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Lega Nord
Lega Nord
(LN; English translation: "North League"), whose complete name is Lega Nord
Lega Nord
per l'Indipendenza della Padania
Padania
("North League for the Independence of Padania"), is a regionalist political party in Italy. The party is usually referred to as Northern League by English-language sources, while in Italy
Italy
it is also referred to simply as Lega or Carroccio. The LN was founded in 1991 as a federation of several regional parties of Northern and Central Italy, notably including Liga Veneta, Lega Lombarda, Piemont Autonomista, Uniun Ligure, Lega Emiliano-Romagnola and Alleanza Toscana. The party advocates the transformation of Italy
Italy
into a federal state, fiscal federalism and greater regional autonomy, especially for Northern regions. At times the LN has advocated the secession of the North, referred to by party members as "Padania", and, consequently, Padanian nationalism. Prior to the party's adoption of the term, Padania
Padania
was infrequently used to name the Po Valley
Po Valley
and has been promoted since 1963 by sports journalist Gianni Brera
Gianni Brera
as a modern name for Cisalpine Gaul. Lega Nord's founder and former leader is Umberto Bossi, federal secretary from 1991 to 2012. He was succeeded by Roberto Maroni. Then, in 2013 by Matteo Salvini
Matteo Salvini
defeated Bossi in a leadership election and became secretary. Lorenzo Fontana
Lorenzo Fontana
and Giancarlo Giorgetti are deputy secretaries. Other leading members include Luca Zaia
Luca Zaia
(President of Veneto), Attilio Fontana
Attilio Fontana
(President of Lombardy), Roberto Calderoli, Massimiliano Fedriga, Gian Marco Centinaio and Massimo Bitonci. Former leading members have included Roberto Cota, Roberto Castelli, Francesco Speroni, Flavio Tosi, Giancarlo Pagliarini, Marco Formentini, Domenico Comino, Fabrizio Comencini, Franco Rocchetta
Franco Rocchetta
and Gianfranco Miglio. Under Salvini, the party has to some extent embraced Italian nationalism and emphasised Euroscepticism, opposition to immigration and other "populist" policies, while forming an alliance with right-wing populist parties such as France's National Front, the Netherlands' Party for Freedom
Party for Freedom
and the Freedom Party of Austria
Freedom Party of Austria
at the European level. Salvini established a sister party in Southern Italy named Us with Salvini
Us with Salvini
and, for the 2018 general election, restyled the party's symbol and name, dropping the word "Nord" and introducing "Salvini Premier".[25][26][27][28][29] All these changes have been harshly criticised by Bossi and the Padanist old guard, which now operates from a minority position within the party.[25][30][31] In the 2018 general election the LN was the third-largest party in Italy, behind the Five Star Movement
Five Star Movement
and the Democratic Party. In the most recent regional elections the LN was the largest party in Veneto (where Zaia was re-elected President by 50.1% of the vote in 2015) and Lombardy
Lombardy
(where Fontana was elected President by 49.8% of the vote in 2018, succeeding to Maroni), the second-largest in Emilia-Romagna
Emilia-Romagna
and Tuscany, the third-largest in Liguria, Marche
Marche
and Umbria, the fourth-largest in Piedmont, and the fifth-largest in Friuli-Venezia Giulia and Trentino.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Precursors and foundation 1.2 First alliance with Berlusconi 1.3 Padanian separatism 1.4 House of Freedoms 1.5 Fourth Berlusconi government 1.6 From Bossi to Maroni 1.7 Leadership of Maroni 1.8 Leadership of Salvini 1.9 2018 general election

2 Ideology

2.1 Catch-all nature 2.2 Platform and policies

2.2.1 Federalism
Federalism
v. separatism 2.2.2 Euroscepticism
Euroscepticism
v. Europeanism 2.2.3 Illegal immigration

2.3 International affiliation

3 Factions

3.1 Regional and ideological divides 3.2 Issue-oriented groups 3.3 1997 Padanian Parliament election 3.4 Differing viewpoints on coalitions 3.5 2008–2011 developments 3.6 2013–present developments

4 Popular support 5 Electoral results

5.1 Italian Parliament 5.2 European Parliament 5.3 Regional Councils

5.3.1 Detailed results

5.4 Electoral results by region

5.4.1 Chamber of Deputies 5.4.2 European Parliament 5.4.3 Regional Councils

6 Local government 7 Leadership

7.1 Federal party 7.2 Major "national" sections

8 Symbols 9 See also 10 Notes 11 External links 12 References 13 Further reading

History[edit] Precursors and foundation[edit]

Umberto Bossi
Umberto Bossi
at the first rally in Pontida, 1990

At the 1983 general election Liga Veneta, based in Veneto, elected a deputy, Achille Tramarin, and a senator, Graziano Girardi. At the 1987 general election another regional party, Lega Lombarda, based in Lombardy, gained national prominence when its leader Umberto Bossi
Umberto Bossi
was elected to the Senate. The two parties, along with other regionalist outfits, ran as Alleanza Nord in the 1989 European Parliament election, gaining 1.8% of the vote. Lega Nord, which was first launched as an upgrade of Alleanza Nord in December 1989, was officially transformed into a party in February 1991 through the merger of various regional parties, notably including Lega Lombarda and Liga Veneta. These continue to exist as "national sections" of the federal party, which presents itself in regional and local contests as "Lega Lombarda–Lega Nord", "Liga Veneta–Lega Nord", "Lega Nord–Piemont", and so on.[32][33][34] The League exploited resentment against Rome's centralism (with the famous slogan Roma ladrona, which loosely means " Rome
Rome
big thief") and the Italian government, common in Northern Italy
Northern Italy
as many Northerners felt that the government wasted resources collected mostly from Northerners' taxes.[35] Cultural influences from bordering countries in the North and resentment against illegal immigrants were also exploited. The party's electoral successes began roughly at a time when public disillusionment with the established political parties was at its height. The Tangentopoli
Tangentopoli
corruption scandals, which invested most of the established parties, were unveiled from 1992 on.[33][34] However, contrarily to what many pundits observed at the beginning of the 1990s, Lega Nord
Lega Nord
became a stable political force and it is now one of the oldest parties among those represented in the Italian Parliament. Lega Nord's first electoral breakthrough was at the 1990 regional elections, but it was with the 1992 general election that the party emerged as a leading political actor. Having gained 8.7% of the vote, 56 deputies and 26 senators,[36] it became the fourth largest party of the country and within Parliament. In 1993 Marco Formentini, a left-wing leghista, was elected mayor of Milan, the party won 49.3% in the provincial election of Varese[37] and, by the end of the year, before Silvio Berlusconi
Silvio Berlusconi
launched his own political career and party, it was polled around 16–18% in electoral surveys (half of that support was later siphoned by Berlusconi).[38] First alliance with Berlusconi[edit] In early 1994, some days before the announcement of the Bossi–Berlusconi pact which led to the formation of the Pole of Freedoms, Roberto Maroni, Bossi's number two, signed an agreement with Mario Segni's centrist Pact for Italy, which was later cancelled.[39][40] The party thus fought the 1994 general election in alliance with Berlusconi's Forza Italia
Forza Italia
party within the Pole of Freedoms
Pole of Freedoms
coalition. Lega Nord
Lega Nord
gained just 8.4% of the vote, but, thanks to a generous division of candidacies in Northern single-seats constituencies, its parliamentary representation was almost doubled to 117 deputies and 56 senators.[41] The position of President Chamber of Deputies was thus given to a leghista, Irene Pivetti, a young woman hailing from the Catholic faction of the party. After the election, the League joined FI, National Alliance (AN) and the Christian Democratic Centre
Christian Democratic Centre
(CCD) to form a coalition government under Berlusconi and the party obtained five ministries in Berlusconi's first cabinet: Interior for Roberto Maroni
Roberto Maroni
(who was also Deputy Prime Minister), Budget for Giancarlo Pagliarini, Industry for Vito Gnutti, European affairs for Domenico Comino and Institutional Reforms for Francesco Speroni. However, the alliance with Berlusconi and the government itself were both short-lived: the latter collapsed before the end of the year, with the League being instrumental in its demise. The last straw was a proposed pension reform, which would have hurt some of the key constituencies of the LN, but the government was never a cohesive one and relations among coalition partners, especially those between the LN and the centralist AN, were quite tense all the time. When, in December, Bossi finally decided to withdraw from the government, Maroni vocally disagreed and walked out. In January 1995 the League gave a vote of confidence to the newly formed cabinet led by Lamberto Dini, along with the Italian People's Party and the Democratic Party of the Left. This caused several splinter groups to leave the party, including the Federalist Party (which was actually founded in June 1994) of Gianfranco Miglio, the Federalists and Liberal Democrats of Franco Rocchetta, Lucio Malan
Lucio Malan
and Furio Gubetti[42] and the Federalist Italian League of Luigi Negri and Sergio Cappelli. All these groups later merged into FI, while a few other MPs, including Pierluigi Petrini, floor leader in the Chamber of Deputies, joined the centre-left. By 1996 total of 40 deputies and 17 senators had left the party, while Maroni, after months of coldness with Bossi, had instead returned to the party's fold.[43][44] Between 1995 and 1998 Lega Nord
Lega Nord
joined centre-left governing coalitions in many local contexts, notably including the Province of Padua
Padua
to the city of Udine. Padanian separatism[edit] Main articles: Padanian nationalism
Padanian nationalism
and Padanian Declaration of Independence Further information: Lega Nord
Lega Nord
§ 1997 Padanian Parliament elections After a huge success at the 1996 general election, its best result so far (10.1%, 59 deputies and 27 senators),[45] Lega Nord
Lega Nord
announced that it wanted the secession of Northern Italy
Northern Italy
under the name of "Padania". As a symbolic act of birth of the new nation, on 13 September 1996 Bossi took a bottle of water from the springs of Po River (Latin: Padus, hence Padania), which was poured in the sea of Venice
Venice
two days later. The party gave Padania, previously referring to the Po Valley, a broader meaning that has steadily gained currency, at least among its followers. The party even organised a referendum on independence and elections for a "Padanian Parliament". The years between 1996 and 1998 were particularly good for the League, which was the largest party in many provinces of Northern Italy
Northern Italy
and was able to prevail in single-seat constituencies and provincial elections by running alone against both the centre-right and the centre-left. The party also tried to expand its reach through a number of Padanian-styled associations and media endeavours (under the supervision of Davide Caparini), notably including La Padania
Padania
daily, Il Sole delle Alpi weekly, the Lega Nord
Lega Nord
Flash periodical, the Tele Padania
Padania
TV channel, the Radio Padania
Padania
Libera and the "Bruno Salvadori" publishing house. However, after the 1996 election, which Lega Nord
Lega Nord
had fought outside the two big coalitions, the differences between those who supported a new alliance with Berlusconi (Vito Gnutti, Domenico Comino, Fabrizio Comencini, etc.) and those who preferred to enter Romano Prodi's Olive Tree (Marco Formentini, Irene Pivetti, etc.) re-emerged. A total of 15 deputies and 9 senators left the party to join either centre-right or centre-left parties.[46] Pivetti left a few months after the election.[47] Comencini left in 1998 to launch Liga Veneta Repubblica[48] with the mid-term goal of joining forces with FI in Veneto.[49] Gnutti and Comino were expelled in 1999, after they had formed local alliances with the centre-right.[50][51] Also Formentini left in 1999 in order to join Prodi's Democrats.[52][53] As a result, the party suffered a huge setback at the 1999 European Parliament election, in which it garnered a mere 4.5% of the vote. Since then the League de-emphasised demands for independence in order to rather focus on devolution and federal reform, paving the way for a return to coalition politics. House of Freedoms[edit]

