Orange County, CA
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Orange County is located in the
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in
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Southern
California California is a in the . With over 39.3million residents across a total area of approximately , it is the and the U.S. state by area. It is also the in North America and the in the world. The area and the are the nation's second and ...

California
. As of the
2010 census2010 census may refer to: * 2010 Chinese Census * 2010 Dominican Republic Census * 2010 Indonesian census * 2010 Malaysian Census * 2010 Russian Census * 2010 Turkish census * 2010 United States Census * 2010 Zambian census {{Disambiguation ...
, the population was 3,010,232, making it the third-most populous county in California, the sixth most populous in the U.S., and more populous than 21 U.S. states. Although mostly suburban, it is the second most densely populated county in the state, behind
San Francisco County San Francisco (/Help:IPA/English, ˌsæn fɹənˈsɪskoʊ/; Spanish language, Spanish for "Francis of Assisi, Saint Francis"), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is a cultural, commercial, and financial center in Northern Calif ...

San Francisco County
. The county's three most populous cities are
Anaheim Anaheim () is a city in Orange County, California, Orange County, California, part of the Los Angeles metropolitan area. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city had a population of 336,265, making it the most populous city in Orange County, ...
, Santa Ana, and Irvine, each of which has a population exceeding 300,000. Santa Ana is also the
county seat A county seat is an administrative centerAn administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration within a particular sovereign state. Th ...
. Six cities in Orange County are on the
Pacific The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. T ...

Pacific
coast, including
Seal Beach Seal Beach is a coastal city in Orange County, California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 24,168, up from 24,157 at the 2000 census. Seal Beach is located in the westernmost corner of Orange County. To the northwest, just across the ...
,
Huntington Beach Huntington Beach is a seaside city in Orange County, California, Orange County in Southern California, located southeast of Downtown Los Angeles. The city is named after American businessman Henry E. Huntington. The population was 189,992 during ...
,
Newport Beach Newport Beach is a coastal city in Orange County, California Orange County is located in the Los Angeles metropolitan area File:Los Angeles, Winter 2016.jpg, 300px, Downtown Los Angeles in 2016 Greater Los Angeles, also called the Southl ...
,
Laguna Beach Laguna Beach () is a seaside resort A seaside resort is a resort town or resort village, or resort hotel, located on the coast. Sometimes it is also an officially accredited title, that is only awarded to a town when the requirements are met (li ...

Laguna Beach
,
Dana Point Dana Point () is a city located in southern Orange County, California Orange County is located in the Los Angeles metropolitan area File:Los Angeles, Winter 2016.jpg, 300px, Downtown Los Angeles in 2016 Greater Los Angeles, also called t ...
, and
San Clemente San Clemente () is a coastal city in Orange County, California, Orange County, California, United States. The population was 63,522 in at the 2010 census. Located on the California Coast, midway between Los Angeles and San Diego, California, San D ...
. Orange County is included in the
Los Angeles Los Angeles ( ; xgf, Tovaangar; es, Los Ángeles, , ), commonly referred to by the L.A., is the in . With a 2020 population of 3,898,747, it is the in the , following . Los Angeles is known for its , ethnic and cultural diversity, a ...

Los Angeles
-
Long Beach Long Beach is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge ...
-
Anaheim Anaheim () is a city in Orange County, California, Orange County, California, part of the Los Angeles metropolitan area. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city had a population of 336,265, making it the most populous city in Orange County, ...
Metropolitan Statistical Area #REDIRECT Metropolitan statistical area#REDIRECT Metropolitan statistical area In the United States, a metropolitan statistical area (MSA) is a geographical region with a relatively high population density at its core and close economic ties throu ...
. The county has 34
incorporated Incorporated may refer to: * Incorporated community * Incorporated (Grip Inc. album), ''Incorporated'' (Grip Inc. album), 2004, by Grip Inc. * Incorporated (Legion of Doom album), ''Incorporated'' (Legion of Doom album), 2006 * Incorporated (TV seri ...
cities. Older cities like Santa Ana, Anaheim,
Orange Orange most often refers to: *Orange (colour), occurs between red and yellow in the visible spectrum *Orange (fruit), the fruit of the tree species '' Citrus'' × ''sinensis'' ** Orange blossom, its fragrant flower *Some other citrus or citrus-li ...
, and
FullertonFullerton may refer to: Places Australia * Fullerton Cove, New South Wales Canada * Cape Fullerton, Nunavut India * Fullerton Securities, a financial planning and wealth management product company United States * Fullerton, California, a city in ...
have traditional downtowns dating back to the 19th century, while newer commercial development or " edge cities" stretch
along I-5 between Disneyland and Santa Ana
along I-5 between Disneyland and Santa Ana
and between South Coast Plaza and the Irvine Business Complex, and cluster at Irvine Spectrum. Although single-family homes make up the dominant landscape for most of the county, Northern and Central Orange County is relatively more urbanized and dense as compared to those areas beyond Irvine, which are less dense, though still contiguous and primarily suburban rather than exurban. The county is a tourist center, with attractions like Disneyland, Knott's Berry Farm, Mission San Juan Capistrano, Modjeska House, Segerstrom Center for the Arts, Yost Theater, Bowers Museum, Balboa Island, Angel Stadium, Downtown Santa Ana, the Honda Center, and several popular beaches along its more than of coastline.


History


Early History

Members of the Tongva people, Tongva, Juaneño, and Luiseño people, Luiseño Native American groups long inhabited the area. After the 1769 expedition of Gaspar de Portolà, a Spanish expedition led by Junipero Serra named the area Valle de Santa Ana (Valley of Saint Anne). On November 1, 1776, Mission San Juan Capistrano became the area's first permanent European settlement. Among those who came with Portolá were Rancho Los Nietos, José Manuel Nieto and José Antonio Yorba. Both these men were given land grants—Rancho Los Nietos and Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana, respectively. The Nieto heirs were granted land in 1834. The Nieto ranches were known as Rancho Los Alamitos, Rancho Las Bolsas, and Rancho Los Coyotes. Yorba heirs Bernardo Yorba and José Antonio Yorba, Teodosio Yorba were also granted Rancho Cañón de Santa Ana (Santa Ana Canyon Ranch) and Rancho Lomas de Santiago, respectively. Other ranchos in Orange County were granted by the Mexican government during the Mexican period in Alta California.


Spanish missions and the development of viticulture

Saint Junípero Serra y Ferrer and the early components of the Portolá expedition, Portolá Expedition arrived in modern-day San Diego in mid-late 1769. During these early Spanish missions in California, Mission years, however, the early immigrants continued to rely on imports of both Mexican wine, Mexican-grown and Spanish wine, Spanish-grown wines; Serra repeatedly complained of the process of repeated, labored import. Per Thomas Pinney's definitive 1989 work A History of Wine in America:
"The first clear reference to the planting of Wine Grapes, grapes at a California mission comes from San Juan Capistrano in 1779, ten years after the arrival of the Franciscans in Alta California, California. These vines might have produced a small crop as early as 1781, but the evidence points to 1782 as the likeliest date for California's first vintage. In an original and important essay, Roy Brady has not only established this chronology for the first California wine but has also plausibly identified the means whereby the Vitis vinifera, vines were first brought to the state; they came, he suggests, in May 1778 on board the supply ship San Antonio under the command of Don José Camacho. If so, the state has a neglected benefactor long overdue for public recognition. The beginning made at Mission San Juan Capistrano, San Juan Capistrano . . . grew, in time, to include the entire system of missions, with uneven but substantial success."
Viticulture became an increasingly important crop in Los Angeles County, California, Los Angeles and Orange Counties through the subsequent decades. By the 1850s, the regions supported more than 100 vineyards. In 1857,
Anaheim Anaheim () is a city in Orange County, California, Orange County, California, part of the Los Angeles metropolitan area. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city had a population of 336,265, making it the most populous city in Orange County, ...
was founded by 50 German Americans, German-Americans (with lineage extending back to Franconia (wine region), Franconia) in search of a suitable grape-growing region. This group purchased a 1,165 acres (4.71 km2) parcel from Juan Pacifico Ontiveros's Rancho San Juan Cajon de Santa Ana for $2 per acre and later formed the Anaheim Vineyard Company. With surveyor Gates of Anaheim, George Hansen, two of the wine colony's founders, John Frohling and Charles Kohler, planted 400,000 Vitis vinifera, grapevines along the Santa Ana River; by 1875, "there were as many as 50 Winery, wineries in Anaheim, and the city’s wine production topped 1 million gallons annually." Despite later afflictions of both Phylloxera and Xylella fastidiosa, Pierce's Disease, wine growing is still practiced.


