Lombardy (/ˈlɒmbərdi/ LOM-bər-dee; Italian: Lombardia
[lombarˈdiːa]; Lombard: Lumbardia, pronounced: (Western Lombard)
[lumbarˈdiːa], (Eastern Lombard) [lombarˈdeːa]) is one of the
twenty administrative regions of Italy, in the northwest of the
country, with an area of 23,844 square kilometres
(9,206 sq mi). About 10 million people, forming one-sixth of
Italy's population, live in
Lombardy and about a fifth of Italy's GDP
is produced in the region, making it the most populous and richest
region in the country and one of the richest regions in Europe.
Milan, Lombardy's capital, is the second-largest city and the largest
metropolitan area in Italy.
2.3 Flora and fauna
Prehistory and antiquity
3.2 Kingdom of the Lombards
3.3 Communes and the Empire
Renaissance duchies of
Milan and Mantua
3.5 Late-Middle Ages,
Renaissance and Enlightenment
3.6 Modern era
6 Government and politics
6.1 Administrative divisions
7.1 UNESCO World Heritage Sites
7.3 Other sights
7.4.1 Typical dishes
8 See also
10 External links
Lombardy comes from Lombard, which in turn is derived from
Late Latin Longobardus, Langobardus ("a Lombard"), derived from the
Proto-Germanic elements *langaz + *bardaz; equivalent to long beard.
Some sources derive the second element instead from Proto-Germanic
*bardǭ, *barduz ("axe"), related to German Barte ("axe").
During the early Middle Ages "Lombardy" referred to the Kingdom of the
Lombards (Latin: Regnum Langobardorum), a kingdom ruled by the
Lombards who had controlled most of
Italy since their
invasion of Byzantine
Italy in 568. As such "Lombardy" and "Italy"
were almost interchangeable; by the mid-8th century only the Papal
possessions around Rome (roughly modern
Lazio and northern Umbria),
Venice and some Byzantine possessions in the south (southern Apulia
and Calabria; some coastal settlements including Amalfi, Gaeta, Naples
Sicily and Sardinia) weren't controlled by the Lombards.
The Kingdom was divided between
Longobardia Major in the north and
Langobardia Minor in the south, which were until the 8th century
separated by the Byzantine
Exarchate of Ravenna
Exarchate of Ravenna (roughly
northern Marche, and initially also Emilia and Liguria) and the Papacy
(which was initially part of the Exarchate). During the late Middle
Ages, after the fall of the northern part of the Kingdom to
Charlemagne, the term shifted to mean Northern Italy. (See: Kingdom of
Italy (Holy Roman Empire)). The term was also used until around 965 in
the form Λογγοβαρδία (Longobardia) as the name for the
territory roughly covering modern
Apulia which the Byzantines had
recovered from the Lombard rump Duchy of Benevento.
With a surface of 23,861 km2 (9,213 sq mi),
the fourth-largest region of Italy. It is bordered by Switzerland
Canton Ticino and Canton Graubünden) and by the Italian
Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol and
Romagna (south), and
Piedmont (west). Three distinct natural
zones can be fairly easily distinguished in Lombardy: mountains, hills
and plains—the latter being divided in Alta (high plains) and Bassa
The orography of
Lombardy is characterised by the presence of three
distinct belts: a northern mountainous belt constituted by the Alpine
relief, a central piedmont area of mostly pebbly soils of alluvial
origin, and the Lombard section of the Padan plain in the southernmost
part of the region.
The most important mountainous area is an Alpine zone including the
Lepontine and Rhaetian Alps, (Piz Bernina, 4,020 m), the
Alps and the
Adamello massif; it is followed by an Alpine
foothills zone Prealpi, which include the main peaks are the Grigna
Group (2,410 m),
Resegone (1,875 m) and
Presolana (2,521 m).
The plains of Lombardy, formed by alluvial deposits, can be divided
into the Alta—an upper, permeable ground zone in the north and a
lower zone—and the Bassa—dotted by the so-called line of
fontanili, spring waters rising from impermeable ground. Inconsistent
with the three distinctions above made is the small subregion of
Oltrepò Pavese, formed by the Apennine foothills beyond the Po River.
