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Lombardy
Lombardy
(/ˈlɒmbərdi/ LOM-bər-dee; Italian: Lombardia [lombarˈdiːa]; Lombard: Lumbardia, pronounced: (Western Lombard) [lumbarˈdiːa], (Eastern Lombard) [lombarˈdeːa]) is one of the twenty administrative regions of Italy, in the northwest of the country, with an area of 23,844 square kilometres (9,206 sq mi). About 10 million people, forming one-sixth of Italy's population, live in Lombardy
Lombardy
and about a fifth of Italy's GDP is produced in the region, making it the most populous and richest region in the country and one of the richest regions in Europe.[4] Milan, Lombardy's capital, is the second-largest city and the largest metropolitan area in Italy.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Geography

2.1 Soils 2.2 Hydrography 2.3 Flora and fauna 2.4 Climate

3 History

3.1 Prehistory
Prehistory
and antiquity 3.2 Kingdom of the Lombards 3.3 Communes and the Empire 3.4 Renaissance
Renaissance
duchies of Milan
Milan
and Mantua 3.5 Late-Middle Ages, Renaissance
Renaissance
and Enlightenment 3.6 Modern era

4 Demographics 5 Economy 6 Government and politics

6.1 Administrative divisions

7 Culture

7.1 UNESCO World Heritage Sites 7.2 Museums 7.3 Other sights 7.4 Cuisine

7.4.1 Typical dishes 7.4.2 Wines

7.5 Music 7.6 Language 7.7 Fashion

8 See also 9 References 10 External links

Etymology[edit] The word Lombardy
Lombardy
comes from Lombard, which in turn is derived from Late Latin
Late Latin
Longobardus, Langobardus ("a Lombard"), derived from the Proto-Germanic
Proto-Germanic
elements *langaz + *bardaz; equivalent to long beard. Some sources derive the second element instead from Proto-Germanic *bardǭ, *barduz ("axe"), related to German Barte ("axe").[5] During the early Middle Ages "Lombardy" referred to the Kingdom of the Lombards
Lombards
(Latin: Regnum Langobardorum), a kingdom ruled by the Germanic Lombards
Lombards
who had controlled most of Italy
Italy
since their invasion of Byzantine Italy
Italy
in 568. As such "Lombardy" and "Italy" were almost interchangeable; by the mid-8th century only the Papal possessions around Rome (roughly modern Lazio
Lazio
and northern Umbria), Venice and some Byzantine possessions in the south (southern Apulia and Calabria; some coastal settlements including Amalfi, Gaeta, Naples and Sorrento; Sicily
Sicily
and Sardinia) weren't controlled by the Lombards. The Kingdom was divided between Longobardia Major
Longobardia Major
in the north and Langobardia Minor
Langobardia Minor
in the south, which were until the 8th century separated by the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna
Exarchate of Ravenna
(roughly Romagna
Romagna
and northern Marche, and initially also Emilia and Liguria) and the Papacy (which was initially part of the Exarchate). During the late Middle Ages, after the fall of the northern part of the Kingdom to Charlemagne, the term shifted to mean Northern Italy. (See: Kingdom of Italy
Italy
(Holy Roman Empire)). The term was also used until around 965 in the form Λογγοβαρδία (Longobardia) as the name for the territory roughly covering modern Apulia
Apulia
which the Byzantines had recovered from the Lombard rump Duchy of Benevento. Geography[edit] With a surface of 23,861 km2 (9,213 sq mi), Lombardy
Lombardy
is the fourth-largest region of Italy. It is bordered by Switzerland (north: Canton Ticino
Canton Ticino
and Canton Graubünden) and by the Italian regions of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol
Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol
and Veneto
Veneto
(east), Emilia- Romagna
Romagna
(south), and Piedmont
Piedmont
(west). Three distinct natural zones can be fairly easily distinguished in Lombardy: mountains, hills and plains—the latter being divided in Alta (high plains) and Bassa (low plains). Soils[edit]

Mount Adamello

The orography of Lombardy
Lombardy
is characterised by the presence of three distinct belts: a northern mountainous belt constituted by the Alpine relief, a central piedmont area of mostly pebbly soils of alluvial origin, and the Lombard section of the Padan plain in the southernmost part of the region. The most important mountainous area is an Alpine zone including the Lepontine and Rhaetian Alps, (Piz Bernina, 4,020 m), the Bergamo
Bergamo
Alps, the Ortler Alps
Alps
and the Adamello
Adamello
massif; it is followed by an Alpine foothills zone Prealpi, which include the main peaks are the Grigna Group (2,410 m), Resegone
Resegone
(1,875 m) and Presolana
Presolana
(2,521 m). The plains of Lombardy, formed by alluvial deposits, can be divided into the Alta—an upper, permeable ground zone in the north and a lower zone—and the Bassa—dotted by the so-called line of fontanili, spring waters rising from impermeable ground. Inconsistent with the three distinctions above made is the small subregion of Oltrepò Pavese, formed by the Apennine foothills beyond the Po River. Hydrography[edit]

