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The NORDIC COUNTRIES or NORDICS are a geographical and cultural region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic , where they are most commonly known as _NORDEN_ (lit. "the North"). They consist of Denmark , Finland
Finland
, Iceland
Iceland
, Norway
Norway
, and Sweden
Sweden
, including the associated territories of Greenland
Greenland
, the Faroe Islands , and the Åland Islands .

The population of the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
are mainly Scandinavian or Finnish , with Greenlandic Inuit and the Sami people as indigenous minorities. The native languages are Swedish , Danish , Norwegian , Icelandic and Faroese , all Germanic languages rooted in Old Norse . Native non- Germanic languages are Finnish , Greenlandic and several Sami languages . The main religion is Lutheran
Lutheran
Christianity
Christianity
.

The Nordic countries
Nordic countries
have much in common in their way of life, history , religion, their use of Scandinavian languages and social structure . Politically, Nordic countries
Nordic countries
do not form a separate entity, but they co-operate in the Nordic Council
Nordic Council
. Especially in English , _ Scandinavia
Scandinavia
_ is sometimes used as a synonym for the Nordic countries, but that term more properly refers to the three monarchies of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. Geologically, the Scandinavian Peninsula comprise the mainland of Norway
Norway
and Sweden
Sweden
as well as the northernmost part of Finland.

At 3,425,804 square kilometers, the combined area of the Nordic countries would form the 7th-largest country in the world. Uninhabitable icecaps and glaciers comprise about half of this area, mostly in Greenland. In January 2013, the region had a population of around 26 million people. The Nordic countries
Nordic countries
cluster near the top in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life, and human development.

With only four language groups, the common linguistic heterogeneous heritage is one of the factors making up the Nordic identity. The languages of Danish , Norwegian , Swedish , Icelandic and Faroese are all rooted in Old Norse and Danish, Norwegian and Swedish are considered mutually intelligible . These three dominating languages are taught in schools throughout the Nordic region. Swedish, for example, is a mandatory subject in Finnish schools , since Finland
Finland
by law is a bilingual country. Danish is mandatory in Faroese and Greenlandic schools, as these insular states are a part of the Danish Realm (_Rigsfællesskabet_). Iceland
Iceland
also teaches Danish, since Iceland
Iceland
too was a part of the Danish Realm until 1918. Beside these and the insular Scandinavian languages Faroese and Icelandic , which are also North Germanic languages, there are the Finnic and Sami branches of the Uralic languages , spoken in Finland
Finland
and in northern Norway, Sweden
Sweden
and Finland, respectively, and Greenlandic , an Eskimo–Aleut language , spoken in Greenland
Greenland
.

The Nordic countries
Nordic countries
also share, more or less, the Nordic model of economy and social structure: market economy is combined with strong labour unions and a universalist welfare sector financed by heavy taxes. There is a high degree of income redistribution and little social unrest.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology and concept of the Nordic countries
Nordic countries

* 2 List

* 2.1 Sovereign states * 2.2 Associated territories

* 3 History

* 3.1 Early history and Middle Ages
Middle Ages
* 3.2 Early modern period and industrialization * 3.3 Late modern period and contemporary era * 3.4 Timeline

* 4 Geography

* 4.1 Topography * 4.2 Climate

* 5 Politics

* 5.1 Nordic Council
Nordic Council
* 5.2 Nordic model * 5.3 Elections * 5.4 Nordic Passport Union * 5.5 Political dimension and divisions * 5.6 Current leaders

* 6 Economy

* 6.1 Industries * 6.2 Foreign investments * 6.3 Foreign and intra-Nordic trade * 6.4 Energy

* 7 Demographics

* 7.1 Languages * 7.2 Migration * 7.3 The Sami

* 8 Culture

* 8.1 Music * 8.2 Literature * 8.3 Art

* 9 National symbols * 10 Nordic identity in Estonia * 11 See also * 12 References * 13 Further reading * 14 External links

ETYMOLOGY AND CONCEPT OF THE NORDIC COUNTRIES

Nordic flags

THE NORDIC COUNTRIES consists of historical territories of the Scandinavian countries, areas that share a common history and culture with Scandinavia. It is meant unambiguously to refer to this larger group, since the term Scandinavia
Scandinavia
is narrower and sometimes ambiguous. The Nordic countries
Nordic countries
are generally considered to unambiguously refer to Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway
Norway
and Sweden, including their associated territories (Greenland, the Faroe Islands, and the Åland Islands).

The term is derived indirectly from the local term _Norden_, used in the Scandinavian languages , which literally means "The North(ern lands)". Unlike _the Nordic countries_, the term _Norden_ is in the singular . The demonym is _nordbo_, literally meaning "northern dweller".

SCANDINAVIA refers to either the cultural and linguistic group formed by the three monarchies Denmark, Norway
Norway
and Sweden, or the Scandinavian peninsula , which is formed by mainland Norway
Norway
and Sweden as well as the northwesternmost part of Finland. Especially outside of the Nordic region the term Scandinavia
Scandinavia
is often used incorrectly as a synonym for the Nordic countries. First recorded use of the name by Pliny the Elder about a "large, fertile island in the North" (possibly referring to Scania
Scania
).

FENNOSCANDIA refers to the area that includes the Scandinavian peninsula, Finland, Kola Peninsula and Karelia
Karelia
. This term is mostly restricted to geology , when speaking of the Fennoscandian Shield .

CAP OF THE NORTH consists of the provinces and counties of Lapland in Finland, Finnmark
Finnmark
, Nordland
Nordland
and Troms
Troms
in Norway
Norway
and Lapland and Norrbotten in Sweden. This Arctic area is located around and north of the Arctic Circle in the three Nordic European countries Norway, Sweden
Sweden
and Finland, and the Kola Peninsula in Russia.

BARENTS REGION is formed by the Cap of the North as well as the Northern Ostrobothnia and Kainuu regions of Finland, Swedish provinces of Lapland , Västerbotten and Norrbotten , Russian Oblasts of Arkhangelsk and Murmansk , Nenets Autonomous Okrug , as well as the Republics of Karelia
Karelia
and Komi . This area co-operates through the Barents Euro-Arctic Council and Barents Regional Council.

NORTHERN EUROPE includes in addition to the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
the Baltic states , with the definition sometimes expanded to include the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, the Republic of Ireland , the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man .

*

Nordic countries
Nordic countries
(orange and red) and Scandinavian monarchies (red) *

The Barents Region
Region
*

A satellite photograph of Northern Europe.

LIST

Main article: Comparison of the Nordic countries

SOVEREIGN STATES

SOVEREIGN STATE Kingdom of Denmark
Denmark
Republic
Republic
of Finland
Finland
Iceland
Iceland
Kingdom of Norway
Norway
Kingdom of Sweden
Sweden

FLAG

COAT OF ARMS

OFFICIAL LOCAL NAME Kongeriget Danmark Suomen tasavalta Republiken Finland
Finland
Ísland Kongeriket Norge Kongeriket Noreg Norgga gonagasriika Konungariket Sverige

ENGLISH COMMON NAME Denmark
Denmark
Finland
Finland
Iceland
Iceland
Norway
Norway
Sweden
Sweden

Population
Population
(2016 estimate) 5,724,456 5,498,211 335,878 5,265,158 9,880,604

AREA 43,094 km2 338,145 km2 103,000 km2 323,802 km2 450,295 km2

Population
Population
Density

(2015 estimate) 130/km2 16.2/km2 3.2/km2 16.1/km2 21.8/km2

CAPITAL CITY Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Helsinki
Helsinki
Reykjavík Oslo
Oslo
Stockholm
Stockholm

Largest urban areas Copenhagen
Copenhagen
- 1,280,371 Aarhus - 264,716 Odense - 175,245 Aalborg
Aalborg
- 112,194 Esbjerg - 71,618 Helsinki
Helsinki
- 1,231,595 Tampere
Tampere
- 328,072 Turku
Turku
- 262,301 Oulu
Oulu
- 196,321 Jyväskylä
Jyväskylä
- 121,851 Reykjavík - 201,049 Akureyri
Akureyri
- 18,103 Reykjanesbær - 14,000 Akranes - 6,699 Selfoss - 6,512 Oslo
Oslo
– 942,084 Bergen
Bergen
- 247,713 Stavanger - 203,771 Trondheim
Trondheim
-169,972 Drammen - 110,503 Stockholm
Stockholm
– 1,372,565 Gothenburg
Gothenburg
- 549,839 Malmö - 280,415 Uppsala
Uppsala
140,454 Västerås - 110,877