Bridge over the
Po river marks the southern border of the region for a
length of about 210 km. In its progress it receives the waters of
Ticino River, which rises in the
Bedretto valley (Switzerland) and
joins the Po near Pavia. The other streams which contribute to the
great river are, the Olona, the Lambro, the Adda, the
Oglio and the
The numerous lakes of Lombardy, all of glacial origin, lie in the
northern highlands. From west to east these are Lake Maggiore, Lake
Lugano (both shared with Switzerland), Lake Como, Lake Iseo, Lake
Idro, then Lake Garda, the largest in Italy. South of the
Alps lie the
hills characterised by a succession of low heights of morainic origin,
formed during the last
Ice Age and small barely fertile plateaux, with
typical heaths and conifer woods. A minor mountainous area, the
Oltrepò Pavese, lies south of the Po, in the
Flora and fauna
Alpine ibex (Capra ibex)
In the plains, intensively cultivated for centuries, little of the
original environment remains. The most commons trees are elm, alder,
sycamore, poplar, willow and hornbeam. In the area of the foothills
lakes, however, grow olive trees, cypresses and larches, as well as
varieties of subtropical flora such as magnolias, azaleas, acacias.
Numerous species of endemic flora in the Prealpine area include some
kinds of saxifrage, the Lombard garlic, groundsels bellflowers and the
The highlands are characterised by the typical vegetation of the whole
range of the Italian Alps. At a lower levels (up to approximately
1,100 m) oak woods or broadleafed trees grow; on the mountain slopes
(up to 2,000–2,200 m) beech trees grow at the lowest limits, with
conifer woods higher up. Shrubs such as rhododendron, dwarf pine and
juniper are native to the summital zone (beyond 2,200 m).
Lombardy counts many protected areas: the most important are the
Stelvio National Park
Stelvio National Park (the largest Italian natural park), with
typically alpine wildlife: red deer, roe deer, ibex, chamois, foxes,
ermine and also golden eagles; and the
Ticino Valley Natural Park,
instituted in 1974 on the Lombard side of the
Ticino River to protect
and conserve one of the last major examples of fluvial forest in
Lombardy has a wide array of climates, due to local variances in
elevation, proximity to inland water basins, and large metropolitan
Palms and maritime pines on the shores of Lake Como
The climate of the region is mainly humid subtropical (Köppen Cfa),
especially in the plains, though with significant variations to the
Köppen model especially regarding the winter season, that in Lombardy
is normally long, rainy and rather cold. In addition, there is a high
seasonal temperature variation (in Milan, the average January
temperature is 2.5 °C (36.5 °F) and 24 °C
(75 °F) in July). A peculiarity of the regional climate is the
thick fog that covers the plains between October and February.
In the Alpine foothills, characterised by an oceanic climate (Köppen
Cfb), numerous lakes exercise a mitigating influence, allowing the
cultivation of typically Mediterranean crops (olives, citrus fruit).
In the hills and mountains, the climate is humid continental (Köppen
Dfb). In the valleys it is relatively mild, while it can be severely
cold above 1,500 metres, with copious snowfalls.
Precipitation is more intense in the Prealpine zone, up to 1,500 to
2,000 mm (59.1 to 78.7 in) annually, but is abundant also in
the plains and alpine zones, with an average of 600 to 850 mm
(23.6 to 33.5 in) annually. The total annual rainfall is on
average 827 mm.
Prehistory and antiquity
Further information: Cisalpine Gaul
Rock Drawings in Valcamonica
Rock Drawings in Valcamonica are among the largest collections of
prehistoric petroglyphs in the world.
The area of current
Lombardy was settled at least since the 2nd
millennium BC, as shown by the archaeological findings of ceramics,
arrows, axes and carved stones. Well-preserved rock drawings left by
Camuni in the
Valcamonica depicting animals, people and
symbols were made over a time period of eight thousand years preceding
the Iron Age, based on about 300,000 records.
The many artifacts (pottery, personal items and weapons) found in
necropolis near the Lake Maggiore, and Lake
Ticino demonstrate the
presence of the
Bronze Age culture that prospered in Western
Lombardy between the 9th and the 4th century BC.