Umberto Bossi, 2001

After the defeat at the 1999 European Parliament
European Parliament
election, senior members of the party thought it was not possible to achieve anything if the party continued to stay outside the two big coalitions. Some, including Maroni, who, despite 1994–1995 row with Bossi, had always been left-leaning in the heart, preferred an alliance with the centre-left. Bossi asked Maroni to negotiate an agreement with Massimo D'Alema, who had described Lega Nord
Lega Nord
as "a rib of the left". These talks were successful and Maroni was indicated as the joint candidate for President of Lombardy
President of Lombardy
for the 2000 regional election. Despite this, Bossi decided instead to reproach Berlusconi, who was the front-runner in the upcoming 2001 general election.[54][55] The centre-right coalition won the 2000 regional elections and the League entered the regional governments of Lombardy, Veneto, Piedmont
Piedmont
and Liguria. One year later, Lega Nord
Lega Nord
was part of Berlusconi's House of Freedoms in the 2001 general election. According to its leader, the alliance was a "broad democratic arch, composed of the democratic right, namely AN, the great democratic centre, namely Forza Italia, CCD and CDU, and the democratic left represented by the League, the New PSI, the PRI and, at least I hope so, Cossiga".[56][57] The coalition won handily the election, but the LN was further reduced to 3.9%, while being returned in Parliament thanks to the victories scored by Leghisti in single-seat constituencies. In 2001–2006, although severely reduced in its parliamentary representation, the party controlled three key ministries: Justice with Roberto Castelli, Labour and Social affairs with Roberto Maroni, and Institutional Reforms and Devolution
Devolution
with Umberto Bossi
Umberto Bossi
(replaced by Roberto Calderoli in June 2004). In March 2004 Bossi suffered a stroke that led many to question over the party's survival, but that ultimately confirmed Lega Nord's strength, due to a very organised structure and a cohesive set of leaders. In government, the LN was widely considered the staunchest ally of Berlusconi and formed the so-called "axis of the North" along with FI (whose strongholds included Lombardy
Lombardy
and Veneto
Veneto
as well as Sicily), through the special relationship between Bossi, Berlusconi and Giulio Tremonti, while AN and the Union of Christian and Centre Democrats (UDC), the party emerged from the merger of the CCD and the CDU in late 2002, became the natural representatives of Southern interests.[58][59][60][61][62] During the five years in government with the centre-right, the Parliament passed an important constitutional reform, which included federalism and more powers for the Prime Minister. The alliance that Lega Nord
Lega Nord
forged with the Movement for Autonomy (MpA) and the Sardinian Action Party (PSd'Az) for the 2006 general election was not successful in convincing Southern voters to approve the reform, which was rejected in the 2006 constitutional referendum. Fourth Berlusconi government[edit] In the aftermath of the fall of Romano Prodi's government in January 2008, which led President Giorgio Napolitano
Giorgio Napolitano
to call an early election, the centre-right was re-organised by Berlusconi as The People of Freedom (PdL), now without the support of the UDC. Lega Nord ran the election in coalition with the PdL and the MpA, gaining a stunning 8.3% of the vote (+4.2pp) and obtaining 60 deputies (+37) and 26 senators (+13). Following this result, since May 2008 Lega Nord
Lega Nord
was represented in Berlusconi's fourth cabinet by four ministers (Roberto Maroni, Interior; Luca Zaia, Agriculture; Umberto Bossi, Reforms and Federalism; Roberto Calderoli, Legislative simplification) and five under-secretaries (Roberto Castelli, Infrastructures; Michelino Davico, Interior; Daniele Molgora, Economy and Finances; Francesca Martini, Health; Maurizio Balocchi, Legislative simplification). In April 2009 a bill introducing a path towards fiscal federalism was approved by the Senate, after having passed by the Chamber. The bill gained bipartisan support by Italy
Italy
of Values, that voted in favour, and the Democratic Party, that chose not to oppose the measure.[63] As of late March 2011 all the most important decrees of the reform were approved by the Parliament and Bossi publicly praised the Democrats' leader Pier Luigi Bersani
Pier Luigi Bersani
for not having opposed the decisive decree on regional and provincial fiscality.[64][65] Lega Nord
Lega Nord
influenced the government also on illegal immigration, especially when dealing with immigrants coming from the sea. While the UNCHR and Catholic bishops expressed some concerns over the handling of asylum seekers,[66] Maroni's decision to send back to Libya
Libya
the boats full of illegal immigrants was praised also by some leading Democrats, notably including Piero Fassino,[67][68] and was backed by some 76% of Italians according to a poll.[69] In agreement with the PdL,[70] in the 2010 regional elections, Luca Zaia was candidate for President in Veneto[71] and Roberto Cota
Roberto Cota
in Piedmont,[72] while in the other Northern regions, including Lombardy, the League supported candidates of the PdL. Both Zaia and Cota were elected. The party became the largest in Veneto
Veneto
with 35.2% and the second-largest in Lombardy
Lombardy
with 26.2%, while getting stronger all around the North and in some regions of Central Italy. In November 2011 Berlusconi resigned and was replaced by Mario Monti. The League was the only major party to oppose Monti's "technocratic" government. From Bossi to Maroni[edit] Further information: Lega Nord
Lega Nord
§ 2008–2011 developments

Roberto Maroni, 2010

Throughout 2011 the party was riven in internal disputes, which Bossi's weak-as-ever leadership was not able to stop. Roberto Maroni, a moderate figure who had been the party's number two since the start, was clearly Bossi's most likely successor. The rise of Maroni and his fellow Maroniani was obstacled by a group of Bossi's loyalists, whom journalists called the "magic circle". The leaders of this group were Marco Reguzzoni, floor leader in the Chamber of Deputies, and Rosi Mauro. In January 2012, after being temporarily forbidden from speaking at the party's public meetings,[73] Maroni gained the upper hand[74] and, during a factional rally in Varese, he launched direct attacks on Reguzzoni and Mauro, at the presence of a puzzled Bossi. In that occasion, Maroni called for the celebration of party congresses and closed his speech paraphrasing Scipio Slataper and Che Guevara
Che Guevara
(the latter being one of his youth's heroes): "We are barbarians, dreaming barbarians. We are realistic, we dream the impossible".[75] On 20 January Bossi replaced Reguzzoni as leader in the Chamber with Gianpaolo Dozzo.[76] Two days later the federal council of the party scheduled provincial congresses by April and national (regional) congresses by June.[77] Maroni, whose flock included people as diverse as Flavio Tosi, a conservative liberal, and Matteo Salvini, a left-winger,[78][79] strengthened his grip on the party. On 3 April 2012 a corruption scandal hit the magic circle and, consequently, the entire party. The party's treasurer Francesco Belsito was charged of money-laundering, embezzlement and fraud at the LN's expenses. Among other things, he was accused of having taken money away from the party's chest and paid it out to Bossi's family and other members of the magic circle, notably including Mauro.[80] Maroni, who had already called for Belsito's resignation as early as in January, asked for his immediate replacement. Belsito resigned a few hours later and was replaced by Stefano Stefani.[81][82] More shockingly, on 5 April, Bossi resigned from federal secretary and the party's federal council appointed a triumvirate composed of Maroni, Calderoli and Manuela Dal Lago, who would lead the party until a new federal congress was held. Bossi was however elected federal president.[82] On 12 April the federal council expelled both Belsito and Mauro, and decided that a federal congress would be held at the end of June.[83] In the 6–7 May municipal elections the League was crushed almost everywhere,[84] while retaining the city of Verona, where Tosi, the incumbent mayor, was re-elected by a landslide,[85] and a few other strongholds. Leadership of Maroni[edit] At the beginning of June, after having secured the leadership of several national sections of the party, Maroni and his followers scored two big victories at the congresses of the two largest "nations", Lombardy
Lombardy
and Veneto: Matteo Salvini
Matteo Salvini
was elected secretary of Lega Lombarda with 74% of the votes,[86] while Flavio Tosi
Flavio Tosi
fended off a challenge by the Venetists' and Bossi's loyalists' standard-bearer Massimo Bitonci, defeating him 57%–43%.[87]

Roberto Maroni
Roberto Maroni
speaks at the federal congress in Milan, 1 July 2012

On 1 July 2012 Maroni was virtually unanimously elected federal secretary. The party's constitution was changed in order to make Bossi federal president for life, to restructure the federal organisation and to give more autonomy to the national sections, in fact transforming the federation into a confederation.[88][89] At the 2013 general election, which saw the rise of the Five Star Movement (M5S), the League won a mere 4.1% of the vote (–4.2pp).[90] However, in the simultaneous 2013 regional election in Lombardy, the party won the big prize: Maroni was elected President, by defeating his Democratic opponent 42.8% to 38.2%. The League, which obtained 12.9% in Lombardy
Lombardy
in the general election, garnered 23.2% (combined result of party list, 13.0%, and Maroni's personal list, 10.2%) in the regional election.[91] All three big regions of the North were thus governed by the League. In September 2013 Maroni announced he would soon leave the party's leadership.[92][93] A congress was scheduled for mid December and, in accordance to the new rules set for the leadership election, five candidates filed their bid to become secretary: Umberto Bossi, Matteo Salvini, Giacomo Stucchi, Manes Bernardini and Roberto Stefanazzi.[94] Of these, only Bossi and Salvini gathered the 1,000 necessary signatures by party members to take part to the internal "primary", and Salvini collected four times the signatures gathered by Bossi.[95] Leadership of Salvini[edit]

Matteo Salvini, 2015

On 7 December 2013 Salvini, who counted on the support by Maroni and most of the party's bigwigs (including Tosi, who had renounced a bid of his own), trounced Bossi with 82% of the vote in the "primary".[96] A week later, his election was ratified by the party's federal congress in Turin.[97] Under Salvini, the party embraced a very critical view of the European Union,[98] especially of the Euro, which he described a "crime against mankind".[99] Ahead of 2014 European Parliament election, Salvini started to cooperate with Marine Le Pen, leader of the French National Front, and Geert Wilders, leader of the Dutch Party for Freedom.[100][101][102] All this was criticised by Bossi, who re-called his left-wing roots,[103][104] and Tosi, who represented the party's centrist wing and defended the Euro.[105] In the EP election the party, which ran on the Basta Euro
Euro
("Stop the Euro") ticket, emphasised Euroscepticism
Euroscepticism
and welcomed candidates from other anti- Euro
Euro
and/or autonomist movements, notably including South Tyrol's Freiheitlichen,[106][107][108] obtained 6.2% of the vote and 5 MEPs.[109] The result was far worse than that of the previous EP election in 2009 (–4.0pp), but better than that of 2013 general election (+2.1pp). The LN arrived third with 15.2% in Veneto
Veneto
(where Tosi obtained many more votes than Salvini, showing his popular support once for all and proving how the party was far from united on the anti- Euro
Euro
stance),[110] ahead of Forza Italia
Forza Italia
(FI) and the other parties emerged from the defunct PdL, and fourth in Lombardy
Lombardy
with 14.6%. Salvini was triumphant, despite the party had lost Piedmont
Piedmont
to the Democrats, after Cota had been forced to resign, due to irregularities committed by one of its supporting lists in filing the slates for the 2010 election, and had decided not to stand. Moreover, Bitonci was elected mayor of Padua, a Democratic stronghold. The party's federal congress, summoned in Padua
Padua
in July 2014, approved Salvini's political line, especially a plan for the introduction of a flat tax and the creation of a sister party in Central-Southern Italy and the Isles.[111] In November the Emilia-Romagna
Emilia-Romagna
regional election represented a major step for Salvini's "national project": the LN, which won 19.4% of the vote, was the region's second-largest and resulted far ahead of FI, paving the way for a bid for the leadership of the centre-right.[112] In December Us with Salvini
Us with Salvini
(NcS) was launched. The party's growing popularity among voters was reflected also by a constant rise in opinion polls. In March 2015, after a long struggle between Tosi and Zaia, backed by Salvini, over the party's candidates in the upcoming regional election in Veneto, Tosi was removed from national secretary of Liga Veneta
Liga Veneta
and ejected from the federal party altogether.[113] However, the 2015 regional elections were another success for the LN, especially in Veneto, where Zaia was handily re-elected with 50.1% of the vote (Tosi got 11.9%) and the combined score of party's and Zaia's personal lists was 40.9%. The party also came second in Liguria
Liguria
(22.3%) and Tuscany (16.2%), third in Marche
Marche
(13.0%) and Umbria
Umbria
(14.0%). The LN had never polled so high in those five regions before.

Placard for the 2018 electoral campaign, resembling Donald Trump's one in 2016.

After the 2016 local elections, in which the party ran below expectations in Lombardy
Lombardy
(while doing well in Veneto—thanks to Zaia, Emilia-Romagna
Emilia-Romagna
and Tuscany) and the NcS performed badly,[114][115][116][117] Salvini's political line came under pressure from Bossi, Maroni and Paolo Grimoldi, the new leader of Lega Lombarda. However, in the 2017 leadership election, Salvini, who was focused on becoming the leader of the centre-right[118][119] and, possibly, changing the LN's name by ditching the word "North",[120][121][122] was re-elected leader of the party with 82.7% of the vote, against his opponent Gianni Fava's 17.3%[123] (see Lega Nord#2013–present developments). Consequently, Salvini launched his campaign to become Prime Minister of Italy. In the meatime, the LN campaigned heavily for Veneto's and Lombardy's autonomy referendums, which took place on 22 October 2017. In Veneto the turnout was 57.2% and those who voted "yes" reached 98.1%, in Lombardy
Lombardy
the figures were 38.3% and 95.3%. The vote was seen also as a boost for Zaia within the League.[124][125][126] When the referendums were over, with strong opposition by Bossi and Zaia's support, Salvini persuaded the party's federal council to style the party simply as "Lega", including NcS, in the upcoming general election.[127][128] Additionally, Salvini toned down his stances against the European Union and the Euro, in order to make an alliance with FI possible.[129][130] 2018 general election[edit] The Lega ran in the 2018 general election within the four-party centre-right coalition composed of FI, the FdI and Us with Italy (NcI), including the former UDC, now Union of the Centre (UdC). In a further effort to broaden its base, the Lega welcomed in its electoral slates several independents, notably including Giulia Bongiorno[131] and Alberto Bagnai,[132] as well as a wide range of minor parties, including the Sardinian Action Party,[133] the Italian Liberal Party[134] and the National Movement for Sovereignty.[135] The Lega obtained a resounding success, becoming the third largest party in Italy
Italy
with 17.4% of the vote (+13.3pp). The ticket won most of its votes in the North (including 32.2% in Veneto, 28.0% in Lombardy, 26.7% in Trentino, 25.8% in Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Friuli-Venezia Giulia
and 22.6% in Piedmont), but also made inroads in the rest of the country, especially in Central Italy
Central Italy
(notably 20.2% in Umbria), the upper part of the South (13.8% in Abruzzo) and Sardinia
Sardinia
(10.8%). In the simultaneous 2018 regional election in Lombardy
Lombardy
LN's Attilio Fontana ran for President, after that Maroni, increasingly critical of Salvini,[136][137] chose not to run for a second term and to momentarily step aside from politics.[138] Fontana was elected with 49.8% of the vote, more than 20% more than his closest opponent and the party scored 29.4%, its best result ever in the region. Ideology[edit]

