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KINMEN or QUEMOY (/kɪˈmɔɪ/ ; see also "Names " section below), officially KINMEN COUNTY, is a group of islands, governed by the Republic of China
Republic of China
(ROC), which is located just off the southeastern coast of mainland China
China
, including Great Kinmen, Lesser Kinmen , Wuqiu and several surrounding islets . It is one of two counties under the streamlined Fujian
Fujian
Province of the Republic of China
Republic of China
. Only about two kilometres (1.2 mi) east of the mainland city of Xiamen
Xiamen
, its strategic position has reflected the significant change of Cross-Strait relations from a battlefront to a trading point between China
China
and Taiwan. Due to the ongoing issue of the political status of Taiwan
Taiwan
, the People\'s Republic of China
Republic of China
(PRC) has continuously claimed Kinmen
Kinmen
as part of its own Fujian
Fujian
Province's Quanzhou prefecture-level city .

CONTENTS

* 1 Names

* 2 History

* 2.1 Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
* 2.2 Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
* 2.3 Qing Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
* 2.4 Republic of China
Republic of China

* 3 Demographics * 4 Culture

* 5 Economy

* 5.1 Tourism

* 5.1.1 Tourist attractions

* 5.1.1.1 Museums * 5.1.1.2 Nature * 5.1.1.3 Historical buildings * 5.1.1.4 Religious buildings

* 5.2 Industry * 5.3 Imported goods

* 6 Politics * 7 Townships * 8 Education

* 9 Infrastructure

* 9.1 Electricity * 9.2 Submarine telecommunication cable * 9.3 Water supply

* 9.4 Transportation

* 9.4.1 Air * 9.4.2 Sea

* 10 Gallery * 11 See also * 12 Notes * 13 References * 14 External links and further reading

NAMES

Jiangong Islet , with a Koxinga monument, in Kinmen
Kinmen
Harbor

Kinmen
Kinmen
was given its name (金門; Jīnmén; "golden gate") in 1387 when the Hongwu Emperor
Hongwu Emperor
of China's Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
appointed a military officer to administer the island and protect it from wokou (pirate) attacks. The name is pronounced Jīnmén in the official Standard Chinese but some of the various names used in English for the islands derive from other Chinese varieties.

QUEMOY is the name for the island in English and in many European languages and the island's name in postal romanization . It likely began as a Portuguese transcription of the Zhangzhou Hokkien pronunciation of the name, Kim-mûi. This form of the islands' name was used almost exclusively in English until the late 20th century and is still used widely in current English-language contexts that involve historical coverage. For example, current works that deal with the First and Second Taiwan
Taiwan
Strait Crises (the Quemoy Incident ) when the islands received prominent worldwide news coverage as "Quemoy" still use this form. In addition, the former National Kinmen
Kinmen
Institute of Technology was renamed National Quemoy University in 2010. Kinmen scholar Wei Jian-feng advocates the use of "Quemoy" to better connect the island to "international society or achieve more recognition in the world".

KINMEN is a more recent transcription based on the general rules of the postal romanization system. With some exceptions, this form is used in most current English-language contexts on Kinmen
Kinmen
and in Taiwan as a whole. Entities such as the county government , the islands\' airport , and the national park use this spelling.

CHIN-MEN is the Wade–Giles romanization form of the island's name and appears on some maps using that as their standard.

JINMEN is the Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
form of the island's name used especially in sources from the People's Republic of China. The Kinmen
Kinmen
County Government and ROC central government have adopted Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
as their standard romanization, such as for names of townships within Kinmen
Kinmen
County, but this does not apply to the name of Kinmen
Kinmen
itself.

HISTORY

See also: List of battles over Kinmen Kinmen
Kinmen
Military Headquarters of Qing Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
The slogan "Three Principles of the People unite China
China
", written in traditional Chinese characters , the official script of the Republic of China, located in Dadan Island of Kinmen, facing Mainland China.

TANG DYNASTY

People began settling down in Kinmen
Kinmen
during the Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
, changing the original name from WUZHOU to KINMEN.

MING DYNASTY

During the Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
, more migrants came to settle down in Kinmen. Koxinga used Kinmen
Kinmen
as a base to liberate Kinmen
Kinmen
and Penghu from the Dutch. He cut down trees to build his navy, resulting in massive deforestation that made Kinmen
Kinmen
vulnerable to soil erosion.

