Communication (from Latin commūnicāre, meaning "to share") is the
act of conveying intended meanings from one entity or group to another
through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules.
The main steps inherent to all communication are: 
The formation of communicative motivation or reason.
Message composition (further internal or technical elaboration on what
exactly to express).
Message encoding (for example, into digital data, written text,
speech, pictures, gestures and so on).
Transmission of the encoded message as a sequence of signals using a
specific channel or medium.
Noise sources such as natural forces and in some cases human activity
(both intentional and accidental) begin influencing the quality of
signals propagating from the sender to one or more receivers.
Reception of signals and reassembling of the encoded message from a
sequence of received signals.
Decoding of the reassembled encoded message.
Interpretation and making sense of the presumed original message.
The scientific study of communication can be divided into:
Information theory which studies the quantification, storage, and
communication of information in general;
Communication studies which concerns human communication;
Biosemiotics which examines communication in and between living
organisms in general.
The channel of communication can be visual, auditory, tactile (such as
in Braille) and haptic, olfactory, electromagnetic, or biochemical.
Human communication is unique for its extensive use of abstract
language. Development of civilization has been closely linked with
progress in telecommunication.
3 Written communication and its historical development
8 Barriers to effectiveness
8.1 Cultural aspects
8.2 Barriers due to relational distances aspects
9.2 Plants and fungi
Bacteria quorum sensing
12 As academic discipline
13 See also
15 Further reading
16 External links
Main article: Nonverbal communication
Nonverbal communication describes the processes of conveying a type of
information in the form of non-linguistic representations. Examples of
nonverbal communication include haptic communication, chronemic
communication, gestures, body language, facial expressions, eye
contact, and how one dresses.
Nonverbal communication also relates to
the intent of a message. Examples of intent are voluntary, intentional
movements like shaking a hand or winking, as well as involuntary, such
Speech also contains nonverbal elements known as
paralanguage, e.g. rhythm, intonation, tempo, and stress. It affects
communication most at the subconscious level and establishes trust.
Likewise, written texts include nonverbal elements such as handwriting
style, the spatial arrangement of words and the use of emoticons to
Nonverbal communication demonstrates one of Wazlawick's laws: you
cannot not communicate. Once proximity has formed awareness, living
creatures begin interpreting any signals received. Some of the
functions of nonverbal communication in humans are to complement and
illustrate, to reinforce and emphasize, to replace and substitute, to
control and regulate, and to contradict the denovative message.
Nonverbal cues are heavily relied on to express communication and to
interpret others’ communication and can replace or substitute verbal
messages. However, non-verbal communication is ambiguous. When verbal
messages contradict non-verbal messages, observation of non-verbal
behaviour is relied on to judge another’s attitudes and feelings,
rather than assuming the truth of the verbal message alone.
There are several reasons as to why non-verbal communication plays a
vital role in communication:
“Non-verbal communication is omnipresent.”  They are included
in every single communication act. To have total communication, all
non-verbal channels such as the body, face, voice, appearance, touch,
distance, timing, and other environmental forces must be engaged
during face-to-face interaction. Written communication can also have
non-verbal attributes. E-mails and web chats allow an individual’s
the option to change text font colours, stationary, emoticons, and
capitalization in order to capture non-verbal cues into a verbal
“Non-verbal behaviours are multifunctional.”  Many different
non-verbal channels are engaged at the same time in communication acts
and allow the chance for simultaneous messages to be sent and
“Non-verbal behaviours may form a universal language system.” 
Smiling, crying, pointing, caressing, and glaring are non-verbal
behaviours that are used and understood by people regardless of
nationality. Such non-verbal signals allow the most basic form of
communication when verbal communication is not effective due to
Verbal communication is the spoken or written conveyance of a message.
Human language can be defined as a system of symbols (sometimes known
as lexemes) and the grammars (rules) by which the symbols are
manipulated. The word "language" also refers to common properties of
Language learning normally occurs most intensively during
human childhood. Most of the thousands of human languages use patterns
of sound or gesture for symbols which enable communication with others
around them. Languages tend to share certain properties, although
there are exceptions. There is no defined line between a language and
a dialect. Constructed languages such as Esperanto, programming
languages, and various mathematical formalism is not necessarily
restricted to the properties shared by human languages.
As previously mentioned, language can be characterized as symbolic.