Statue of Alberto da Giussano, the Medieval knight who inspired Umberto Bossi

The party's ideology is a combination of political federalism, fiscal federalism, regionalism and defense of Northern Italian traditions. The historical goal of the party is to transform Italy
Italy
into a federal state, letting Padania
Padania
keep more tax revenues collected there under a regime of fiscal federalism. Thus, through Lega Nord, federalism has become a major issue in the country. This is also the main difference between the League and most European regionalist parties (South Tyrolean People's Party,[139] Basque Nationalist Party, Republican Left of Catalonia, Scottish National Party, Vlaams Belang, etc.), which focus on special rights for their own regions.[140][141][142] The original program of the party identified "federalist libertarianism" as ideology.[143] In fact, the party has often varied its tone and policies, replacing its original libertarianism and social liberalism with a more socially conservative approach, alternating anti-clericalism with a pro-Catholic Church stance and Europeanism with a marked Euroscepticism,[144][145] and ultimately abandoning much of its original pacifism and uncompromising environmentalism.[146] Lega Nord
Lega Nord
is now often regarded as a right-wing populist party.[147] Party leaders generally reject the "right-wing" label,[148][149][150] though not the "populist" label.[151] In 2008 Umberto Bossi
Umberto Bossi
explained in an interview that Lega Nord
Lega Nord
is "libertarian, but also socialist" and that the right-wing ideology he prefers is an anti-statist one with a "libertarian idea of a state which does not weigh on citizens". When asked to tell his most preferred politician of the 20th Century he said Giacomo Matteotti, a Socialist MP who was killed by Fascist squads in 1925, and remembered his anti-fascist and left-wing roots.[152] Lega Nord's political culture is a mix of Northern Italian pride or even Padanian nationalism, often with claims of a proud Celtic heritage; resentment of perceived Southern Italian habits and Roman authorities; distrust of the Republic of Italy
Italy
and especially its flag; some support for the free market, anti-statism, anti-globalism, and separatism or secessionism. The party boasts historical references to the anti-imperialist Lombard League
Lombard League
and Alberto da Giussano (stylised in the party's symbol), the hero of the wars against Frederick I Barbarossa.[153] These historical references are the base for the party's anti-monopolism and anti-centralism. Lega Nord
Lega Nord
has long maintained an anti-Southern Italian stance. Party members have been known to oppose large-scale Southern Italian migration to Northern Italian cities, stereotyping Southern Italians as welfare abusers, criminals, and detrimental to Northern society. Party members have often attributed Italy's economic stagnation and the disparity of the North-South divide in the Italian economy to supposed negative characteristics of the Southern Italians, such as lack of education, laziness, or criminality.[154][155][156][157] Certain Lega Nord
Lega Nord
members have been known to publicly deploy the offensive slur terrone, a common pejorative term for Southern Italians.[154][155][158] At times it has seemed possible that the League might unite with similar leagues in Central and Southern Italy, but it has not succeeded in doing so. The party continues dialogue with regionalist parties throughout Italy, notably the South Tyrolean People's Party, the Valdostan Union, the Trentino
Trentino
Tyrolean Autonomist Party, the Movement for the Autonomies
Movement for the Autonomies
and the Sardinian Action Party, and has some figures from the South in its parliamentary ranks. Notably, Angela Maraventano, former deputy mayor of Lampedusa, was a senator of Lega Nord. Although it is no longer a member of the European Free Alliance, the party has ties with many regionalist parties around Europe, including left-wing parties such as the Republican Left of Catalonia.[159] Lega Nord
Lega Nord
has some ties also with the Ticino League from Switzerland. Catch-all nature[edit] Lega Nord
Lega Nord
aims at uniting all those Northern Italians who support autonomy and federalism for their land. For this reason it has tended to be a multi-ideological catch-all party, especially at its beginnings,[160][161] following what Bossi stated in 1982 to his early followers: "It does not matter how old are you, what your job is and what your political tendency: what matters is that you and we are all Lombard. [...] It is as Lombards, indeed, that we have a fundamental common goal in face of which our division in parties should fall behind".[162] Writes Roberto Biorcio, a political scientist: "The political commitment of Umberto Bossi
Umberto Bossi
was influenced by his encounter with Bruno Salvadori, leader of the Valdostan Union
Valdostan Union
[...]. The convictions of Salvadori on federalism, the self-determination of the peoples (the so-called nations without state) and the belonging to a people on the basis of cultural criteria and not on blood, were adopted by the future leader of the League".[163] Since the beginning the electorate of the party has been very diverse on a left-right scale. At the 1992 general election, for instance, 25.4% of the party supporters were former Christian Democratic voters, 18.5% Communists, 12.5% Socialists and 6.6% former voters of the post-fascist Italian Social Movement.[164] It is quite difficult to define it in the left-right spectrum because it is variously conservative, centrist and left-wing with regard to different issues. For example, the party supports both liberal ideas, such as deregulation, and social-democratic positions, such as the defense of workers' wages and pensions. This is because Lega Nord, as a "people's party" representing the North as a whole, includes both liberal-conservative and social-democratic factions.[165][citation needed] Generally speaking, the party supports the social market economy and other typical issues of Christian-democratic parties,[166] and has been described as a "neo-labour party" by some commentators[167] and also by some of its members.[168][169] Lega Nord
Lega Nord
is populist in the sense that it is an anti-monopolist and anti-elitist popular and participative party (it is one of the few Italian political parties not to permit freemasons to join), fighting against the "vested interests", once identified by Bossi in "Agnelli, the Pope
Pope
and the Mafia". The party is also libertarian-populist in its promotion of small ownership, small and medium-sized enterprise, small government as opposed to governmental bureaucracy, waste of public funds, pork barrel spending and corruption.[170] These are the main reasons why the party is strong in the North, despite being obscured (especially at the beginning of its history) and badly presented by national media, television and newspapers.[171] According to a number of scholars, Lega Nord
Lega Nord
is an example of a right-wing populist,[5][172][173][174][175] radical right,[174][176][177] or extreme right-wing party,[178] while some see significant differences to typical European radical right-wing populist parties,[179] or reject the label of radical right as inadequate to describe the party's ideology.[7][180] According to many observers, under Matteo Salvini
Matteo Salvini
the party has lurched to the right, but both Salvini, a former communist, and Luca Zaia insist the party is "neither right nor left",[181][182] while Roberto Maroni, another former leftist, stated: "we are a big political movement which has in its platform issues and people of right and left".[183] Platform and policies[edit] The party usually takes a socially conservative stance on social issues, such as abortion, euthanasia, medical embryonic stem cell research, artificial insemination, same-sex marriage (although there is an association called Los Padania, where "Los" stands for "free sexual orientation", linked to the party and Lega Nord
Lega Nord
was once in favour of same-sex marriage)[184] and drug use (although it did once support the legalization of marijuana along with Marco Pannella's Radicals). Despite this the party has been home to some social liberals: Giancarlo Pagliarini, Rossana Boldi, Giovanna Bianchi Clerici[185] and, to some extent, Roberto Castelli.

Campervan of Lega Nord
Lega Nord
for the 2005 Tuscan regional election in Florence

Lega Nord
Lega Nord
has long opposed statism[142] and supports lower taxes, especially for families and small entrepreneurs,[186] most recently in the form of a 15% flat tax for all.[187][188] In earlier times, the party campaigned for a stop of the flow of public money in help to big businesses facing crisis, as for FIAT[189] and Alitalia.[190][191] Other key policies include the legalisation, regulation and taxation of prostitution in brothels,[192] the direct election of prosecutors[193] and a regionalised judiciary and Constitutional Court. The party, in its political programme, is committed to the environment, supporting public green areas, the establishment of natural parks, recycling, and the end (or regulation) of the construction of sheds in country areas, especially in Veneto.[194][195] Lega Nord, which has a strong agricultural wing, also supports the protection of traditional food, opposes GMOs and has campaigned for a revision of the quota system of the Common Agricultural Policy.[189][194] In foreign policy, the League has never had a particularly pro-United States stance, although it admires the American federal political system. The party's MPs opposed both the Gulf War
Gulf War
in 1991 and the NATO intervention in Kosovo in 1999 in the name of pacifism, and Bossi personally met Slobodan Milošević
Slobodan Milošević
during that war.[196][197] However, after the September 11 attacks
September 11 attacks
and the emergence of Islamic terrorism, the League became a supporter of the American efforts in the War on Terror,[198][199][200][201] while expressing several reservations about the Iraq War
Iraq War
and the American policy in its aftermath.[202][203][204] The League is also a staunch supporter of Israel.[205] In 2011 the party was severely opposed to the Italian participation in the war in Libya,[206][207][208] while in 2014 it opposed the sanctions on Russia, a key economic partner of Lombard and Venetian entrepreneurs and a likely ally in the fight against Islamic terrorism and the Islamic State of Iraq
Iraq
and the Levant.[209][210] In March 2017 the LN signed a cooperation protocol with United Russia.[211] Through the Associazione Umanitaria Padana, Lega Nord
Lega Nord
participates in humanitarian projects which are intended to respect local cultures, traditions, and identities. The campaigns are carried out in poor countries or in those that have suffered from war or natural catastrophes. Locations of missions include Darfur, Iraq, Afghanistan and Ivory Coast.[212] The association is led by Sara Fumagalli, wife of Roberto Castelli
Roberto Castelli
and born-again Catholic after a pilgrimage in Medjugorje.[213][214] Federalism
Federalism
v. separatism[edit]

The Sun of the Alps, the proposed flag for Padania
Padania
by Lega Nord

The exact program of Lega Nord
Lega Nord
was not clear in the early years: some opponents claimed it wanted secession of Padania, while at other times it appeared to be requesting only autonomy for Northern regions. The League eventually settled on federalism, which rapidly became a buzzword and a popular issue in most Italian political parties.[215][216] By 1996, the party switched to open separatism, calling for the independence of Padania. The party's constitution was reformed accordingly and still proclaims at article 1 that the LN's fundamental goal is "the achievement of the independence of Padania, through democratic means, and its international recognition as independent and sovereign federal republic".[217] A voluntary group of militants, the " Green
Green
Volunteers", often referred as "green shirts" (green being the colour of Padania), was also established, but it has since been active mainly in civil defense and emergency management. In September 1996 in Venice, the party unilaterally proclaimed the independence of Padania, at which time Bossi, while reading the Padanian Declaration of Independence, announced:

We the peoples of Padania
Padania
solemnly declare that Padania
Padania
is an independent and sovereign federal republic. We mutually pledge to each other our lives, our fortunes and our sacred honour.[218][219][217]

The renewed alliance with Berlusconi in 2001 forced the party to tone down its separatism, and Padania
Padania
became the name of a proposed "macro-region," based on the ideas of Miglio: the establishment an Italian federal republic, divided into three "macro-regions" ("Padania", "Etruria" and the "South") and some autonomous regions.[141][142] A new buzzword, devolution (often used in English), was also introduced, but with less success than "federalism". This evolution caused some criticism within party ranks and led to the formation of some minor breakaway groups.[220] Moreover, as observed above, the peculiarity of the LN among European regionalist parties is that its main goal has long been the transformation of Italy
Italy
into a federal state instead of simply demanding special rights and autonomy for Northern regions.[139][140][141][142] However, despite this, the party's constitution continues to declare that the independence of Padania
Padania
is one of the party's final goal.[217] Euroscepticism
Euroscepticism
v. Europeanism[edit] Lega Nord
Lega Nord
often criticises the European Union
European Union
(it was the only party in the Italian Parliament, along with the Communist Refoundation Party, to vote against the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe, but voted in favour of the Treaty of Lisbon)[221] and opposes what it calls the "European superstate", favoring instead a "Europe of the Regions".[222][223][224] Especially under the leadership of Matteo Salvini and the influence of professor Claudio Borghi, the party has proposed the abandonment of the Euro
Euro
by Italy, although this has been opposed by some party heavyweights, notably including Flavio Tosi.[225][226] However, according to Roberto Maroni, the party is not Eurosceptic and stands for a "new Europeanism". In a public speech in 2012 he said to party activists: "We should start looking at Padania
Padania
in a Northern, European perspective. [...] The project of Padania
Padania
is not anti-European, this is a new Europeanism which looks at the future: a Europe of the regions, a Europe of the peoples, a truly federal Europe."[75] Moreover, under Maroni, the party has supported the direct election of the President of the European Commission, more powers for the European Parliament, acceleration of the four unions (political, economic, banking and fiscal), Eurobonds and project bonds, the European Central Bank
European Central Bank
as lender of last resort, and the "centrality of Italy
Italy
in European politics".[227] Illegal immigration[edit]

Matteo Salvini
Matteo Salvini
speaks in a Lega Nord
Lega Nord
rally in Turin, 2013