Bridge over the Ticino
Ticino
river

The mighty Po river
Po river
marks the southern border of the region for a length of about 210 km. In its progress it receives the waters of the Ticino
Ticino
River, which rises in the Bedretto
Bedretto
valley (Switzerland) and joins the Po near Pavia. The other streams which contribute to the great river are, the Olona, the Lambro, the Adda, the Oglio
Oglio
and the Mincio. The numerous lakes of Lombardy, all of glacial origin, lie in the northern highlands. From west to east these are Lake Maggiore, Lake Lugano (both shared with Switzerland), Lake Como, Lake Iseo, Lake Idro, then Lake Garda, the largest in Italy. South of the Alps
Alps
lie the hills characterised by a succession of low heights of morainic origin, formed during the last Ice Age
Ice Age
and small barely fertile plateaux, with typical heaths and conifer woods. A minor mountainous area, the Oltrepò Pavese, lies south of the Po, in the Apennines
Apennines
range. Flora and fauna[edit]

The Alpine ibex
Alpine ibex
(Capra ibex)

In the plains, intensively cultivated for centuries, little of the original environment remains. The most commons trees are elm, alder, sycamore, poplar, willow and hornbeam. In the area of the foothills lakes, however, grow olive trees, cypresses and larches, as well as varieties of subtropical flora such as magnolias, azaleas, acacias. Numerous species of endemic flora in the Prealpine area include some kinds of saxifrage, the Lombard garlic, groundsels bellflowers and the cottony bellflowers. The highlands are characterised by the typical vegetation of the whole range of the Italian Alps. At a lower levels (up to approximately 1,100 m) oak woods or broadleafed trees grow; on the mountain slopes (up to 2,000–2,200 m) beech trees grow at the lowest limits, with conifer woods higher up. Shrubs such as rhododendron, dwarf pine and juniper are native to the summital zone (beyond 2,200 m). Lombardy
Lombardy
counts many protected areas: the most important are the Stelvio National Park
Stelvio National Park
(the largest Italian natural park), with typically alpine wildlife: red deer, roe deer, ibex, chamois, foxes, ermine and also golden eagles; and the Ticino
Ticino
Valley Natural Park, instituted in 1974 on the Lombard side of the Ticino River
Ticino River
to protect and conserve one of the last major examples of fluvial forest in northern Italy. Climate[edit] Lombardy
Lombardy
has a wide array of climates, due to local variances in elevation, proximity to inland water basins, and large metropolitan areas.

Palms and maritime pines on the shores of Lake Como

The climate of the region is mainly humid subtropical (Köppen Cfa), especially in the plains, though with significant variations to the Köppen model especially regarding the winter season, that in Lombardy is normally long, rainy and rather cold. In addition, there is a high seasonal temperature variation (in Milan, the average January temperature is 2.5 °C (36.5 °F) and 24 °C (75 °F) in July). A peculiarity of the regional climate is the thick fog that covers the plains between October and February. In the Alpine foothills, characterised by an oceanic climate (Köppen Cfb), numerous lakes exercise a mitigating influence, allowing the cultivation of typically Mediterranean crops (olives, citrus fruit). In the hills and mountains, the climate is humid continental (Köppen Dfb). In the valleys it is relatively mild, while it can be severely cold above 1,500 metres, with copious snowfalls. Precipitation is more intense in the Prealpine zone, up to 1,500 to 2,000 mm (59.1 to 78.7 in) annually, but is abundant also in the plains and alpine zones, with an average of 600 to 850 mm (23.6 to 33.5 in) annually. The total annual rainfall is on average 827 mm.[6] History[edit] Prehistory
Prehistory
and antiquity[edit] Further information: Cisalpine Gaul

The Rock Drawings in Valcamonica
Rock Drawings in Valcamonica
are among the largest collections of prehistoric petroglyphs in the world.[7]

The area of current Lombardy
Lombardy
was settled at least since the 2nd millennium BC, as shown by the archaeological findings of ceramics, arrows, axes and carved stones. Well-preserved rock drawings left by ancient Camuni
Camuni
in the Valcamonica
Valcamonica
depicting animals, people and symbols were made over a time period of eight thousand years preceding the Iron Age,[8] based on about 300,000 records.[9] The many artifacts (pottery, personal items and weapons) found in necropolis near the Lake Maggiore, and Lake Ticino
Ticino
demonstrate the presence of the Golasecca
Golasecca
Bronze Age
Bronze Age
culture that prospered in Western Lombardy
Lombardy
between the 9th and the 4th century BC. In the following centuries it was inhabited by different peoples among whom the Etruscans, who founded the city of Mantua
Mantua
and spread the use of writing; later, starting from the 5th century BC, the area was invaded by Celtic–Gallic tribes. These people settled in several cities (including Milan) and extended their rule to the Adriatic
Adriatic
Sea. Their development was halted by the Roman expansion in the Po Valley from the 3rd century BC onwards. After centuries of struggle, in 194 BC the entire area of what is now Lombardy
Lombardy
became a Roman province with the name of Gallia Cisalpina
Gallia Cisalpina
(" Gaul
Gaul
on the inner side (with respect to Rome) of the Alps"). The Roman culture and language overwhelmed the former civilisation in the following years, and Lombardy
Lombardy
became one of the most developed and rich areas of Italy
Italy
with the construction of a wide array of roads and the development of agriculture and trade. Important figures like Pliny the Elder (in Como) and Virgil
Virgil
(in Mantua) were born here. In late antiquity the strategic role of Lombardy
Lombardy
was emphasised by the temporary moving of the capital of the Western Empire to Mediolanum (Milan). Here, in 313 AD, Roman Emperor Constantine issued the famous Edict of Milan
Milan
that gave freedom of confession to all religions within the Roman Empire. Kingdom of the Lombards[edit] Further information: Lombards
Lombards
and Kingdom of the Lombards