FORM OF GOVERNMENT Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy Unitary parliamentary republic Unitary parliamentary republic Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy

CURRENT HEAD OF STATE AND GOVERNMENT Margrethe II
Margrethe II
(Monarch) Lars Løkke Rasmussen (Prime Minister) Sauli Niinistö (President) Juha Sipilä (Prime Minister) Guðni Th. Jóhannesson (President) Bjarni Benediktsson (Prime Minister) Harald V (Monarch) Erna Solberg (Prime Minister) Carl XVI Gustaf
Carl XVI Gustaf
(Monarch) Stefan Löfven (Prime Minister)

OFFICIAL LANGUAGES Danish Finnish and Swedish Icelandic Norwegian and Sami Swedish

OFFICIAL OR RECOGNIZED MINORITY LANGUAGES German (in South Jutland) Sami , Romani , Sign Language
Language
, Karelian Sign Language
Language
Kven , Tavringer , Romani Finnish , Sami , Romani , Yiddish and Meankieli

MAIN RELIGIONS 76% Lutheran
Lutheran
4% Islam 20% Other, unspecified or no religion 72% Lutheran
Lutheran
1.1% Orthodox 1.6% Other religion 25.3% Unspecified or no religion 69.9% Lutheran
Lutheran
9.7% Other Christian 5.1% Other religion 15.3% Unspecified or no religion 71.5% Lutheran
Lutheran
5.7% Other Christian 2.3% Islam 20.5% Other, unspecified or no religion 63% Lutheran
Lutheran
17% Other 20% No religion

GDP (NOMINAL) $336.7 billion $267.3 billion $13.6 billion $522.3 billion $579.7 billion

GDP (NOMINAL) PER CAPITA $59,921 $49,265 $45,416 $103,586 $60,566

GDP (PPP)

$240.9 billion $218.3 billion $13.2 billion $328.0 billion $418.2 billion

GDP (PPP) PER CAPITA $46,600 $40,600 $48,100 $69,300 $49,700

REAL GDP GROWTH RATE 1.3% 1.4% 4.9% 0.8% 3.3%

CURRENCY Danish krone Euro
Euro
Icelandic króna Norwegian krone Swedish krona

MILITARY EXPENDITURE 1.41% of GDP 1.47% of GDP 0.13% of GDP 1.4% of GDP 1.18% of GDP

MILITARY PERSONNEL 72,135 365,000 130 69,700 221,163

Labour Force 2,795,000 2,685,000 181,100 2,707,000 5,107,000

Human Development Index rank 7 10 2 1 8

Corruption Perceptions Index rank 1 3 14 6 4

Press Freedom Index rank 4 3 10 1 2

Fragile States Index rank 175 178 171 177 174

Enonomic Freedom rank 12 19 26 27 23

Global Competitiveness rank 12 10 27 11 6

Environmental Performance rank 4 1 2 17 3

Good Country rank 2 7 30 13 1

Global Gender Gap Report rank 19 2 1 3 4

World\'s Mothers report rank 6 1 4 2 3

World Happiness Report rank 2 5 3 1 10

The figures for Denmark
Denmark
and Finland
Finland
in this table does not include the associated territories of Greenland, Faroe Islands and Åland.

ASSOCIATED TERRITORIES

Main article: Comparison of the Nordic countries

ASSOCIATED TERRITORY Greenland
Greenland
Faroe Islands Åland Islands

FLAG

COAT OF ARMS

OFFICIAL LOCAL NAME Kalaallit Nunaat Føroyar Færøerne Landskapet Åland

Population
Population
(2016 estimate) 56,483 49,188 29,013

AREA 2,166,086 km2 1,393 km2 1,580 km2

POPULATION DENSITY 0.028/km2 35.5/km2 18.36/km2

CAPITAL CITY Nuuk Tórshavn Mariehamn
Mariehamn

LARGEST URBAN AREAS Nuuk - 16,464 Sisimiut - 5,598 Ilulissat - 4,541 Qaqortoq - 3,229 Aasiaat - 3,142 Tórshavn - 12,648 Klaksvík - 4,681 Hoyvík - 2,951 Argir - 1,907 Fuglafjørður - 1,542 Mariehamn
Mariehamn
- 11,521 Jomala
Jomala
- 4,646 Finström - 2,529 Lemland - 1,991 Saltvik - 1,827

SOVEREIGN STATE Kingdom of Denmark
Denmark
Republic
Republic
of Finland
Finland

FORM OF GOVERNMENT Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy Unitary parliamentary republic

CURRENT HEAD OF STATE AND GOVERNMENT Margrethe II
Margrethe II
(Monarch) Kim Kielsen (Prime Minister) Margrethe II
Margrethe II
(Monarch) Aksel V. Johannesen (Prime Minister) Sauli Niinistö (President) Katrin Sjögren (Prime Minister)

MAIN LANGUAGE Greenlandic , Danish Faroese , Danish Swedish

MAIN RELIGIONS 96.08% Lutheran
Lutheran
0.79% Inuit spiritual beliefs 2.48% Atheist + Agnostic 89.3% Lutheran
Lutheran
6% Unspecified 3.8% None 78.3% Lutheran
Lutheran

GDP (NOMINAL) $2.16 million $2,613 million

GDP (NOMINAL) PER CAPITA $43,365 $50,300

GDP (PPP) $2.173 billion $1.471 billion $1.563 billion

GDP (PPP) PER CAPITA $37,900 $36,600 $55,829

REAL GDP GROWTH RATE 0.90 % 2.90 %

CURRENCY Danish krone Faroese króna Euro
Euro

HISTORY

Further information: History of Scandinavia

EARLY HISTORY AND MIDDLE AGES

Further information: Scandinavian prehistory
Scandinavian prehistory
Vikingen tijd Effigy of Queen Margaret , founder and ruler of the Kalmar Union . Kalmar Union ca. 1400

Little evidence remains in the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
of the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, or the Iron Age with the exception of a limited numbers of tools created from stone, bronze, and iron, some jewelry and ornaments, and stone burial cairns. One important collection that exists, however, is a widespread and rich collection of stone drawings known as petroglyphs .

The Nordic countries
Nordic countries
first came into more permanent contact with the rest of Europe during the Viking age . Southern Finland
Finland
and northern parts of Sweden
Sweden
and Norway
Norway
were areas where the Vikings mostly only traded and had raids, whilst the permanent settlements of Vikings in the Nordic Region
Region
were in southern Norway
Norway
and Sweden, Denmark
Denmark
and Faroes as well as parts of Iceland, Greenland
Greenland
and Estonia
Estonia
. Christian Europe responded to the raids and conquest of Vikings with intensive missionary work. The missionaries wanted the new territories to be ruled by Christian kings who would help to strengthen the church. After conversion to Christianity
Christianity
in the 11th century, three northern kingdoms emerged in the region: Denmark, Norway
Norway
and Sweden. Iceland first became a commonwealth before it came under Norwegian rule in the early 13th century. There were several secular powers who aimed to bring Finland
Finland
under their rule but it was the Swedish regent, Birger Jarl , who established Swedish rule in Finland
Finland
through the Second Swedish Crusade , which is most often dated to have happened in 1249.

During the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
increased trade meant that the Nordic countries became increasingly integrated into Europe, and Nordic society became more Continental. The monarchies strengthened their positions in the 12th and 13th centuries through imposing taxes on peasants and a class of nobles also emerged. By the Late Middle Ages, the whole of the Nordic Region
Region
was politically united in the loose Kalmar Union . Diverging interests and especially Sweden's dissatisfaction over the Danish dominance gave rise to a conflict that hampered the union from the 1430s onward until its final dissolution in 1523. After the dissolution Denmark
Denmark
and Norway, including Iceland, formed a personal union of the two kingdoms called Denmark–Norway whilst the successful period of Vasa Kings began in Sweden
Sweden
and Finland. The Lutheran
Lutheran
Reformation played a major role in the establishment of the early-modern states in Denmark– Norway
Norway
and Sweden.