The party takes a tough stance on crime, illegal immigration,[228] especially from Muslim countries, and terrorism. It supports the promotion of immigration from non-Muslim countries in order to protect the "Christian identity" of Italy
Italy
and Europe, which, according to party officials, should be based on "Judeo-Christian heritage".[189][194] The party has been labeled as "xenophobic"[229][230] and "anti-immigrant".[231] In 1992 the League was compared by Le Nouvel Observateur to some national populist parties of the European far-right, including France's National Front, the Freedom Party of Austria
Freedom Party of Austria
and the Vlaams Blok: "the League rejects any association with neo-fascists but plays on themes of xenophobia regionalism and trivial racism".[232] In 2002 the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance
European Commission against Racism and Intolerance
(ECRI) first denounced the party: "members of Lega Nord
Lega Nord
made a particularly intense use of racist and xenophobic propaganda, although it should be noted that even members of other parties used a xenophobic or otherwise intolerant political talk."[233] In 2006 the ECRI noticed that "some members of Lega Nord
Lega Nord
have intensified the use of racist and xenophobic political talk." While noting that those expressing themselvers this way "were mostly local representatives of this party, also some important political leaders of the party at the national level issued racist and xenophobic statements. These talks continued to target mainly non-EU immigrants, but also other members of minority groups such as Roma and Sinti." The ECRI also recalled that "in December 2004, the court of first instance of Verona
Verona
found six local representatives of Lega Nord
Lega Nord
guilty of incitement to racial hatred, in connection with a campaign aimed at ousting a group of Sinti
Sinti
from a temporary camp in the local territory."[234] However, in 2007 the Court of Cassation cancelled the sentence.[235] Although several LN members speak strongly against illegal immigrants (in 2003 Bossi suggested opening fire on the boats of illegal immigrants from Africa, whom he described as bingo-bongos,[236] and Giancarlo Gentilini labeled foreigners as "immigrant slackers", saying "we should dress them up like hares and bang-bang-bang"),[237] the party's official line is more moderate. In a 2010 interview after some riots in Milan
Milan
between South American and North African immigrants, Maroni, then minister of the Interior, stated that "the police state is not the solution" to integration problems and, calling for a "new model of integration", he maintained that "we should think that, other than a permit of stay, a job and a house, there are further conditions that today are missing for integration to succeed".[238] Bossi endorsed Maroni's position.[239] Lega Nord
Lega Nord
rejects all charges of xenophobia, instead claiming that the North is the victim of discrimination and racism.[240][241] After more than 15 years of government by Lega Nord, the Province of Treviso
Province of Treviso
is widely considered the place in Italy
Italy
where immigrants are best integrated.[242][243] Similar things can be said about the city of Verona,[244] governed by Flavio Tosi, who evolved from being a hardliner to be one of the most popular mayors of Italy.[245][246] Moreover, the first and only, so far, black mayor in Italy
Italy
belongs to the League: Sandy Cane (whose mother is Italian and father is an African American)[247] was elected mayor in Viggiù
Viggiù
in 2009. In an interview with The Independent, Cane said that the League does not include racist or xenophobic members.[248] She eventually left the League in 2014.[249] More recently, Hajer Fezzani, a Tunisian-born lapsed Muslim, was appointed local coordinator in Malnate,[250] Souad Sbai, president of the association "Moroccan women in Italy" and former deputy of The People of Freedom, joined the party,[251] and, most notably, Tony Iwobi, a Nigerian-born long-time party member, was appointed at the head of the party's department on immigration ("Tony will do more for legal immigrants in a month than what Kyenge has done in an entire life", Salvini said during the press conference).[252] International affiliation[edit] Lega Nord
Lega Nord
was originally a member of the European Free Alliance
European Free Alliance
(EFA) and its first two MEPs, Francesco Speroni
Francesco Speroni
and Luigi Moretti, joined the Rainbow Group in the European Parliament
European Parliament
during the fourth parliamentary term (1989–1994). Between 1994 and 1997 it was a member of the Group of the European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party (ELDR)[253][254] and one MEP of Lega Nord, Raimondo Fassa, continued to sit in the ELDR group until 1999. During the sixth parliamentary term (1999–2004), it was briefly a component of the Technical Group of Independents (TGI) along with Italian Radicals
Italian Radicals
and then returned to the Non-Inscrits.[255][256][257][258] Following the 2004 European Parliament
European Parliament
election, Lega Nord
Lega Nord
joined the Independence/Democracy
Independence/Democracy
(I/D) group and later the Union for Europe of the Nations (UEN), a seemingly awkward affiliation for a party proposing a "Europe of the Regions"—but in the Lega Nord's view, a state's "regions" are populated by "nations" such as the Catalans or the Lombards. The party was affiliated to the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (ALDE) in the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe until 2006, when its members joined the European Democrat Group (EDG), a diverse group stretching from the Conservative Party (UK) to United Russia.[259] Following the 2009 European Parliament
European Parliament
election, Lega Nord
Lega Nord
joined the newly formed the Europe of Freedom and Democracy
Europe of Freedom and Democracy
(EFD) group. One year after the 2014 European Parliament
European Parliament
election, Lega Nord
Lega Nord
was a founding member of the Europe of Nations and Freedom
Europe of Nations and Freedom
(ENL) group. Factions[edit] Although there are almost no official factions within the party, it is possible to distinguish several tendencies or wings. Regional and ideological divides[edit]

"Festival of the Padanian Peoples" in Venice, 2011

The wing from the province of Varese
Varese
and, more broadly, the bulk of the original Lega Lombarda (including Umberto Bossi, Roberto Maroni and Marco Formentini) has tended to be the left-wing of the party, while that from the province of Bergamo (notably Roberto Calderoli) has tended to be more conservative. In fact both Bossi and Maroni hailed from the far-left of the political spectrum, having been active in the Italian Communist Party, il manifesto movement, the Party of Proletarian Unity, Proletarian Democracy
Proletarian Democracy
and the Greens before starting Lega Lombarda,[260][261] and conceived Lega Nord
Lega Nord
as a centre-left (and, to some extent, social-democratic) political force.[43][262] From the left came also Marco Formentini, a long-time member of the left-wing of the Italian Socialist Party,[263] and Rosi Mauro, a trade unionist of the metal workers' section of the Italian Labour Union and, later, leader of the Padanian Trade Union (SinPa).[264] Since its foundation, Liga Veneta
Liga Veneta
was instead characterised as a liberal, centrist and economically libertarian outfit, due to the political upbringing of its early leaders and a more conservative electoral base. In the early 1990s, the League stole votes especially from the Communists and the Socialists in western and central Lombardy, while the party electorally replaced Christian Democracy in eastern Lombardy
Lombardy
and Veneto.[265][266] In fact, also Lega Lombarda included liberal-conservative figures, such as Gianfranco Miglio
Gianfranco Miglio
and Vito Gnutti, both former Christian Democrats, while Giovanni Meo Zilio, a Socialist partisan during the Italian Resistance, was one of the founding fathers of Liga Veneta. In Emilia-Romagna, a left-wing heartland, the party has many former Communists in its ranks, and many others have Communist upbringings.[267][268][269] However, with the passing of time, the party underwent a process of homogenisation. Between Maroni and Calderoli, there has been a liberal-centrist wing including Roberto Castelli, a conspicuous group of former Liberals (Manuela Dal Lago, Daniele Molgora, Francesco Speroni, etc.) and a new generation of Leghisti (Roberto Cota, Giancarlo Giorgetti, Marco Reguzzoni, Luca Zaia, etc.). Issue-oriented groups[edit] The League is home also to some issue-oriented groups. First, there is a group of Christian democrats, most of whom are affiliated to the Padanian Catholics, founded by late Roberto Ronchi and currently led by Giuseppe Leoni. Another leading Catholic is Massimo Polledri.[270] In fact many Leghisti are committed to Catholic social teaching
Catholic social teaching
and the social market economy, and several party members are former members or voters of Christian Democracy. Then, there is a right-wing which is represented mainly by Mario Borghezio, a former Monarchist who is the leader of Christian Padania, which is a key advocate of social conservatism within party ranks and has some links with the traditionalist Society of St. Pius X.

Traditional rally of Lega Nord
Lega Nord
in Pontida, 2011

Third and fourth, the party has always included also a group of libertarians, whose leading members Leonardo Facco, Gilberto Oneto and Giancarlo Pagliarini
Giancarlo Pagliarini
have since left the party, and an Independentist Unit.[271] The independentist wing crosses all the other factions and tendencies and in fact includes, among others, Borghezio and Francesco Speroni. Also Oneto, father of Padanian nationalism, and Pagliarini were close to this group.[272][273] Finally, the party is home to an agricultural wing, which is particularly strong in southern Lombardy, Emilia-Romagna
Emilia-Romagna
and Veneto, and is represented by the Cobas del latte, a farmers' trade union, the "Land Movement", whose leader was Giovanni Robusti,[274] and politicians such as Luca Zaia, a former Minister of Agriculture, Fabio Rainieri, one of the leader of Lega Nord
Lega Nord
Emilia, and Erminio Boso, a historic and now marginal figure from Trentino. 1997 Padanian Parliament election[edit] In October 1997 Lega Nord
Lega Nord
organised what it called "the first elections to the Padanian Parliament". Roughly 4 million Northern Italians (6 million according to the party) went to the polls and chose between a number of Padanian parties. This is a short resume of the affiliations of leading party members:[274][275][276][277][278][279]

Marco Formentini, Giovanni Meo Zilio, Roberto Bernardelli, Franco Colleoni and Mariella Mazzetto, with the support of Roberto Maroni, launched the Europeanist and social-democratic European Democrats – Padanian Labour (52 seats out of 210); Vito Gnutti, Giancarlo Pagliarini, Domenico Comino, Roberto Cota
Roberto Cota
and Massimo Zanello led the liberal-conservative Liberal Democrats – Forza Padania
Padania
(50); Oreste Rossi, Enzo Flego and Walter Gherardini formed the national-conservative Padanian Right (27); Roberto Ronchi and Giuseppe Leoni founded the Christian-democratic Padanian Catholics (20); a group of Venetian Leghisti formed the Venetist Padanian Lions (14); Leonardo Facco, Leopoldo Siegel and Marco Pottino launched Libertarian and Liberal Padania
Padania
(12); Matteo Salvini
Matteo Salvini
and Mauro Manfredini were candidates of the Padanian Communists (5); Erminio Boso led the agrarian-conservative Padanian Union – Agriculture, Environment, Hunting, Fishing (5); Benedetto Della Vedova, a Radical politician, was elected at the head of an anti-prohibitionist and free-market libertarian list in Milan, while Nando Dalla Chiesa, a Green
Green
MP, was an unsuccessful candidate in Milan
Milan
too.

Differing viewpoints on coalitions[edit] During the years in government in Rome
Rome
(2001–2006) in the party there were different viewpoints on coalitions: some, led by Calderoli and Castelli (with the backing of Bossi), vigorously supported the alliance with the centre-right, while others, represented by Maroni and Giorgetti, were less warm about it.[280][281][282] Some of them spoke about joining the centre-left some time after the 2006 general election, which they were certain to lose. This idea was ascribed to the fact that, without any support from the left, it seemed even more difficult to win the constitutional referendum, which would have turned Italy
Italy
into a federal state.[283] Similar differences emerged during (and within) Berlusconi's fourth government (2008–2011). While Calderoli was again a keen supporter of the arrangement, Maroni was far less warm on Berlusconi and, at times, evoked an alliance with the centre-left Democratic Party. Calderoli's line had the backing of Federico Bricolo, Cota, Reguzzoni and, chiefly, Bossi, while Maroni was backed by Giorgetti, Speroni, Zaia and Tosi.[284][285] However, the alliance with the centre-right continued at the regional/local level (Veneto, Piedmont, Lombardy, municipalities, etc.) also after 2011 and has become a virtually permanent feature of Lega Nord's electoral politics. 2008–2011 developments[edit] Since 2008, besides the traditional regional divides, the party was increasingly divided among three groups. The first was the so-called "magic circle", that was to say Bossi's inner circle, notably including Marco Reguzzoni, Rosi Mauro and Federico Bricolo. The second was formed around Roberto Calderoli, who was the powerful coordinator of Lega Nord's national secretariats and had among his closest supporters Giacomo Stucchi and Davide Boni. The third one was led by Roberto Maroni, who tended to be more independent from Bossi and was somewhat critical of the centre-right affiliation of the party, and included Giancarlo Giorgetti, Attilio Fontana, Matteo Salvini
Matteo Salvini
and Flavio Tosi.[286][287][288] Gian Paolo Gobbo and Luca Zaia, leaders of the party in Veneto, although very loyal to Bossi, tended to be independent from "federal" factions and were engaged in a long power struggle with Flavio Tosi
Flavio Tosi
(see Liga Veneta#Factions).[289] Indeed, Corriere della Sera
Corriere della Sera
identified four main groups: the magic circle, Maroniani, Calderoliani and "Venetians" (or, better, Venetists),[290] leaving aside the core independentists (see Lega Nord#Issue-oriented groups). Roberto Cota, leader of Lega Nord
Lega Nord
Piemont, the third largest "national" section of Lega Nord, was very close to Bossi and was part of the magic circle, but, since his election as President of Piedmont, he became more independent.[291] Equidistant from the main factions were also Roberto Castelli
Roberto Castelli
and Francesco Speroni.[287]