In the following centuries it was inhabited by different peoples among
whom the Etruscans, who founded the city of
Mantua and spread the use
of writing; later, starting from the 5th century BC, the area was
invaded by Celtic–Gallic tribes. These people settled in several
cities (including Milan) and extended their rule to the
Their development was halted by the Roman expansion in the Po Valley
from the 3rd century BC onwards. After centuries of struggle, in 194
BC the entire area of what is now
Lombardy became a Roman province
with the name of
Gallia Cisalpina ("
Gaul on the inner side (with
respect to Rome) of the Alps").
The Roman culture and language overwhelmed the former civilisation in
the following years, and
Lombardy became one of the most developed and
rich areas of
Italy with the construction of a wide array of roads and
the development of agriculture and trade. Important figures like Pliny
the Elder (in Como) and
Virgil (in Mantua) were born here. In late
antiquity the strategic role of
Lombardy was emphasised by the
temporary moving of the capital of the Western Empire to Mediolanum
(Milan). Here, in 313 AD, Roman Emperor Constantine issued the famous
Milan that gave freedom of confession to all religions within
the Roman Empire.
Kingdom of the Lombards
Lombards and Kingdom of the Lombards
Iron Crown of Lombardy
Iron Crown of Lombardy has been for centuries used in the
Coronation of the Holy Roman Emperor.
During and after the fall of the Western Empire,
heavily from destruction brought about by a series of invasions by
tribal peoples. The last and most effective was that of the Germanic
Lombards, or Longobardi, who came around the 570s and whose
long-lasting reign (with its capital in Pavia) gave the current name
to the region. There was a close relationship between the Frankish,
Bavarian and Lombard nobility for many centuries.
After the initial struggles, relationships between the Lombard people
and the Latin-speaking people improved. In the end, the Lombard
language and culture assimilated with the Latin culture, leaving
evidence in many names, the legal code and laws, and other things. The
end of Lombard rule came in 774, when the Frankish king Charlemagne
conquered Pavia, deposed Desiderius, the last Lombard king, and
annexed the Kingdom of
Italy (mostly northern and central present-day
Italy) to his empire. The former Lombard dukes and nobles were
replaced by other German vassals, prince-bishops or marquises.
Communes and the Empire
Battle of Cortenuova, 1237.
In the 10th century Lombardy, formally under the rule of the Holy
Roman Empire, like much of central-northern Italy, was in fact divided
in a multiplicity of small, autonomous city-states, the medieval
communes. The 11th century marked a significant boom in the region's
economy, due to improved trading and, mostly, agricultural conditions,
with arms manufacture a significant factor. In a similar way to other
areas of Italy, this led to a growing self-acknowledgement of the
cities, whose increasing richness made them able to defy the
traditional feudal supreme power, represented by the German emperors
and their local legates. This process reached its apex in the 12th and
13th centuries, when different Lombard Leagues formed by allied cities
of Lombardy, usually led by Milan, managed to defeat the Hohenstaufen
Emperor Frederick I, at Legnano, and his grandson Frederick II, at
Parma. Subsequently, among the various local city-states, a process of
consolidation took place, and by the end of the 14th century, two
signorias emerged as rival hegemons in Lombardy:
Milan and Mantua.
Renaissance duchies of
Milan and Mantua
Further information: Duchy of
Milan and Duchy of Mantua
Mantua as it appeared in 1575.
In the 15th century the Duchy of
Milan was a major political,
economical and military force at the European level.
Milan and Mantua
became two centres of the
Renaissance whose culture, with men such as
Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci and Mantegna, and works of art were highly regarded
(for example, Leonardo da Vinci's The Last Supper). The enterprising
class of the communes extended its trade and banking activities well
into northern Europe: "Lombard" designated the merchant or banker
coming from northern
Italy (see, for instance, Lombard Street in
London). The name "Lombardy" came to designate the whole of Northern
Italy until the 15th century and sometimes later. From the 14th
century onwards, the instability created by the unceasing internal and
external struggles ended in the creation of noble seigniories, the
most significant of which were those of the Viscontis (later Sforzas)
Milan and of the Gonzagas in Mantua. This richness, however,
attracted the now more organised armies of national powers such as
France and Austria, which waged a lengthy battle for
Lombardy in the
late 15th to early 16th centuries.