EARLY MODERN PERIOD AND INDUSTRIALIZATION

Treaty of Brömsebro, 1645. Denmark– Norway
Norway
Sweden
Sweden
The provinces of Jemtland, Herjedalen, Idre width:1.5em; height:1.5em; margin:1px 0; border:1px solid black; background-color: #FF0000; color:black; font-size:100%; text-align:center;"> The province of Halland, ceded for 30 years. Main article: Torstenson War

Sweden
Sweden
was very successful during the Thirty Years' War, while Denmark
Denmark
was a failure. Sweden
Sweden
saw an opportunity of a change of power in the region. Denmark– Norway
Norway
had a threatening territory surrounding Sweden, and the Sound Dues were a continuing irritation for the Swedes. In 1643 the Swedish Privy Council determined Swedish territorial gain in an eventual war against Denmark– Norway
Norway
to have good chances. Not long after this, Sweden
Sweden
invaded Denmark–Norway.

Denmark
Denmark
was poorly prepared for the war, and Norway
Norway
was reluctant to attack Sweden, which left the Swedes in a good position.

The war ended as foreseen with Swedish victory, and with the Treaty of Brömsebro in 1645, Denmark– Norway
Norway
had to cede some of their territories, including Norwegian territories Jemtland , Herjedalen and Idre "> Nordic prime ministers at the Nordic Council
Nordic Council
meeting in 2014 in Stockholm
Stockholm
.

During the two world wars and the Cold War, the five small Nordic states were forced into difficult balancing acts, but retained their independence and developed peaceful democracies. The Nordic states had been neutral during World War One , but during World War Two
World War Two
they could no longer stand apart from world politics. The Soviet Union attacked Finland
Finland
in 1939, and Finland
Finland
ceded territory following the Winter War
Winter War
. In 1941 Finland
Finland
launched a retaliatory strike in conjunction with the German attack on the Soviet Union. However, more territory was lost, and for many years to come Finnish foreign policy was based on appeasing the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
, even though Finland
Finland
was able to retain its democratic form of government. Denmark
Denmark
and Norway
Norway
were occupied by Germany
Germany
in 1940. The Allies responded by occupying Iceland, the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Sweden
Sweden
managed to formally maintain its neutrality in the Axis/Allies conflict and avoided direct hostilities, but in practice it adapted to the wishes of the dominant power – first Germany, later the Allies. However, during the Winter War between Finland
Finland
and Russia
Russia
in 1939-40, Sweden
Sweden
did support Finland and declared itself "non combatant" rather than neutral.

Compared with large parts of Europe, the Nordic Region
Region
got off lightly during the World War Two, which partially explains its strong post-war economic development. The labour movement – both trade unions and political parties – was an important political presence throughout the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
in the 20th century. The big social democratic parties became dominant and after World War Two
World War Two
the Nordic countries began to serve as a model for the welfare state. Economically, the five Nordic countries
Nordic countries
were strongly dependent on foreign trade, and so they positioned themselves alongside the big trading blocks. Denmark
Denmark
was the first to join EEC in 1972 and after it became European Union
European Union
in 1993 Finland
Finland
and Sweden
Sweden
also joined in 1995. Norway
Norway
and Iceland
Iceland
have remained part of EFTA .

TIMELINE

CENTURY NORDIC POLITICAL ENTITIES

Danes
Danes
Greenlanders Faroese Icelanders Norwegians Swedes Finns

8th Prehistoric Danish Prehistoric Greenlandic _(Paleo-Eskimo and Norse)_ Prehistoric Faroese _(Norse)_ Prehistoric Icelandic _(Norse)_ Prehistoric Norwegian Prehistoric Swedish Prehistoric Finnish

9th Hereditary Kingdom of Norway
Norway

10th Denmark Icelandic Commonwealth

11th

12th Sweden

13th

14th

15th Kalmar Union

16th Denmark- Norway
Norway
Sweden

17th

18th

19th Denmark United Kingdoms of Sweden
Sweden
and Norway
Norway
_Grand Duchy of Finland
Finland
_

20th Denmark
Denmark
_ Greenland
Greenland
_ _ Faroe Islands _ Iceland
Iceland
Norway
Norway
Sweden
Sweden
Finland
Finland

21st

_"Italics"_ indicates a dependent territory .

GEOGRAPHY

See also: Geography of Denmark
Denmark
, Geography of Greenland
Greenland
, Geography of the Faroe Islands , Geography of Finland
Finland
, Geography of Åland , Geography of Iceland
Iceland
, Geography of Norway
Norway
, and Geography of Sweden
Sweden
Satellite map of the Nordic countries.

The Nordic countries
Nordic countries
have a combined area of around 3.5 million square kilometres and therefore the geography of the Nordic countries is extremely varied. The area is so vast that it is situated on five time zones . To the east the region borders Russia
Russia
and on the west the Canadian coastline can be seen from Greenland
Greenland
on a clear day. Even without Greenland
Greenland
and the Norwegian islands of Svalbard
Svalbard
and Jan Mayen , the remaining part of the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
covers around 1,3 million square kilometres. This area is around the same size as France, Germany
Germany
and Italy together. To the south the countries neighbor the Baltic States , Poland
Poland
, Germany
Germany
and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
while to the North there is the Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean
.

Notable natural features of the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
include the Norwegian fjords , the Archipelago Sea between Finland
Finland
and Sweden, the extensive volcanic and geothermal activity of Iceland
Iceland
, and Greenland, which is the largest island in the world. The southernmost point of the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
is Gedser , which is located on the island of Falster in Denmark. The northernmost point is Kaffeklubben Island in Greenland, which is also the northernmost point of land on Earth. Largest cities and capitals of the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
are situated on the southern parts of the region, with the exception of Reykjavík , the capital of Iceland. Helsinki
Helsinki
, Oslo
Oslo
and Stockholm
Stockholm
are all located close to the same latitude as the southernmost point of Greenland, Egger Island (_Itilleq_), located about 60°N .

TOPOGRAPHY

See also: Sub-Cambrian peneplain and Muddus plains

All of Denmark
Denmark
and most of Finland
Finland
lie below 200 m, the topography of both is countries being relatively flat. In Denmark
Denmark
moraines and tunnel valleys add some relief to the landscape while in Finland
Finland
the surroundings of lakes Pielinen and Päijänne have higher relief. The Finnish area just east of Bothnian Bay stand out as the largest plain in Nordic countries. The Scandinavian Mountains dominate the landscape of Norway. The southern part of the Scandivian Mountains is broader than the northern one and contain higher peaks. The southern part contains also a series of plateaux and gently undulating plains . The western parts of mountains are cut by fjords producing a dramatic landscape. The landscape of Sweden
Sweden
is mixture of that of Norway, Finland
Finland
and Denmark. Except at the High Coast the coastal areas of Sweden
Sweden
form lowlands. Sweden
Sweden
has three highland areas, the South Swedish Highlands , the Scandinavian Mountains and the Norrland terrain which is the eastern continuation of the Scandinavian Mountains. The South Swedish Highland and the Norrland terrain are separated by the Central Swedish Lowland . The topography of Iceland stands out among the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
for being a bowl-formed highland.

CLIMATE

Main article: Climate of the Nordic countries The Öresund Bridge between Malmö in Sweden
Sweden
and Copenhagen
Copenhagen
in Denmark.

Despite their northern location, the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
generally have a mild climate compared with other countries that share globally the same latitudes. The climate in the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
is mainly influenced by their northern location, but remedied by the vicinity to the ocean and the Gulf Stream which brings warm ocean currents from the tip of Florida. Even far to the north the winters can be quite mild, though north of the Polar Circle the climate zone is Arctic with harsh winters and short summers. The sea has a heavy influence on the weather in the western coastal zones of Iceland, Norway, Denmark
Denmark
and Sweden. The precipitation is high and snow cover during winters is rare. Summers are generally cool.

The further away you get from the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
and the Gulf Stream the colder it gets during the winters. Finland, most of Sweden
Sweden
and the south-eastern part of Norway
Norway
are influenced by the vast continent to the east which results in warm and long summers and clear and cold winters, often with snow. For example, Bergen
Bergen
at the west coast of Norway
Norway
normally has a temperature above zero in February while Helsinki
Helsinki
in Finland
Finland
normally will have a temperature of 7–8 °C below zero during the same month.