QING DYNASTY

The Prince of Lu , a member of the Southern Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
, resisted the invading Manchu Qing Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
forces. In 1651, he fled to Kinmen, which the Qing dynasty took in 1663. Although Taiwan
Taiwan
and Penghu had been ceded to Japan
Japan
in 1895 via the Treaty of Shimonoseki , Kinmen
Kinmen
was not included in the cession.

REPUBLIC OF CHINA

After the establishment of the Republic of China
Republic of China
(ROC) in 1912, Kinmen
Kinmen
became part of Fukien Province. Japan
Japan
did however occupy Kinmen during the Second Sino-Japanese War
Second Sino-Japanese War
from 1937 to 1945. After the establishment of the People\'s Republic of China
Republic of China
(PRC) in October 1949, it was later claimed by both the ROC and PRC.

The People\'s Liberation Army extensively shelled the island during the First and Second Taiwan
Taiwan
Strait crises in 1954-1955 and 1958 respectively. In 1954, the United States considered responding by using nuclear weapons against the PRC.

Kinmen
Kinmen
was originally a military reserve, which eventually led to the tragedy of 1987 Lieyu massacre . The island was returned to the civilian government in the mid-1990s, after which travel to and from it was allowed. Direct travel between mainland China
China
and Kinmen re-opened in January 2001 under the mini Three Links , and there has been extensive tourism development on the island in anticipation of mainland tourists. Direct travel was suspended in 2003 as a result of the SARS
SARS
outbreak, but has since resumed.

Many Taiwanese businesspeople use the link through Kinmen
Kinmen
to enter the Chinese mainland, seeing it as cheaper and easier than entering through Hong Kong. However, this changed following the 2005 Pan-Blue visits to mainland China
China
and the 2008 presidential and legislative victories of the KMT, that allowed easier Cross-Strait relations . Kinmen
Kinmen
has experienced a considerable economic boom as businesspeople relocate to the island for easier access to the vast markets of the PRC.

On 30 June 2014, Dadan Island and Erdan Island were handed over from the military to civilians, represented by Kinmen County Government . Since 1 January 2015, tourists from Mainland China could directly apply the Exit and Entry Permit upon arrival in Kinmen. This privilege also applies to Penghu and Matsu Islands as means to boost tourism in the outlying islands of Taiwan.

DEMOGRAPHICS

HISTORICAL POPULATION

YEAR POP. ±%

1985 48,846 —

1990 42,754 −12.5%

1995 47,394 +10.9%

2000 53,832 +13.6%

2005 76,491 +42.1%

2010 97,364 +27.3%

2015 132,799 +36.4%

Source:"Populations by city and country in Taiwan". Ministry of the Interior Population Census.

CULTURE

Artillery
Artillery
shells fired by the People\'s Liberation Army to Kinmen
Kinmen
in the 1950s A shisa (wind-lion god) carving in Kinmen
Kinmen

The people of Kinmen
Kinmen
see themselves as Jīnménrén (Kinmenese), Mínnánrén ( Southern Min , or Southern Fujianese ), or Chinese , but not so much as Taiwanese . The strong Chinese identity was forged during the period of the ROC's military confrontation with the People's Republic of China
Republic of China
(1949–1992) when Kinmen
Kinmen
was under military administration. In the 1980s, as the militarization decreased and martial law was ended on Taiwan, the Taiwan
Taiwan
independence movement and efforts in de-Sinicization grew in strength on Taiwan. To Kinmenese, however, these developments were viewed with concern and there was a feeling that " Taiwan
Taiwan
didn't identify with Kinmen". Many worried that Taiwanese de jure independence from China
China
would lead to the severing of ties with Kinmen. These concerns play a strong role in Kinmenese politics as well.

Many of the county's inhabitants speak Hokkien
Hokkien
. Since Kinmen
Kinmen
is now part of Fujian
Fujian
, most residents will say they speak "Kinmenese", as opposed to "Taiwanese " as it is commonly called in Taiwan, though the two dialects are mutually intelligible. The residents of Wuchiu Township speak Pu-Xian Min , as opposed to Hokkien
Hokkien
for the rest of Kinmen.