Renaissance and Enlightenment
The Consulta of the République cisalpine receives the First Consul on
26 January 1802
After the decisive Battle of Pavia, the Duchy of
Milan became a
possession of the
Habsburgs of Spain: the new rulers did little to
improve the economy of Lombardy, instead imposing a growing series of
taxes needed to support their unending series of European wars. The
eastern part of modern Lombardy, with cities like
Bergamo and Brescia,
was under the Republic of Venice, which had begun to extend its
influence in the area from the 14th century onwards (see also Italian
Wars). Between the middle of the 15th century and the battle of
Marignano in 1515, the northern part of east
Chiasso (modern Ticino), and the
Valtellina valley came under
possession of the old Swiss Confederacy.
Pestilences (like that of 1628/1630, described by Alessandro
Manzoni in his I Promessi Sposi) and the generally declining
conditions of Italy's economy in the 17th and 18th centuries halted
the further development of Lombardy. In 1706 the Austrians came to
power and introduced some economic and social measures which granted a
Austrian rule was interrupted in the late 18th century by the French
armies; under Napoleon,
Lombardy became the centre of the Cisalpine
Republic and of the Kingdom of Italy, both being puppet states of
France's First Empire, having
Milan as capital and
Napoleon as head of
state. During this period
Lombardy took back
Further information: Lombardy-Venetia
The Five Days of Milan, 1848.
The restoration of Austrian rule in 1815, as the Kingdom of
Lombardy–Venetia, was characterised by the struggle with the new
ideals introduced by the Napoleonic era.
Lombardy became one of the
intellectual centres leading the
Italian unification process.
The popular republic established by the 1848 revolution was
short-lived, its suppression leading to renewed Austrian rule. This
came to a decisive end when
Lombardy was annexed to the Kingdom of
Italy 1859 as a result of the Second Italian Independence War. When
annexed to the Kingdom of
Italy in 1859
Lombardy achieved its
present-day territorial shape by adding the
Oltrepò Pavese (formerly
the southern part of Novara's Province) to the province of Pavia.
Starting from the late 19th century, and especially with the economic
boom of the 1950s–1960s,
Lombardy sharpened its status of richest
and most industrialised region of Italy.
Source: ISTAT 2017
The largest resident foreign-born
groups on 31 December 2016
Country of birth
One-sixth of the Italian population or about 10 million people live in
Lombardy (16.2% of the national population; 2% of the European Union
population), making it the second most densely populated region in
Italy after Campania.
The population is highly concentrated in the
Milan metropolitan area
(2,000 inh./km2) and the
Alpine foothills that compose the southern
section of the provinces of Varese, Como, Lecco,
Monza and Brianza and
Bergamo, (1,200 inh./km2). A lower average population density (250
inh./km2) is found in the Po valley and the lower
much lower densities (less than 60 inh./km2) characterise the northern
mountain areas and the southern
Oltrepò Pavese subregion.
The growth of the regional population was particularly sustained
during the 1950s–60s, thanks to a prolonged economic boom, high
birth rates, and strong migration inflows (especially from Southern
Italy). Since the 1980s,
Lombardy has become the destination of a
large number of international migrants, insomuch that today more than
a quarter of all foreign-born residents in
Italy lives in this region.
As of 2016[update], the Italian national institute of statistics
(ISTAT) estimated that 1,139,430 foreign-born immigrants live in
Lombardy, equal to 11.4% of the total population. The primary religion
is Catholicism; significant religious minorities include Christian
Waldenses, Protestants and Orthodox, as well as Jews,
A view over the business district of Milan: with a metropolitan area
of 7.4m people, it is Italy's most important industrial,
commercial and financial center.
As of 2013[update], the gross domestic product (GDP) of Lombardy,
equal to over €350 billion, accounts for about 20% of the total GDP
of Italy. When this measure is considered by inhabitant, it results in
a value of €33,066 per inhabitant, which is more than 25% higher
than the national average of €25,729.
Lombardy's development has been marked by the growth of the services
sector since the 1980s, and in particular by the growth of innovative
activities in the sector of services to enterprises and in credit and
financial services. At the same time, the strong industrial vocation
of the region has not suffered.