Climatic conditions and quality of land have determined how land is used in the Nordic countries. In densely populated mainland Denmark there is hardly any wild nature left. Most of the scarce forests are plantations, and nearly 60 per cent of Denmark’s total area is cultivated or zoned as gardens or parks. On the other hand, in the other Nordic countries, there is much wild nature left. Only between 0 and 9 per cent of the land in the other Nordic countries
Nordic countries
is cultivated. Around 17 per cent of the land area in Iceland
Iceland
is used for permanent meadows and pastures, and both Finland, Norway
Norway
as well as Sweden
Sweden
have large forest areas.

*

Share of total area in the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
in 2012. *

Average temperatures in the capitals of the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
in 2012.

POLITICS

See also: Politics of Denmark
Denmark
, Politics of Greenland
Greenland
, Politics of the Faroe Islands , Politics of Finland
Finland
, Politics of Åland , Politics of Iceland
Iceland
, Politics of Norway
Norway
, and Politics of Sweden
Sweden

NORDIC COUNCIL

Main article: Nordic Council
Nordic Council
Nordic Council
Nordic Council
in session at the Parliament of Norway
Norway
in 2007.

Politically, Nordic countries
Nordic countries
do not form a separate entity, but they co-operate in the Nordic Council
Nordic Council
. The council was established after World War II and its first concrete result was the introduction of a Nordic Passport Union in 1952. This resulted in a common labour market and free movement across borders without passports for the countries' citizens. In 1971, the Nordic Council
Nordic Council
of Ministers, an intergovernmental forum, was established to complement the Council. The Nordic Council
Nordic Council
and the Council of Ministers have their headquarters in Copenhagen
Copenhagen
and various installations in each separate country, as well as many offices in neighbouring countries. The headquarters are located at Ved Stranden No. 18, close to Slotsholmen.

The Nordic Council
Nordic Council
consists of 87 representatives, elected from its members' parliaments and reflecting the relative representation of the political parties in those parliaments. It holds its main session in the autumn, while a so-called "theme session" is arranged in the spring. Each of the national delegations has its own secretariat in the national parliament. The autonomous territories – Greenland, the Faroe Islands and Åland – also have Nordic secretariats. The Council does not have any formal power on its own, but each government has to implement any decisions through its country's legislative assembly. With Denmark, Iceland
Iceland
and Norway
Norway
being members of NATO
NATO
and Finland
Finland
and Sweden
Sweden
being neutral , the Nordic Council
Nordic Council
has not been involved in any military cooperation. However the Nordic foreign and security policy cooperation has become closer and, over the past few years, expanded its scope.

The Nordic Council
Nordic Council
of Ministers is responsible for inter-governmental cooperation. Prime Ministers have ultimate responsibility but this is usually delegated to the Minister for Nordic Cooperation and the Nordic Committee for Co-operation, which co-ordinates the day-to-day work. The autonomous territories have the same representation as states.

NORDIC MODEL

Main article: Nordic model

The Nordic countries
Nordic countries
share an economic and social model, which involves the combination of a market economy with a welfare state financed with heavy taxes. The welfare states were largely developed by strong social democrat parties, in Finland
Finland
with cooperation with the Agrarian League . Although the specifics differ between countries and there are ongoing political arguments, there is a strong consensus about keeping to the general concept.

A central theme in the Nordic model is the "universalist" welfare state aimed specifically at enhancing individual autonomy, promoting social mobility and ensuring the universal provision of basic human rights, as well as for stabilizing the economy. In this model welfare is not just aid to those who are in need of it, but a central part of the life of everybody: education is free, healthcare has zero or nominal fees in most cases, most children go to municipal day care etc.

The Nordic model is distinguished from other types of welfare states by its emphasis on maximizing labour force participation, promoting gender equality, egalitarian and extensive benefit levels, the large magnitude of income redistribution, and liberal use of expansionary fiscal policy. Trade unions are strong.

The model has been successful: the countries are among the wealthiest worldwide and there is little social unrest. In 2015, Save the Children ranked the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
as number 1–5 of countries where mothers and children fare the best (among 179 countries studied).

ELECTIONS

Vigdís Finnbogadóttir served as the fourth President of Iceland
Iceland
from 1980 to 1996 and was the world's first democratically elected female head of state . See also: Elections in Denmark
Denmark
, Elections in Greenland
Greenland
, Elections in the Faroe Islands , Elections in Finland
Finland
, Elections in Åland , Elections in Iceland
Iceland
, Elections in Norway
Norway
, and Elections in Sweden
Sweden

Nordic parliaments are all based on a one-chamber system . The Norwegian parliament, The Storting , did actually function as two separate chambers until 2009 when dealing with certain issues. The Icelandic Althing , founded in 930 AD, is reputed to be the oldest working parliament in the world. In Denmark, Iceland
Iceland
and Sweden elections are held at least once every four years. Finland, Åland and Norway
Norway
have fixed four-year election periods. Elections in the Faroe Islands and Greenland
Greenland
follow the Danish system of elections. The Danish Folketing
Folketing
, has 179 seats, including two seats each for the Faroe Islands and Greenland. The Finnish Eduskunta has 200 seats, including one seat for Åland. The Icelandic Althing has 63 seats, the Norwegian Storting 169 seats and the Swedish Riksdag
Riksdag
349 seats. The Faroese Løgting has 32 seats, Greenland’s Inatsisartut 31 seats and Åland’s Lagtinget 30 seats.

Nordic citizens – and for the three member countries of the EU also EU-citizens – living in another Nordic country are normally entitled to vote in local government elections after three months of residence; other foreign citizens have to reside in the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
for three to four years before they are eligible to vote. In Denmark
Denmark
and the Faroe Islands, people are the most eager at the ballot box, as the percentage of electorates is close to 90 per cent. Voters in Åland and Finland
Finland
are the least eager, which is reflected in the percentage of electorates, which is around 67 per cent. Men are more often elected to the national assembly compared to women. The biggest bias between the two sexes is seen in the Faroe Islands and Åland, while in Sweden, men and women are close to being equally represented in the national assembly.

NORDIC PASSPORT UNION

Main article: Nordic Passport Union

The Nordic Passport
Passport
Union, created in 1954, and implemented on May 1, 1958, allows citizens of the Nordic countries: Denmark
Denmark
(Faroe Islands included since January 1, 1966, Greenland
Greenland
not included), Sweden, Norway
Norway
( Svalbard
Svalbard
, Bouvet Island and Queen Maud Land not included), Finland
Finland
and Iceland
Iceland
(since September 24, 1965) to cross approved border districts without carrying and having their passport checked. Other citizens can also travel between the Nordic countries' borders without having their passport checked, but still have to carry some sort of approved travel identification documents. As of November 2015, there are temporary border controls set up between Denmark
Denmark
and Sweden. These border controls were set up to tackle the issue with immigrants coming to Sweden
Sweden
in relation to the ongoing European migrant crisis
European migrant crisis

Since 1996, these countries have been part of the larger EU directive Schengen Agreement area, comprising 30 countries in Europe. Border checkpoints have been removed within the Schengen zone and only a national ID card is required. Within the Nordic area any means of proving one's identity, e.g. a driving licence , is valid for Nordic citizens, because of the Nordic Passport
Passport
Union.

Since March 25, 2001, the Schengen acquis has fully applied to the five countries of the Nordic Passport Union (except for the Faroe Islands). There are some areas in the Nordic Passport Union that give extra rights for Nordic citizens, not covered by Schengen, such as less paperwork if moving to a different Nordic country, and fewer requirements for naturalisation .

POLITICAL DIMENSION AND DIVISIONS

ORGANISATION DENMARK FINLAND ICELAND NORWAY SWEDEN

CoE Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

EEA Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

EU Yes Yes No No Yes

Eurozone
Eurozone
No Yes No No No

NATO
NATO
Yes No Yes Yes No

OECD Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

UN Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

WTO Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

The Nordic region has a political dimension in the joint official bodies called the Nordic Council
Nordic Council
and the Nordic Council
Nordic Council
of Ministers. In this context, several aspects of the common market as in the European Union
European Union
have been implemented decades before the EU implemented them. Intra-Nordic trade is not covered by the CISG , but by local law. In the European Union
European Union
, the Northern Dimension refers to external and cross-border policies covering the Nordic countries, the Baltic countries, and Russia
Russia
.