The Iron Crown of Lombardy
Iron Crown of Lombardy
has been for centuries used in the Coronation of the Holy Roman Emperor.

During and after the fall of the Western Empire, Lombardy
Lombardy
suffered heavily from destruction brought about by a series of invasions by tribal peoples. The last and most effective was that of the Germanic Lombards, or Longobardi, who came around the 570s and whose long-lasting reign (with its capital in Pavia) gave the current name to the region. There was a close relationship between the Frankish, Bavarian and Lombard nobility for many centuries. After the initial struggles, relationships between the Lombard people and the Latin-speaking people improved. In the end, the Lombard language and culture assimilated with the Latin culture, leaving evidence in many names, the legal code and laws, and other things. The end of Lombard rule came in 774, when the Frankish king Charlemagne conquered Pavia, deposed Desiderius, the last Lombard king, and annexed the Kingdom of Italy
Italy
(mostly northern and central present-day Italy) to his empire. The former Lombard dukes and nobles were replaced by other German vassals, prince-bishops or marquises. Communes and the Empire[edit]

Battle of Cortenuova, 1237.

In the 10th century Lombardy, formally under the rule of the Holy Roman Empire, like much of central-northern Italy, was in fact divided in a multiplicity of small, autonomous city-states, the medieval communes. The 11th century marked a significant boom in the region's economy, due to improved trading and, mostly, agricultural conditions, with arms manufacture a significant factor. In a similar way to other areas of Italy, this led to a growing self-acknowledgement of the cities, whose increasing richness made them able to defy the traditional feudal supreme power, represented by the German emperors and their local legates. This process reached its apex in the 12th and 13th centuries, when different Lombard Leagues formed by allied cities of Lombardy, usually led by Milan, managed to defeat the Hohenstaufen Emperor Frederick I, at Legnano, and his grandson Frederick II, at Parma. Subsequently, among the various local city-states, a process of consolidation took place, and by the end of the 14th century, two signorias emerged as rival hegemons in Lombardy: Milan
Milan
and Mantua. Renaissance
Renaissance
duchies of Milan
Milan
and Mantua[edit] Further information: Duchy of Milan
Milan
and Duchy of Mantua

Mantua
Mantua
as it appeared in 1575.

In the 15th century the Duchy of Milan
Milan
was a major political, economical and military force at the European level. Milan
Milan
and Mantua became two centres of the Renaissance
Renaissance
whose culture, with men such as Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci
and Mantegna, and works of art were highly regarded (for example, Leonardo da Vinci's The Last Supper). The enterprising class of the communes extended its trade and banking activities well into northern Europe: "Lombard" designated the merchant or banker coming from northern Italy
Italy
(see, for instance, Lombard Street in London). The name "Lombardy" came to designate the whole of Northern Italy
Italy
until the 15th century and sometimes later. From the 14th century onwards, the instability created by the unceasing internal and external struggles ended in the creation of noble seigniories, the most significant of which were those of the Viscontis (later Sforzas) in Milan
Milan
and of the Gonzagas in Mantua. This richness, however, attracted the now more organised armies of national powers such as France and Austria, which waged a lengthy battle for Lombardy
Lombardy
in the late 15th to early 16th centuries. Late-Middle Ages, Renaissance
Renaissance
and Enlightenment[edit]

The Consulta of the République cisalpine receives the First Consul on 26 January 1802