Traditional rally of Lega Nord
Lega Nord
in Pontida, 2013

By 2011 Maroniani clearly became the strongest faction within the party and Maroni, who was acclaimed at the traditional rally in Pontida
Pontida
in June, became Bossi's obvious successor.[292][293][294] Maroniani commanded wide support among rank-and-file members and were well represented in all regions,[295][296][297] notably including Veneto, where Tosi, despite being a conservative liberal, was loyal to Maroni.[298] Maroni and Calderoli, who had been on opposite sides for years, joined forces against the magic circle and its influence on Bossi.[299] After Pontida
Pontida
2011, Mauro and Reguzzoni tried to convince Bossi to remove Giorgetti from the leadership of Lega Lombarda, but this move was strongly opposed by Maroni and Calderoli, who were supported in this also by Cota and most Venetians.[300][301][302] The attempted "coup d'etat" produced an umparalleled backclash against the magic circle: 49 deputies out of 59 wanted to replace Reguzzoni as floor leader in the Chamber of Deputies with Stucchi, but Bossi imposed the status quo.[303][304][305][306] After earning resounding victories in the provincial congresses of Verona, Belluno and eastern Veneto
Veneto
during the first half of 2011, Maroniani (with the support of Calderoliani) prevailed also in Brescia and Val Camonica, defeating the candidates of the magic circle by landslides.[307][308] In October, fearing a remake in Varese, his homeprovince, Bossi imposed his candidate, who was declared elected without a vote. In the event, Bossi was openly contested by many delegates at the congress. In fact, there had been an open vote, Maroniani would have won.[309] These party infightings ended with Bossi's demise in February 2012 (see Lega Nord#Bossi's demise). 2013–present developments[edit] Since Salvini's rise to leadership in 2013, the party sported the usual regional and ideological divides and, especially, that between Salvini and Tosi: the former displayed a more populist attitude, strongly opposed the Euro
Euro
and nominally supported separatism, while the latter presented himself as a more centrist figure, supported European integration, was soft on independence and unveiled a liberal program[310] for his intended run in a putative "centre-right prime-ministerial primary election".[311][312] As leader of Liga Veneta, Tosi, who was ejected from Lega Nord
Lega Nord
in March 2015, was confronted by the Venetist and separatist wings of the regional party,[313] having in Zaia and Massimo Bitonci
Massimo Bitonci
their leading members (see Liga Veneta#Factions). Curiously enough, those Venetists did not oppose Salvini's "Italian nationalist" turn. In fact, since 2014 Salvini started to build a network of supporters in Central-Southern Italy
Italy
and the Isles with the creation of Us with Salvini, a sister party to Lega Nord. This was broadly accepted by Venetians, but increasingly opposed by key Lombard figures, including Bossi, Maroni and Paolo Grimoldi (leader of Lega Lombarda), who criticised the LN's right-wing turn and its focus on the South, while reclaiming the federalist and autonomist identity of the LN.[314][315][316][317] In the 2017 leadership election Salvini easily fended off the challenge posed by Gianni Fava, Lombard minister of Agriculture in the old social-democratic tradition, representing the federalist/autonomist/separatist wing of the party. Fava, who was anti-prohibition of drugs, pro-civil unions for same-sex couples, pro-United States, pro-NATO, and anti-National Front ("[it] is one of the most centralist and conservative blocs in Europe, what has it to do with us?"), recalled an old activist saying "let's hurry up in making Padania, that I want to return voting for the left" and added "this was the League and it has to be like this anew".[318][319][320] After Marine Le Pen's defeat by Emmanuel Macron
Emmanuel Macron
in the second round of the French presidential election, Maroni declared that the "tactical and not strategic" alliance with Le Pen, "who wants to go back to national states", was over and that "we should return to our origins of post-ideological movement, neither right nor left".[321] Maroni added that "the League is not right-wing, we have done things in Lombardy
Lombardy
that the red regions would dream of, from the baby bonus to the welfare. Typically left-wing policies. For us there are the Lombards, not those of right or left". Finally, reminding Salvini's left-wing roots, he remarked that "those are the origins" and that also Salvini would eventually share his views.[322] More worringly for party's unity, Bossi threatened to leave the party and form an alternative movement with Roberto Bernardelli's Padanian Union.[323][324] The tensions between Salvini and Maroni culminated in latter's decision not to run for a second term as President of Lombardy
President of Lombardy
in 2018. On that occasion, Maroni was very critical of Salvini in an interview with Il Foglio.[136][137] As a result, very few Maroniani were selected as candidates for the 2018 general election;[325] Also Fava was excluded.[326] Bossi, who had not left the party, was selected by Salvini to lead the LN's list for the Senate in Varese,[327] but was challenged also by Giancarlo Paragone, a fomer leghista who had switched to the Five Star Movement,[328] and Great North, a party launched by Bernardelli and Marco Reguzzoni. Popular support[edit] Support for Lega Nord
Lega Nord
is diverse even within Padania
Padania
and has varied over time, reaching an early maximum of 10.1% of the vote at the 1996 general election (around 25% north of the Po River). That year, the League scored 29.3% of the vote in Veneto, 25.5% in Lombardy, 23.2% in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, 18.2% in Piedmont, 13.2% in Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, 10.2% in Liguria, 7.2% in Emilia-Romagna, 1.8% in Tuscany, 1.5% in the Marche, and 1.0% in Umbria. The party got 59 deputies and 27 senators (39 and 19, respectively, in single-seat constituencies), helping the centre-left to win, due to its victories in some Northern constituencies characterised by three-way races. The League won barely all the seats in the provinces of the so-called Pedemontana, the area at the feet of the Prealps, from Udine
Udine
to Cuneo, encompassing Friuli, Veneto, Trentino, Lombardy
Lombardy
and Piedmont.[329][330][331] Lega Nord
Lega Nord
is stronger in the areas of the late Republic of Venice
Venice
and among Catholics.[332] At the 2008 general election Lega Nord
Lega Nord
scored 8.3% at the national level, slightly below the result of 1996: 27.1% in Veneto, 21.6% in Lombardy, 13.0% in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, 12.6% in Piedmont, 9.4% in Trentino-Alto Adige, 7.8% in Emilia-Romagna, 6.8% in Liguria, 2.2% in the Marche, 2.0% in Tuscany
Tuscany
and 1.7% in Umbria.[333][334] At the 2009 European Parliament
European Parliament
election Lega Nord
Lega Nord
won 10.2% of the vote: 28.4% in Veneto, 22.7% in Lombardy, 17.5% in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, 15.7% in Piedmont, 9.9% in Trentino-Alto Adige, 11.1% in Emilia-Romagna, 9.9% in Liguria, 5.5% in the Marche, 4.3% in Tuscany, 3.6% in Umbria
Umbria
and other surprising results, such as 24.6% in Lampedusa, 5.1% in Ogliastra, Sardinia
Sardinia
and 1.2% in Reggio Calabria.[335] In 2014 the party scored 15.2% in Veneto
Veneto
and 14.6% in Lombardy.[336] At the 2010 regional elections the party gained 35.2% of the vote in Veneto, 26.2% in Lombardy, 16.7% in Piedmont, 13.7% in Emilia-Romagna, 10.2% in Liguria, 6.3% in the Marche, 6.5% in Tuscany
Tuscany
and 4.3% in Umbria.[337] At the 2014–2015 regional elections it obtained 40.9% in Veneto, 20.3% in Liguria, 19.4% in Emilia-Romagna, 16.2% in Tuscany, 14.0% in Umbria, and 13.0% in Marche, marking its best results so far in those six regions. The 2013 general election was not a good moment for the party, which gained meagre results, e.g. 12.9% in Lombardy
Lombardy
and 10.5% in Veneto. Five years later, the party obtained its best results ever in the 2018 general election: 17.4% in Italy, 32.2% in Veneto, 28.0% in Lombardy, 26.7% in Trentino, 25.8% in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, 22.6% in Piedmont, 20.2% in Umbria, 19.9% in Liguria, 19.2% in Emilia-Romagna, as well as significant results in the South (5–10%). Electoral results[edit] Italian Parliament[edit]

Chamber of Deputies

Election year # of overall votes % of overall vote # of overall seats won +/– Leader

1992 3,395,384 (#4) 8.6

55 / 630

Umberto Bossi

1994 3,235,248 (#5) 8.4

117 / 630

62

Umberto Bossi

1996 3,776,354 (#4) 10.8

59 / 630

58

Umberto Bossi

2001 1,464,301 (#6) 3.9

30 / 630

28

Umberto Bossi

2006 1,749,632 (#6) 4.6

28 / 630

2

Umberto Bossi

2008 3,024,758 (#3) 8.3

60 / 630

32

Umberto Bossi

2013 1,390,156 (#5) 4.1

20 / 630

42

Roberto Maroni

2018 5,691,921 (#3) 17.4

124 / 630

104

Matteo Salvini

Senate of the Republic

Election year # of overall votes % of overall vote # of overall seats won +/– Leader

1992 2,732,461 (#4) 8.2

25 / 315

Umberto Bossi

1994 with PdL –

60 / 315

35

Umberto Bossi

1996 3,394,733 (#4) 10.4

27 / 315

33

Umberto Bossi

2001 with CdL –

17 / 315

10

Umberto Bossi

2006 1.530.667 (#6) 4.5

13 / 315

4

Umberto Bossi

2008 2,644,248 (#3) 7.9

26 / 315

13

Umberto Bossi

2013 1,328,555 (#5) 4.3

18 / 315

8

Roberto Maroni

2018 5,317,019 (#3) 17.6

58 / 315

40

Matteo Salvini

European Parliament[edit]

European Parliament

Election year # of overall votes % of overall vote # of overall seats won +/– Leader

1989 636,242 (#9) 1.8

2 / 81

Umberto Bossi

1994 2,162,586 (#5) 6.5

6 / 87

4

Umberto Bossi

1999 1,395,547 (#6) 4.5

4 / 87

2

Umberto Bossi

2004 1,613,506 (#7) 5.0

4 / 78

Umberto Bossi

2009 3,126,915 (#3) 10.2

9 / 72

5

Umberto Bossi

2014 1,688,197 (#4) 6.2

5 / 73

4

Matteo Salvini

Regional Councils[edit]

Region Latest election # of overall votes % of overall vote # of overall seats won +/–

Aosta Valley 2013 with SA with SA

0 / 35

Piedmont 2014 141,741 (#4) 7.3

2 / 50

7

Lombardy 2018 1,553,798 (#1) 29.4

29 / 80

1

South Tyrol 2013 7,118 (#6) (with FI) 2.5 (with FI)

1 / 35

Trentino 2013 14,759 (#5) 6.2

1 / 35

5

Veneto 2015 757,329 (#1) 40.9

24 / 51

4

Friuli-Venezia Giulia 2013 33,050 (#5) 8.3

3 / 49

5

Emilia-Romagna 2014 233,439 (#2) 19.4

9 / 50

5

Liguria 2015 109,203 (#3) 20.3

7 / 30

4

Tuscany 2015 214.430 (#2) 16.2

6 / 41

3

Marche 2015 62,065 (#3) 13.0

3 / 31

1

Umbria 2015 49.203 (#3) 14.0

2 / 20

1

Lazio 2018 252,772 (#4) 10.0

4 / 50

4

Detailed results[edit]

Region Election year # of overall votes % of overall vote # of overall seats won +/–

Aosta Valley 1993 6,176 (#4) 7.6

3 / 35

1998 2,653 (#8) 3.4

0 / 35

3

1998 2,653 (#8) 3.4

0 / 35

2003 with CdL with CdL

0 / 35

2008 – –

0 / 35

2013 with SA with SA

0 / 35

Piedmont 1985 33,978 (#11) 1.1

0 / 60

1990 148,450 (#4) 5.1

3 / 60

3

1995 217,194 (#4) 9.9

5 / 60

2

2000 153,935 (#4) 7.6

3 / 60

2

2005 173,020 (#5) 8.5

4 / 73

1

2010 317,065 (#3) 16.7

9 / 60

5

2014 141,741 (#4) 7.3

2 / 50

7

Lombardy 1985 28,074 (#11) 0.5

0 / 80

1990 1,183,493 (#2) 18.9

15 / 80

15

1995 879,139 (#2) 17.6

12 / 80

3

2000 702,479 (#3) 15.4

11 / 80

1

2005 693,464 (#2) 15.8

15 / 80

3

2010 1,117,227 (#2) 26.2

20 / 80

5

2013 1,253,770 (#1) 23.2

28 / 80

8

2018 1,553,798 (#1) 29.4

29 / 80

1

South Tyrol 1993 9,115 (#7) 3.0

1 / 35

1998 2,606 (#13) 0.9

0 / 35

1

2003 1,626 (#13) 0.5

2 / 35

2008 6,411 (#8) 2.1

1 / 35

1

2013 7,118 (#6) (with FI) 2.5 (with FI)

1 / 35

Trentino 1993 50,095 (#3) 16.2

6 / 35

1998 24,941 (#6) 8.8

3 / 35

3

2003 16,526 (#5) 6.2

2 / 35

1

2008 38,533 (#3) 14.7

6 / 35

3

2013 14,759 (#5) 6.2

1 / 35

5

Veneto 1985 112,275 (#5) 3.7

2 / 60

1990 180,676 (#5) 5.9

3 / 60

1

1995 422,410 (#3) 16.7

9 / 65

6

2000 274,472 (#4) 12.0

7 / 60

2

2005 337,896 (#3) 14.7

11 / 60

4

2010 788,581 (#1) 35.2

20 / 60

9

2015 757,329 (#1) 40.9

24 / 51

4

Friuli-Venezia Giulia 1993 212,497 (#1) 26.7

18 / 60

1998 114,156 (#2) 17.3

12 / 60

6

2003 46,408 (#5) 9.3

4 / 55

8

2008 73,239 (#3) 12.9

8 / 59

4

2013 33,050 (#5) 8.3

3 / 49

5

Emilia-Romagna 1985 11,564 (#10) 0.4

0 / 50

1990 85,379 (#7) 2.9

1 / 50

1

1995 86,400 (#7) 3.4

1 / 50

2000 79,714 (#6) 3.3

1 / 50

2005 109,092 (#5) 4.8

3 / 50

2

2010 288,601 (#3) 13.7

4 / 50

1

2014 233,439 (#2) 19.4

9 / 50

5

Liguria 1985 10,751 (#11) 0.9

0 / 40

1990 71,311 (#4) 5.1

2 / 40

2

1995 62,755 (#5) 6.5

2 / 40

2000 38,104 (#5) 4.3

1 / 40

5

2005 38,060 (#6) 4.7

1 / 40

2010 76,265 (#3) 10.2

3 / 40

2

2015 109,203 (#3) 20.3

7 / 30

4

Tuscany 1985 11,798 (#10) 0.8

0 / 50

1990 20,657 (#13) 0.8

0 / 50

1995 15,049 (#11) 0.7

0 / 50

2000 11,256 (#14) 0.6

0 / 50

2005 22,884 (#9) 1.3

0 / 65

2010 98,523 (#4) 6.5

3 / 53

3

2015 214.430 (#2) 16.2

6 / 41

3

Marche 1985 5,433 (#10) 0.6

0 / 40

1990 2,440 (#13) 0.3

0 / 40

1995 4,252 (#13) 0.5

0 / 40

2000 2,124 (#16) 0.3

0 / 40

2005 6,866 (#12) 0.8

0 / 40

2010 45,726 (#4) 6.3

2 / 41

2

2015 62,065 (#3) 13.0

3 / 31

1

Umbria 1985 2,103 0.4

0 / 30

1990 1,370 0.2

0 / 30

1995 – –

0 / 30

2000 1,227 (#13) 0.3

0 / 30

2005 – –

0 / 30

2010 17,887 (#7) 4.3

1 / 30

1

2015 49.203 (#3) 14.0

2 / 20

1

Lazio 2018 252,772 (#4) 10.0

4 / 50

Electoral results by region[edit] The electoral results of Lega Nord
Lega Nord
(and its predecessors) in Northern and North-Central regions are shown in the table below.[338][339][340] Chamber of Deputies[edit]

