanic White
Hispanic (of any race)
Projections from the
U.S. Census Bureau
U.S. Census Bureau show Oregon's population
increasing to 4,833,918 by 2030, an increase of 41.3% compared to the
state's population of 3,421,399 in 2000. The state's own
projections forecast a total population of 5,425,408 in 2040.
Primary and secondary
In the 2013–2014 school year, the state had 567,000 students in
public primary and secondary schools. There were 197 public
school districts, served by 19 education service districts.
In 2016, the largest school districts in the state were: Portland
Public Schools, comprising 47,323 students; Salem-Keizer School
District, comprising 40,565 students; Beaverton School District,
comprising 39,625 students; Hillsboro School District, comprising
21,118 students; and North Clackamas School District, comprising
Colleges and universities
List of colleges and universities in Oregon
List of colleges and universities in Oregon and Oregon
Office of University Coordination
Johnson Hall at the University of Oregon.
The Memorial Union at
Oregon State University
Especially since the 1990 passage of Measure 5, which set limits on
property tax levels,
Oregon has struggled to fund higher education.
Oregon has cut its higher education budget and now ranks
46th in the country in state spending per student. However, 2007
legislation funded the university system far beyond the governor's
requested budget though still capping tuition increases at 3% per
Oregon supports a total of seven public universities and
one affiliate. It is home to three public research universities: The
University of Oregon
University of Oregon (UO) in Eugene and
Oregon State University
Oregon State University (OSU)
in Corvallis, both classified as research universities with very high
research activity, and
Portland State University
Portland State University which is classified
as a research university with high research activity.
UO is the state's highest nationally-ranked and most selective
public university by U.S. News & World Report and Forbes. OSU
is the state's only land-grant university, has the state's largest
enrollment for fall 2014, and is the state's highest ranking
university according to Academic Ranking of World Universities,
Washington Monthly, and QS World University Rankings. OSU
receives more annual funding for research than all other public higher
education institutions in
Oregon combined. The state's urban
Portland State University
Portland State University has Oregon's second largest enrollment.
The state has three regional universities:
Western Oregon University
Southern Oregon University
Southern Oregon University in Ashland, and Eastern Oregon
University in La Grande. The
Oregon Institute of Technology
Oregon Institute of Technology has its
campus in Klamath Falls. The quasi-public
Oregon Health & Science
University (OHSU) includes medical, dental, and nursing schools, and
graduate programs in biomedical sciences in Portland and a science and
engineering school in Hillsboro. The state also supports 17 community
Eliot Hall at Reed College
Oregon is home to a wide variety of private colleges, the majority of
which are located in the Portland area. The
University of Portland
University of Portland and
Marylhurst University are both Catholic universities located in or
near Portland, affiliated with the Congregation of Holy Cross, and the
Sisters of the Holy Names of Jesus and Mary, respectively. Reed
College, a rigorous liberal arts college in Portland, was ranked by
Forbes as the 52nd best college in the country in 2015.
Other private institutions in Portland include Concordia University;
Lewis & Clark College; Multnomah University; Portland Bible
College; Warner Pacific College; Cascade College; the National
University of Natural Medicine; and Western Seminary, a theological
Pacific University is in the Portland suburb of
Forest Grove. There are also private colleges further south in the
Willamette Valley. McMinnville is home to Linfield College, while
nearby Newberg is home to George Fox University. Salem is home to two
Willamette University (the state's oldest,
established during the provisional period) and Corban University. Also
located near Salem is Mount Angel Seminary, one of America's largest
Roman Catholic seminaries. The state's second medical school, the
College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific, Northwest, is located
in Lebanon. Eugene is home to three private colleges: Northwest
Christian University, New Hope Christian College, and Gutenberg
See also: Sports in Portland, Oregon
Moda Center (formerly the Rose Garden) during a Portland Trail
Providence Park during a
Portland Thorns FC
Portland Thorns FC match.
Oregon is home to three major professional sports teams: the Portland
Trail Blazers of the NBA, the
Portland Thorns of the NWSL and the
Portland Timbers of MLS.
Until 2011, the only major professional sports team in
Oregon was the
Portland Trail Blazers
Portland Trail Blazers of the National Basketball Association. From
the 1970s to the 1990s, the Blazers were one of the most successful
teams in the NBA in terms of both win-loss record and attendance.
In the early 21st century, the team's popularity declined due to
personnel and financial issues, but revived after the departure of
controversial players and the acquisition of new players such as
Brandon Roy and LaMarcus Aldridge. The Blazers play in the
Moda Center in Portland's Lloyd District, which also is home to the
Portland Winterhawks of the junior Western Hockey League.
Portland Timbers play at Providence Park, just west of downtown
Portland. The Timbers have a strong following, with the team regularly
selling out its games. The Timbers repurposed the formerly
multi-use stadium into a soccer-specific stadium in fall 2010,
increasing the seating in the process. The Timbers operate
Portland Thorns FC, a women's soccer team that has played in the
National Women's Soccer League
National Women's Soccer League since the league's first season in
2013. The Thorns, who also play at Providence Park, have won two
league championships, in the inaugural 2013 season and also in 2017,
and have been by far the NWSL's attendance leader in each of the
Eugene, Salem and Hillsboro have minor-league baseball teams: the
Eugene Emeralds, the Salem-Keizer Volcanoes, and the Hillsboro Hops
all play in the Single-A Northwest League. Portland has had
minor-league baseball teams in the past, including the Portland
Beavers and Portland Rockies, who played most recently at Providence
Park when it was known as PGE Park.