After the decisive Battle of Pavia, the Duchy of Milan
Milan
became a possession of the Habsburgs
Habsburgs
of Spain: the new rulers did little to improve the economy of Lombardy, instead imposing a growing series of taxes needed to support their unending series of European wars. The eastern part of modern Lombardy, with cities like Bergamo
Bergamo
and Brescia, was under the Republic of Venice, which had begun to extend its influence in the area from the 14th century onwards (see also Italian Wars). Between the middle of the 15th century and the battle of Marignano in 1515, the northern part of east Lombardy
Lombardy
from Airolo
Airolo
to Chiasso
Chiasso
(modern Ticino), and the Valtellina
Valtellina
valley came under possession of the old Swiss Confederacy. Pestilences (like that of 1628/1630,[10] described by Alessandro Manzoni in his I Promessi Sposi) and the generally declining conditions of Italy's economy in the 17th and 18th centuries halted the further development of Lombardy. In 1706 the Austrians came to power and introduced some economic and social measures which granted a certain recovery. Austrian rule was interrupted in the late 18th century by the French armies; under Napoleon, Lombardy
Lombardy
became the centre of the Cisalpine Republic and of the Kingdom of Italy, both being puppet states of France's First Empire, having Milan
Milan
as capital and Napoleon
Napoleon
as head of state. During this period Lombardy
Lombardy
took back Valtellina
Valtellina
from Switzerland. Modern era[edit] Further information: Lombardy-Venetia

The Five Days of Milan, 1848.

The restoration of Austrian rule in 1815, as the Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia, was characterised by the struggle with the new ideals introduced by the Napoleonic era. Lombardy
Lombardy
became one of the intellectual centres leading the Italian unification
Italian unification
process. The popular republic established by the 1848 revolution was short-lived, its suppression leading to renewed Austrian rule. This came to a decisive end when Lombardy
Lombardy
was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy
Italy
1859 as a result of the Second Italian Independence War. When annexed to the Kingdom of Italy
Italy
in 1859 Lombardy
Lombardy
achieved its present-day territorial shape by adding the Oltrepò Pavese
Oltrepò Pavese
(formerly the southern part of Novara's Province) to the province of Pavia. Starting from the late 19th century, and especially with the economic boom of the 1950s–1960s, Lombardy
Lombardy
sharpened its status of richest and most industrialised region of Italy. Demographics[edit]

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1861 3,160,000 —    

1871 3,529,000 +11.7%

1881 3,730,000 +5.7%

1901 4,314,000 +15.7%

1911 4,889,000 +13.3%

1921 5,186,000 +6.1%

1931 5,596,000 +7.9%

1936 5,836,000 +4.3%

1951 6,566,000 +12.5%

1961 7,406,000 +12.8%

1971 8,543,000 +15.4%

1981 8,892,000 +4.1%

1991 8,856,000 −0.4%

2001 9,033,000 +2.0%

2011 9,704,151 +7.4%

2017 (est.) 10,019,166 +3.2%

Source: ISTAT 2017

The largest resident foreign-born groups on 31 December 2016[11]

Country of birth Population

Romania 167,891

Morocco 96,234

Albania 95,102

Egypt 76,667

China 64,283

Philippine 57,817

Ukraine 52,386

India 47,743

Peru 43,727

Ecuador 38.527

Pakistan 37,771

Senegal 33,645

Sri Lanka 31,230

Moldova 22.121

Bangladesh 19,750

Tunisia 17,138

Brazil 12,861

One-sixth of the Italian population or about 10 million people live in Lombardy
Lombardy
(16.2% of the national population; 2% of the European Union population), making it the second most densely populated region in Italy
Italy
after Campania. The population is highly concentrated in the Milan
Milan
metropolitan area (2,000 inh./km2) and the Alpine foothills
Alpine foothills
that compose the southern section of the provinces of Varese, Como, Lecco, Monza
Monza
and Brianza and Bergamo, (1,200 inh./km2). A lower average population density (250 inh./km2) is found in the Po valley and the lower Brescia
Brescia
valleys; much lower densities (less than 60 inh./km2) characterise the northern mountain areas and the southern Oltrepò Pavese
Oltrepò Pavese
subregion.[12] The growth of the regional population was particularly sustained during the 1950s–60s, thanks to a prolonged economic boom, high birth rates, and strong migration inflows (especially from Southern Italy). Since the 1980s, Lombardy
Lombardy
has become the destination of a large number of international migrants, insomuch that today more than a quarter of all foreign-born residents in Italy
Italy
lives in this region. As of 2016[update], the Italian national institute of statistics (ISTAT) estimated that 1,139,430 foreign-born immigrants live in Lombardy, equal to 11.4% of the total population. The primary religion is Catholicism; significant religious minorities include Christian Waldenses, Protestants and Orthodox, as well as Jews, Sikh
Sikh
and Muslims. Economy[edit]

A view over the business district of Milan: with a metropolitan area of 7.4m people,[13] it is Italy's most important industrial, commercial and financial center.