Charles Ogden and I.A Richards developed The Triangle of Meaning model
to explain the symbol (the relationship between a word), the referent
(the thing it describes), and the meaning (the thought associated with
the word and the thing)
The properties of language are governed by rules.
phonological rules (sounds that appear in a language), syntactic rules
(arrangement of words and punctuation in a sentence), semantic rules
(the agreed upon meaning of words), and pragmatic rules (meaning
derived upon context).
The meanings that are attached to words can be literal, or otherwise
known as denotative; relating to the topic being discussed, or, the
meanings take context and relationships into account, otherwise known
as connotative; relating to the feelings, history, and power dynamics
of the communicators.
Written communication and its historical development
Over time the forms of and ideas about communication have evolved
through the continuing progression of technology. Advances include
communications psychology and media psychology, an emerging field of
The progression of written communication can be divided into three
"information communication revolutions":
Written communication first emerged through the use of pictographs.
The pictograms were made in stone, hence written communication was not
yet mobile. Pictograms began to develop standardized and simplified
The next step occurred when writing began to appear on paper, papyrus,
clay, wax, and other media with commonly shared writing systems,
leading to adaptable alphabets.
Communication became mobile.
The final stage is characterized by the transfer of information
through controlled waves of electromagnetic radiation (i.e., radio,
microwave, infrared) and other electronic signals.
Communication is thus a process by which meaning is assigned and
conveyed in an attempt to create shared understanding. Gregory Bateson
called it "the replication of tautologies in the universe. This
process, which requires a vast repertoire of skills in interpersonal
processing, listening, observing, speaking, questioning, analyzing,
gestures, and evaluating enables collaboration and cooperation.
Main article: Business communication
Business communication is used for a wide variety of activities
including, but not limited to: strategic communications planning,
media relations, public relations (which can include social media,
broadcast and written communications, and more), brand management,
reputation management, speech-writing, customer-client relations, and
Companies with limited resources may choose to engage in only a few of
these activities, while larger organizations may employ a full
spectrum of communications. Since it is difficult to develop such a
broad range of skills, communications professionals often specialize
in one or two of these areas but usually have at least a working
knowledge of most of them. By far, the most important qualifications
communications professionals can possess are excellent writing
ability, good 'people' skills, and the capacity to think critically
Communication is one of the most relevant tools in political
strategies, including persuasion and propaganda. In mass media
research and online media research, the effort of the strategist is
that of getting a precise decoding, avoiding "message reactance", that
is, message refusal. The reaction to a message is referred also in
terms of approach to a message, as follows:
In "radical reading" the audience rejects the meanings, values, and
viewpoints built into the text by its makers. Effect: message refusal.
In "dominant reading", the audience accepts the meanings, values, and
viewpoints built into the text by its makers. Effect: message
In "subordinate reading" the audience accepts, by and large, the
meanings, values, and worldview built into the text by its makers.
Effect: obey to the message.
Holistic approaches are used by communication campaign leaders and
communication strategists in order to examine all the options,
"actors" and channels that can generate change in the semiotic
landscape, that is, change in perceptions, change in credibility,
change in the "memetic background", change in the image of movements,
of candidates, players and managers as perceived by key influencers
that can have a role in generating the desired "end-state".
The modern political communication field is highly influenced by the
framework and practices of "information operations" doctrines that
derive their nature from strategic and military studies. According to
this view, what is really relevant is the concept of acting on the
Information Environment. The information environment is the aggregate
of individuals, organizations, and systems that collect, process,
disseminate, or act on information. This environment consists of three
interrelated dimensions, which continuously interact with individuals,
organizations, and systems. These dimensions are known as physical,
informational, and cognitive.
Family communication is the study of the communication perspective in
a broadly defined family, with intimacy and trusting relationship.
The main goal of family communication is to understand the
interactions of family and the pattern of behaviors of family members
in different circumstances. Open and honest communication creates an
atmosphere that allows family members to express their differences as
well as love and admiration for one another. It also helps to
understand the feelings of one another.
Family communication study looks at topics such as family rules,
family roles or family dialectics and how those factors could affect
the communication between family members. Researchers develop theories
to understand communication behaviors. Family communication study also
digs deep into certain time periods of family life such as marriage,
parenthood or divorce and how communication stands in those
situations. It is important for family members to understand
communication as a trusted way which leads to a well constructed
In simple terms, interpersonal communication is the communication
between one person and another (or others). It is often referred to as
face-to-face communication between two (or more) people. Both verbal
and nonverbal communication, or body language, play a part in how one
person understands another. In verbal interpersonal communication
there are two types of messages being sent: a content message and a
relational message. Content messages are messages about the topic at
hand and relational messages are messages about the relationship
itself. This means that relational messages come across in how one
says something and it demonstrates a person’s feelings, whether
positive or negative, towards the individual they are talking to,
indicating not only how they feel about the topic at hand, but also
how they feel about their relationship with the other individual.