Kinmen
Kinmen
is notable for a number of cultural products. Due to the extensive shelling by the People\'s Liberation Army in the 1950s, Kinmen
Kinmen
is famous for its artillery shell knives . Local artisans would collect the vast amounts of exploded ordnance and make high-quality knives which are still sought after by chefs and connoisseurs. Kinmen is also home of the regionally famous Kinmen Kaoliang liquor, a spirit ranging between 38 and 63 percent alcohol, which is highly appreciated by the Taiwanese. Other local culinary specialties include Kinmen noodles (金門麵線), gongtang (貢糖) and beef jerky (牛肉乾).

Like the Ryukyus , Kinmen
Kinmen
is known for shisa (wind-lion god) figures (風獅爺).

ECONOMY

Kinmen's economy is mainly based on tourism and services due to its proximity to mainland China. A 5.4 km (3.4 mi) bridge connecting Kinmen
Kinmen
Island (Greater Kinmen) and Lieyu is planned to be completed by 2020, estimated to cost NT$7.5 billion (US$250 million). It is expected to increase local tourism; the bridge's 1.4 km (0.87 mi) main body will have the largest span in the world when completed.

TOURISM

The Juguang Tower ("Brightness of Ju"), a famous landmark in Kinmen.

Because of its military importance, development on the island was extremely limited. Only by 2003, Kinmen
Kinmen
opened up itself to tourists from Fujian
Fujian
in Mainland China . It is now however a popular weekend tourist destination for Taiwanese and is known for its quiet villages, old-style architecture and beaches. Chinese and Taiwanese tour groups also spend a short time touring the island whilst transiting between the ferry and the airport, as an intermediate stop between China
China
and Taiwan
Taiwan
Island. Large parts of Kinmen
Kinmen
form the Kinmen
Kinmen
National Park which highlights military fortifications and structures, historical dwellings and natural scenery.

The year 2014 recorded the highest number of passengers traveling by ferry between Kinmen
Kinmen
and Fujian
Fujian
ports for as many as 1.5 million people. Starting 1 January 2015, Chinese mainland tourists will no longer be required to apply for Exit and Entry Permit in advance for visits to Kinmen, Penghu and Matsu Islands . Instead, they can apply for it upon arrival at a cost of NT$600.

By 2016, two infrastructure projects are expected to boost tourism and meetings, incentives, conferencing, exhibitions visitors to the islands. One includes a yet-to-be-named five-star resort spearheaded by Xiamen
Xiamen
property developer, Wu Youhua, president of Xiamen
Xiamen
Huatian Group, the first time a Chinese interest has been allowed to invest in the Taiwan
Taiwan
hotel sector.

Tourist Attractions

Jhaishan Tunnel

Tourist-related affairs in Kinmen
Kinmen
are governed by Transportation and Tourism Bureau of Kinmen County Government . Major tourist attractions in Kinmen
Kinmen
are:

Museums

August 23 Artillery Battle Museum , Guningtou War Museum , Hujingtou Battle Museum , Yu Da Wei Xian Sheng Memorial Museum .

Nature

Gugang Lake , Jiangong Islet , Jincheng Seaside Park , Kinmen National Park .

Historical Buildings

Gulongtou Zhenwei Residence , Jhaishan Tunnel , Juguang Tower , Kinmen Folk Culture Village , Kinmen
Kinmen
Military Headquarters of Qing Dynasty , Mashan Broadcasting and Observation Station , Mofan Street and Wuqiu Lighthouse .

Religious Buildings

Maoshan Pagoda , Wentai Pagoda .

INDUSTRY

A commercial shopping strip on the island.

Kinmen
Kinmen
is famous for the production of Kaoliang
Kaoliang
liquor, which takes up about 75% of Taiwan's market share, in which it is a strong economic backbone of the county. Traditional industries are also being kept and improved, ranging from agriculture, fishery and livestock. It has a good fishery industry also due to its nature being surrounded by unpolluted sea.

Kinmen
Kinmen
also produces its unique Kinmen knife , in which the raw material used to produce it is taken from the remaining of shells fired by the People\'s Liberation Army in 1958-1978. The knife was made as gift to the visiting Head of Taiwan
Taiwan
Affairs Office Zhang Zhijun to Kinmen
Kinmen
on 23–24 May 2015 to symbolize mutual peace between the two sides of the Taiwan
Taiwan
Strait and to bury the hatchet left from Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
.