The political cooperation between the Nordic Countries
Nordic Countries
has not led to a common policy or an agreement on the countries' memberships in the European Union, Eurozone
Eurozone
, and NATO
NATO
. Norway
Norway
and Iceland
Iceland
are the only Nordic countries
Nordic countries
not members of the European Union, while Finland
Finland
and Sweden
Sweden
are the only Nordic countries
Nordic countries
not members of NATO. Denmark alone participates in both organizations. Only Finland
Finland
is a member of the Eurozone. The tasks and policies of the European Union
European Union
overlap with the Nordic council significantly, e.g. the Schengen Agreement partially supersedes the Nordic passport free zone and a common labor market.

Additionally, certain areas of Nordic countries
Nordic countries
have special relationships with the EU. For example, Finland's autonomous island province Åland is not a part of the EU VAT zone .

CURRENT LEADERS

All Nordic countries
Nordic countries
have long traditions of being well-established parliamentary democracies. Denmark, Norway
Norway
and Sweden
Sweden
have a political system of constitutional monarchy , in which a nonpolitical monarch acts as head of state and the _de facto _ executive power is exercised by a cabinet led by a prime minister. Margrethe II
Margrethe II
has ruled Denmark as Queen Regnant and head of state since 14 January 1972, Carl XVI Gustaf became King of Sweden
Sweden
on 15 September 1973 and King Harald V of Norway
Norway
has reigned since 17 January 1991.

Finland
Finland
and Iceland
Iceland
have been parliamentary republics since their independence. Both countries are led by prime ministers whilst the directly elected president acts mostly as a ceremonial head of state with some legislative power. Finland
Finland
had a long tradition of having a strong presidential system, since in the beginning of its independence Prince Frederick Charles of Hesse was elected to the throne of Finland and Finland
Finland
was to become a monarchy. This failed due to World War I and the fall of the German Empire
German Empire
, and so it was a compromise that Finland
Finland
became a republic with a strong powered head of state. The President's powers were once so broad that it was said Finland
Finland
was the only real monarchy in northern Europe. However, amendments passed in 1999 reduced his powers somewhat, and the President now shares executive authority with the Prime Minister. Heads of State

*

DENMARK Margrethe II
Margrethe II
Queen of Denmark
Denmark
since 1972 *

FINLAND Sauli Niinistö President of Finland
Finland
since 2012 election *

ICELAND Guðni Th. Jóhannesson President of Iceland
Iceland
since 2016 election *

NORWAY Harald V King of Norway
Norway
since 1991 *

SWEDEN Carl XVI Gustaf
Carl XVI Gustaf
King of Sweden
Sweden
since 1973

Prime Ministers

*

DENMARK Lars Løkke Rasmussen Prime Minister of Denmark
Denmark
since 2015 election *

FINLAND Juha Sipilä Prime Minister of Finland
Finland
since 2015 election *

ICELAND Bjarni Benediktsson Prime Minister of Iceland
Iceland
since 2016 election *

NORWAY Erna Solberg Prime Minister of Norway
Norway
since 2013 election *

SWEDEN Stefan Löfven Prime Minister of Sweden
Sweden
since 2014 election

Speakers of Parliament

*

DENMARK Pia Kjærsgaard Speaker of the Folketing
Folketing
since 2015 election *

FINLAND Maria Lohela Speaker of the Eduskunta/ Riksdag
Riksdag
since 2015 election *

ICELAND Unnur Brá Konráðsdóttir Speaker of the Althing since 2017 *

NORWAY Olemic Thommessen President of the Storting since 2013 election *

SWEDEN Urban Ahlin
Urban Ahlin
Speaker of the Riksdag
Riksdag
since 2014 election

Leaders of the Opposition

*

DENMARK Mette Frederiksen Leader of the Social Democrats *

FINLAND Antti Rinne Chair of the Social Democrats *

ICELAND Katrín Jakobsdóttir Chair of the Left-Green Movement *

NORWAY Jonas Gahr Støre Leader of the Labour Party *

SWEDEN Anna Kinberg Batra Chair of the Moderate Party
Moderate Party

ECONOMY

See also: Economy of Denmark
Denmark
, Economy of Faroe Islands , Economy of Greenland
Greenland
, Economy of Finland
Finland
, Economy of the Åland Islands , Economy of Iceland
Iceland
, Economy of Norway
Norway
, and Economy of Sweden
Sweden
Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Central Station with S-Trains . Aleksanterinkatu is the main shopping street in Helsinki
Helsinki
for tourists and locals alike.

The Nordic economies are among the countries in the Western World with the best macroeconomic performance in the recent ten years. Denmark, Finland, Norway
Norway
and Sweden
Sweden
have for example experienced constant and large excess exports in recent years. Iceland
Iceland
is the only country which has balance of payments deficits as of 2011. At the same time, unemployment is low in most of the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
compared with the rest of Europe. As a result of the cyclical down-turn, the public balance is now in deficit, except for Norway. Over the past ten years, the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
had a noticeably larger increase in their gross domestic product (GDP) than the eurozone . The only exceptions were Denmark
Denmark
and Åland which had a lower growth. Measured by GDP per capita, the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
have a higher income than the Eurozone countries. Norway’s GDP per capita is as high as 80 per cent above the EA17 average, and Norway
Norway
is actually one of the countries with the highest standard of living in the world.

However, after the financial crisis of 2007–08 and the following Great Recession all the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
have been affected by the global crisis though to varying degrees. Iceland
Iceland
was most affected and had an Economic crisis from 2008 to 2011 , but GDP growth was also negative in all the other Nordic countries
Nordic countries
in 2008 and 2009. From 2009 most of the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
experienced growth again. The Nordic Council has set an objective for Nordic co-operation to achieve stable and sustainable economic growth, development of the Nordic welfare model , economic integration in the Nordic region and the promotion of joint Nordic interests at international level.

Private consumption has fallen during the crisis, but it gained pace again from 2010 onward. The decline was most profound in Denmark, Finland
Finland
and Iceland. Public consumption has, on the other hand, experienced positive growth rates – except for Iceland
Iceland
since 2008 and Denmark
Denmark
since 2010. The general rise is due to the many fiscal initiatives made by the Nordic governments to support economic growth and the financial and business sectors. From 2006 Iceland
Iceland
has experienced a fall in gross capital formation. This is after many years with an Icelandic growth particularly driven by investments, which had more than tripled in the recent ten years. Iceland
Iceland
also holds a leading position compared to the other Nordic countries regarding growth in public consumption in the years from 2000 to 2008.

Recent years’ large balance-of-payments surplus in Denmark, Finland, Norway
Norway
and Sweden
Sweden
has reduced the countries’ foreign debt . In addition to a balance-of-payments surplus or deficit, the size of a country’s foreign debt and foreign assets is affected by the exchange rate and the price of securities. Consequently, Finland’s foreign debt increased noticeably when the price of technology shares increased drastically in the late 1990s due to a large proportion of these shares being owned by households, funds and companies abroad. In this way, these foreign owners held a greater claim on Finland. When share prices decreased drastically in 1999–2001 in the dot-com bubble , it also led to a marked decrease in Finland’s net foreign debt. Iceland’s foreign net debt accounts for close to five times of its GDP. This means that Iceland
Iceland
owes the surrounding world values corresponding to five times the country’s total production. Sweden also had foreign debts by the end of 2010, however, at a much smaller scale. In 2012, all Nordic countries
Nordic countries
had a surplus on the total balance of payments. Norway
Norway
accounts for a substantial foreign exchange surplus, which is due to revenue from exports of oil and gas.

INDUSTRIES

Statfjord oil platform in Norway
Norway
is owned and operated by Statoil , which is the largest company in the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
.

Since the late 1990s, the Nordic manufacturing industry has accounted for a slightly declining proportion of the gross domestic product, with Norway
Norway
being a distinct exception. In Norway
Norway
the manufacturing industry’s proportion of GDP is still at a high level of around 35 per cent due to the large oil and natural gas sector. In the rest of the Nordic countries, the proportion lies between 15 and 20 per cent. Despite growing production, the manufacturing industry accounts for a decreasing proportion of total employment in the Nordic countries. Among the Nordic countries, Finland
Finland
is today the number one Nordic industrial country, as the manufacturing industry in Finland
Finland
accounts for the greatest proportion of the country’s jobs, around 16 per cent. By way of comparison, in Denmark, Norway
Norway
and Iceland
Iceland
it only accounts for less than 13 per cent of total employment.