As of 2013[update], the gross domestic product (GDP) of Lombardy, equal to over €350 billion, accounts for about 20% of the total GDP of Italy. When this measure is considered by inhabitant, it results in a value of €33,066 per inhabitant, which is more than 25% higher than the national average of €25,729.[12] Lombardy's development has been marked by the growth of the services sector since the 1980s, and in particular by the growth of innovative activities in the sector of services to enterprises and in credit and financial services. At the same time, the strong industrial vocation of the region has not suffered. Lombardy
Lombardy
remains, in fact, the main industrial area of the country. The presence, and development, of a very high number of enterprises belonging to the services sector represents a favourable situation for the improvement of the efficiency of the productive process, as well as for the growth of the regional economy. Lombardy
Lombardy
is one of the Four Motors for Europe. The region can broadly be divided into three areas as regards the productive activity. Milan, where the services sector makes up for 65.3% of the employment; a group of provinces, Varese, Como, Lecco, Monza
Monza
and Brianza, Bergamo
Bergamo
and Brescia, highly industrialised, although in the two latter ones, in the plains, there is also a rich agricultural sector. Finally, in the provinces of Sondrio, Pavia, Cremona, Mantova and Lodi, there is a consistent agricultural activity, and at the same time an above average development of the services sector. The productivity of agriculture is enhanced by a well-developed use of fertilisers and the traditional abundance of water, boosted since the Middle Ages by the construction (partly designed by Leonardo da Vinci) of a wide net of irrigation systems. Lower plains are characterised by fodder crops, which are mowed up to eight times a year, cereals (rice, wheat and maise) and sugar beet. Productions of the higher plains include cereals, vegetables, fruit trees and mulberries. The higher areas, up to the Prealps and Alps
Alps
sectors of the north, produce fruit and wine. Cattle (with the highest density in Italy), pigs and sheep are raised. Government and politics[edit] Main article: Politics of Lombardy

The Palazzo Lombardia, it is the main seat of the government of Lombardy.

Politics in Lombardy
Lombardy
is framed within a system of representative democracy, where the President of the Region (Presidente della Regione) is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. Executive power is vested in the Regional Government (Giunta Regionale). Legislative power
Legislative power
is vested in the Regional Council (Consiglio Regionale). Historically, the moderate Christian Democrats maintained a large majority of the popular support and the control of the most important cities and provinces from the end of the Second World War to the early 1990s. The opposition Italian Communist Party
Italian Communist Party
was a considerable presence only in southern Lombardy
Lombardy
and in the working class districts of Milan; their base, however, was increasingly eroded by the rival centrist Italian Socialist Party, until eventually the Mani Pulite corruption scandal (which spread from Milan
Milan
to the whole of Italy) wiped away the old political class and parties almost entirely. This, together with the general disaffection towards the central government (considered as wasting resources to balance the budgets of the chronically underdeveloped regions of Southern Italy), led to the sudden growth of the secessionist Northern League, particularly strong in mountain and rural areas. In the last twenty years, Lombardy
Lombardy
stayed as a conservative stronghold, overwhelmingly voting for Silvio Berlusconi in all the six last general elections. Notwithstanding, the capital city of Milan
Milan
elected progressive Giuliano Pisapia
Giuliano Pisapia
at the 2011 municipal elections and the 2013 regional elections saw a narrow victory for the center-right coalition. On 22 October 2017 a non-binding autonomy referendum took place in Lombardy. The turnout was low at 38.3%, yet 95.3% voted in favor. Administrative divisions[edit] The region of Lombardy
Lombardy
is divided in 11 administrative provinces, 1 metropolitan city and 1,530 communes.

The provinces/metropolitan cities of Lombardy

Province/Metropolitan city Area (km²) Population Density (inh./km²)

Province of Bergamo 2,723 1,108,853 407.2

Province of Brescia 4,784 1,265,077 264.4

Province of Como 1,288 599,905 465.7

Province of Cremona 1,772 361,610 204.4

Province of Lecco 816 340,251 416.9

Province of Lodi 782 229,576 293.5

Province of Mantua 2,339 414,919 177.3

Metropolitan City of Milan 1,575 3,196,825 2,029.7

Province of Monza
Monza
and Brianza 405 864,557 2,134.7

Province of Pavia 2,965 548,722 185.1

Province of Sondrio 3,212 182,086 56.6

Province of Varese 1,211 890,234 735.1

Culture[edit] Beside being an economic and industrial powerhouse, Lombardy
Lombardy
has a rich and diverse cultural heritage. The many examples range from prehistory to the present day, through the Roman period and the Renaissance
Renaissance
and can be found both in museums and churches that enrich cities and towns around the region. Major tourist destinations in the region include (in order of arrivals as of 2013[update])[14] the historic, cultural and artistic cities of Milan
Milan
(4,527,889 arrivals), Bergamo
Bergamo
(242,942), Brescia
Brescia
(229,710), Como
Como
(215,320), Varese (107,442), Mantua
Mantua
(88,902), Monza
Monza
(75,839) and the lakes of Garda (429,376), Como
Como
(322,585), Iseo (123,337) and Maggiore (71,055). UNESCO World Heritage Sites[edit]