Year Aosta V. Piedmont Lombardy Trentino-ST Veneto Friuli-VG Emilia-R. Liguria Tuscany Marche Umbria ITALY

1992 - 16.3 23.0 8.9 17.8 15.3 9.6 14.3 3.1 1.3 1.1 8.7

1994 w. FI 11.4 15.7 7.6 22.1 21.6 16.9 6.4 2.2 - - 8.4

1996 8.1 18.2 25.5 13.2 29.3 23.2 7.2 10.2 1.8 1.5 1.1 10.1

2001 w. FI 3.9 12.1 3.7 10.2 8.2 3.3 5.9 0.6 0.3 - 3.9

2006 2.0 6.3 11.7 4.5 11.1 7.2 3.9 3.7 1.1 1.0 0.8 4.1

2008 3.1 12.6 21.6 9.4 27.1 13.0 7.8 6.8 2.0 2.2 1.7 8.3

2013 3.3 4.8 12.9 4.2 10.5 6.7 2.6 2.3 0.7 0.7 0.6 4.1

2018 17.5 22.6 28.0 19.2 32.2 25.8 19.2 19.9 17.4 17.3 20.2 17.4

European Parliament[edit]

Year Aosta V. Piedmont Lombardy Trentino-ST Veneto Friuli-VG Emilia-R. Liguria Tuscany Marche Umbria ITALY

1989 0.5 2.1 8.1 0.3 1.7 0.5 0.5 1.4 0.2 0.1 0.1 1.8

1994 5.7 11.5 17.7 4.8 15.7 11.2 6.4 8.0 1.6 0.8 0.6 6.6

1999 2.0 7.8 13.1 2.4 10.7 10.1 3.0 3.7 0.6 0.4 0.3 4.5

2004 3.0 8.2 13.8 3.5 14.1 8.5 3.4 4.1 0.8 0.9 0.6 5.0

2009 4.4 15.7 22.7 9.9 28.4 17.5 11.1 9.9 4.3 5.5 3.6 10.2

2014 6.8 7.6 14.6 7.6 15.6 9.3 5.0 5.6 2.6 2.7 2.5 6.2

Regional Councils[edit]

Year Aosta V. Piedmont Lombardy S. Tyrol Trentino Veneto Friuli-VG Emilia-R. Liguria Tuscany Marche Umbria

1985 - 1.1 0.5 - - 3.7 - 0.4 0.9 0.5 0.6 0.4

1990 - 5.1 18.9 - - 7.2 - 2.9 6.1 0.8 0.2 0.2

1993 7.6 - - 3.0 16.2 - 26.7 - - - - -

1995 - 9.9 17.7 - - 16.7 - 3.4 6.6 0.7 0.5 -

1998 3.4 - - 0.9 8.8 - 17.3 - - - - -

2000 - 7.6 15.5 - - 12.0 - 2.6 4.3 0.6 - 0.3

2003 - - - 9.3 0.5 - 6.2 - - - - -

2005 - 8.5 15.8 - - 14.7 - 4.8 4.7 1.3 0.9 -

2008 - - - 2.1 19.0 - 12.9 - - - - -

2010 - 16.7 26.2 - - 35.2 - 13.6 10.2 6.4 6.3 4.3

2013 w. SA - 23.2[a] 2.5 6.2 - 8.3 - - - - -

2014 - 7.3 - - - - - 19.4 - - - -

2015 - - - - - 40.9[b] - - 20.3 16.2 13.0 14.0

2018 - - 29.4 - - - - - - - - -

^ Combined result of party list (13.0%) and Roberto Maroni's personal list (10.2%). ^ Combined result of party list (17.8%) and Luca Zaia's personal list (23.1%).

Local government[edit] Regional Presidents:

Lombardy
Lombardy
(10,019,166 inhabitants): Attilio Fontana Veneto
Veneto
(4,907,579 inhabitants): Luca Zaia

Provincial Presidents:

Treviso (Veneto, 885,972 inhabitants): Stefano Marcon Udine
Udine
(Friuli-VG, 531,466 inhabitants): Pietro Fontanini Sondrio (Lombardy, 181,437 inhabitants): Luca Della Bitta

Mayors (cities over 30,000 inhabitants):

Genoa
Genoa
(Liguria, 583,601 inhabitants): Marco Bucci[341] (independent) Novara
Novara
(Piedmont, 104,284 inhabitants): Alessandro Canelli Alessandria
Alessandria
(Piedmont, 93,839 inhabitants): Gianfranco Cuttica Vigevano
Vigevano
(Lombardy, 63,505 inhabitants): Andrea Sala Legnano
Legnano
(Lombardy, 60,259 inhabitants): Gianbattista Fratus Gallarate
Gallarate
(Lombardy, 53,145 inhabitants): Andrea Cassani Rovigo
Rovigo
(Veneto, 51,625 inhabitants): Massimo Bergamin Cologno Monzese
Cologno Monzese
(Lombardy, 47,751 inhabitants): Angelo Rocchi Cascina
Cascina
(Tuscany, 45,361 inhabitants): Susanna Ceccardi Lodi (Lombardy, 45,212 inhabitants): Sara Casanova Cantù
Cantù
(Lombardy, 39,889 inhabitants): Edgardo Arosio Saronno
Saronno
(Lombardy, 39,351 inhabitants): Alessandro Fagioli Corsico
Corsico
(Lombardy, 34,891 inhabitants): Filippo Errante Castelfranco Veneto
Veneto
(Veneto, 33,369 inhabitants): Stefano Marcon Villafranca di Verona
Verona
(Veneto, 33,185 inhabitants): Mario Faccioli Montebelluna
Montebelluna
(Veneto, 31,324 inhabitants): Marzio Favero

Leadership[edit] Federal party[edit]

Federal Secretary: Umberto Bossi
Umberto Bossi
(1989–2012), Roberto Maroni (2012–2013), Matteo Salvini
Matteo Salvini
(2013–present)

Deputy Federal Secretary: Francesco Formenti (1992–1995), Francesco Speroni (1998–1999), Gianpaolo Dozzo (1998–1999), Mario Borghezio (1998–1999), Federico Caner (vicar, 2012–2013), Giacomo Stucchi (2012–2013), Elena Maccanti (2012–2013), Matteo Salvini
Matteo Salvini
(2013), Flavio Tosi
Flavio Tosi
(2013), Riccardo Molinari (2014–2016), Edoardo Rixi (2014–2016), Giancarlo Giorgetti (2016–present), Lorenzo Fontana (2016–present) Coordinator of National Sections / Organisational Secretary: Roberto Calderoli (2002–present) Coordinator of Federal Secretariat / Legislative Office: Roberto Ronchi (1991–1994), Roberto Maroni
Roberto Maroni
(1994–2001), Francesco Speroni (2001–2005), Roberto Maroni
Roberto Maroni
(2005–2012), Giacomo Stucchi (2012–2013), Federico Bricolo (2013–2016)

Federal President: Marilena Marin (1989–1991), Franco Rocchetta (1991–1994), Stefano Stefani (1995–2002), Luciano Gasperini (2002–2005), Angelo Alessandri (2005–2012), Umberto Bossi (2012–present)

Honorary President: Luigi Rossi (1991–1996)

Federal Administrative Secretary / Administrator: Alessandro Patelli (1991–1993), Maurizio Balocchi (1993–2010), Francesco Belsito (2010–2012), Stefano Stefani (2012–2014), Giulio Centemero (2014–present) Party Leader in the Chamber of Deputies: Marco Formentini (1992–1993), Roberto Maroni
Roberto Maroni
(1993–1994), Pierluigi Petrini (1994–1995), Vito Gnutti (1995–1996), Domenico Comino (1996–1999), Giancarlo Pagliarini
Giancarlo Pagliarini
(1999–2001), Alessandro Cè (2001–2005), Andrea Gibelli (2005–2006), Roberto Maroni (2006–2008), Roberto Cota
Roberto Cota
(2008–2010), Marco Reguzzoni (2010–2012), Gianpaolo Dozzo (2012–2013), Giancarlo Giorgetti (2013–2014), Massimiliano Fedriga (2014–present) Party Leader in the Senate: Francesco Speroni
Francesco Speroni
(1992–1994), Francesco Tabladini (1994–1996), Francesco Speroni
Francesco Speroni
(1996–1999), Luciano Gasperini (1998–1999), Roberto Castelli
Roberto Castelli
(1999–2001), Francesco Moro (2001–2004), Ettore Pirovano (2004–2006), Roberto Castelli (2006–2008), Federico Bricolo (2008–2013), Massimo Bitonci (2013–2014), Gian Marco Centinaio (2014–present) Party Leader in the European Parliament: Francesco Speroni (1989–1992), Luigi Moretti (1992–1999), Francesco Speroni (1999–2004), Mario Borghezio
Mario Borghezio
(2004–2009), Francesco Speroni (2009–2012), Lorenzo Fontana
Lorenzo Fontana
(2012–2014), Matteo Salvini (2014–present)

Major "national" sections[edit] Liga Veneta

National Secretary: Achille Tramarin (1980−1983), Marilena Marin (1983−1984), Franco Rocchetta
Franco Rocchetta
(1984−1985), Marilena Marin (1985−1994), Fabrizio Comencini (1994−1998), Gian Paolo Gobbo (1998−2012), Flavio Tosi
Flavio Tosi
(2012−2015), Gianpaolo Dozzo (federal commissioner, 2015–2016), Gianantonio Da Re (2016–present) National President: Franco Rocchetta
Franco Rocchetta
(1991−1994), Gian Paolo Gobbo (1994−1998), Giuseppe Ceccato (1998–1999), Manuela Dal Lago (2001−2008), Flavio Tosi
Flavio Tosi
(2008−2012), Luca Baggio (2012–2015), Massimo Bitonci
Massimo Bitonci
(2016–present)

Lega Lombarda

National Secretary: Umberto Bossi
Umberto Bossi
(1984–1993), Luigi Negri (1993–1995), Roberto Calderoli (1995–2002), Giancarlo Giorgetti (2002–2012), Matteo Salvini
Matteo Salvini
(2012–2014), Stefano Borghesi (federal commissioner, 2014–2015), Paolo Grimoldi (2015–present) National President: Augusto Arizzi (1986–1987), Silvana Bazzan (1987–1989), Franco Castellazzi (1989–1991), Francesco Speroni (1991–1993), Roberto Calderoli (1993–1995), Giuseppe Leoni (1995–1999), Stefano Galli (1999–2002), Roberto Castelli (2002–2012), Giancarlo Giorgetti (2012–2017), Giacomo Stucchi (2017–present)

Piemont Autonomista / Lega Nord
Lega Nord
Piemont

National Secretary: Gipo Farassino (1987–1997), Domenico Comino (1997–1999), Bernardino Bosio (1999–2001), Roberto Cota (2001–2016), Riccardo Molinari (2016–present) National President: Angelo Colli (1991–1992), Domenico Comino (1994–1997), Bernardino Bosio (1997–1999), Silvano Straneo (2000–2001), Oreste Rossi (2001–2004), Mario Borghezio (2004–2011), Gianna Gancia (2012–2016), Stefano Allasia (2016–present)

Symbols[edit]

1991–1999

1999–present

2018 general election

See also[edit]

List of regional and minority parties in Europe List of active separatist movements in Europe Media related to Lega Nord
Lega Nord
at Wikimedia Commons

Notes[edit]

External links[edit]

Official website Movimento Giovani Padani La Padania

References[edit]

^ Tondelli, Jacopo; Trocino, Alessandro (16 April 2008). "La Lega si fa rete". Milan: Corriere della Sera.  ^ a b Albertazzi, Daniele; McDonnell, Duncan; Newell, James L. (July 2011), "Di lotta e di governo: The Lega Nord
Lega Nord
and Rifondazione Comunista in office" (PDF), Party Politics, 17 (4): 471–487, doi:10.1177/1354068811400523  ^ Cotta, Maurizio; Verzichelli, Luca (2007). Political Institutions in Italy. Oxford University Press. pp. 39–. ISBN 978-0-19-928470-2. Retrieved 16 July 2013.  ^

Fitjar, Rune Dahl (2010), The Rise of Regionalism: Causes of regional mobilisation in Western Europe, Routledge, p. 143, ISBN 9780203870839  Giordano, Benito (2004), "Italian regionalism or 'Padanian' nationalism — the political project of the Lega Nord
Lega Nord
in Italian politics", Regions and Regionalism in Europe, Edward Elgar Publishing, pp. 378–404, ISBN 9781782542957 