19th and 20th Centuries

A severe drought in the 1860s devastated the prevailing industry, cattle ranching, and much land came into the possession of Richard O'Neill, Sr., James Irvine (landowner), James Irvine and other land barons. In 1887, silver was discovered in the Santa Ana Mountains, attracting settlers via the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway, Santa Fe and Southern Pacific Railroads. After several failed attempts in previous sessions, the California legislature passed a bill authorizing the portion of Los Angeles County, California, Los Angeles County south of Coyote Creek to hold a referendum on whether to remain part of Los Angeles County or to secede and form a new county to be named “Orange” as directed by the legislature. Such referendum required a 2/3 vote for secession to take place, and subsequently on June 4, 1889, the residents south of Coyote Creek voted 2,509 to 500 in favor of secession. After such referendum, Los Angeles County filed three lawsuits in the courts to stall and stop the secession from occurring, but such attempts were futile. On July 17, 1889, a second referendum was held south of the Coyote Creek to determine if the county seat of the to-be county to be in either Anaheim or Santa Ana, along with an election for every county officer. In the end, Santa Ana defeated Anaheim in such referendum. With the referendum taken place, the County of Orange was officially incorporated on August 1, 1889, as prescribed by state law. Since the date of the incorporation of the county, the only geographical changes to have occurred which affected Orange County was when the County and Los Angeles County agreed to trade land around Coyote Creek to adjust the border of the two counties to conform with city blocks. The county is said to have been named for the citrus fruit in an attempt to promote immigration by suggesting a semi-tropical paradise – a place where anything could grow. Other citrus crops, avocados, and petroleum, oil extraction were also important to the early economy. Orange County benefited from the July 4, 1904, completion of the Pacific Electric Railway, a tram, trolley connecting Los Angeles, California, Los Angeles with Santa Ana and
Newport Beach Newport Beach is a coastal city in Orange County, California Orange County is located in the Los Angeles metropolitan area File:Los Angeles, Winter 2016.jpg, 300px, Downtown Los Angeles in 2016 Greater Los Angeles, also called the Southl ...
. The link made Orange County an accessible weekend retreat for celebrities of early Hollywood. It was deemed so significant that Pacific City changed its name to
Huntington Beach Huntington Beach is a seaside city in Orange County, California, Orange County in Southern California, located southeast of Downtown Los Angeles. The city is named after American businessman Henry E. Huntington. The population was 189,992 during ...
in honor of Henry E. Huntington, president of the Pacific Electric and nephew of Collis Huntington. Transportation further improved with the completion of the State Route and U.S. Route 101 in California, U.S. Route 101 (now mostly Interstate 5 in California, Interstate 5) in the 1920s. Agriculture, such as that involving the boysenberry, boysenberries made famous by Buena Park, California, Buena Park native Walter Knott, began to decline after World War II. However, the county's prosperity soared during this time. The completion of Interstate 5 in California, Interstate 5 in 1954 helped make Orange County a bedroom community for many who moved to Southern California to work in aerospace and manufacturing. Orange County received a further boost in 1955 with the opening of Disneyland Park (Anaheim), Disneyland. In 1969, Yorba Linda-born Orange County native Richard Nixon became the 37th President of the United States. In the 1980s, Orange County had become the second most populous county in California as the population topped two million for the first time. In 1994, an investment fund meltdown led to the criminal prosecution of treasurer Robert Citron. The county lost at least $1.5 billion through high-risk investments in bonds. The loss was blamed on derivative (finance), derivatives by some media reports. On December 6, 1994, the County of Orange declared Chapter 9, Title 11, United States Code, Chapter 9 bankruptcy, from which it emerged on June 12, 1996. The Orange County bankruptcy was at the time the largest municipal bankruptcy in U.S. history. Land use conflicts arose between established areas in the north and less developed areas in the south. These conflicts were over issues such as construction of new toll roads and the repurposing of a decommissioned air base. El Toro Marine Corps Air Station was designated by a voter measure in 1994 to be developed into an international airport to complement the existing John Wayne Airport. But subsequent voter initiatives and court actions have caused the airport plan to be permanently shelved. It has developed into the Orange County Great Park and housing.


Geography

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of , of which is land and (16.6%) is water. It is the smallest county by area in Southern California, being just over 40% the size of the region's next smallest county, Ventura County, California, Ventura. The average annual temperature is about . Orange County is bordered on the southwest by the Pacific Ocean, on the north by Los Angeles County, California, Los Angeles County, on the northeast by San Bernardino County, California, San Bernardino County, on the east by Riverside County, California, Riverside County, and on the southeast by San Diego County, California, San Diego County. The northwestern part of the county lies on the coastal plain of the Los Angeles Basin, while the southeastern end rises into the foothills of the Santa Ana Mountains. Most of Orange County's population reside in one of two shallow coastal valleys that lie in the basin, the Santa Ana Valley and the Saddleback Valley. The Santa Ana Mountains lie within the eastern boundaries of the county and of the Cleveland National Forest. The high point is Santiago Peak (), about east of Santa Ana. Santiago Peak and nearby Modjeska Peak, just shorter, form a ridge known as Saddleback (Orange County, California), Saddleback, visible from almost everywhere in the county. The Peralta Hills extend westward from the Santa Ana Mountains through the communities of Anaheim Hills,
Orange Orange most often refers to: *Orange (colour), occurs between red and yellow in the visible spectrum *Orange (fruit), the fruit of the tree species '' Citrus'' × ''sinensis'' ** Orange blossom, its fragrant flower *Some other citrus or citrus-li ...
, and ending in Olive, California, Olive. The Loma Ridge is another prominent feature, running parallel to the Santa Ana Mountains through the central part of the county, separated from the taller mountains to the east by Santiago Creek, Santiago Canyon. The Santa Ana River is the county's principal watercourse, flowing through the middle of the county from northeast to southwest. Its major tributary to the south and east is Santiago Creek. Other watercourses within the county include Aliso Creek (Orange County), Aliso Creek, San Juan Creek, and Horsethief Creek. In the North, the San Gabriel River (California), San Gabriel River also briefly crosses into Orange County and exits into the Pacific on the Los Angeles-Orange County line between the cities of
Long Beach Long Beach is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge ...
and
Seal Beach Seal Beach is a coastal city in Orange County, California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 24,168, up from 24,157 at the 2000 census. Seal Beach is located in the westernmost corner of Orange County. To the northwest, just across the ...
. Laguna Beach is home to the county's only natural lakes, Laguna Lakes, which are formed by water rising up against an underground fault.


Regions of Orange County

Orange County is sometimes divided into northern and southern regions. There are significant political, demographic, economic and cultural distinctions between North and South Orange County. A popular dividing line between the two regions is the Costa Mesa Freeway. North Orange County, including Anaheim,
FullertonFullerton may refer to: Places Australia * Fullerton Cove, New South Wales Canada * Cape Fullerton, Nunavut India * Fullerton Securities, a financial planning and wealth management product company United States * Fullerton, California, a city in ...
and Santa Ana, was the first part of the county to be developed and is culturally closer to neighboring Los Angeles County. This region is more Hispanic (mostly Mexican) and Asian (predominantly Vietnamese and Korean), more densely populated (Santa Ana is the List of United States cities by population density, fifth most densely-populated city in the United States with a population of over 200,000), younger, less wealthy and with higher unemployment. It has more renters, fewer homeowners and more registered Democrats as opposed to Republicans. There are notable exceptions to these general trends, such as strongly Republican Yorba Linda and affluent Anaheim Hills and Villa Park, California, Villa Park. North Orange County is predominantly flat, giving way to the Santa Ana Mountains in the Northeast. South Orange County is more residential, wealthier, more Republican, less racially diverse and more recently developed. Irvine, the largest city in the region, is an exception to some of these trends, being a major employment center and having an Asian plurality (although Irvine's Asian population tends to be East Asian rather than Southeast Asian). South Orange County almost always includes Irvine,
Newport Beach Newport Beach is a coastal city in Orange County, California Orange County is located in the Los Angeles metropolitan area File:Los Angeles, Winter 2016.jpg, 300px, Downtown Los Angeles in 2016 Greater Los Angeles, also called the Southl ...
, and the cities to their southeast, including
Laguna Beach Laguna Beach () is a seaside resort A seaside resort is a resort town or resort village, or resort hotel, located on the coast. Sometimes it is also an officially accredited title, that is only awarded to a town when the requirements are met (li ...

Laguna Beach
, Mission Viejo, California, Mission Viejo, and
San Clemente San Clemente () is a coastal city in Orange County, California, Orange County, California, United States. The population was 63,522 in at the 2010 census. Located on the California Coast, midway between Los Angeles and San Diego, California, San D ...
. Costa Mesa is sometimes included in South County, although it is located predominantly to the west of the Costa Mesa Freeway. Irvine is located in a valley defined by the Santa Ana Mountains and the San Joaquin Hills, while much of South Orange County is very hilly. Another region of Orange County is the Orange Coast, which includes the six cities bordering the Pacific Ocean. These are (from northwest to southeast): Seal Beach, Huntington Beach, Newport Beach, Laguna Beach, Dana Point and San Clemente.