Monte San Giorgio (right) seen across Lake Lugano

There are nine UNESCO World Heritage sites wholly or partially located in Lombardy.[15] Some of these comprise several individual objects in different locations. One of the entries has been listed as natural heritage, the others are cultural heritage sites. At Monte San Giorgio, on the border with Swiss canton Ticino
Ticino
just south of Lake Lugano, a wide range of marine Triassic
Triassic
fossils have been found. During that period, some 240 million years ago, the area was a shallow tropical lagoon. Fossils include reptiles, fish and crustaceans but also some insects. Two sites are of pre-historic origin. The Rock Drawings in Valcamonica date back to a period between 8000 BC and 1000 BC, covering prehistoric periods from the Epipaleolithic/ Mesolithic
Mesolithic
to the Iron Age. The engravings show depictions of a wide range of topics including agricultural and war scenes alongside more abstract symbols. The multi-centred heritage site Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps
Alps
includes 111 individual objects in France, Switzerland, Italy, Germany, Austria and Slovenia, of which ten are located in Lombardy. Each of these objects consists of remnants of buildings erected on wooden piles in sub-alpine rivers, lakes and wetlands, built between 5000 BC and 500 BC. In general, only the submerged wooden parts have been preserved in the alluvial sediment, although in some places pile buildings have been reconstructed.

The Rock Drawings in Valcamonica

Another multi-centred site, Longobards in Italy, Places of Power (568–774 A.D.), comprises seven locations across mainland Italy which illustrate the history of the Lombard period which has given the region its name. Two of the individual sites are in the modern region of Lombardy: the fortifications (the castrum and the Torba tower) and the church of Santa Maria foris portas ("outside the gates") with its Byzantinesque frescoes at Castelseprio, and the monastic complex of San Salvatore-Santa Giulia at Brescia. The UNESCO site of Brescia
Brescia
also includes the remains of its Roman forum, the best-preserved in Northern Italy.[16][17]

The Last Supper
The Last Supper
(Convent of Sta. Maria delle Grazie, Milan, Italy (1499), by Leonardo da Vinci)

The Church and Dominican Convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie in Milan with "The Last Supper" by Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci
represent architectural and painting styles of the Renaissance
Renaissance
period of the 15th century. The towns of Mantua
Mantua
and Sabbioneta
Sabbioneta
are also listed as a combined World Heritage site relating to this period, here focussing more on town planning aspects of the time than on architectural detail. While Mantua
Mantua
was rebuilt in the 15th and 16th centuries, according to Renaissance
Renaissance
principles, Sabbioneta
Sabbioneta
was planned as a new town in the 16th century.

Company houses and the textile mill at Crespi d'Adda, Bergamo
Bergamo
province

The Sacri Monti of Piedmont
Piedmont
and Lombardy
Lombardy
are a group of nine sites in northwest Italy, two of them in Lombardy. The concept of holy mountains can also be found elsewhere in Europe. These sites were created as centres of pilgrimage by placing chapels in the natural landscape and were loosely modelled on the topography of Jerusalem. In Lombardy, Sacro Monte del Rosario di Varese
Varese
and Sacro Monte della Beata Vergine del Soccorso, built in the early to mid-17th century, mark the architectural transition from the late Renaissance
Renaissance
to the Baroque style. Crespi d'Adda
Crespi d'Adda
is a company town founded in 1878 to accommodate workers of the local textile mill. At its height, the town was home to 3,200 employees and their families. The Rhaetian Railway in the Albula/Bernina Landscapes is mostly located in the Swiss canton Graubünden
Graubünden
but also extends over the border in Tirano. The site is listed because of the complex railway engineering (tunnels, viaducts and avalanche galleries) necessary to take the narrow-gauge railway across the main chain of the Alps. The two railway lines were opened in stages between 1904 and 1910. The Venetian Works of Defence between the 16th and 17th centuries: Stato da Terra – western Stato da Mar
Stato da Mar
is a transnational system of fortifications built by the Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice
on its mainland domains (Stato da Terra) and its territories stretching along the Adriatic coast (Stato da Mar). This site includes the Fortified City of Bergamo. Museums[edit] Lombardy
Lombardy
contains numerous museums (over 330) of different types: ethnographic, historical, technical-scientific, artistic and naturalistic which testify to the historical-cultural and artistic development of the region. Among the most famous ones are the National Museum of Science and Technology "Leonardo da Vinci" (Milan), the Accademia Carrara
Accademia Carrara
(Bergamo), the Mille Miglia and the Santa Giulia Museum (Brescia), the Volta Temple and the Villa Olmo
Villa Olmo
in Como, the Stradivari Museum (Cremona), the Palazzo Te
Palazzo Te
(Mantua), the Museum Sacred Art of the Nativity and the basilica of Santa Maria Assunta at Gandino, and the Royal Villa of Monza. Other sights[edit]

The Sforza Castle

The Portrait of a Musician, oil on wood painting by Leonardo da Vinci.