IMPORTED GOODS

Kinmen
Kinmen
often import more goods from Mainland China than Taiwan
Taiwan
Island because of lower costs due to the proximity of the county to the mainland despite lower quality. During the campaign for the 2014 county magistrate , all of the magistrate candidates spent their money on campaign materials produced in mainland provinces, such as Guangdong
Guangdong
, Zhejiang
Zhejiang
and Fujian
Fujian
instead of from Taiwan
Taiwan
Island.

POLITICS

See also: List of county magistrates of Kinmen Kuomintang Kinmen
Kinmen
headquarters office in Jincheng Township .

The island consistently votes for the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
(KMT). Until the early 1990s, proponents of Taiwan
Taiwan
independence argued that they would consider handing Kinmen
Kinmen
over to the PRC in any negotiated settlement. Residents of the island have broadly opposed such measures, fearing the consequences of the PRC government's policies on their standard of living and political freedom.

The Democratic Progressive Party
Democratic Progressive Party
has a minor presence on the island and typically does not present candidates to stand in local elections, although it does hold a single seat in Kinmen County Council from both of the 2009 and 2014 local elections . However, the party occasionally lends support to liberal or center-left candidates.

On 29 November 2014 however, independent candidate Chen Fu-hai won the county magistrate election and took office as the Magistrate of Kinmen
Kinmen
County on 25 December 2014, the first independent candidate to win the office. He replaced Magistrate Lee Wo-shih of the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
. The 2014 Kinmen
Kinmen
County magistrate election consisted of 10 candidates, the highest number of nominated candidates in the electoral history of Taiwan.

Kinmen
Kinmen
is represented by a single seat in the Legislative Yuan
Legislative Yuan
. In the 2016 Republic of China
Republic of China
legislative election Yang Cheng-wu of the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
was elected.

TOWNSHIPS

Kinmen County Government Kinmen County Council Jincheng Township , the county seat of Kinmen
Kinmen
Subdivision of Kinmen
Kinmen
County into townships

Kinmen
Kinmen
County is divided into 3 urban townships and 3 rural townships . Jincheng Township is the county seat which houses Kinmen
Kinmen
County Government and Kinmen County Council . The township also houses the headquarter office of Fujian
Fujian
Provincial Government . Kinmen
Kinmen
County has the least number of rural townships among other counties in Taiwan.

NAME CHINESE HANYU PINYIN WADE–GILES HOKKIEN PE̍H-ōE-Jī ENGLISH MEANING

URBAN TOWNSHIPS

Jincheng Township 金城鎮 Jīnchéng Zhèn Chin¹-ch'eng² Chen⁴ Kim-siâⁿ Tìn Golden City

Jinhu Township 金湖鎮 Jīnhú Zhèn Chin¹-hu² Chen⁴ Kim-ô· Tìn Golden Lake

Jinsha Township 金沙鎮 Jīnshā Zhèn Chin¹-sha¹ Chen⁴ Kim-soaⁿ Tìn Golden Sand

RURAL TOWNSHIPS

Jinning Township 金寧鄉 Jīnníng Xiāng Chin¹-ning² Hsiang¹ Kim-lêng Hiong Golden Tranquility

Lieyu Township 烈嶼鄉 Lièyǔ Xiāng Lie⁴-yü³ Hsiang¹ Lia̍t-sū Hiong Heroic Islets

Wuqiu Township 烏坵鄉 Wūqiū Xiāng Wu¹-ch'iu¹ Hsiang¹ O·-kiu Hiong Black Mound

All those townships on Greater Kinmen
Kinmen
Island start their names with Jin (i.e., Kin, lit. "gold"). Lieyu Township encompasses the entire Lesser Kinmen Island, and is the closest to Xiamen
Xiamen
. Wuqiu Township comprises Greater Qiu Islet (大坵) and Lesser Qiu Islet (小坵).

Jincheng and Jinsha are the largest of the six townships. Altogether, there are 37 Kinmen
Kinmen
villages, three of which – all in Zhèn (鎮) – are Lǐ-villages (里); the rest are Cūn-villages (村).