Commercial clusters — edge cities

Older cities like Santa Ana, Anaheim, and
FullertonFullerton may refer to: Places Australia * Fullerton Cove, New South Wales Canada * Cape Fullerton, Nunavut India * Fullerton Securities, a financial planning and wealth management product company United States * Fullerton, California, a city in ...
have traditional downtowns dating back to the 19th century, with Downtown Santa Ana being the home of the county, state and federal institutions. However, far more commercial activity is concentrated in clusters of newer commercial development are found in the county's edge cities, the three largest being * along Interstate 5 Anaheim–Santa Ana edge city, between Disneyland and Downtown Santa Ana * South Coast Plaza–John Wayne Airport edge city, South Coast Plaza to the Irvine Business Complex, and at * Irvine Spectrum


Anaheim—Santa Ana edge city

A contiguous strip of commercial development (an edge city) stretches from Disneyland through to MainPlace Mall along the I-5 Santa Ana Freeway, straddling the city limits of
Anaheim Anaheim () is a city in Orange County, California, Orange County, California, part of the Los Angeles metropolitan area. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city had a population of 336,265, making it the most populous city in Orange County, ...
, Garden Grove, California, Garden Grove,
Orange Orange most often refers to: *Orange (colour), occurs between red and yellow in the visible spectrum *Orange (fruit), the fruit of the tree species '' Citrus'' × ''sinensis'' ** Orange blossom, its fragrant flower *Some other citrus or citrus-li ...
, and Santa Ana, and in fact stretching between the original downtowns of those four cities. Entertainment and cultural facilities include Disneyland Resort, Angel Stadium, Christ Cathedral (Garden Grove, California), Christ Cathedral (formerly Crystal Cathedral), City National Grove of Anaheim - a live concert venue, Discovery Cube Orange County, the Honda Center - home to the Anaheim Ducks of the NHL (National Hockey League), and the Anaheim Convention Center. Health care facilities include CHOC (Children's Hospital of Orange County), Kaiser Permanente Health Pavilion (Anaheim), St. Joseph Health System, St. Joseph Hospital (Orange), and the UCI Medical Center. Retail complexes include Anaheim GardenWalk, Anaheim Marketplace (claiming to be the largest indoor swap meet in Orange County with more than 200 vendors), MainPlace Mall, Orange Town & Country, and The Outlets at Orange, originally a mall named "The City" which was the centerpiece of a planned, 1970s mixed-use development by the same name. There is commercial strip-style development including big box retailers along West Chapman Avenue in Orange (Marshalls, Ralphs), along Harbor Boulevard in Garden Grove (Burlington (department store), Burlington, Ross Dress for Less), and around Harbor Blvd. and Chapman Ave. in Anaheim (Target Corporation, Target). Major hotels line Harbor Boulevard from Disneyland south to Garden Grove: Grand Legacy at the Park, Hilton, Marriott, Courtyard, DoubleTree Suites, Hampton Inn, Hilton Garden Inn, Homewood Suites, Embassy Suites, Residence Inn, Hyatt Regency, Marriott Suites, Sheraton, and the Great Wolf Lodge. The Orange County Transit Authority studied the corridor as the possible route for a streetcar, a proposal that was dropped in 2018 due to opposition from Anaheim and other city governments. In addition to suburban-style apartment complexes, Anaheim's Platinum Triangle, Anaheim, Platinum Triangle is undergoing transformation from a low-density commercial and industrial zone into a more urban environment with high-density housing, commercial office towers, and retail space. Anaheim envisions it as a "downtown for Orange County". The area undergoing this large-scale redevelopment includes the city's two major sports venues, the Honda Center and Angel Stadium of Anaheim.


National protected areas

* Cleveland National Forest (part) * Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge


Demographics


2018


2011


Places by population, race, and income


2010

The 2010 United States Census reported that Orange County had a population of 3,010,232. The racial makeup of Orange County was 1,830,758 (60.8%) White (U.S. Census), White (44.0% non-Hispanic white), 50,744 (1.7%) African American (U.S. Census), African American, 18,132 (0.6%) Native American (U.S. Census), Native American, 537,804 (17.9%) Asian (U.S. Census), Asian, 9,354 (0.3%) Pacific Islander (U.S. Census), Pacific Islander, 435,641 (14.5%) from Race (United States Census), other races, and 127,799 (4.2%) from two or more races. Hispanic (U.S. Census), Hispanic or Latino (U.S. Census), Latino of any race were 1,012,973 persons (33.7%). The Hispanic and Latino population is predominantly of Mexican American, Mexican origin; this group accounts for 28.5% of the county's population, followed by Salvadorans (0.8%), Guatemalans (0.5%), Puerto Ricans (0.4%), Cubans (0.3%), Colombians (0.3%), and Peruvians (0.3%). Santa Ana with its population reportedly 75 percent Hispanic/Latino, is among the most Hispanic/Latino percentage cities in both
California California is a in the . With over 39.3million residents across a total area of approximately , it is the and the U.S. state by area. It is also the in North America and the in the world. The area and the are the nation's second and ...

California
and the U.S., esp. of Mexican-American descent. Among the Asian population, 6.1% are Vietnamese, followed by Koreans (2.9%), Chinese (2.7%), Filipinos (2.4%), Indians (1.4%), Japanese (1.1%), Cambodians (0.2%) Pakistanis (0.2%), Thais (0.1%), Indonesians (0.1%), and Laotians (0.1%). According to KPCC in 2014, Orange County has the largest proportion of Asian Americans in Southern California, where one in five residents are Asian American. There is also a significant Islam in the United States, Muslim population in the county.


2000

As of the census of 2000, there were 2,846,289 people, 935,287 households, and 667,794 families living in the county, making Orange County the second most populous county in
California California is a in the . With over 39.3million residents across a total area of approximately , it is the and the U.S. state by area. It is also the in North America and the in the world. The area and the are the nation's second and ...

California
. The population density was 1,392/km2 (3,606/sq mi). There were 969,484 housing units at an average density of 474/km2 (1,228/sq mi). The racial makeup of the county was 64.8% White (U.S. Census), White, 13.6% Asian (U.S. Census), Asian, 1.7% African American (U.S. Census), African American, 0.7% Native American (U.S. Census), Native American, 0.3% Pacific Islander (U.S. Census), Pacific Islander, 14.8% from Race (United States Census), other races, and 4.1% from two or more races. 30.8% were Hispanic (U.S. Census), Hispanic or Latino (U.S. Census), Latino of any race. 8.9% were of german people, German, 6.9% english people, English and 6.0% irish people, Irish ancestry according to Census 2000. 58.6% spoke only English language, English at home; 25.3% spoke Spanish language, Spanish, 4.7% Vietnamese language, Vietnamese, 1.9% Korean language, Korean, 1.5% Chinese language, Chinese (Cantonese or Standard Mandarin, Mandarin) and 1.2% Tagalog language, Tagalog. In 1990, still according to the census there were 2,410,556 people living in the county. The racial makeup of the county was 78.6% White (U.S. Census), White, 10.3% Asian (U.S. Census), Asian or Pacific Islander (U.S. Census), Pacific Islander, 1.8% African American (U.S. Census), African American, 0.5% Native American (U.S. Census), Native American, and 8.8% from Race (United States Census), other races. 23.4% were Hispanic (U.S. Census), Hispanic or Latino (U.S. Census), Latino of any race. Out of 935,287 households, 37.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.9% Marriage, married couples were living together, 10.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 28.6% were non-families. 21.1% of all households were made up of individuals, and 7.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.00 and the average family size was 3.48. Ethnic change has been transforming the population. By 2009, nearly 45 percent of the residents spoke a language other than English at home. Whites now comprise only 45 percent of the population, while the numbers of Hispanics grow steadily, along with Vietnamese, Korean and Chinese families. The percentage of foreign-born residents jumped to 30 percent in 2008 from 6 percent in 1970. The mayor of Irvine, Sukhee Kang, was born in Korea, making him the first Korean-American to run a major American city. “We have 35 languages spoken in our city,” Kang observed.Adam Nagourney, "Orange County Is No Longer Nixon Country,
''New York Times,'' Aug. 30, 2010
The population is diverse age-wise, with 27.0% under the age of 18, 9.4% from 18 to 24, 33.2% from 25 to 44, 20.6% from 45 to 64, and 9.9% 65 years of age or older. The median age is 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.7 males. The median income for a household in the county was $61,899, and the median income for a family was $75,700 (these figures had risen to $71,601 and $81,260 respectively as of a 2007 estimate). Males had a median income of $45,059 versus $34,026 for females. The per capita income for the county was $25,826. About 7.0% of families and 10.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.2% of those under age 18 and 6.2% of those age 65 or over. Residents of Orange County are known as "Orange Countians".