Lombardy remains, in fact, the main
industrial area of the country. The presence, and development, of a
very high number of enterprises belonging to the services sector
represents a favourable situation for the improvement of the
efficiency of the productive process, as well as for the growth of the
Lombardy is one of the Four Motors for Europe.
The region can broadly be divided into three areas as regards the
productive activity. Milan, where the services sector makes up for
65.3% of the employment; a group of provinces, Varese, Como, Lecco,
Monza and Brianza,
Bergamo and Brescia, highly industrialised,
although in the two latter ones, in the plains, there is also a rich
agricultural sector. Finally, in the provinces of Sondrio, Pavia,
Cremona, Mantova and Lodi, there is a consistent agricultural
activity, and at the same time an above average development of the
The productivity of agriculture is enhanced by a well-developed use of
fertilisers and the traditional abundance of water, boosted since the
Middle Ages by the construction (partly designed by Leonardo da Vinci)
of a wide net of irrigation systems. Lower plains are characterised by
fodder crops, which are mowed up to eight times a year, cereals (rice,
wheat and maise) and sugar beet. Productions of the higher plains
include cereals, vegetables, fruit trees and mulberries. The higher
areas, up to the Prealps and
Alps sectors of the north, produce fruit
and wine. Cattle (with the highest density in Italy), pigs and sheep
Government and politics
Main article: Politics of Lombardy
The Palazzo Lombardia, it is the main seat of the government of
Lombardy is framed within a system of representative
democracy, where the President of the Region (Presidente della
Regione) is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party
Executive power is vested in the Regional Government (Giunta
Legislative power is vested in the Regional Council
Historically, the moderate Christian Democrats maintained a large
majority of the popular support and the control of the most important
cities and provinces from the end of the Second World War to the early
1990s. The opposition
Italian Communist Party
Italian Communist Party was a considerable
presence only in southern
Lombardy and in the working class districts
of Milan; their base, however, was increasingly eroded by the rival
centrist Italian Socialist Party, until eventually the Mani Pulite
corruption scandal (which spread from
Milan to the whole of Italy)
wiped away the old political class and parties almost entirely.
This, together with the general disaffection towards the central
government (considered as wasting resources to balance the budgets of
the chronically underdeveloped regions of Southern Italy), led to the
sudden growth of the secessionist Northern League, particularly strong
in mountain and rural areas. In the last twenty years,
as a conservative stronghold, overwhelmingly voting for Silvio
Berlusconi in all the six last general elections. Notwithstanding, the
capital city of
Milan elected progressive
Giuliano Pisapia at the 2011
municipal elections and the 2013 regional elections saw a narrow
victory for the center-right coalition.
On 22 October 2017 a non-binding autonomy referendum took place in
Lombardy. The turnout was low at 38.3%, yet 95.3% voted in favor.
The region of
Lombardy is divided in 11 administrative provinces, 1
metropolitan city and 1,530 communes.
The provinces/metropolitan cities of Lombardy
Province of Bergamo
Province of Brescia
Province of Como
Province of Cremona
Province of Lecco
Province of Lodi
Province of Mantua
Metropolitan City of Milan
Monza and Brianza
Province of Pavia
Province of Sondrio
Province of Varese
Beside being an economic and industrial powerhouse,
Lombardy has a
rich and diverse cultural heritage. The many examples range from
prehistory to the present day, through the Roman period and the
Renaissance and can be found both in museums and churches that enrich
cities and towns around the region. Major tourist destinations in the
region include (in order of arrivals as of 2013[update]) the
historic, cultural and artistic cities of
Milan (4,527,889 arrivals),
Como (215,320), Varese
Monza (75,839) and the lakes of Garda
Como (322,585), Iseo (123,337) and Maggiore (71,055).
UNESCO World Heritage Sites
Monte San Giorgio (right) seen across Lake Lugano
There are nine UNESCO World Heritage sites wholly or partially located
in Lombardy. Some of these comprise several individual objects in
different locations. One of the entries has been listed as natural
heritage, the others are cultural heritage sites.
At Monte San Giorgio, on the border with Swiss canton
south of Lake Lugano, a wide range of marine
Triassic fossils have
been found. During that period, some 240 million years ago, the area
was a shallow tropical lagoon. Fossils include reptiles, fish and
crustaceans but also some insects.