^ a b Spektorowski, Alberto (March 2003), "Ethonregionalism: The Intellectual New Right and the Lega Nord" (PDF), The Global Review of Ethnopolitics, 2 (3–4): 55–70, doi:10.1080/14718800308405144  ^

Huysseune, Michel (2006), Modernity and Secession: The Social Sciences and the Political Discourse of the Lega Nord
Lega Nord
in Italy, Berghahn Books, p. 192, ISBN 9781845450618  Betz, Hans-Georg (1998), "Against Rome: The Lega Nord", The New Politics of the Right, Palgrave Macmillan, p. 55, ISBN 9780312213381 

^ a b Tarchi, Marco (2007), "Recalcitrant Allies: The Conflicting Foreign Policy Agenda of the Alleanza Nazionale and the Lega Nord", Europe for the Europeans, Ashgate, p. 187, ISBN 9780754648512  ^

Chiantera-Stutte, Patricia (2005), "Leadership, Ideology, and Anti-European Politics in the Italian Lega Nord", Challenges to Consensual Politics, P.I.E.-Peter Land, p. 127, ISBN 9789052012506  Ruzza, Carlo; Fella, Stefano (2009), Re-inventing the Italian Right: Territorial politics, populism and 'post-fascism', Routledge, p. 1, ISBN 9781134286348  Gold, Thomas W. (2003), The Lega Nord
Lega Nord
and Contemporary Politics in Italy, Palgrave Macmillan 

^

Alonso, Sonia (2012). Challenging the State: Devolution
Devolution
and the Battle for Partisan Credibility — A Comparison of Belgium, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom. Oxford University Press. p. 216.  Art, David (2011). Inside the Radical Right: The Development of Anti-Immigrant Parties in Western Europe. Cambridge University Press. pp. 216 et seqq., especially p. 226.  Geddes, Andrew (2009). Il rombo dei connoni?: Immigration and the centre-right in Italy. Immigration and Integration Policy in Europe: Why Politics—and the Centre-Right—Matter. Routledge. pp. 40–41.  Shin, Michael; Agnew, John (2011). Spatial Regression for Electoral Studies: The Case of the Italian Lega Nord. Revitalizing Electoral Geography. Ashgate. pp. 65–76.  Zaslove, Andrej (2011). The Re-invention of the European Radical Right. passim, especially pp. 29, 119–121, 130. 

^ Verney, Susannah (2013). Euroscepticism
Euroscepticism
in Southern Europe: A Diachronic Perspective. Routledge. p. 13.  ^ Zaslove, Andrej (July 2008). "Exclusion, community, and a populist political economy: the radical right as an anti-globalization movement". Comparative European Politics. Palgrave Macmillan. 6 (2): 169–189. doi:10.1057/palgrave.cep.6110126.  ^

Bull, Anna C.; Gilbert, Mark (2001). The Lega Nord
Lega Nord
and the Politics of Secession
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e i 200 km di cemento". Milan: Corriere della Sera.  ^ Nava, Massimo (24 April 1999). "Bossi: La Serbia inviterà Annan". Milan: Corriere della Sera.  ^ Rumiz, Paolo (11 April 1999). "L'Europa profonda che odia l'America". Rome: La Repubblica.  ^ Latella, Maria (10 October 2001). "Lega, il partito filo Milosevic ora dà il via libera all'America". Milan: Corriere della Sera.  ^ Gorodisky, Daria (8 November 2001). "I Poli trovano l'intesa, sì all'intervento militare". Milan: Corriere della Sera.  ^ Zuccolini, Roberto (4 October 2002). "Sì a maggioranza, via alla "missione Afghanistan"". Milan: Corriere della Sera.  ^ "Calderoli: Bush regali l'atomica ad Ahmadinejad". Milan: Corriere della Sera. 7 September 2006.  ^ Guerzoni, Monica (22 April 2004). "Lo strappo della Lega sulla missione italiana". Milan: Corriere della Sera.  ^ Massimo, Franco (22 April 2004). "La Lega tende a smarcarsi. Inviti alla cautela sugli ostaggi". Milan: Corriere della Sera.  ^ Michilli, Livia (9 July 2005). "Calderoli: andiamocene. Il Polo lo frena Rifinanziamento, il centrosinistra diviso". Milan: Corriere della Sera.  ^ Di Vico, Dario (17 June 2011). "Attraverso Maroni e Israele La Lega "scopre" la Politica Estera". Milan: Corriere della Sera.  ^ Piccolillo, Virginia (26 April 2011). "Calderoli e il no della Lega "Il mio voto non lo avranno"". Milan: Corriere della Sera.  ^ Maritano, Dino (27 April 2011). "Raid in Libia, no di Bossi. Il Pd: si rivoti". Milan: Corriere della Sera.  ^ Cremonesi, Marco (20 June 2011). "Pontida, la sfida di Bossi "Berlusconi leader? Vedremo"". Milan: Corriere della Sera.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 16 October 2014. Retrieved 11 October 2014.  ^ Davide Cordua. "Lega Nord". Retrieved 9 June 2015.  ^ Seddon, Max; Politi, James (6 March 2017). "Putin's party signs deal with Italy's far-right Lega Nord". Financial Times.  ^ "Umanitaria Padana". Umanitaria Padana.  ^ "Sara Fumagalli. Una guerriera per la pace" (PDF). Umanitaria Padana.  ^ "Castelli va a Medjugorje. L'ex ministro: a piedi nudi per sciogliere un mio voto". Milan: Corriere della Sera. 16 April 2007.  ^ Diamanti, Ilvo (2003). Bianco, rosso, verde... e azzurro. Bologna: Il Mulino. pp. 68–71.  ^ Ridolfi, Maurizio (2008). Storia dei partiti politici. L'Italia dal Risorgimento alla Repubblica. Milan: Bruno Mondadori. pp. 219–220.  ^ a b c "STATUTO DELLA LEGA NORD PER L'INDIPENDENZA DELLA PADANIA" (PDF). Leganord.org. Retrieved 2016-04-02.  ^ alkhan (2006-07-01). " Umberto Bossi
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- Dichiarazione di indipendenza della Padania1". YouTube. Retrieved 2011-06-28.  ^ alkhan. " Umberto Bossi
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sull'Unione Europea" (PDF). Lega Nord. 10 March 2004. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 July 2011.  ^ Pagliarini, Giancarlo (1 February 2005). "Sì all'Europa, ma che sia quella delle Regioni". Milan: La Padania. Archived from the original on 7 July 2010.  ^ vambrosi. "L'Arena.it - Il giornale di Verona
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- Notizie, Cronaca, Sport, Cultura su Verona
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e Provincia". L'Arena.it. Retrieved 9 June 2015.  ^ Gianni Di Capua. "E nella Lega litigano Salvini e Tosi". Retrieved 9 June 2015.  ^ " Lega Nord
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Como Progamma Lega Nord
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ok anche Marche
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ed Emilia Romagna". Rome: La Repubblica. 22 March 2006.  ^ Colonna, Duilio (13 July 2010). "Integrazione, la città è ospitale con gli stranieri". Verona: Verona
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(in Italian). Milan. p. 59. Archived from the original on 25 April 2012.  ^ "Sindaci più amati, Piero Fassino
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scalza Tosi dal primo posto". Padua: Corriere del Veneto. 13 October 2011.  ^ Squires, Nick (11 June 2009). "Unlikely champion of Italy's anti-immigration party is black and half-American". London: The Daily Telegraph.  ^ Day, Michael (10 June 2009). "Anti-immigration party member becomes Italy's first black mayor". London: The Independent.  ^ "Lascio la Lega e vi spiego perche'". Varese
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La strategia di Bossi del blocco padano". Radio Radicale.  ^ Diamanti, Ilvo (2003). Bianco, rosso, verde... e azzurro. Bologna: Il Mulino. pp. 55–83.  ^ Imarisio, Marco (19 April 2008). "Emilia, dove il rosso diventa Lega". Milan: Corriere della Sera.  ^ Brambilla, Michele (28 October 2010). "Reggio o Bologna, la guerra fratricida della Lega in Emilia". Turin: La Stampa. Archived from the original on 31 October 2010.  ^ Romanini, Olivio (24 March 2011). "Bernardini: "Scoprii la Lega sulla Smemoranda"". Bologna: Corriere di Bologna.  ^ Puca, Carlo (11 May 2011). "Dove vuole arrivare la Balena verde". Milan: Panorama.  ^ Vecchi, Gian Guido (21 November 1995). "Bossi multato dai suoi". Milan: Corriere della Sera.  ^ Trocino, Alessandro (11 April 2006). "La Lega delusa punta tutto sul referendum". Milan: Corriere della Sera.  ^ Trocino, Alessandro (10 February 2007). "La mozione della Lega: pronti a correre da soli". Milan: Corriere della Sera.  ^ a b "Cronistoria della Lega Nord
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1996–1998" (PDF). Lega Nord. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2010.  ^ Cavalera, Fabio (24 October 1997). "Tra le 43 liste gli "italiani" Pannella e Dalla Chiesa". Milan: Corriere della Sera.  ^ Dal Fior, Marco (26 October 1997). "I lumbard al primo voto: favorito Formentini nei 200 seggi gazebo". Milan: Corriere della Sera.  ^ Postiglione, Venanzio (28 October 1997). "Nei gazebo vincono Centro e ultra'". Milan: Corriere della Sera.  ^ Signore, Adalberto; Trocino, Alessandro (2008). Razza padana. Milan: BUR. pp. 111–112.  ^ Vecchi, Gian Guido (20 September 1997). "Lista Dalla Chiesa alle elezioni padane". Milan: Corriere della Sera.  ^ Signore, Adalberto; Trocino, Alessandro (2008). Razza padana. Milan: BUR. pp. 152–153, 158–159, 168.  ^ Passalacqua, Guido (14 May 2004). "Maroni contro Calderoli, l'enigma è Giorgetti". Rome: La Repubblica.  ^ Trocino, Alessandro (21 October 2004). "Un'ora di cammino al giorno, Bossi prepara il rientro". Milan: Corriere della Sera.  ^ Signore, Adalberto; Trocino, Alessandro (2008). Razza padana. Milan: BUR. pp. 122–127, 312–313.  ^ "La Lega è sull'orlo della spaccatura. Calderoli contro Maroni. Insider choc". Affaritaliani. 1 February 2011. Archived from the original on 4 February 2011.  ^ Cremonesi, Marco (5 February 2011). "Il Senatur insegue la riforma e diventa "garante" del no alle urne". Milan: Corriere della Sera.  ^ Zulin, Giuliano (10 March 2011). "Colpi bassi nella Lega per il dopo-Bossi". Milan: Libero.  ^ a b "Reguzzoni-Mauro, i bossiani non amati dalla Lega". Affaritaliani. 12 March 2011. Archived from the original on 19 March 2011.  ^ Pandini, Matteo (4 May 2011). "Umberto sistema i conti a Roma. A Milano i suoi litigano ancora". Milan: Libero.  ^ Aldegheri, Lillo (25 January 2011). "La Lega si spacca sull'Unità Gobbo, nuovo attacco a Tosi". Padua: Corriere del Veneto.  ^ Cremonesi, Marco (19 June 2011). "Difesa dei "piccoli" e un orizzonte di alleanza che non va oltre il 2011". Milan: Corriere della Sera.  ^ Brambilla, Michele (13 September 2010). "Il Capo stanco e i "pretoriani" del cerchio magico". Turin: La Stampa. Archived from the original on 11 October 2011.  ^ Imarisio, Marco (20 June 2011). "Quello striscione della base per Maroni". Milan: Corriere della Sera.  ^ Bracalini, Paolo (20 June 2011). "Il popolo lumbard ha scelto: "Bobo, sarai il nostro premier"". Milan: Il Giornale.  ^ Borgonovo, Francesco (20 June 2011). "La trota è Maroni. Bobo parla da leader. Del centrodestra". Milan: Libero.  ^ Giudici, Cristina (18 March 2011). "Maroni, il più italiano dei leghisti e il suo esercito di leghisti italiani". Rome: Il Foglio.  ^ Da Rold, Alessandro (30 March 2011). "In Veneto
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la spunta Tosi (per ora). Congresso dopo le amministrative". Rome: Il Riformista.  ^ Merlo, Salvatore (30 April 2011). "Così dietro la baruffa tra Bossi e il Cav. cresce l'egemonia di Maroni". Rome: Il Foglio.  ^ Zuin, Alessandro (31 May 2011). "Il caso Lega. Se ai congressi gli uomini del capo adesso perdono". Padua: Corriere del Veneto.  ^ Verderami, Francesco (12 May 2011). ""Poi alle elezioni da soli", ma lo scopo del Carroccio
Carroccio
è trattare su Palazzo Chigi". Milan: Corriere della Sera.  ^ Pandini, Matteo (21 June 2011). "Nella Lega volano gli stracci". Milan: Libero.  ^ Bracalini, Paolo. "Macché unita, ora la Lega rischia di implodere: è scoppiata la guerra sui vertici in Lombardia". Milan: Il Giornale.  ^ Cremonesi, Marco (21 June 2011). "Nervi tesi dopo Pontida. Accuse e liti in casa". Milan: Corriere della Sera.  ^ Cremonesi, Marco (22 June 2011). "Ma il Carroccio
Carroccio
resta in fibrillazione: Reguzzoni ora è un caso". Milan: Corriere della Sera.  ^ Trocino, Alessandro (23 June 2011). "Tregua armata nella Lega. E Castelli: romani arretrati". Milan: Corriere della Sera.  ^ Cremonesi, Marco (23 June 2011). "Unità fragile. Maroni: non è andata come volevo". Milan: Corriere della Sera.  ^ Zulin, Giuliano (June 2011). "Bossi spara sui suoi, ora la Lega rischia grosso". Milan: Libero.  ^ Spatola, Giuseppe (5 October 2011). "Lega, Maroni prende Brescia Sfida a tre per Varese". Brescia: Brescia Oggi.  ^ Spatola, Giuseppe (26 September 2011). "La svolta leghista, in Valle vince Antonini". Brescia: Brescia Oggi.  ^ Cremonesi, Marco (10 October 2011). "Spintoni e tessere strappate Critiche al leader: basta capetti". Milan: Corriere della Sera.  ^ "Noi siamo per". Retrieved 9 June 2015.  ^ "Tosi: "Primarie anche nel centrodestra"". LaStampa.it. 6 October 2013. Retrieved 9 June 2015.  ^ ""Io leader del centrodestra" Tosi alle primarie anche contro Salvini". Retrieved 9 June 2015.  ^ "Le mille beghe venete nella Lega di Salvini (che sale nei sondaggi)". Retrieved 9 June 2015.  ^ "Lega Nord, dopo le urne tramonta la pax salviniana: il segretario sul banco degli imputati per il flop al Sud e la linea lepenista". L’Huffington Post.  ^ "Nella Lega in allarme Salvini è sotto accusa: "Così perdiamo voti"".  ^ ""Tutta colpa di Salvini". Bossi guida il fronte contro il capo leghista".  ^ "Pezzi grossi leghisti dicono che Salvini non deve più seguire il modello Le Pen".  ^ "Fava: "Sfido Salvini perché la Lega non perda le sue radici. Voglio un congresso vero"". LaStampa.it.  ^ "Lega, spunta l'anti-Salvini. Gianni Fava (giunta Maroni) sfida il segretario al congresso". 11 April 2017.  ^ "Sfida Salvini-Fava su alleanze e Ue, la Lega elegge il suo segretario".  ^ Cremonesi, Marco. "Maroni: "Fase lepenista conclusa, sbagliato disprezzare FI La Lega torni alle origini"".  ^ "Maroni: "La Lega non può stare a destra. Non sono agli ordini di Salvini"". LaStampa.it.  ^ "Bossi minaccia di lasciare la Lega: Salvini brutta copia di Renzi. Con lui Carroccio
Carroccio
finito".  ^ "Ricordate il tanko? Mossa clamorosa di Bossi: lo vuole usare per fare fuori Matteo Salvini".  ^ "Da Bongiorno a Bagnai: tutti i candidati della Lega". Retrieved 2 March 2018.  ^ "Fava fuori dalla corsa: «Non mi candidano ma non mi arrendo» - Cronaca - Gazzetta di Mantova". 28 January 2018. Retrieved 2 March 2018.  ^ "Elezioni, Salvini: "Bossi? Candidato a Varese, Maroni ci aiuterà. Grillo? Sa che governo M5s è calamità naturale" - Il Fatto Quotidiano". 28 January 2018. Retrieved 2 March 2018.  ^ R.V. (30 January 2018). "Elezioni politiche 2018, i candidati a Varese: la Lega punta su Bossi al Senato - Il Giorno". Retrieved 2 March 2018.  ^ Corbetta, Piergiorgio; Piretti, Maria Serena (2009). Atlante storico-elettorale d'Italia. Bologna: Zanichelli. pp. 182–187.  ^ "Ministry of the Interior – Historical Archive of Elections: House of Deputies 1996". Elezionistorico.interno.it.  ^ "Ministry of the Interior – Historical Archive of Elections: Senate 1996". Elezionistorico.interno.it.  ^ Jori, Francesco (2009). Dalla Łiga alla Lega. Storia, movimenti, protagonisti. Venice: Marsilio. p. 8.  ^ Corbetta, Piergiorgio; Piretti, Maria Serena (2009). Atlante storico-elettorale d'Italia. Bologna: Zanichelli. pp. 200–205.  ^ "Ministry of the Interior – Historical Archive of Elections: Chamber of Deputies 2008". Elezionistorico.interno.it.  ^ "Ministry of the Interior – Historical Archive of Elections: European Parliament
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2009". Elezionistorico.interno.it.  ^ "::: Ministero dell'Interno ::: Archivio Storico delle Elezioni - Europee del 25 Maggio 2014". elezionistorico.interno.it.  ^ "Ministry of the Interior – Historical Archive of Elections: Regional elections 2010". Elezionistorico.interno.it.  ^ "Ministry of the Interior – Historical Archive of Elections". Elezionistorico.interno.it.  ^ Corbetta, Piergiorgio; Piretti, Maria Serena (2009). Atlante storico-elettorale d'Italia. Bologna: Zanichelli. pp. 170–205.  ^ Conte, Mario, ed. (2007). 1946–2006 Sessant'anni di elezioni in Italia. Rome: Reality Book. pp. 91–154, 171–184.  ^ "Genova, esponenti di lega e fdi - Centrodestra, ecco l'accordo: Bucci candidato sindaco, ma è giallo su Balleari vice". 