Religion

In 2014, the county had 1,075 religious organizations, the sixth most out of all US counties (matching its status as the sixth-most populous county in the US). Orange County is the base for several religious organizations: *The Newport Beach California Temple, one of four temples operated by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Southern California. *Reverend Robert Schuller's Crystal Cathedral is in Garden Grove, California, Garden Grove. As part of bankruptcy proceedings, it was sold to the Catholic Church. *Islamic Center of Irvine, which has raised over $5.5 million for its expansion project (as of October 2018). *Islamic Institute of Orange County, an Islamic Center in Orange County, located in
Anaheim Anaheim () is a city in Orange County, California, Orange County, California, part of the Los Angeles metropolitan area. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city had a population of 336,265, making it the most populous city in Orange County, ...
and founded in 1991. *The Islamic Society of Orange County in Garden Grove, established in 1976 and one of the largest mosques in the United States. *Islamic Center of Santa Ana (ICSA), which opened a new $2.6 million facility in 2017. *Orange County Islamic Foundation, located in Mission Viejo, California, Mission Viejo. *The Islamic Educational Center of Orange County (IECOC), located in Costa Mesa, California, Costa Mesa *Forty Martyrs Armenian Apostolic Church, located in Santa Ana is one of two Armenian Apostolic Church, otherwise referred to as "Armenian Orthodox Church" or "Gregorian Church" in Orange County. *St. Mary Armenian Church, located in Costa Mesa is one of two Armenian Apostolic Church, otherwise referred to as "Armenian Orthodox Church" or "Gregorian Church" in Orange County. *Family International, also known as "The Children of God", was founded in 1968 in
Huntington Beach Huntington Beach is a seaside city in Orange County, California, Orange County in Southern California, located southeast of Downtown Los Angeles. The city is named after American businessman Henry E. Huntington. The population was 189,992 during ...
by David Berg. *Chuck Smith (pastor), Chuck Smith, early leader in the Jesus movement, Jesus People movement and founder of Calvary Chapel in Costa Mesa, California, Costa Mesa. *Pao Fa Temple in Irvine is one of the largest Buddhism, Buddhist monasteries and temples in the United States. *''The Purpose Driven Life'' author Rick Warren and his Saddleback Church (the largest church in California) are in Lake Forest, California, Lake Forest. *The Roman Catholic Diocese of Orange headed by Bishop Kevin Vann. There are about 1.04 million Catholics in Orange County. *Trinity Broadcasting Network began as Channel 40 in Tustin, California, Tustin, now in Costa Mesa. *Monasteries of the Vedanta Society of Southern California, Vedanta Society and St. Michael's Abbey (Orange County, California), St. Michael's Abbey are located in Trabuco Canyon, California, Trabuco Canyon. *The Vineyard Christian Fellowship movement began in Orange County. *The Jain Center of Southern California in Buena Park, California, Buena Park, largest center for followers of Jain faith, originally started by Jains from India *The Sikh Center of Orange County located in Santa Ana * The Sikh Center of Buena Park - Gurdwara Singh Sabha *Harvest Orange County in Irvine. Also holds the Harvest Crusades in Anaheim Stadium. * Living Stream Ministry is headquartered in Anaheim and hosts several Christian conferences a year. * Orange County Buddhist Center in Laguna Hills, part of the Soka Gakkai International


Government

Orange County is a charter county of California; its county seat, seat is Santa Ana. The elected offices of the county government consist of the five-member Orange County Board of Supervisors, Board of Supervisors, County Assessor, Assessor, Auditor-Comptroller, Controller, County clerk, Clerk-Recorder of deeds, Recorder, District attorney, District Attorney-Public Administrator, Sheriffs in the United States, Sheriff-Coroner, and Treasurer-Tax Collector. Except for the Board of Supervisors, each of these elected officers are elected by the voters of the entire county and oversee their own County departments. , the six countywide elected officers are: *Assessor: Claude Parrish, Republican Party (United States), Republican (since January 5, 2015) *Auditor-Controller: Frank Davies (since October 18, 2019) *Clerk-Recorder: Hugh Nguyen, Republican Party (United States), Republican (since April 3, 2013) *District Attorney-Public Administrator: Todd Spitzer, Republican Party (United States), Republican (since January 7, 2019) *Sheriff-Coroner: Don Barnes (sheriff), Don Barnes, Republican Party (United States), Republican (since January 7, 2019) *Treasurer-Tax Collector: Shari Freidenrich, CPA, Republican Party (United States), Republican (since January 3, 2011) A seventh countywide elected officer, the Superintendent (education), County Superintendent of Schools (jointly with an independently elected County Board of Education) oversees the independent #Department of Education, Orange County Department of Education.


Board of Supervisors

Each of the five members of the Board of Supervisors is elected from a regional district, and together, the board oversees the activities of the county's agencies and departments and sets policy on development, public improvements, and county services. At the beginning of each calendar year, the Supervisors select a Chair and Vice Chair amongst themselves. The Chair presides over board meetings, and the Vice Chair presides when the Chair is not present. The Board appoints the Clerk (legislature), Clerk of the Board of Supervisors, the general counsel, County Counsel, the performance audit, Performance Audit Director, and the Director of the Office of Independent Review. The Board also appoints the County Executive Officer to act as the chief administrative officer of the county and the manager of all agencies and departments not under the sole jurisdiction of an elected county official nor the sole jurisdiction of one of the four aforementioned officers appointed by the Board. , the members of the Orange County Board of Supervisors are: *District 1: Andrew Do, Republican Party (United States), Republican (since February 3, 2015) *District 2: Katrina Foley, Democratic Party (United States), Democrat (since March 23, 2021) *District 3: Donald P. Wagner, Republican Party (United States), Republican (since March 27, 2019) *District 4: Doug Chaffee, Democratic Party (United States), Democrat (since January 7, 2019) *District 5: Lisa Bartlett, Republican Party (United States), Republican (since December 2, 2014)


Department of Education

The County Department of Education is wholly separate from the County government and is jointly overseen by the elected County Superintendent of Schools and the five-member Orange County Board of Education, whose trustees are popularly elected from five separate trustee areas. , the six elected officials overseeing the Orange County Department of Education are: *Trustee Area 1: Beckie Gomez, Democratic Party (United States), Democrat *Trustee Area 2: Mari Barke, Republican Party (United States), Republican *Trustee Area 3: Ken Williams, Republican Party (United States), Republican *Trustee Area 4: Tim Shaw, Republican Party (United States), Republican *Trustee Area 5: Lisa Sparks, Republican Party (United States), Republican *Superintendent of Schools: Al Mijares, Republican Party (United States), Republican


Pension scandal

On July 12, 2010, it was revealed that former Sheriff Mike Carona received over $215,000 in pension checks in 2009, despite his felony conviction. A 2005 state law denied a public pension to public officials convicted of wrongdoing in office, however, that law only applied to benefits accrued after December 2005. Carona became eligible for his pension at age 50, and is also entitled, by law, to medical and dental benefits. It was noted that the county's retirement system faces a massive shortfall totaling $3.7 billion unfunded liabilities, and Carona was one of approximately 400 retired Orange County public servants who received more than $100,000 in benefits in 2009. Also on the list of those receiving extra-large pension checks is former treasurer-tax collector Robert Citron, whose investments, which were made while consulting psychics and astrologers, led Orange County into bankruptcy in 1994. Citron, a Democrat, funneled billions of public dollars into questionable investments, and at first the returns were high and cities, schools and special districts borrowed millions to join in the investments. But the strategy backfired, and Citron's investment pool lost $1.64 billion. Nearly $200 million had to be slashed from the county budget and more than 1,000 jobs were cut. The county was forced to borrow $1 billion. The California Foundation for Fiscal Responsibility filed a lawsuit against the pension system to get the list. The agency had claimed that pensioner privacy would be compromised by the release. A judge approved the release and the documents were released late June 2010. The release of the documents has reopened debate on the pension plan for retired public safety workers approved in 2001 when Carona was sheriff. Called "3 percent at 50," it lets deputies retire at age 50 with 3 percent of their highest year's pay for every year of service. Before it was approved and applied retroactively, employees received 2 percent. "It was right after September 11 attacks, Sept. 11," said Orange County Supervisor John Moorlach. "All of a sudden, public safety people became elevated to god status. The Board of Supervisors were tripping over themselves to make the motion." He called it "one of the biggest shifts of money from the private sector to the public sector." Moorlach, who was not on the board when the plan was approved, led the fight to repeal the benefit. A lawsuit, which said the benefit should go before voters, was rejected in Los Angeles County Superior Court in 2009 and is now under appeal. Carona opposed the lawsuit when it was filed, likening its filing to a "nuclear bomb" for deputies.


Politics

During most of the 20th century and up until 2016, Orange County was known for its political Conservatism in the United States, conservatism and for being a bastion for the Republican Party (United States), Republican Party, with a 2005 academic study listing three Orange County cities as among America's 25 most conservative. However, the county's changing demographics have coincided with a shift in political alignments. In United States presidential election in California, 2016, 2016, Hillary Clinton became the first Democrat since 1936 to carry Orange County in a presidential election and in the 2018 United States House of Representatives elections in California, 2018 midterm elections the Democratic Party (United States), Democratic Party gained control of every Congressional seat in the county. Although Democrats controlled all congressional districts in Orange County at the time, Republicans maintained a lead in voter registration numbers (although it shrunk to less than a percentage point as of February 10, 2019, as compared with over 10% on February 10, 2013). The number of registered Democrats surpassed the number of registered Republicans in the county in August 2019. As the number of Democrats increased, the number of voters not aligned with a political party increased to comprise 27.4% of the county's voters in 2019. Republicans hold a 3-2 majority on the county Board of Supervisors. Seven out of the 12 state legislators from Orange County are also Republicans.