Two sites are of pre-historic origin. The Rock Drawings in Valcamonica
date back to a period between 8000 BC and 1000 BC, covering
prehistoric periods from the Epipaleolithic/
Mesolithic to the Iron
Age. The engravings show depictions of a wide range of topics
including agricultural and war scenes alongside more abstract symbols.
The multi-centred heritage site Prehistoric pile dwellings around the
Alps includes 111 individual objects in France, Switzerland, Italy,
Germany, Austria and Slovenia, of which ten are located in Lombardy.
Each of these objects consists of remnants of buildings erected on
wooden piles in sub-alpine rivers, lakes and wetlands, built between
5000 BC and 500 BC. In general, only the submerged wooden
parts have been preserved in the alluvial sediment, although in some
places pile buildings have been reconstructed.
The Rock Drawings in Valcamonica
Another multi-centred site, Longobards in Italy, Places of Power
(568–774 A.D.), comprises seven locations across mainland Italy
which illustrate the history of the Lombard period which has given the
region its name. Two of the individual sites are in the modern region
of Lombardy: the fortifications (the castrum and the Torba tower) and
the church of Santa Maria foris portas ("outside the gates") with its
Byzantinesque frescoes at Castelseprio, and the monastic complex of
San Salvatore-Santa Giulia at Brescia. The UNESCO site of
includes the remains of its Roman forum, the best-preserved in
The Last Supper
The Last Supper (Convent of Sta. Maria delle Grazie, Milan, Italy
(1499), by Leonardo da Vinci)
The Church and Dominican Convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie in Milan
with "The Last Supper" by
Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci represent architectural
and painting styles of the
Renaissance period of the 15th century. The
Sabbioneta are also listed as a combined World
Heritage site relating to this period, here focussing more on town
planning aspects of the time than on architectural detail. While
Mantua was rebuilt in the 15th and 16th centuries, according to
Sabbioneta was planned as a new town in the
Company houses and the textile mill at Crespi d'Adda,
The Sacri Monti of
Lombardy are a group of nine sites in
northwest Italy, two of them in Lombardy. The concept of holy
mountains can also be found elsewhere in Europe. These sites were
created as centres of pilgrimage by placing chapels in the natural
landscape and were loosely modelled on the topography of Jerusalem. In
Lombardy, Sacro Monte del Rosario di
Varese and Sacro Monte della
Beata Vergine del Soccorso, built in the early to mid-17th century,
mark the architectural transition from the late
Renaissance to the
Crespi d'Adda is a company town founded in 1878 to accommodate workers
of the local textile mill. At its height, the town was home to 3,200
employees and their families.
The Rhaetian Railway in the Albula/Bernina Landscapes is mostly
located in the Swiss canton
Graubünden but also extends over the
border in Tirano. The site is listed because of the complex railway
engineering (tunnels, viaducts and avalanche galleries) necessary to
take the narrow-gauge railway across the main chain of the Alps. The
two railway lines were opened in stages between 1904 and 1910.
The Venetian Works of Defence between the 16th and 17th centuries:
Stato da Terra – western
Stato da Mar
Stato da Mar is a transnational system of
fortifications built by the
Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice on its mainland domains
(Stato da Terra) and its territories stretching along the Adriatic
coast (Stato da Mar). This site includes the Fortified City of
Lombardy contains numerous museums (over 330) of different types:
ethnographic, historical, technical-scientific, artistic and
naturalistic which testify to the historical-cultural and artistic
development of the region. Among the most famous ones are the National
Museum of Science and Technology "Leonardo da Vinci" (Milan), the
Accademia Carrara (Bergamo), the Mille Miglia and the Santa Giulia
Museum (Brescia), the Volta Temple and the
Villa Olmo in Como, the
Stradivari Museum (Cremona), the
Palazzo Te (Mantua), the Museum
Sacred Art of the Nativity and the basilica of Santa Maria Assunta at
Gandino, and the Royal Villa of Monza.
The Sforza Castle
The Portrait of a Musician, oil on wood painting by Leonardo da Vinci.