Further reading[edit]

Albertazzi, Daniele; McDonnell, Duncan (2010). "The Lega Nord
Lega Nord
back in government". West European Politics. 33 (6): 1318–1340. doi:10.1080/01402382.2010.508911.  Albertazzi, Daniele; McDonnell, Duncan; Newell, James L. (July 2011), "Di lotta e di governo: The Lega Nord
Lega Nord
and Rifondazione Comunista in office" (PDF), Party Politics, 17 (4): 471–487, doi:10.1177/1354068811400523.  Cento Bull, Anna (June 2009). "Lega Nord: a case of simulative politics?". South European Society and Politics. Taylor and Francis. 14 (2): 129–146. doi:10.1080/13608740903037786.  Cento Bull, Anna (2011). "The Lega Nord
Lega Nord
and fiscal federalism: Functional or postfunctional?". Modern Italy. 16 (4): 437–447. doi:10.1080/13532944.2011.611221.  Chiantera-Stutte, Patricia (2005), "Leadership, ideology, and anti-European politics in the Italian Lega Nord", in Caramani, Danièle; Mény, Yves, Challenges to consensual politics: democracy, identity, and populist protest in the Alpine region, Bruxelles New York: P.I.E.-Peter Lang, pp. 113–130, ISBN 9780820466422.  Gold, Thomas W. (2003). The Lega nord and contemporary politics in Italy. New York, New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9780312296315.  Huysseune, Michel (2006). Modernity and secession: the social sciences and the political discourse of the Lega nord in Italy. New York: Berghahn Books. ISBN 9781845450618.  Maurizio Tani, La funzione del dialetto nella creazione di identità nazionali. Il caso della Lombardia e della Padania
Padania
nella stampa leghista (1984-2009), University of Birmingham, 2016, http://etheses.bham.ac.uk/6807/ Zaslove, Andrej (2011). The re-invention of the European radical right populism, regionalism, and the Italian Lega Nord. Montréal Ithaca: McGill-Queen's University Press. ISBN 9781283531214. 

v t e

Lega Nord

Federal Secretary

Umberto Bossi
Umberto Bossi
(1989–2012) Roberto Maroni
Roberto Maroni
(2012-2013) Matteo Salvini
Matteo Salvini
(2013–present)

Federal President

Marilena Marin (1989–1991) Franco Rocchetta
Franco Rocchetta
(1991–1994) Stefano Stefani (1995–2002) Luciano Gasperini (2002–2005) Angelo Alessandrini (2005-2012) Umberto Bossi
Umberto Bossi
(2012–present)

Federal Deputy Secretary

Francesco Formenti (1992–1995) Francesco Speroni
Francesco Speroni
(1998–1999) Gianpaolo Dozzo (1998–1999) Mario Borghezio
Mario Borghezio
(1998–1999) Federico Caner (vicar, 2012–2013) Giacomo Stucchi (2012–2013) Elena Maccanti (2012–2013) Matteo Salvini
Matteo Salvini
(2013) Flavio Tosi
Flavio Tosi
(2013) Riccardo Molinari (2014–2016) Edoardo Rixi (2014–2016) Giancarlo Giorgetti (2016–present) Lorenzo Fontana
Lorenzo Fontana
(2016–present)

Federal Administrative Secretary

Alessandro Patelli (1991–1993) Maurizio Balocchi (1993–2010) Francesco Belsito (2010–2012) Stefano Stefani (2012–2014) Giulio Centemero (2014–present)

Leader in the Chamber of Deputies

Marco Formentini (1992–1993) Roberto Maroni
Roberto Maroni
(1993–1994) Pierluigi Petrini (1994–1995) Vito Gnutti (1995–1996) Domenico Comino (1996–1999) Giancarlo Pagliarini
Giancarlo Pagliarini
(1999–2001) Alessandro Cè (2001–2005) Andrea Gibelli (2005–2006) Roberto Maroni
Roberto Maroni
(2006–2008) Roberto Cota
Roberto Cota
(2008–2010) Marco Reguzzoni
Marco Reguzzoni
(2010–2012) Gianpaolo Dozzo (2012–2013) Giancarlo Giorgetti (2013–2014) Massimiliano Fedriga (2014–present)

Leader in the Senate

Francesco Speroni
Francesco Speroni
(1992–1994) Francesco Tabladini (1994–1996) Francesco Speroni
Francesco Speroni
(1996–1999) Luciano Gasperini (1998–1999) Roberto Castelli
Roberto Castelli
(1999–2001) Francesco Moro (2001–2004) Ettore Pirovano (2004–2006) Roberto Castelli
Roberto Castelli
(2006–2008) Federico Bricolo (2008–2013) Massimo Bitonci
Massimo Bitonci
(2013–2014) Gian Marco Centinaio (2014–present)

National sections

Lega Lombarda Liga Veneta Lega Nord
Lega Nord
Piemont Lega Nord
Lega Nord
Emilia Lega Nord
Lega Nord
Friuli-Venezia Giulia Lega Nord
Lega Nord
Liguria Lega Nord
Lega Nord
Trentino Lega Nord
Lega Nord
Toscana Lega Nord
Lega Nord
Romagna Lega Nord
Lega Nord
Marche Lega Nord
Lega Nord
Umbria Lega Nord
Lega Nord
Alto Adige/Südtirol Lega Nord
Lega Nord
Valle d'Aosta

v t e

Political parties in Italy

Major

Five Star Movement Democratic Party

Medium

Lega (Lega Nord Us with Salvini) Forza Italia Brothers of Italy Free and Equal (Democratic and Progressive Movement Italian Left)

Minor

More Europe
More Europe
(Italian Radicals Democratic Centre) Us with Italy
Italy
(Direction Italy Popular Construction Movement for the Autonomies) Power to the People (Communist Refoundation Party Italian Communist Party) CasaPound
CasaPound
Italy The People of Family Together (Italian Socialist Party) Popular Civic List
Popular Civic List
(Popular Alternative Italy
Italy
of Values Solidary Democracy) Union of the Centre Italian Liberal Party Identity and Action National Movement for Sovereignty Energies for Italy Pensioners' Party

Regional

Aosta Valley

Valdostan Union Progressive Valdostan Union Autonomy Liberty Participation Ecology Edelweiss For Our Valley Valdostan Autonomist Popular Edelweiss

Piedmont

Lega Nord
Lega Nord
Piemont Moderates

Lombardy

Lega Lombarda

South Tyrol

South Tyrolean People's Party Die Freiheitlichen Greens South Tyrolean Freedom Citizens' Union for South Tyrol Alto Adige in the Heart

Trentino

Trentino
Trentino
Tyrolean Autonomist Party Union for Trentino Trentino
Trentino
Project Lega Nord
Lega Nord
Trentino Trentino
Trentino
Civic List Administer Trentino Ladin Autonomist Union

Veneto

Liga Veneta Veneto
Veneto
for Autonomy Independence We Veneto Venetian Independence Venetian Centre-Right

Friuli-Venezia Giulia

Responsible Autonomy Lega Nord
Lega Nord
FVG Civic Freedom Slovene Union

Emilia-Romagna

Lega Nord
Lega Nord
Emilia Lega Nord
Lega Nord
Romagna

Liguria

Lega Nord
Lega Nord
Liguria

Tuscany

Lega Nord
Lega Nord
Toscana

Marche

Lega Nord
Lega Nord
Marche

Umbria

Lega Nord
Lega Nord
Umbria

Campania

Democracy and Autonomy We the South

Apulia

Schittulli Political Movement

Basilicata

Reality Italy

Calabria

The DemoKRats Autonomy and Rights

Sicily

Party of Sicilians Pact of Democrats for Reforms

Sardinia

Sardinian Reformers Sardinian Action Party Unidos Project Republic of Sardinia Party of Sardinians Red Moors Sardinian Democratic Union Christian Popular Union

Abroad

South America

Associative Movement Italians Abroad South American Union Italian Emigrants

Parliament

Chamber and Senate

Mixed Group

Senate

For the Autonomies

Historical Italian political parties 19th-century Italian political groups Early 20th-century Italian political parties 1950s–1990s Italian political parties

v t e

Movement for a Europe of Nations and Freedom
Movement for a Europe of Nations and Freedom
(MENL)

Parliamentary group: Europe of Nations and Freedom

Parties

Member parties

FPÖ VB SPD FN (RBM) LN (NcS)

Associated parties

AfD FdI PVV KNP VOX

Former parties (EAF)

BIW PTT SD

Party Presidents

Aymeric Chauprade Louis Aliot

European Parliament Group Presidents

Marine Le Pen Marcel de Graaff see European Parliament

European Commissioners

none

see Juncker Commission
Juncker Commission
Commission

Heads of government at the European Council

none

see European Council

Eurofoundation: Foundation of a Europe of N

.