Oregon State Beavers
Oregon State Beavers and the University of
Oregon Ducks football
teams of the
Pac-12 Conference meet annually in the Civil War. Both
schools have had recent success in other sports as well:
won back-to-back college baseball championships in 2006 and 2007,
University of Oregon
University of Oregon won back-to-back NCAA men's cross country
championships in 2007 and 2008.
People's Republic of China,
Fujian Province – 1984
Taiwan Province – 1985
Toyama Prefecture – 1991
South Korea (South Korea),
Jeollanam-do Province –
Iraqi Kurdistan – 2005
American Old West portal
Outline of Oregon
Outline of Oregon (organized list of topics about Oregon)
Index of Oregon-related articles
^ Hall, Calvin (January 30, 2007). "English as Oregon's official
language? It could happen". The
Oregon Daily Emerald. Retrieved May 8,
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U.S. Census Bureau. December 20, 2017. Retrieved January 30,
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Foundation. Retrieved December 9, 2016.
Mount Hood Highest Point". NGS data sheet. U.S. National Geodetic
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^ a b "Elevations and Distances in the United States". United States
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2011. Retrieved October 24, 2011.
^ Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988.
^ a b "
Oregon Fast Facts". Travel Oregon. Archived from the original
on March 23, 2012.
^ Jewell & McRae 2014, p. 4.
^ a b Beale, Bob (April 10, 2003). "Humungous fungus: world's largest
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^ a b "Forest Land Protection Program".
Oregon Department of Fish and
Wildlife. Retrieved November 7, 2016.
^ "Financial Statements for Nike, Inc". Google Finance. Retrieved
April 17, 2017.
^ Secretaría de Comunicaciones y Transportes 1988, p. 149.
^ Johnson 1904, p. 51.
Oregon Blue Book:
Oregon Almanac: Mountains to National Wildlife
^ Where does the name "Oregon" come from? from the online edition of
Oregon Blue Book.
^ Elliott, T.C. (June 1921). "The Origin of the Name Oregon". Oregon
Historical Quarterly. Portland, Oregon:
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XXIII (2): 99–100. ISSN 0030-4727. OCLC 1714620 – via
^ Miller, Joaquin (September 1904). "The Sea of Silence". Sunset. XIII
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^ Bellamy, Ron (October 6, 2003). "See no evil, hear no evil". The
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^ "Yellow/Green ORYGUN Block Letter Outside Decal". UO Duck Store.
Archived from the original on December 8, 2010. Retrieved August 3,
^ Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density (geographies ranked by
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2011. Retrieved November 7, 2006.
Crater Lake National Park". U.S. National Park Service. Retrieved
November 22, 2006.
D River State Recreation Site".
Oregon Parks and Recreation
Department. Retrieved May 11, 2007.
^ "World's Shortest River". Travel Montana. Archived from the original
on July 2, 2007. Retrieved May 11, 2007.
^ "Mill Ends Park". Portland Parks and Recreation. Retrieved May 11,
^ Ray, Dewey (March 27, 1980). "
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the 111th Congress: First Session". Government Printing Office: 935
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Oregon is top timber producer in worst year". Mail Tribune.
Retrieved September 17, 2010.
^ "Trees of Oregon's forests". Tree Variety.
Oregon Forest Resources
Institute. Retrieved December 28, 2016.
^ "Mammals: Pocket Mice, Kangaroo Rats and Kangaroo Mouse". Oregon
Department of Fish and Wildlife.
Oregon Wildlife Species. Retrieved
November 7, 2016.
^ "Mammals: Coyotes, wolves and foxes".
Oregon Department of Fish and
Oregon Wildlife Species. Retrieved November 8, 2016.
^ "Mammals: Whale, dolphin and porpoise".
Oregon Department of Fish
Oregon Wildlife Species. Retrieved November 7,
Oregon Wildlife Species".
Oregon Department of Fish and
^ "Oregon's only moose herd thriving, up to about 60". The Oregonian.
Retrieved September 1, 2013.
^ "Wolves in Oregon". ODFW. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
Moose enter Oregon, so are grizzlies next?". Tri City Herald.
Archived from the original on July 6, 2014. Retrieved November 1,
Crater Lake National Park". National Park Service. Retrieved
February 22, 2014.
^ "John Day Fossil Beds National Monument". National Park Service.
Retrieved February 22, 2014.
^ Hamilton, John (2016). Oregon. ABDO. p. 14.
^ a b c "Climate of Oregon". Desert Research Institute. Retrieved
December 10, 2016.
^ Jones, Gregory V. "
Rogue Valley Weather and Climate" (PDF). Oregon
State University. Retrieved December 9, 2016.
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Coordinates: 44°00′N 120°30′W / 44°N 120.5°W / 44;
ISNI: 0000 0004 0405 8330
BNF: cb139055461 (d