The service sector has increased drastically in all Nordic countries in the last 15 years and today accounts for about three fourths of all employed persons. Denmark, Norway, Iceland, Sweden
Sweden
and Åland have the largest proportion of employed in the service sector, between 75 and more than 90 per cent of those employed, while the corresponding figure is 72 per cent in Finland
Finland
and 70 per cent in Iceland. The service sector is a little smaller if its proportion of total gross domestic product is measured compared to the share of employment. In Norway, the service sector accounts for 57 per cent of GDP, in Iceland for 66 per cent, in Finland
Finland
for 69 per cent, in Sweden
Sweden
for 72 per cent and in Denmark
Denmark
for 78 per cent. The service sector includes retail and wholesale trade, hotels, restaurants, transportation, communication, financial services, real estate sale, renting, business services and other services such as teaching and care of children, sick persons and the elderly – services which are typically rendered by the public sector in the Nordic countries.

FOREIGN INVESTMENTS

Iceland
Iceland
and Sweden
Sweden
have the highest rate of foreign direct investment, both with regards to foreign companies investing in Iceland
Iceland
and Sweden
Sweden
and Icelandic and Swedish companies investing abroad. However, in 2011 Denmark
Denmark
superseded Sweden
Sweden
regarding outward investments. Looking at a larger time span of ten years most of the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
have experienced growth in both inward and outward investments.

However, Iceland
Iceland
has been in a league of its own in this area. Foreign investment from Iceland
Iceland
increased significantly and sharply especially from 2003 to 2007 from 16 to 123 per cent of GDP. The expansion of Icelandic companies into foreign markets was a rapid process. Strong pension funds provided capital for investments, and the privatization of the banking system made new sources of financing available for companies wishing to expand their operations. Also inward investment to Iceland
Iceland
increased sharply from 2003 but at a more moderate level compared with other Nordic countries. This pattern changed in 2007 with dramatic decreases in both outward and inward foreign direct investment.

FOREIGN AND INTRA-NORDIC TRADE

The Port of Gothenburg
Gothenburg
is the largest port in the Nordic countries.

Nordic co-operation is characterized largely by the international community and the global challenges and opportunities. The Nordic countries, which are relatively small, have historically and still are benefiting greatly by obtaining common use in cooperation with other countries and institutions. The Nordic economies are small and open and thus the countries are export-depending . Foreign trade constitutes an important part of the economic activity. Nordic foreign trade in goods, measured as the average of imports and exports, amounts to more than one fourth of GDP in the Nordic countries. All the Nordic countries, except Finland, had a surplus in their balance of trade in 2012. Every year since 1995 Denmark, Norway
Norway
and Sweden have all had greater exports than imports.

The trade between the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
is especially considerable as about one fifth of the countries’ foreign trade is trade with other Nordic countries. The total population of the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
of around 26 million people makes them to a far greater extent dependent on each other with respect to exports and imports, compared to for example Germany
Germany
with a population of 82 million people. Swedish exports to the other Nordic countries
Nordic countries
account for a considerably higher share than combined Swedish exports to Germany
Germany
and France – despite the fact that the total population of Germany
Germany
and France is 147 million people, while Denmark, Finland, Iceland
Iceland
and Norway
Norway
only have a total population of 16 million. In 2012, around 23 per cent of the total exports from both Denmark
Denmark
and Sweden
Sweden
went to other Nordic countries. Other Nordic countries
Nordic countries
account for 16 per cent of Finnish exports, 13 per cent of Norwegian exports and 10 per cent of the total exports in Iceland.

In addition to the other Nordic countries, The European Union
European Union
is the largest trading partner for the Nordic countries. Especially important is trade with Germany, Belgium
Belgium
and the Netherlands
Netherlands
. Outside of Europe the United States
United States
is also a major trading partner. A common characteristic in the exports of the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
is a concentration on a few products. The exports of Greenland
Greenland
and the Faroe Islands are entirely dominated by fish and fish products, to a lesser extent in Iceland
Iceland
where aluminium exports also contribute significantly. Oil and gas are the predominant products exported by Norway, and Finnish exports are dominated by wood, paper and paper products and telecommunication equipment. Danish and Swedish exports are more equally distributed on different products, with processed food, pharmaceuticals and chemical products as the major Danish export products and cars, wood, paper products and telecommunication equipment as predominant in Swedish exports. Germany
Germany
is completely dominant when it comes to Nordic imports. However, the Nordic countries also have considerable imports from the Netherlands, China and Russia.

ENERGY

See also: Energy in Denmark
Denmark
, Energy in Finland
Finland
, Energy in Iceland
Iceland
, Energy in Norway
Norway
, and Energy in Sweden
Sweden
During the recent years Denmark
Denmark
has invested heavily in windfarms .

The Nordic region is one of the richest sources of energy in the world. Apart from the natural occurrence of fossil fuels such as oil and gas, the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
also have good infrastructure and technology to exploit renewable energy sources such as water, wind, bio-energy and geothermal heat. Especially Iceland
Iceland
and Sweden, but also Finland
Finland
and Norway
Norway
have a significant production of electricity based on hydro power . Geothermal energy production is the most important source of energy in Iceland, whilst nuclear power is produced in both Finland
Finland
and in Sweden. The indigenous production of energy in the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
has risen considerably over the last couple of decades – especially in Denmark
Denmark
and Norway
Norway
due to oil deposits in the North Sea .

The most important energy sources in the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
measured in terms of energy supply in million toe (tonnes oil equivalent) are in order of importance: oil, solid fuels (e.g. coal and wood), nuclear power, hydro and geothermal power and solar energy, and gas. In the EU the most important source of energy is also oil, but gas comes in second. Hydro and geothermal power and other renewable sources of energy are major sources in the Nordic countries, as compared to the EU countries. Particularly in Iceland
Iceland
and Norway, hydro and geothermal power constitute a major share of the overall energy supply. Denmark depends almost entirely on thermal power generated from coal, oil and gas. Iceland
Iceland
obtains a substantial part of its energy for heating from geothermal energy and depends almost entirely upon hydro-power resources for its production of electricity.

DEMOGRAPHICS

COUNTRY CAPITAL POPULATION AREA (KM²)

Denmark
Denmark
Copenhagen
Copenhagen
5,602,628 43,561

Greenland
Greenland
Nuuk 56,370 2,166,086

Faroe Islands Tórshavn 48,197 1,396

Finland
Finland
Helsinki
Helsinki
5,426,674 338,534

Åland Islands Mariehamn
Mariehamn
28,502 1,580

Iceland
Iceland
Reykjavík 321,857 103,440

Norway
Norway
Oslo
Oslo
5,051,275 323,787

Sweden
Sweden
Stockholm
Stockholm
9,555,893 447,420

Population
Population
density map of the Nordic countries.

At the beginning of the 20th century, almost 12 million people lived in the Nordic countries. Today, the population has increased to 26 million people – more than a doubling. With this population the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
have one of the lowest population densities in the world. The low density is partly due to the fact that many parts of the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
are marginal areas, where nature puts limitations on settlement. In four out of five Nordic countries, around 20 per cent of the population is to be found in the vicinity of the respective capitals. In Iceland
Iceland
this percentage is even higher, with more than 60 per cent of Icelanders residing at or nearby the capital city of Reykjavík .

During the past 100 years the population growth has been strongest in Greenland, where the population has multiplied by almost five, from 12,000 to 56,000 people. In Iceland
Iceland
the increase has gone from 78,000 to 322,000 people. The population on the Faroe Islands has more than tripled, from 15,000 to 48,000 people. The Swedish and Ålandic populations are the only ones that have not at least doubled. Since 1990, the total population in the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
has increased by more than 2.8 million people (12 per cent) – the most in Iceland
Iceland
(27 per cent) and in Norway
Norway
and Åland by 19 and close to 18 per cent. Certain regions in Finland, Norway
Norway
and Sweden
Sweden
have experienced a decline in the population due to urbanization , but at the national level, all the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
have experienced growth. Compared to 2005, both the Faroe Islands and Greenland
Greenland
have experienced a minor decline in the population. Iceland
Iceland
has also experienced shorter periods with a declining population. The Danish population is expected to increase by 8 per cent until 2035, while Finland
Finland
and Sweden
Sweden
expect an increase in the population of about 10 and almost 16 per cent respectively.