Political history

Orange County has long been known as a Republican Party (United States), Republican stronghold and has consistently sent Republican representatives to the state and federal legislatures — so strongly so, that Ronald Reagan described it as the place that "all the good Republicans go to die." Republican majorities in Orange County helped deliver California's electoral votes to Republican nominees Richard Nixon in 1960, 1968, and 1972; Gerald Ford in 1976; Reagan in 1980 and 1984; and George H. W. Bush in 1988. It was one of five counties in the state that voted for Barry Goldwater in 1964. In 1936 United States presidential election in California, 1936, Orange County gave Franklin D. Roosevelt a majority of its presidential vote. The Republican nominee won Orange County in the next 19 presidential elections, until Hillary Clinton won the county with a narrow majority in 2016. In 2020, Joe Biden further improved slightly on Clinton's 2016 margin of victory. The Republican margin began to narrow in the 1990s and 2000s as the state trended Democratic until the mid- to late-2010s when it voted for the Democratic Party (United States), Democratic Party in 2016 United States presidential election in California, 2016 and in 2018 United States House of Representatives elections in California, 2018, when the Democratic party won every United States House District anchored in the county, including four that had previously been held by republicans. This prompted media outlets to declare Orange County's Republican leanings "dead", with the ''Los Angeles Times'' running an op-ed titled, "An obituary to old Orange County, dead at age 129." However, the Democratic federal dominance in Orange County eroded just two years later in 2020 United States House of Representatives elections in California, 2020, when Republicans recaptured two of the four seats that had flipped Democratic, despite Biden winning the county by a slightly greater margin than Clinton, as well as both congressional districts that flipped Republican. Republicans still carry more weight at the local level, and in 2020 for the California State Assembly, State Assembly elections, they won 50.2% of the vote and four out of seven seats of the county. For the 117th United States Congress in the United States House of Representatives, Orange County is split between seven congressional districts: * , * , * , * , * , * , and * . The 39th, 45th, 46th, and 48th districts are all centered in Orange County. The 38th and 47th have their population centers in Los Angeles County, while the 49th is primarily San Diego County-based. In the California State Senate, Orange County is split into 5 districts: * , * , * , * , and * . In the California State Assembly, Orange County is split into 7 districts: * , * , * , * , * , * , and * . According to the California Secretary of State, as of February 10, 2019, Orange County has 1,591,543 registered voters. Of these, 34% (541,711) are registered Republicans, and 33.3% (529,651) are registered Democrats. An additional 28.5% (453,343) declined to state a political party. Orange County has produced such notable Republicans as President Richard Nixon (born in Yorba Linda, California, Yorba Linda and lived in
FullertonFullerton may refer to: Places Australia * Fullerton Cove, New South Wales Canada * Cape Fullerton, Nunavut India * Fullerton Securities, a financial planning and wealth management product company United States * Fullerton, California, a city in ...
and
San Clemente San Clemente () is a coastal city in Orange County, California, Orange County, California, United States. The population was 63,522 in at the 2010 census. Located on the California Coast, midway between Los Angeles and San Diego, California, San D ...
), U.S. Senator John F. Seymour (previously mayor of Anaheim, California, mayor of Anaheim), and U.S. Senator Thomas Kuchel (of Anaheim). Former Congressman Christopher Cox (of Newport Beach), a White House counsel for President Reagan, is also a former chairman of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. Orange County was also home to former Republican Congressman John G. Schmitz, a presidential candidate in 1972 from the ultra-conservative American Independent Party and the father of Mary Kay Letourneau. In 1996, Curt Pringle (later mayor of Anaheim) became the first Republican Speaker of the California State Assembly in decades. While the growth of the county's Hispanic and Asian people, Asian populations in recent decades has significantly influenced Orange County's culture, its conservative reputation has remained largely intact. Partisan voter registration patterns of Hispanics, Asians and other ethnic minorities in the county have tended to reflect the surrounding demographics, with resultant Republican majorities in all but the central portion of the county. When Loretta Sanchez, a Blue Dog Coalition, Blue Dog Democrat, defeated veteran Republican Bob Dornan in 1996, she was continuing a trend of Democratic representation of that district that had been interrupted by Dornan's 1984 upset of former Congressman Jerry M. Patterson, Jerry Patterson. Until 1992, Sanchez herself was a moderate Republican, and she is viewed as somewhat more moderate than other Democrats from Southern California. In 2004, George W. Bush captured 60% of the county's vote, up from 56% in 2000 despite a higher Democratic popular vote statewide. Although Barbara Boxer won statewide, and fared better in Orange County than she did in 1998, Republican Bill Jones (California politician), Bill Jones defeated her in the county, 51% to 43%. While the 39% that John Kerry received is higher than the percentage Bill Clinton won in 1992 or 1996, the percentage of the vote George W. Bush received in 2004 (60%) is the highest any presidential candidate has received since 1988, showing a still-dominant GOP presence in the county. In 2006, Senator Dianne Feinstein won 45% of the vote in the county, the best showing of a Democrat in a Senate race in over four decades, but Orange was nevertheless the only Coastal California county to vote for her Republican opponent, Dick Mountjoy. The county is featured prominently in Lisa McGirr's book ''Suburban Warriors: The Origins of the New American Right''. She argues that its conservative political orientation in the 20th century owed much to its settlement by farmers from the Great Plains, who reacted strongly to communist sympathies, the civil rights movement, and the turmoil of the 1960s in nearby Los Angeles — across the "Orange Curtain". In the 1970s and 1980s, Orange County was one of California's leading Republican voting blocs and a subculture of residents with "Middle American" values that emphasized capitalist religious morality in contrast to San Francisco values, West coast liberalism. Orange County has many Republican voters from culturally conservative Asian Americans, Asian-American, Middle Eastern Americans, Middle Eastern and Latino immigrant groups. The large Vietnamese Americans, Vietnamese-American communities in Garden Grove, California, Garden Grove and Westminster, California, Westminster are predominantly Republican; Vietnamese Americans registered Republicans outnumber those registered as Democrats, 55% to 22% as of 2007, while as of 2017 that figure is 42% to 36%. Republican Assemblyman Van Tran was the first Vietnamese-American elected to a state legislature and joined with Texan Hubert Vo as the highest-ranking elected Vietnamese-American in the United States until the 2008 election of Joseph Cao in Louisiana's 2nd congressional district. In the 2007 special election for the vacant county supervisor seat following Democrat Lou Correa's election to the state senate, two Vietnamese-American Republican candidates topped the list of 10 candidates, separated from each other by only seven votes, making the Orange County Board of Supervisors entirely Republican; Correa is first of only two Democrats to have served on the Board since 1987 and only the fifth since 1963. Even with the Democratic sweep of Orange County's congressional seats in 2018, as well as a steady trend of Democratic gains in voter registration, the county remains very Republican downballot. In much of the county, the district's congressperson is the only elected Democrat above the county level, and in some cases the only elected Democrat above the municipal level. Generally, larger cities–those with a population over 100,000, such as Anaheim, Santa Ana, and Irvine - feature a registration advantage for Democrats, while the other municipalities still have a Republican voter registration advantage. This is especially true in Newport Beach, Yorba Linda, and Villa Park, the three cities where the Republican advantage is largest. As of February 10, 2019, the only exceptions to the former are Huntington Beach and Orange, while exceptions to the latter include Buena Park, Laguna Beach and Stanton. Similarly, despite Orange county supporting Democratic candidates for president in 2016, and 2020, there are still several smaller municipalities in the county that have continued to vote Republican for president. In addition to the aforementioned Newport Beach, Yorba Linda, and Villa Park, the towns of Huntington Beach, Dana Point, San Juan Capistrano, and San Clemente also supported Republican nominee Donald Trump for president twice.


Voter registration


Cities by population and voter registration


Former Congressional Districts


Crime

The following table includes the number of incidents reported and the rate per 1,000 persons for each type of offense.