Cathedral of Milan Castello Sforzesco, Milan Basilica di Sant'Ambrogio, Milan Teatro alla Scala, Milan Basilica of San Lorenzo, Milan Basilica of Sant'Eustorgio, Milan Brera Gallery, Milan Bellagio Accademia Carrara, Bergamo Santa Maria Maggiore and Cappella Colleoni, Bergamo The fortified Venetian walls, Bergamo Roman and Longobard monuments in Brescia Duomo Nuovo, Brescia Castelseprio
Castelseprio
archaeological site Certosa di Pavia Como
Como
Cathedral and Basilica of Sant'Abbondio, Como Duomo and Torrazzo, Cremona Lake Como Lake Garda Lake Iseo Tempio Civico della Beata Vergine Incoronata, Lodi Royal Villa of Monza San Pietro in Ciel d'Oro
San Pietro in Ciel d'Oro
and San Michele Maggiore, Pavia

Cuisine[edit] Main article: Lombard cuisine Rice is popular in the region, often found in soups as well as risotti, such as "risotto alla milanese", with saffron. In the city of Monza
Monza
a popular recipe also adds pieces of sausages to the risotto. Regional cheeses include Robiola, Crescenza, Taleggio, Gorgonzola
Gorgonzola
and Grana Padano
Grana Padano
(the plains of central and southern Lombardy
Lombardy
allow intensive cattle-raising). Butter and cream are used. Single pot dishes, which take less work to prepare, are popular. In Bergamo, Brescia
Brescia
and Valtellina, polenta is common. In Valtellina, Pizzoccheri is common, also. In Mantua, festivals feature tortelli di zucca (ravioli with pumpkin filling) accompanied by melted butter and followed by turkey stuffed with chicken or other stewed meats.[18] Among regional typical desserts, there is Nocciolini di Canzo—dry biscuits. Typical dishes[edit]

A traditional " Cotoletta
Cotoletta
alla milanese (Milanese-style cutlet)" served with potatoes.

Risotto
Risotto
alla milanese with ossobuco.

Carpaccio
Carpaccio
di Bresaola Pizzoccheri
Pizzoccheri
(tagliatelle of buckwheat and wheat, laced with butter, green vegetables, potatoes, sage and garlic, topped with Casera cheese) Risotto
Risotto
alla milanese Tortelli
Tortelli
di zucca (pumpkin-filled pasta) Polenta Ossobuco Cotoletta
Cotoletta
(cutlet) alla milanese Cassoeula Lo Spiedo Bresciano – spit roast of different cuts of meat with butter and sage Salamella ( Italian Sausage
Italian Sausage
without fennel or anise, always served grilled) Salame d'oca di Mortara (goose salami) Gorgonzola
Gorgonzola
cheese Taleggio cheese Stracchino
Stracchino
cheese Bitto
Bitto
cheese Rosa Camuna cheese Grana Padano
Grana Padano
cheese Quartirolo lombardo Mascarpone Panettone Sbrisolona cake Amaretti di Saronno

Wines[edit] Main article: Lombard wine

Franciacorta Nebbiolo red Bellavista Santi Nino Negri Bonarda Lombardy Inferno (Valtellina) Grumello (Valtellina) Sassella (Valtellina)

Music[edit] Main articles: Music of Lombardy
Music of Lombardy
and Music of Milan

The auditorium of the Teatro alla Scala
Teatro alla Scala
in Milan.

Besides Milan, the region of Lombardy
Lombardy
has 11 other provinces, most of them with equally great musical traditions. Bergamo
Bergamo
is famous for being the birthplace of Gaetano Donizetti
Gaetano Donizetti
and home of the Teatro Donizetti; Brescia
Brescia
is hosts the impressive 1709 Teatro Grande; Cremona is regarded as the birthplace of the commonly used violin, and is home to several of the most prestigious luthiers in the world, and Mantua was one of the founding and most important cities in 16th- and 17th-century opera and classical music. Other cities such as Lecco, Lodi, Varese
Varese
and Pavia
Pavia
also have rich musical traditions, but Milan
Milan
is the hub and centre of the Lombard musical scene. It was the workplace of Giuseppe Verdi, one of the most famous and influential opera composers of the 19th century, and boasts a variety of acclaimed theatres, such as the Piccolo Teatro and the Teatro Arcimboldi; however, the most famous is the 1778 Teatro alla Scala, one of the most important and prestigious operahouses in the world. Language[edit] Main article: Lombard language In Lombardy
Lombardy
there is widespread use of Lombard, which exists in diglossia with Italian. Lombard is a language[19] belonging to the Gallo-Italic
Gallo-Italic
group, within the Romance languages.[20] It is a cluster of homogeneous varieties used by at least 3,500,000 native speakers in Lombardy
Lombardy
and some areas of neighbouring regions, notably the eastern side of Piedmont
Piedmont
and Southern Switzerland
Switzerland
(cantons of Ticino
Ticino
and Graubünden).[20] The Lombard language
Lombard language
should not be confused with that of the Lombards – Lombardic language – a Germanic language extinct since the Middle Ages. Fashion[edit] Main article: Fashion in Milan

Dolce & Gabbana is headquartered in Milan.