Life expectancy is rising in all the Nordic countries. However, the levels vary greatly. Life expectancy for men in Greenland
Greenland
is 68.3 years (2011), compared to 80.8 years for men in Iceland. Women in the Faroe Islands and in Åland are expected to live the longest – more than 84 years. The population in the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
is getting older and according to the population projection for the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
as a whole, the share of the population above the age of 80 will reach 8.4 per cent in 2040, as compared to the 2013 level of 4.7 per cent. The share of population 80 years or older has increased from 1990 to 2013. The increase in the share of people above the age of 80 over the last 10 years is partly due to the fact that the death rate has fallen for almost all age groups and partly that the number of births has been low during the same period. In the next 25 years, the demographic dependency ratio is expected to have the strongest growth in Finland and Åland. According to the most recent population forecasts in Finland
Finland
and Åland, in 2030, it is expected that people over 65 will make up 50 per cent of the adult population. Sweden
Sweden
and Denmark
Denmark
can look forward to a relatively modest increase in the next decades. Iceland
Iceland
and Norway
Norway
seem to maintain their positions with the lowest proportions of elderly people in the Nordic countries.

LANGUAGES

Historical reenactment of a farmer wedding in Jomala
Jomala
, Åland. The Germanic languages in the Nordics The Finnic languages in Northern Europe

Most of the Nordic languages belong to one of three linguistic families: North Germanic languages , Finno-Ugric languages and Eskimo–Aleut languages . Although the area is linguistically heterogeneous, with three unrelated language groups, the common linguistic heritage is one of the factors making up the Nordic identity.

Danish , Faroese , Icelandic , Norwegian and Swedish belong to the North Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages . The languages have developed from a common Nordic language, but have moved away from each other during the past 1000 years. However, it is still perfectly possible for Danish, Norwegian and Swedish speakers to understand each other. These languages are taught in school throughout the Nordic countries; Swedish, for example, is a mandatory subject in Finnish schools, whereas Danish is mandatory in Icelandic and Faroese schools. Approximately six per cent of Finns speak Swedish as their mother tongue. The Sami languages in the Nordics

In the Finnish-Sami group of the Finno-Ugric languages, Finnish is the most widely spoken language in the Nordic countries. However, other languages in this family are also spoken in the region. Various Sami languages are spoken in northern Finland, Norway
Norway
and Sweden. Karelian is spoken a little in Finland, the Kven language in Norway, and Meänkieli or "Torne Valley Finnish" in Sweden. Finns are also the largest immigrant group in Sweden, around 4.46 per cent of the total population, and Finnish is an official minority language of Sweden
Sweden
.

Greenlandic or Kalaallisut belongs to the Inuit
Inuit
branch of the Eskimo-Aleut languages and is spoken in Greenland. The language is related to a number of languages spoken in northern Canada
Canada
and Alaska. As of 2009, the Greenland
Greenland
Home rule does not require Danish to be taught or the use of Danish for official purposes.

A number of other minority languages also exist in the region. German is spoken by a minority in Southern Jutland and their cultural and language rights are protected by the government. Finnish Kale , Norwegian and Swedish Travellers and other Romani peoples of the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
have the right to maintain and develop their language and culture. Yiddish is also an official minority language in Sweden. Besides the so-called "natural" languages national variants of sign languages are used. The Icelandic Sign Language
Language
is derived from the Danish , while the Finnish Sign Language
Language
is developed on the basis of the Swedish variant. The right to use sign language is set in the Finnish Language
Language
Act and in Sweden
Sweden
the Swedish sign language is an official minority language.

MIGRATION

In 2012, net migration had the greatest impact on the population increase in Sweden. That was also the case with Denmark, Finland, Åland and Norway. In the Faroe Islands, Greenland
Greenland
and Iceland, natural population increase had the greatest impact on the population change. But both Greenland
Greenland
and the Faroe Islands still had a slight decrease in the population due to a negative net migration in 2012.

A large proportion of the migration in the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
occurs between and among the countries themselves, largely as the result of the free labour market and liberal rules for the exchange of students in the Nordic countries. The trend has led to an increasing number of foreign citizens in the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
during the past few decades. In all the countries, the major part of the foreign citizens is non-Nordic. That is not the case for Greenland
Greenland
and the Faroe Islands, which have a high proportion of other Nordic citizens. Non-nationals range from 47 per cent of the total immigration in Iceland, to 89 per cent in Norway. In 2013 the largest proportions of non-nationals were in Norway
Norway
and Denmark, where they account for 8.9 and 8.8 per cent of the population. The proportion of non-nationals in the Finnish population is small compared to the other Nordic countries
Nordic countries
– 3.6 per cent in 2013 – but the proportion has risen significantly during and after the 1990s.

THE SAMI

Sami man at Honningsvåg , Norway, wearing the traditional Gákti .

The Sami people , also spelled Sámi or Saami, are the indigenous Finno-Ugric people who have their traditional settlement areas in northern Finland, Norway, Sweden
Sweden
and Russia. Most Sami live in Norway followed by Sweden
Sweden
and Finland, while the fewest Sami live in Russia. Because the countries don't make an official record of who has the Sami identity or background, no one knows the exact number of the Sami people. The Sámi are the only indigenous people of the Nordic countries excluding Greenland, that are recognized and protected under the international conventions of indigenous peoples. They are hence the northernmost indigenous people of Europe.

Sami is spoken in several variants, nowadays mostly regarded as separate languages. The Sami people are among the largest indigenous ethnic groups in Europe. Traditionally, the Sami have plied a variety of livelihoods, including coastal fishing, fur trapping, and sheep herding. However, the best known Sami livelihood is semi-nomadic reindeer herding. For traditional, environmental, cultural and political reasons, reindeer herding is legally reserved only for Sami people in certain regions of the Nordic countries. Nowadays, the Sami work in all sectors, in line with the non-Sami population, though, the primary industries are still important culture bearers for the Sami people.

*

Share of total population of the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
by country in January 2013. *

Life expectancy at birth in the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
in 2012. *

Marriages and divorces in the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
in 2012. *

Immigrants in the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
in 2012

CULTURE

Faroese folk dancers in national costumes.

Nordic countries
Nordic countries
have historically been one of the most socially progressive cultures in the world and culture is one of the main components of co-operation between the Nordic countries. The policies of the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
with respect to cultural life, mass media and religion have many shared values and features in common. However, some differences may be pointed out; for instance, cultural institutions arising from historical circumstances. In both Denmark
Denmark
and Sweden, there are cultural institutions with roots in the traditions of the royal courts. In these countries, national institutions formed the foundation of cultural life at an early stage while, in Norway, cultural institutions began to form later.

Iceland
Iceland
has the highest government expenditure on culture, a total of 3.3 per cent of its GDP in 2011. Denmark
Denmark
comes second with a total of 1.6 per cent of GDP in 2011. Sweden
Sweden
spend the least in 2011 with 1.1 per cent. Looking at per capita expenditure, Iceland
Iceland
again has the highest expenditure with Norway
Norway
coming second. Greenland
Greenland
spends the third highest amount on culture and leisure per capita. In Iceland
Iceland
and Norway, expenditures have more than doubled since 2000. In the other Nordic countries, expenditures have gone up between 40 and 50 per cent in the same period.

Denmark
Denmark
has the most museums, a total of 274, but museums in Åland and Iceland
Iceland
have the most visitors, an average of 4 and 5 visits per inhabitant. Many theatres in the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
receive public funding. Theatre funding constitutes a major share of allocations within the cultural area in all the countries. All countries have national theatres, where plays, ballets and operas are performed. In addition to the national theatres, there are professional regional theatres, which are also supported by the state, counties or municipalities. Most countries also have a few private theatres and many amateur ensembles, which may be supported, at least partially, by municipalities, primarily.

Nordic Culture Fund, established in 1966, aims to support a broad spectrum of cultural cooperations between the Nordic countries. The Fund’s ambition is to enable talented artists, both professionals and amateurs, to enrich each other via the cultural diversity that exists among the 26 million or more people of the Region. Its activities are based on an agreement between the Nordic countries, which came into force in 1967. The Fund receives its money in the form of an annual grant from the Nordic Council
Nordic Council
of Ministers.

MUSIC

See also: Nordic folk music and Nordic popular music ABBA
ABBA
is one of the best-selling music artists of all time .

Nordic countries
Nordic countries
share certain traditions in music, many of which have diverged significantly. In folk music , Denmark, Iceland, Norway, Sweden
Sweden
and the Faroe Islands share many common aspects. Greenland's Inuit
Inuit
culture has its own musical traditions, influenced by Scandinavian culture. Finland
Finland
shares many cultural similarities with both the other Nordic countries
Nordic countries
as well as with the Baltic states, especially Estonia. The Sami have their own unique culture, with ties to the neighboring cultures.