Cities by population and crime rates


Economy


Business

Orange County is the headquarters of many Fortune 500 companies including Ingram Micro (#62) and First American Corporation (#476) in Santa Ana, Broadcom (#150) in Irvine, Western Digital (#198) in Lake Forest, and Pacific Life (#269) in Newport Beach. Irvine is the home of numerous start-up companies and also is the home of Fortune 1000 headquarters for Allergan, Edwards Lifesciences, Epicor, and Sun Healthcare Group. Other Fortune 1000 companies in Orange County include Beckman Coulter in Brea, Quiksilver in Huntington Beach and Apria Healthcare Group in Lake Forest. Irvine is also the home of notable technology companies like TV and sound bar company Vizio Inc., VIZIO, router manufacturer Linksys, video/computer game creator Blizzard Entertainment, and in-flight product manufacturer Panasonic Avionics Corporation. Also, the prestigious Mercedes-Benz Classic Center, Mercedes-Benz Classic Center USA is located in the City of Irvine. Many regional headquarters for international businesses reside in Orange County like Mazda, Toshiba, Toyota, Samsung, Kia Motors, Kia, in the City of Irvine, Mitsubishi in the City of Cypress, CA, Cypress, Kawasaki Motors in Foothill Ranch, and Hyundai Motor Group, Hyundai in the City of Fountain Valley. Fashion is another important industry to Orange County. Oakley, Inc. is headquartered in Lake Forest. Hurley International is headquartered in Costa Mesa. Both the network cyber security firm Milton Security Group and the shoe company Pleaser USA, Inc. are located in Fullerton. St. John (clothing), St. John is headquartered in Irvine. Tustin, California, Tustin, is home to Ricoh Electronics, New American Funding, and Safmarine. Wet Seal is headquartered in Lake Forest, California, Lake Forest. PacSun is headquartered in Anaheim. Restaurants such as Taco Bell, El Pollo Loco, In-N-Out Burger, Claim Jumper, Marie Callender's, Wienerschnitzel, have headquarters in the city of Irvine as well. Del Taco is headquartered in Lake Forest. Gaikai also has its headquarters in Orange County.


Shopping

Shopping in Orange County is centered around regional shopping malls, big-box store, big box power center (retail), power centers and smaller strip malls. South Coast Plaza in Costa Mesa is the largest mall in California, the third largest in the United States, and List of largest shopping malls, 31st largest in the world. Other regional shopping malls include (from north to south): Brea Mall, The Village at Orange, The Outlets at Orange, MainPlace Santa Ana, Westminster Mall (California), Westminster Mall, Bella Terra in
Huntington Beach Huntington Beach is a seaside city in Orange County, California, Orange County in Southern California, located southeast of Downtown Los Angeles. The city is named after American businessman Henry E. Huntington. The population was 189,992 during ...
, The Market Place (Orange County, California), The Market Place straddling Tustin, California, Tustin and Irvine, Irvine Spectrum Center, Fashion Island in
Newport Beach Newport Beach is a coastal city in Orange County, California Orange County is located in the Los Angeles metropolitan area File:Los Angeles, Winter 2016.jpg, 300px, Downtown Los Angeles in 2016 Greater Los Angeles, also called the Southl ...
, Laguna Hills Mall, Five Lagunas and The Shops at Mission Viejo. Downtown Disney (California), Downtown Disney and Anaheim GardenWalk are specialized shopping and entertainment centers aimed at visitors. Power centers include La Habra Fashion Square, La Habra Marketplace, Anaheim Plaza and Anaheim Town Square. There is one major outlet mall, The Outlets at San Clemente.


Tourism

Tourism remains a vital aspect of Orange County's economy.
Anaheim Anaheim () is a city in Orange County, California, Orange County, California, part of the Los Angeles metropolitan area. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city had a population of 336,265, making it the most populous city in Orange County, ...
is the main tourist hub, with the Disneyland Resort's Disneyland being the second most visited theme park in the world. Also, Knotts Berry Farm gets about 7 million visitors annually and is located in the city of Buena Park, California, Buena Park. The Anaheim Convention Center holds many major conventions throughout the year. Resorts within the Beach Cities receive visitors throughout the year due to their close proximity to the beach, biking paths, mountain hiking trails, golf courses, shopping and dining.


Food culture

As recently as the 1990s, award-winning restaurants in Orange County consisted mostly of national chain restaurants with traditional American or Tex-Mex comfort food. In the late 1990s, Tim and Liza Goodell with chef Florent Marneau, and David Wilhelm, established culinary restaurant groups featuring nouvelle cuisine, gourmet burgers and more. The Orange County Register states that the "tipping point" came in 2007 when Marneaus founded Marché Moderne (since moved to Crystal Cove), and ''Top Chef'' chef Amar Santana opened a branch of Charlie Palmer (chef), Charlie Palmer (closed 2015), both at South Coast Plaza. Santana followed opening restaurants Broadway in Laguna Beach and Vaca in Costa Mesa. Other Top Chef chefs followed with their own restaurants including Brian Huskey (Tackle Box), Shirley Chung (Twenty Eight), Jamie Gwen of ''Cutthroat Kitchen'', and from ''The Great Food Truck Race'', Jason Quinn (chef), Jason Quinn (Playground), who also opened three stands at the 4th Street Market food hall in Downtown Santa Ana in 2016. Food halls with gourmet vendors include the Anaheim Packing District, the 4th Street Market in Downtown Santa Ana, Lot 579 in Huntington Beach, Trade Food Hall in Irvine, OC Mix in Costa Mesa, and The Source OC in Buena Park. In 2019 the Michelin Guide awarded stars for the first time to Orange County restaurants, awarding Hana Re and Taco Maria each one star.


Education

Orange County is the home of many colleges and universities, including: Universities *Public **University of California, Irvine (UCI) **California State University, Fullerton (CSUF) *Private, religious **Chapman University **Concordia University, Irvine, Concordia University **Hope International University **Trinity Law School **Vanguard University of Southern California, Vanguard University *Private, secular **Anaheim University **Soka University of America **Springfield College **Western State University College of Law **Whittier Law School Colleges *Two-year (community colleges) **Coastline Community College **Cypress College **Fullerton College **Golden West College **Irvine Valley College **Orange Coast College **Saddleback College **Santa Ana College **Santiago Canyon College *Four-year **Fashion Institute of Design & Merchandising **Laguna College of Art and Design **Southern California Institute of Technology Some institutions not based in Orange County operate satellite campuses, including the University of Southern California, National University (California), National University, Pepperdine University, and Springfield College. The Orange County Department of Education oversees 28 school districts.


Media

Orange County is served by media in Los Angeles, including its TV and radio stations. Two television stations—KOCE-TV, the main PBS station in the Southland and KDOC-TV, an independent—are located in Orange County. There are a few radio stations that are actually located in Orange County. KYLA 92.7 FM has a Christian format. KSBR 88.5 FM airs a jazz music format branded as "Jazz-FM" along with news programming. KUCI 88.9 FM is a free form college radio station that broadcasts from UC Irvine. KWIZ 96.7 FM, located in Santa Ana, airs a regional Mexican music format branded as "La Rockola 96.7". KWVE-FM 107.9 is owned by the Calvary Chapel of Costa Mesa, California, Costa Mesa. KWVE-FM is also the primary Emergency Alert System station for the county. The Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim also own and operate a sports-only radio station from Orange, KLAA (AM), KLAA. KX 93.5 FM broadcasts out of Laguna Beach and features an eclectic mix of mostly alternative rock. County-wide politics and government coverage is primarily provided by ''The Orange County Register'' and ''Voice of OC''. ''OC Weekly'' was an alternative weekly publication, and ''Excélsior'' is a Spanish-language newspaper. A few communities are served by the ''Los Angeles Times'' publication of the ''Daily Pilot''. ''Orange Coast (magazine), Orange Coast'' was established in 1974 and is the oldest continuously published lifestyle magazine in the region. ''OC Music Magazine'' is also based out of Orange County, serving local musicians and artists.


Transportation

Transit in Orange County is offered primarily by the Orange County Transportation Authority. The American Public Transportation Association (APTA) cited OCTA as the best large public transportation system in the United States for 2005. OCTA manages the county's bus network and funds the construction and maintenance of local streets, highways, and Southern California freeways, freeways; regulates taxicab services; maintains express toll lanes through the median of California State Route 91; and works with Southern California's Metrolink (Southern California), Metrolink to provide commuter rail service along three lines: the Orange County Line, the 91 Line, and the Inland Empire–Orange County Line.