Lombardy
Lombardy
has always been an important centre for silk and textile production, notably the cities of Pavia, Vigevano
Vigevano
and Cremona, but Milan
Milan
is the region's most important centre for clothing and high fashion. In 2009, Milan
Milan
was regarded as the world fashion capital, even surpassing New York, Paris and London.[21] Most of the major Italian fashion
Italian fashion
brands, such as Valentino, Versace, Prada, Armani
Armani
and Dolce & Gabbana (to name a few), are currently headquartered in the city. See also[edit]

List of European regions by GDP Lombard autonomy referendum, 2017

References[edit]

^ "Monthly demographic balance, January-June 2013". [Istat]. Retrieved 30 November 2013.  ^ http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/documents/2995521/7962764/1-30032017-AP-EN.pdf/4e9c09e5-c743-41a5-afc8-eb4aa89913f6 ^ http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/documents/2995521/7192292/1-26022016-AP-EN.pdf/602b34e8-abba-439e-b555-4c3cb1dbbe6e ^ "EUROPA – Press Releases – Regional GDP per inhabitant in the EU27, GDP per inhabitant in 2006 ranged from 25% of the EU27 average in Nord-Est in Romania
Romania
to 336% in Inner London". Europa (web portal). 19 February 2009. Retrieved 10 May 2010.  ^ Partridge, Eric (2009). Origins: an etymological dictionary of modern English ([Paperback ed.] ed.). London: Routledge. ISBN 0415474337.  ^ "Regional Statistical Yearbook: average rainfall, yearly and ten-year average, Lombardy
Lombardy
and its provinces". Regione Lombardia. Retrieved 21 July 2015.  ^ " Rock Drawings in Valcamonica
Rock Drawings in Valcamonica
- UNESCO World Heritage Centre". Retrieved 29 June 2010.  ^ Piero Adorno, Mesolitico e Neolitico, p. 16. ^ "Introduzione all'arte rupestre della Valcamonica
Valcamonica
su Archeocamuni.it" (in Italian). Retrieved 11 May 2009.  ^ "Storia di Milano ::: Gian Giacomo Mora".  ^ "Demographic Balance and resident population by sex and citizenship on 31st December". National Institute of Statistics (Italy). Retrieved 7 December 2017.  ^ a b "Regional Statistical Yearbook 2014" (PDF). Regione Lombardia. Retrieved 21 July 2015.  ^ OECD. "Competitive Cities in the Global Economy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 October 2008. Retrieved 30 April 2009.  ^ "RSY Lombardia-Arrivals and nights spent by guests in accommodation establishments, by type of resort and by type of establishment. Total accommodation establishments. Part III Tourist resort. Year 2013". asr-lombardia.it. Retrieved 31 May 2015.  ^ "World Heritage List". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. UNESCO. Retrieved 2015-05-16.  ^ "Italia langobardorum, la rete dei siti Longobardi italiani iscritta nella Lista del Patrimonio Mondiale dell'UNESCO" [Italia langobardorum, the network of the Italian Longobards sites inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List]. beniculturali.it (in Italian). Retrieved 2015-10-27.  ^ "THE LONGOBARDS IN ITALY. PLACES OF THE POWER (568-774 A.D.). NOMINATION FOR INSCRIPTION ON THE WORLD HERITAGE LIST" (PDF). unesco.org. Retrieved 2015-10-27.  ^ Piras, 87. ^ "Documentation for ISO 639 identifier: LMO". Identifier: LMO / Name: Lombard / Status: Active / Code set: 639-3 / Scope: Individual / Type: Living  ^ a b Jones, Mary C.; Soria, Claudia (2015). "Assessing the effect of official recognition on the vitality of endangered languages: a case of study from Italy". Policy and Planning for Endangered Languages. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 130. Lombard (Lumbard, ISO 639-9 lmo) is a cluster of essentially homogeneous varieties (Tamburelli 2014: 9) belonging to the Gallo-Italic
Gallo-Italic
group. It is spoken in the Italian region of Lombardy, in the Novara
Novara
province of Piedmont, and in Switzerland. Mutual intelligibility between speakers of Lombard and monolingual Italian speakers has been reported as very low (Tamburelli 2014). Although some Lombard varieties, Milanese in particular, enjoy a rather long and prestigious literary tradition, Lombard is now mostly used in informal domains. According to Ethnologue, Piedmontese and Lombard are spoken by between 1,600,000 and 2,000,000 speakers and around 3,500,000 speakers, respectively. These are very high figures for languages that have never been recognised officially nor systematically taught in school  ^ "The Global Language Monitor » Fashion". Languagemonitor.com. 20 July 2009. Archived from the original on 1 November 2009. Retrieved 3 January 2010. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lombardy.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Lombardy.

Official tourism website of Lombardy

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 143646311 ISNI: 0000 0001 1504 1022 GND: 4036294-2 BNF: cb11935190r (data) HDS: 7079

Coordinates: 45°35′08″N 9°55′49″E / 45.58556°N 9.93028°E /

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