Rock ‘n roll influences that came from the United States
United States
and United Kingdom were the start of the Nordic pop scene, but influences from the Nordic folk music can still be found today in popular music. Common characteristic in Nordic pop music is that it can often be either very lighthearted pop music or very dark metal. Some of the most well-known Nordic music groups include ABBA
ABBA
, Ace of Base , a-ha , Aqua , Björk , The Cardigans
The Cardigans
, Europe , Hanoi Rocks , Roxette , The Rasmus , Kaizers Orchestra and The Spotnicks . Sweden
Sweden
and Finland
Finland
have possibly the largest music industries in the area, especially Sweden which is the largest exporter of pop music per capita and the third largest overall after the United States
United States
and the United Kingdom. Norway, Iceland
Iceland
and Denmark
Denmark
have all had successful domestic record industries for many years.

The Nordic metal scene is highly visible compared to other genres from the region. Many big names such as Amon Amarth
Amon Amarth
, Children of Bodom , In Flames , Meshuggah and Opeth originate from the Nordic countries. Nordic metal bands have had a long and lasting influence on the metal subculture alongside their counterparts in the United Kingdom and the United States. The black metal genre was developed in Norway
Norway
by bands such as Mayhem , Darkthrone , Burzum , Immortal , and Emperor
Emperor
, and the related genre of Viking metal was developed throughout the Nordic region by bands such as Bathory , Enslaved , Burzum, Emperor, Einherjer
Einherjer
, Moonsorrow , and Amon Amarth.

Since 2000 the total sale of music has declined by almost 50 per cent in all the Nordic countries, at the same time the digital sale has increased. Digital sales cover both downloads and streaming of music. In Denmark, Norway
Norway
and Finland, the sale of digital music has five-doubled since 2006 and now amounts to 39, 27 and 25 per cent of the total sale in 2010/2011. In Denmark
Denmark
and Sweden, sales of digital music have almost eight-doubled in the same period and now represent 51 per cent of the total sale. In Iceland, digital sale still only represents 3 per cent of the total sale.

LITERATURE

See also: Nordic literature Søren Kierkegaard is considered to be the first existentialist philosopher. Swedish author Astrid Lindgren together with Finnish author Tove Jansson
Tove Jansson
in Stockholm
Stockholm
in 1958.

The earliest written records from Scandinavia
Scandinavia
are runic inscriptions on memorial stones and other objects. Some of those contain allusions to Norse mythology and even short poems in alliterative verse . The best known example is the elaborate Rök runestone (ca. 800) which alludes to legends from the migration age. The oldest of the Eddic poems are believed to have been composed in the 9th century, though they are only preserved in 13th-century manuscripts. They tell of the myths and heroic legends of Scandinavia. Skaldic poetry is mostly preserved in late manuscripts but was preserved orally from the 9th century onwards, and also appears on runestones, such as the Karlevi Runestone . In Iceland
Iceland
the Sagas of Icelanders are the best-known specimens of Icelandic literature . In Finland
Finland
the most famous collection of folk poetry is by far the Kalevala , which is the national epic of the country.

Nordic countries
Nordic countries
have produced important and influential literature. Henrik Ibsen , a Norwegian playwright, was largely responsible for the popularity of modern realistic drama in Europe, with plays like _The Wild Duck _ and _A Doll\'s House _. His contemporary, Swedish novelist and playwright August Strindberg
August Strindberg
, was a forerunner of experimental forms such as expressionism , symbolism , and surrealism . Nobel prizes for literature have been awarded to Selma Lagerlöf , Verner von Heidenstam , Karl Adolph Gjellerup , Henrik Pontoppidan , Knut Hamsun , Sigrid Undset , Erik Axel Karlfeldt , Frans Eemil Sillanpää , Johannes Vilhelm Jensen , Pär Lagerkvist , Halldór Laxness , Nelly Sachs , Eyvind Johnson , Harry Martinson and Tomas Tranströmer
Tomas Tranströmer
. World-famous Nordic children\'s book writers include Hans Christian Andersen , Tove Jansson
Tove Jansson
and Astrid Lindgren .

Since 1962 the Nordic council has awarded a literature price once a year for a work of fiction written in one of the Nordic languages. Since its establishment the prize has been won by 15 Swedish, 10 Danish, 10 Norwegian, 8 Finnish, 7 Icelandic, 2 Faroe and 1 Sami writers.

Nordic libraries function as information centres with a wide variety of services and access to all kinds of printed and electronic media. In the last twenty years, there has been an overall decline in stock and lending of books in public libraries. Despite the general decline in stock and loans, most of the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
have had an increase in the lending of other media than books. Since 2000 the stock of other media has increased between 30 and 85 percent in the Nordic countries. The lending of books has at the same time decreased in all Nordic countries, a decline between 10 and 20 percent.

ART

See also: Nordic art

* Examples of nordic art from the 19th century

*

VILHELM HAMMERSHøI (1864–1916) _Interior with Young Man Reading_, 1898 *

HELENE SCHJERFBECK (1862–1946) _Dancing Shoes_, 1882 *

ÞóRARINN B. ÞORLáKSSON (1867–1924) _ Þingvellir _, 1900 *

EDVARD MUNCH (1863–1944) _ The Scream
The Scream
_, 1893 *

AUGUST STRINDBERG (1849–1912) _Marine with rocks_, 1894 *

DíðRIKUR á SKARVANESI (1802-1865) _Birds_, 1800s

_ THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (July 2016)_

NATIONAL SYMBOLS

All Nordic countries, including the autonomous territories of Faroe and Åland Islands , have a similar flag design, all based on the Dannebrog , the Danish flag. They display an off-centre cross with the intersection closer to the hoist, the " Nordic cross ". Greenland
Greenland
and Sápmi have adopted flags without the Nordic cross, but they both feature a circle which is placed off-centre, similar to the cross.

NORDIC IDENTITY IN ESTONIA

Main article: Nordic identity in Estonia Nordic Countries including Estonia
Estonia

Estonia
Estonia
and Estonians often define themselves as Nordic instead of or in addition to Baltic.

The current President of Estonia
Estonia
defines the Nordic and Baltic region as the "Nordic Benelux". The prime minister of Estonia
Estonia
has defined the country as nordic.

Estonia
Estonia
has defined itself as a Nordic country in the World Expo

A push towards being defined as a Nordic country has existed in independent Estonia
Estonia
since the Estonian War of Independence in 1918.

In December 1999, then Estonian foreign minister (and President of Estonia
Estonia
from 2006 until 2016) Toomas Hendrik Ilves delivered a speech entitled " Estonia
Estonia
as a Nordic Country" to the Swedish Institute for International Affairs . In 2003, the foreign ministry also hosted an exhibit called "Estonia: Nordic with a Twist".

An essay competition on the topic "Is Estonia
Estonia
Nordic?" was held in 2016, by public activists and school students.

A conference including the Nordic Council
Nordic Council
was held in September 2016, discussing Estonia's identity as a Nordic country.

SEE ALSO

* Denmark
Denmark
portal * Faroe Islands portal * Finland
Finland
portal * Greenland
Greenland
portal * Iceland
Iceland
portal * Norway
Norway
portal * Sweden
Sweden
portal

* Baltoscandia
Baltoscandia
* Climate of the Nordic countries * Nordic Council
Nordic Council
/ Northern Dimension * Nordic Cross * NB8 * Scandinavia
Scandinavia
* Northern Europe * Baltic region * Fennoscandia * Subdivisions of the Nordic countries * Comparison of the Nordic countries * Baltic states

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FURTHER READING

* Clerc, Louis; Glover, Nikolas; Jordan, Paul, eds. _Histories of Public Diplomacy and Nation Branding in the Nordic and Baltic Countries: Representing the Periphery_ (Leiden: Brill Nijhoff, 2015). 348 pp. ISBN 978- 90-04-30548-9. online review

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to THE NORDIC REGION _.

_ Wikivoyage has a travel guide for NORDIC COUNTRIES _.

* Norden, website of the Nordic Council
Nordic Council
and Nordic Council
Nordic Council
of Ministers. * Nordic Countries, Railway map of the Nordic

.