Major highways

Ground transportation in Orange County relies heavily on three major interstate highways: the Santa Ana Freeway (I-5), the Interstate 405 (California), San Diego Freeway (I-405 and Interstate 5 in California, I-5 south of Irvine), and the San Gabriel River Freeway (Interstate 605 (California), I-605), which briefly passes through northwestern Orange County. The other freeways in the county are state highways, and include the Riverside Freeway, Riverside and Artesia Freeway (California State Route 91, SR 91) and the Garden Grove Freeway (California State Route 22, SR 22) running east–west, and the Orange Freeway (California State Route 57, SR 57), the Costa Mesa Freeway (California State Route 55, SR 55), the Laguna Freeway (California State Route 133, SR 133), the San Joaquin Hills Toll Road, San Joaquin Transportation Corridor (California State Route 73, SR 73), the Eastern Toll Road (California), Eastern Transportation Corridor (California State Route 261, SR 261, California State Route 133, SR 133, California State Route 241, SR 241), and the Foothill Toll Road, Foothill Transportation Corridor (California State Route 241, SR 241) running north–south. Minor stub freeways include the Richard M. Nixon Freeway (SR 90), also known as Imperial Highway, and the southern terminus of Pacific Coast Highway (SR 1). There are no United States Numbered Highways, U.S. Highways in Orange County, though two existed in the county until the mid-1960s: U.S. Route 91, 91 and U.S. Route 101, 101. US 91 went through what is now the state route of the same number, and US 101 was replaced by Interstate 5. SR 1 was once a bypass of US 101 (Route 101A). * Interstate 5 in California, Interstate 5 * Interstate 405 (California), Interstate 405 * Interstate 605 * California State Route 1, State Route 1 * California State Route 22, State Route 22 * California State Route 39, State Route 39 * California State Route 55, State Route 55 * California State Route 57, State Route 57 * California State Route 72, State Route 72 * California State Route 73, State Route 73 * California State Route 74, State Route 74 * California State Route 90, State Route 90 * California State Route 91, State Route 91 * California State Route 133, State Route 133 * California State Route 142, State Route 142 * California State Route 241, State Route 241 * California State Route 261, State Route 261


Bus

The bus network comprises 6,542 stops on 77 lines, running along most major streets, and accounts for 210,000 boardings a day. The fleet of 817 buses is gradually being replaced by CNG (Compressed natural gas)-powered vehicles, which already represent over 40% of the total fleet. Service is operated by OCTA employees and First Transit under contract. OCTA operates one bus rapid transit service, Bravo, on Harbor Boulevard. In addition, OCTA offers paratransit service for the disabled, also operated by MV.


Rail

Since 1992, Metrolink (Southern California), Metrolink has operated three commuter rail lines through Orange County, and has also maintained Rail-to-Rail service with parallel Amtrak service. On a typical weekday, over 40 trains run along the Metrolink Orange County Line, Orange County Line, the Metrolink 91 Line, 91 Line and the Inland Empire–Orange County Line. Along with Metrolink (Southern California), Metrolink riders on parallel Amtrak lines, these lines generate approximately 15,000 boardings per weekday. Metrolink (Southern California), Metrolink also began offering weekend service on the Orange County Line and the Inland Empire-Orange County line in the summer of 2006. As ridership has steadily increased in the region, new stations have opened at Anaheim Canyon, Buena Park, California, Buena Park, Tustin, California, Tustin, and Laguna Niguel, California, Laguna Niguel/Mission Viejo, California, Mission Viejo. Plans for a future station in Placentia, California, Placentia are underway and is expected to be completed by 2020. Since 1938, the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railroad and later Amtrak, has operated the ''Pacific Surfliner'' regional passenger train route (previously named the ''San Diegan (train), San Diegan'' until 2000) through Orange County. The route includes stops at eight stations in Orange County including, in northbound order, San Clemente Pier (Amtrak station), San Clemente Pier (selected trips), San Juan Capistrano (Amtrak station), San Juan Capistrano, Laguna Niguel/Mission Viejo (Metrolink station), Laguna Niguel/Mission Viejo (selected trips), Irvine (Amtrak station), Irvine, Santa Ana (Amtrak station), Santa Ana, Orange (train station), Orange (selected trips), Anaheim Regional Transportation Intermodal Center, Anaheim Regional Transportation Intermodal Center (ARTIC), and Fullerton Transportation Center. The Santa Ana/Garden Grove Fixed Guideway Project plans a streetcar line connecting Downtown Santa Ana to the Depot at Santa Ana has completed the environmental document and is entering the design phase. OCTA has also proposed connecting the two systems via Harbor Boulevard and the West Santa Ana Branch corridor. Plans for a streetcar for Harbor Boulevard in Fullerton, Anaheim, and Garden Grove — the Anaheim Rapid Connection — were shelved in 2018.


Sea

A car and passenger ferry service, the Balboa Island Ferry, comprising three ferries running every five minutes, operates within Newport Harbor between Balboa Peninsula and Balboa Island, Newport Beach, California, Balboa Island in
Newport Beach Newport Beach is a coastal city in Orange County, California Orange County is located in the Los Angeles metropolitan area File:Los Angeles, Winter 2016.jpg, 300px, Downtown Los Angeles in 2016 Greater Los Angeles, also called the Southl ...
. The Catalina Flyer connects the Balboa Peninsula to Avalon, California, Avalon with daily round-trip passage through about nine months of the year. The Catalina Express connects
Dana Point Dana Point () is a city located in southern Orange County, California Orange County is located in the Los Angeles metropolitan area File:Los Angeles, Winter 2016.jpg, 300px, Downtown Los Angeles in 2016 Greater Los Angeles, also called t ...
to Avalon (with departures from two greater
Long Beach Long Beach is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge ...
ports also connecting to Two Harbors, California, Two Harbors).


Air

Orange County's only major airport is John Wayne Airport; its abbreviation (SNA) refers to Santa Ana, the closest large town in the early 20th century. The airport is located in unincorporated territory surrounded by Newport Beach, Costa Mesa, and Irvine. On destination monitors with flights to SNA, the airport is usually described as "Orange County, CA". In 2014, its Thomas F. Riley Terminal handled over 9 million passengers annually and as of 2019, seven airline brands provide scheduled service.


Arts and culture


Points of interest

The area's warm Mediterranean climate and of year-round beaches attract millions of tourists annually.
Huntington Beach Huntington Beach is a seaside city in Orange County, California, Orange County in Southern California, located southeast of Downtown Los Angeles. The city is named after American businessman Henry E. Huntington. The population was 189,992 during ...
is a hot spot for sunbathing and surfing; nicknamed "Surf City, U.S.A.", it is home to many surfing competitions. "The Wedge (surfing), The Wedge", at the tip of The Balboa Peninsula in Newport Beach, is one of the most famous body surfing spots in the world. Southern California surf culture is prominent in Orange County's beach cities. Another one of these beach cities being Laguna Beach, just south of Newport Beach. A few popular beaches include A Thousand Steps on 9th Street, Main Street Beach, and The Montage. Other "local" beaches that are worth a visit are Tablerock Beach and West Street Beach, both located in South Laguna Beach. Other tourist destinations include the theme parks Disneyland Park (Anaheim), Disneyland and Disney California Adventure Park in
Anaheim Anaheim () is a city in Orange County, California, Orange County, California, part of the Los Angeles metropolitan area. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city had a population of 336,265, making it the most populous city in Orange County, ...
and Knott's Berry Farm in Buena Park, California, Buena Park. Since the 2011 closure of Wild Rivers (water park), Wild Rivers in Irvine, the county is home to just one water park: Knott's Soak City, Soak City in Buena Park. The Anaheim Convention Center is the largest such facility on the West Coast. The old town area in the City of Orange (the traffic circle at the middle of Chapman Ave. at Glassell) still maintains its 1950s image, and appeared in the movie ''That Thing You Do!''. Little Saigon, Orange County, Little Saigon is another tourist destination, home to the largest concentration of Vietnamese people outside Vietnam. There are also sizable Taiwanese, Chinese, and Korean communities, particularly in western Orange County. This is evident in several Asian-influenced shopping centers in Asian American hubs like Irvine. Popular food festival 626 Night Market has a location at OC Fair & Event Center in Costa Mesa and is a popular attraction for Asian and fusion food, as well as an Art Walk and live entertainment. Historical points of interest include Mission San Juan Capistrano, the renowned destination of migrating swallows. The Richard Nixon Presidential Library and Museum is in Yorba Linda, California, Yorba Linda and the Richard Nixon Birthplace, on the grounds of the Library, is a National Historic Landmark. John Wayne's yacht, the ''Wild Goose'' or USS YMS-328, is in Newport Beach. Other notable structures include the home of Madame Helena Modjeska, in Modjeska Canyon on Santiago Creek; Ronald Reagan Federal Building and Courthouse (California), Ronald Reagan Federal Building and Courthouse in Santa Ana, the largest building in the county; the historic Balboa Pavilion in Newport Beach; and the Huntington Beach Pier. The county has nationally known centers of worship, such as The Crystal Cathedral, Crystal Cathedral in Garden Grove, California, Garden Grove, the largest house of worship in California; Saddleback Church in Lake Forest, California, Lake Forest, one of the largest churches in the United States; and the Calvary Chapel. Since the fall 2003 premiere of the hit Fox Broadcasting Company, Fox series ''The O.C.,'' and the 2007 Bravo (US TV network), Bravo series "The Real Housewives of Orange County", tourism has increased with travelers from across the globe hoping to see sights from the shows.


In popular culture

Orange County has been the setting for numerous written works and motion pictures, as well as a popular location for shooting motion pictures. The city of San Juan Capistrano, California, San Juan Capistrano is where writer Johnston McCulley set the first novella about Zorro, ''The Curse of Capistrano''. It was published in 1919 and later renamed ''The Mark of Zorro''. Many of the novels of Dean Koontz are set in Orange County. Koontz lives in Newport Beach, a well known city on the county's coast.