EDUCATION

National Quemoy University

In August 2010, National Quemoy University was established from the predecessor National Kinmen
Kinmen
Institute of Technology and Kinmen Division of National Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
University of Applied Sciences established in 1997. It is located in Jinning Township. The islands also have a satellite campuses of Ming Chuan University and National University of Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
. Secondary educational institutions include National Kinmen
Kinmen
Senior High School and National Kinmen
Kinmen
Agricultural and Industrial Vocational Senior High School. In total, there are 24 junior high schools, elementary schools and kindergartens.

The Kinmen County Government have invested millions in education in Kinmen, with an average of NT$20,000 per student. Schools in the county also accept the growing number of Taiwanese students whose parents are doing business in Fujian
Fujian
. The county government has been striving to encourage universities in Taiwan
Taiwan
Island and Mainland China to set up branches in the county, as well as to attract Chinese mainland students to study in Kinmen.

INFRASTRUCTURE

Tashan Power Plant

ELECTRICITY

The Kinmen
Kinmen
Power Company was founded in 1967 and gradually built five power plants in the county and in charge of providing power resources to all residents in Kinmen. It used to rely on light diesel oil which created high cost burden to its management. Since 1992, the ROC central government approved the power company to authorize Taiwan Power Company (Taipower) for five-year management. All of the power development projects were invested by Taipower and helped the region economic development. In July 1997, Kinmen
Kinmen
Power Company was officially incorporated to Taipower. In 1999, the diesel-fired Tashan Power Plant was built to supply electricity to Kinmen
Kinmen
grid. The other smaller power plants were subsequently discontinued to reduce cost.

SUBMARINE TELECOMMUNICATION CABLE

In August 2012, Kinmen
Kinmen
and Xiamen
Xiamen
established the first submarine telecommunication cable between the two sides. On Taiwan
Taiwan
side, the infrastructure was constructed by Chunghwa Telecom , while on Mainland China's side was done by China
China
Telecom , China
China
Unicom and China
China
Mobile . The project was initially launched in 1996 and took 16 years to build.

The telecommunication system consists of two cables, one is a 11 km long cable that runs from Kinmen's Lake Tzu and Xiamen's Mount Guanyin, and the other is a 9.7 km long cable that runs from Kinmen's Guningtou and Xiamen's Dadeng Island. The system is a non-repeater system with a bilateral transmission capacity of 90 Gbit/s, in which it might be expanded in the future if demand arises.

WATER SUPPLY

The current daily water demand for Kinmen
Kinmen
is 50,000 tonnes, which are used for households, industries and agriculture sectors. One tonne of water produced for Kinmen
Kinmen
costs about NT$50–60 and may surge to NT$70 during summer. In extreme drought condition, water shipment from Taiwan
Taiwan
Island may cost as much as NT$200 per tonne. Because Kinmen residents pay only NT$10 for each tonne water they use, the cost of water supply has become a heavy burden for the county government .

For decades, Kinmen
Kinmen
has been facing difficulties in water supply to its residence due to its shallow lakes, lack of rainfall and geographical constraints which makes building reservoirs and dams unfeasible. Therefore, Kinmen
Kinmen
often overuse its groundwater, causing rising tidal flood and soil salinity.

In early September 2013, the Chinese Mainland government agreed to supply Kinmen
Kinmen
with water from Jinjiang City in Fujian
Fujian
due to the ongoing water shortage problem in Kinmen. Kinmen
Kinmen
draws more than 8,000 tonnes of groundwater everyday and water from its reservoir is barely enough to support the residence during dry season. The shortage problem will heavily hit the local economy by 2016 if no mitigation plan is enacted. The water supply agreement was officially signed on 20 July 2015 in Kinmen
Kinmen
between Kinmen
Kinmen
County Waterworks Director Weng Wen-kuei (翁文貴) and Fujian
Fujian
Water Supply Co chairman Zhu Jinliang (朱金良) witnessed by Kinmen
Kinmen
County Magistrate Chen Fu-hai and Fujian
Fujian
Province Governor Su Shulin .

An undersea 16.7 km water pipeline will be built to carry water from the Shanmei Reservoir in Jinjiang city to coastal area of Kinmen. The pipeline is expected to deliver a maximum amount of 30,000 tonnes of water each day to Kinmen. A further 300 meter of water pipe will be constructed to a water treatment plant .