Cathedral of Milan
Castello Sforzesco, Milan
Basilica di Sant'Ambrogio, Milan
Teatro alla Scala, Milan
Basilica of San Lorenzo, Milan
Basilica of Sant'Eustorgio, Milan
Brera Gallery, Milan
Accademia Carrara, Bergamo
Santa Maria Maggiore and Cappella Colleoni, Bergamo
The fortified Venetian walls, Bergamo
Roman and Longobard monuments in Brescia
Duomo Nuovo, Brescia
Castelseprio archaeological site
Certosa di Pavia
Como Cathedral and Basilica of Sant'Abbondio, Como
Duomo and Torrazzo, Cremona
Tempio Civico della Beata Vergine Incoronata, Lodi
Royal Villa of Monza
San Pietro in Ciel d'Oro
San Pietro in Ciel d'Oro and San Michele Maggiore, Pavia
Main article: Lombard cuisine
Rice is popular in the region, often found in soups as well as
risotti, such as "risotto alla milanese", with saffron. In the city of
Monza a popular recipe also adds pieces of sausages to the risotto.
Regional cheeses include Robiola, Crescenza, Taleggio,
Grana Padano (the plains of central and southern
intensive cattle-raising). Butter and cream are used. Single pot
dishes, which take less work to prepare, are popular. In Bergamo,
Brescia and Valtellina, polenta is common. In Valtellina, Pizzoccheri
is common, also. In Mantua, festivals feature tortelli di zucca
(ravioli with pumpkin filling) accompanied by melted butter and
followed by turkey stuffed with chicken or other stewed meats.
Among regional typical desserts, there is Nocciolini di Canzo—dry
A traditional "
Cotoletta alla milanese (Milanese-style cutlet)" served
Risotto alla milanese with ossobuco.
Carpaccio di Bresaola
Pizzoccheri (tagliatelle of buckwheat and wheat, laced with butter,
green vegetables, potatoes, sage and garlic, topped with Casera
Risotto alla milanese
Tortelli di zucca (pumpkin-filled pasta)
Cotoletta (cutlet) alla milanese
Lo Spiedo Bresciano – spit roast of different cuts of meat with
butter and sage
Italian Sausage without fennel or anise, always served
Salame d'oca di Mortara (goose salami)
Rosa Camuna cheese
Grana Padano cheese
Amaretti di Saronno
Main article: Lombard wine
Music of Lombardy
Music of Lombardy and Music of Milan
The auditorium of the
Teatro alla Scala
Teatro alla Scala in Milan.
Besides Milan, the region of
Lombardy has 11 other provinces, most of
them with equally great musical traditions.
Bergamo is famous for
being the birthplace of
Gaetano Donizetti and home of the Teatro
Brescia is hosts the impressive 1709 Teatro Grande; Cremona
is regarded as the birthplace of the commonly used violin, and is home
to several of the most prestigious luthiers in the world, and Mantua
was one of the founding and most important cities in 16th- and
17th-century opera and classical music.
Other cities such as Lecco, Lodi,
Pavia also have rich
musical traditions, but
Milan is the hub and centre of the Lombard
musical scene. It was the workplace of Giuseppe Verdi, one of the most
famous and influential opera composers of the 19th century, and boasts
a variety of acclaimed theatres, such as the Piccolo Teatro and the
Teatro Arcimboldi; however, the most famous is the 1778 Teatro alla
Scala, one of the most important and prestigious operahouses in the
Main article: Lombard language
Lombardy there is widespread use of Lombard, which exists in
diglossia with Italian. Lombard is a language belonging to the
Gallo-Italic group, within the Romance languages. It is a cluster
of homogeneous varieties used by at least 3,500,000 native speakers in
Lombardy and some areas of neighbouring regions, notably the eastern
Piedmont and Southern
Switzerland (cantons of
Lombard language should not be confused with that of the Lombards
Lombardic language – a Germanic language extinct since the
Main article: Fashion in Milan
Dolce & Gabbana is headquartered in Milan.