Sports

Huntington Beach Huntington Beach is a seaside city in Orange County, California, Orange County in Southern California, located southeast of Downtown Los Angeles. The city is named after American businessman Henry E. Huntington. The population was 189,992 during ...
annually plays host to the U.S. Open of Surfing, Association of Volleyball Professionals, AVP Pro Beach Volleyball and ''Vans World Championship of Skateboarding''. It was also the shooting location for Pro Beach Hockey. United States women's national water polo team, USA Water Polo, Inc. has moved its headquarters to Irvine, California. Orange County's active outdoor culture is home to many surfers, skateboarders, mountain bikers, cyclists, climbers, hikers, kayaking, sailing and sand volleyball. The Major League Baseball team in Orange County is the Los Angeles Angels. The team won the World Series under manager Mike Scioscia in 2002 World Series, 2002. In 2005, new owner Arte Moreno wanted to change the name to "Los Angeles Angels" in order to better tap into the Los Angeles media market, the second largest in the country. However, the standing agreement with the city of Anaheim demanded that they have "Anaheim" in the name, so they became the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim. This name change was hotly disputed by the city of Anaheim, but the change stood and still stands today, which City of Anaheim v. Angels Baseball LP, prompted a lawsuit by the city of Anaheim against Arte Moreno, won by the latter. The county's National Hockey League team, the Anaheim Ducks, won the 2007 Stanley Cup beating the Ottawa Senators. They also came close to winning the 2003 Stanley Cup finals after losing in Game 7 against the New Jersey Devils. The Toshiba Classic, the only PGA Champions Tour event in the area, is held each March at The Newport Beach Country Club. Past champions include Fred Couples (2010), Hale Irwin (1998 and 2002), Nick Price (2011), Bernhard Langer (2008) and Jay Haas (2007). The tournament benefits the Hoag Hospital Foundation and has raised over $16 million in its first 16 years. Orange County SC is a United Soccer League team and are the only professional soccer club in Orange County. The team's first season was in 2011 and it was successful as Charlie Naimo's team made it to the quarter-finals of the playoffs. With home games played at Championship Soccer Stadium in Orange County Great Park the team looks to grow in the Orange County community and reach continued success. Former and current Orange County SC players include Richard Chaplow, Bright Dike, Maykel Galindo, Carlos Borja (American soccer), Carlos Borja, and goalkeeper Amir Abedzadeh. The National Football League left the county when the Los Angeles Rams relocated to St. Louis in 1995. The National Basketball Association's Los Angeles Clippers played some home games at The Arrowhead Pond, now known as the Honda Center, from 1994 to 1999, before moving to Staples Center, which they share with the Los Angeles Lakers.


Communities


Cities

*Aliso Viejo, California, Aliso Viejo *
Anaheim Anaheim () is a city in Orange County, California, Orange County, California, part of the Los Angeles metropolitan area. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city had a population of 336,265, making it the most populous city in Orange County, ...
*Brea, California, Brea *Buena Park, California, Buena Park *Costa Mesa, California, Costa Mesa *Cypress, California, Cypress *
Dana Point Dana Point () is a city located in southern Orange County, California Orange County is located in the Los Angeles metropolitan area File:Los Angeles, Winter 2016.jpg, 300px, Downtown Los Angeles in 2016 Greater Los Angeles, also called t ...
*Fountain Valley, California, Fountain Valley *
FullertonFullerton may refer to: Places Australia * Fullerton Cove, New South Wales Canada * Cape Fullerton, Nunavut India * Fullerton Securities, a financial planning and wealth management product company United States * Fullerton, California, a city in ...
*Garden Grove, California, Garden Grove *
Huntington Beach Huntington Beach is a seaside city in Orange County, California, Orange County in Southern California, located southeast of Downtown Los Angeles. The city is named after American businessman Henry E. Huntington. The population was 189,992 during ...
* Irvine *La Habra, California, La Habra *La Palma, California, La Palma *
Laguna Beach Laguna Beach () is a seaside resort A seaside resort is a resort town or resort village, or resort hotel, located on the coast. Sometimes it is also an officially accredited title, that is only awarded to a town when the requirements are met (li ...

Laguna Beach
*Laguna Hills, California, Laguna Hills *Laguna Niguel, California, Laguna Niguel *Laguna Woods, California, Laguna Woods *Lake Forest, California, Lake Forest *Los Alamitos, California, Los Alamitos *Mission Viejo, California, Mission Viejo *
Newport Beach Newport Beach is a coastal city in Orange County, California Orange County is located in the Los Angeles metropolitan area File:Los Angeles, Winter 2016.jpg, 300px, Downtown Los Angeles in 2016 Greater Los Angeles, also called the Southl ...
*
Orange Orange most often refers to: *Orange (colour), occurs between red and yellow in the visible spectrum *Orange (fruit), the fruit of the tree species '' Citrus'' × ''sinensis'' ** Orange blossom, its fragrant flower *Some other citrus or citrus-li ...
*Placentia, California, Placentia *Rancho Santa Margarita, California, Rancho Santa Margarita *
San Clemente San Clemente () is a coastal city in Orange County, California, Orange County, California, United States. The population was 63,522 in at the 2010 census. Located on the California Coast, midway between Los Angeles and San Diego, California, San D ...
*San Juan Capistrano, California, San Juan Capistrano * Santa Ana (county seat) *
Seal Beach Seal Beach is a coastal city in Orange County, California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 24,168, up from 24,157 at the 2000 census. Seal Beach is located in the westernmost corner of Orange County. To the northwest, just across the ...
*Stanton, California, Stanton *Tustin, California, Tustin *Villa Park, California, Villa Park *Westminster, California, Westminster *Yorba Linda, California, Yorba Linda


Unincorporated communities

These communities are outside of city limits in unincorporated area, unincorporated county territory.


Planned communities

Orange County has a history of large Planned community, planned communities. Nearly 30 percent of the county was created as master planned communities, the most notable being the Irvine, California, City of Irvine, Coto de Caza, Anaheim Hills, Tustin Ranch, Tustin Legacy, Ladera Ranch, Talega, Rancho Santa Margarita, California, Rancho Santa Margarita, and Mission Viejo. Irvine is often referred to as a model master-planned city because its original seven villages (College Park, The Colony, The Ranch, Culverdale, The Racket Club, University Park, and Turtle Rock) were laid out by the Irvine Company of the mid-1960s before it was bought by a group of investors including Donald Bren.


Climate


See also

* List of museums in Orange County, California * List of people from Orange County, California * National Register of Historic Places listings in Orange County, California * Orange County (film), ''Orange County'' (film) * Orange County Fair (California) * Orange County High School of the Arts * Santiago Library System


Notes


References


Further reading

* Robin Rockey, ''100 Things to Do in Orange County Before You Die.'' Reedy Press, 2019. * Gustavo Arellano, ''Orange County: A Personal History.'' New York: Scribner, 2008. * Samuel Armor
''History of Orange County, California: With Biographical Sketches of the Leading Men and Women of the County Who have been Identified with its Earliest Growth and Development from the Early Days to the Present.''
Los Angeles: Historic Record Company, 1921. * Mark Baldassare, ''When Government Fails: The Orange County Bankruptcy.'' San Francisco: Public Policy Institute of California, 1998. * Mike Heywood, ''A History of Orange County: Twelve Decades of Extraordinary Change, 1889 to 2010.'' n.c.: Aardvark Global Publishing, 2010. * Doris I. Walker. ''Orange County Then and Now (Then & Now).'' Thunder Bay Press, 2006. * Philippe Jorion and Robert Roper, ''Big Bets Gone Bad: Derivatives and Bankruptcy in Orange County.'' San Diego: Academic Press, 1995. * Rob Kling, Spencer C Olin, and Mark Poster, ''Postsuburban California: The Transformation of Orange County since World War II.'' Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1991. * Orange County Historical Society, ''Orange County.'' Charleston, SC: Arcadia, 2005.
''An Illustrated History of Southern California: Embracing the Counties of San Diego, San Bernardino, Los Angeles and Orange, and the Peninsula of Lower California, From the Earliest Period of Occupancy to the Present Time; Together with Glimpses of their Prospects; Also, Full-Page Portraits of Some of their Eminent Men, and Biographical Mention of Many of their Pioneers and of Prominent Citizens of To-day.''
Chicago: Lewis Publishing Co., 1890. * ''The Majestic Empire: Orange County California.'' Santa Ana, CA: Orange County Board of Supervisors, 1964. * ''Orange County, California: The Story of Orange County.'' Santa Ana, CA: Board of Supervisors of Orange County, California, 1939.


External links

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– slideshow by ''The New York Times''
Orange County, California
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Filming Locations in Orange County
{{Authority control Orange County, California, California counties Los Angeles metropolitan area Greater Los Angeles, Counties in Southern California 1889 establishments in California Populated places established in 1889 Government units that have filed for Chapter 9 bankruptcy