TRANSPORTATION

Kinmen Airport Shuitou Pier

Air

Kinmen
Kinmen
is served by the Kinmen Airport , a domestic airport located at Jinhu Township , connecting Kinmen
Kinmen
with Magong Airport , Penghu and Taipei
Taipei
Songshan , Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
, Taichung , Chiayi and Tainan Airport
Tainan Airport
on Taiwan
Taiwan
Island.

Sea

People coming from Mainland China can also visit Kinmen
Kinmen
using ferry via Fujian
Fujian
from Xiamen
Xiamen
at Wutong Ferry Terminal or from Quanzhou arriving at Shuitou Pier in Jincheng Township . Kinmen
Kinmen
to Xiamen Ferry, is a popular route between the Chinese Mainland and Taiwanese tourists alike, with brisk connections available between the ferry ports and Kinmen Airport (for Taiwanese destinations) and Xiamen\'s Airport and Xiamen
Xiamen
North Railway Station (for Mainland destinations). The Kinmen- Quanzhou
Quanzhou
Ferry is only available to local travellers and foreigner passport holders are not permitted to use this service.

A new commercial port has been built adjacent to the Shuitou Pier on newly reclaimed land. This will handle the majority of sea freight to and from Kinmen. Previously most of this traffic was handled by a smaller port on the South-East corner of the island in Jinhu Township. In the past, due to constant artillery shelling from the Chinese mainland, an underground port was used to supply the island in times of conflict at the Jhaishan Tunnels on the South-Western tip of the island but this has been decommissioned and turned into a tourist attraction.

Greatly used as a transit route between the Chinese Mainland and Taiwan
Taiwan
Island, buses also connect to the ferry terminal to allow for quick transfer to the Xiamen
Xiamen
.

GALLERY

*

Calligraphy by former President Chiang Kai-shek etched on a rock in Kinmen
Kinmen
reads, "Forget not what happened in Jǔ" – an allusion to the Warring States period
Warring States period
when the State of Qi , cornered into the City of Ju by the State of Yan , successfully counterattacked and retook its territory. This is intended as an analogy to the situation between the Republic of China
Republic of China
and the People's Republic of China. Other slogans alluding to "retaking the mainland" can also be found in Kinmen.

SEE ALSO

* Taiwan
Taiwan
portal

* Administrative divisions of the Republic of China
Republic of China
* Township (Taiwan) * List of cities in Taiwan
Taiwan
* Cross-Strait relations * Boyu Road

NOTES

* ^ In 1949, the Republic of China
Republic of China
government led by the Kuomintang (KMT) lost the Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
to the Communist Party of China
China
(CPC) and set up a provisional capital in Taipei, which serves as the seat of government to this day. The CPC established the People's Republic. As such, the political status of the ROC and the legal status of Taiwan
Taiwan
(alongside the territories currently under ROC jurisdiction) are in dispute. In 1971, the United Nations
United Nations
gave the China
China
seat to the PRC instead of the ROC: most states recognize the PRC to be the sole legitimate representative of all China
China
, and the UN classifies Taiwan as "Taiwan, Province of China
China
". The ROC has de facto relations with most sovereign states. A significant political movement within Taiwan advocates Taiwan
Taiwan
independence .

REFERENCES

* ^ Jian-Feng Wei. "An Examination of Cultural Identity of Residents of Quemoy (Kinmen)". Intercultural Communication Studies. XV:1. 2006. p. 134. Retrieved 20 January 2012.

* ^ "Quemoy", Merriam Webster "Quemoy", Larousse. (in French) * ^ A B Jian-Feng Wei. "\'Quemoy\' or \'Kinmen\'?: A Translation Strategy for Communication". Intercultural Communication Studies. XVIII: 2. 2009. p. 176. Retrieved 20 January 2012. * ^ A B C D E F G Trista di Genova. "Study explores the \'Kinmen Identity\'". China
China
Post . 11 July 2007. Retrieved 20 January 2012. * ^ Kinmen County Government official website. Retrieved 20 January 2012. (in English) * ^ Kinmen Airport official website. Retrieved 20 January 2012. (in English) * ^ Kinmen National Park official website. Retrieved 20 January 2012. (in English) * ^ For example, National Geographic Maps . * ^ For example, "Xiamen-Jinmen trial voyage successful" at the Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China
Republic of China
official website. Retrieved 20 January 2012. (in English) * ^ Shih Hsiu-Chuan (18 Sep 2008). " Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
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Taipei
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