Lombardy has always been an important centre for silk and textile
production, notably the cities of Pavia,
Vigevano and Cremona, but
Milan is the region's most important centre for clothing and high
fashion. In 2009,
Milan was regarded as the world fashion capital,
even surpassing New York, Paris and London. Most of the major
Italian fashion brands, such as Valentino, Versace, Prada,
Dolce & Gabbana (to name a few), are currently headquartered in
List of European regions by GDP
Lombard autonomy referendum, 2017
^ "Monthly demographic balance, January-June 2013". [Istat]. Retrieved
30 November 2013.
^ "EUROPA – Press Releases – Regional GDP per inhabitant in the
EU27, GDP per inhabitant in 2006 ranged from 25% of the EU27 average
in Nord-Est in
Romania to 336% in Inner London". Europa (web portal).
19 February 2009. Retrieved 10 May 2010.
^ Partridge, Eric (2009). Origins: an etymological dictionary of
modern English ([Paperback ed.] ed.). London: Routledge.
^ "Regional Statistical Yearbook: average rainfall, yearly and
Lombardy and its provinces". Regione Lombardia.
Retrieved 21 July 2015.
Rock Drawings in Valcamonica
Rock Drawings in Valcamonica - UNESCO World Heritage Centre".
Retrieved 29 June 2010.
^ Piero Adorno, Mesolitico e Neolitico, p. 16.
^ "Introduzione all'arte rupestre della
Archeocamuni.it" (in Italian). Retrieved 11 May 2009.
^ "Storia di Milano ::: Gian Giacomo Mora".
^ "Demographic Balance and resident population by sex and citizenship
on 31st December". National Institute of Statistics (Italy). Retrieved
7 December 2017.
^ a b "Regional Statistical Yearbook 2014" (PDF). Regione Lombardia.
Retrieved 21 July 2015.
^ OECD. "Competitive Cities in the Global Economy" (PDF). Archived
from the original (PDF) on 1 October 2008. Retrieved 30 April
^ "RSY Lombardia-Arrivals and nights spent by guests in accommodation
establishments, by type of resort and by type of establishment. Total
accommodation establishments. Part III Tourist resort. Year 2013".
asr-lombardia.it. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
^ "World Heritage List". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. UNESCO.
^ "Italia langobardorum, la rete dei siti Longobardi italiani iscritta
nella Lista del Patrimonio Mondiale dell'UNESCO" [Italia
langobardorum, the network of the Italian Longobards sites inscribed
on the UNESCO World Heritage List]. beniculturali.it (in Italian).
^ "THE LONGOBARDS IN ITALY. PLACES OF THE POWER (568-774 A.D.).
NOMINATION FOR INSCRIPTION ON THE WORLD HERITAGE LIST" (PDF).
unesco.org. Retrieved 2015-10-27.
^ Piras, 87.
^ "Documentation for ISO 639 identifier: LMO". Identifier: LMO / Name:
Lombard / Status: Active / Code set: 639-3 / Scope: Individual / Type:
^ a b Jones, Mary C.; Soria, Claudia (2015). "Assessing the effect of
official recognition on the vitality of endangered languages: a case
of study from Italy". Policy and Planning for Endangered Languages.
Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 130. Lombard
(Lumbard, ISO 639-9 lmo) is a cluster of essentially homogeneous
varieties (Tamburelli 2014: 9) belonging to the
Gallo-Italic group. It
is spoken in the Italian region of Lombardy, in the
Novara province of
Piedmont, and in Switzerland. Mutual intelligibility between speakers
of Lombard and monolingual Italian speakers has been reported as very
low (Tamburelli 2014). Although some Lombard varieties, Milanese in
particular, enjoy a rather long and prestigious literary tradition,
Lombard is now mostly used in informal domains. According to
Ethnologue, Piedmontese and Lombard are spoken by between 1,600,000
and 2,000,000 speakers and around 3,500,000 speakers, respectively.
These are very high figures for languages that have never been
recognised officially nor systematically taught in school
^ "The Global Language Monitor » Fashion". Languagemonitor.com.
20 July 2009. Archived from the original on 1 November 2009. Retrieved
3 January 2010.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lombardy.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Lombardy.
Official tourism website of Lombardy
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Music of Milan
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ISNI: 0000 0001 1504 1022
BNF: cb11935190r (data)
Coordinates: 45°35′08″N 9°55′49″E / 45.58556°N