There are many different aspects of interpersonal communication
- Audiovisual Perception of
Communication Problems 
The concept follows the idea that our words change what form they take
based on the stress level or urgency of the situation.
It also explores the concept that stuttering during speech shows the
audience that there is a problem or that the situation is more
- The Attachment Theory 
This is the combined work of John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth (Ainsworth
& Bowlby, 1991)
This theory follows the relationships that builds between a mother and
child, and the impact it has on their relationships with others.
- Emotional Intelligence and Triggers 
Emotional Intelligence focuses on the ability to monitor ones own
emotions as well as those of others.
Emotional Triggers focus on events or people that tend to set off
intense, emotional reactions within individuals.
- Attribution Theory 
This is the study of how individuals explain what causes different
events and behaviors.
- The Power of Words (Verbal communications) 
Verbal communication focuses heavily on the power of words, and how
those words are said.
It takes into consideration tone, volume, and choice of words.
- Nonverbal Communication
Focuses heavily on the setting that the words are conveyed in.
As well as the physical tone of the words.
- Ethics in Personal Relations 
It is about a space of mutual responsibility between two individuals,
it’s about giving and receiving in a relationship.
This theory is explored by Dawn J. Lipthrott in the article What IS
Relationship? What is Ethical Partnership?
- Deception in
This concept goes into that everyone lies, and how this can impact
This theory is explored by James Hearn in his article Interpersonal
Deception Theory: Ten Lessons for Negotiators
- Conflict in Couples 
This focuses on the impact that social media has on relationships.
As well as how to communicate through conflict.
This theory is explored by Amanda Lenhart and Maeve Duggan in their
paper Couples, the Internet, and Social Media
Barriers to effectiveness
Barriers to effective communication can retard or distort the message
or intention of the message being conveyed. This may result in failure
of the communication process or cause an effect that is undesirable.
These include filtering, selective perception, information overload,
emotions, language, silence, communication apprehension, gender
differences and political correctness
This also includes a lack of expressing "knowledge-appropriate"
communication, which occurs when a person uses ambiguous or complex
legal words, medical jargon, or descriptions of a situation or
environment that is not understood by the recipient.
Physical barriers- Physical barriers are often due to the nature of
the environment. An example of this is the natural barrier which
exists if staff is located in different buildings or on different
sites. Likewise, poor or outdated equipment, particularly the failure
of management to introduce new technology, may also cause problems.
Staff shortages are another factor which frequently causes
communication difficulties for an organization.
System design faults refer to problems with the
structures or systems in place in an organization. Examples might
include an organizational structure which is unclear and therefore
makes it confusing to know whom to communicate with. Other examples
could be inefficient or inappropriate information systems, a lack of
supervision or training, and a lack of clarity in roles and
responsibilities which can lead to staff being uncertain about what is
expected of them.
Attitudinal barriers- Attitudinal barriers come about as a result of
problems with staff in an organization. These may be brought about,
for example, by such factors as poor management, lack of consultation
with employees, personality conflicts which can result in people
delaying or refusing to communicate, the personal attitudes of
individual employees which may be due to lack of motivation or
dissatisfaction at work, brought about by insufficient training to
enable them to carry out particular tasks, or simply resistance to
change due to entrenched attitudes and ideas.
Ambiguity of words/phrases- Words sounding the same but having
different meaning can convey a different meaning altogether. Hence the
communicator must ensure that the receiver receives the same meaning.
It is better if such words are avoided by using alternatives whenever
Individual linguistic ability- The use of jargon, difficult or
inappropriate words in communication can prevent the recipients from
understanding the message. Poorly explained or misunderstood messages
can also result in confusion. However, research in communication has
shown that confusion can lend legitimacy to research when persuasion
Physiological barriers- These may result from individuals' personal
discomfort, caused—for example—by ill health, poor eyesight or
Bypassing-These happens when the communicators (sender and the
receiver) do not attach the same symbolic meanings to their words. It
is when the sender is expressing a thought or a word but the receiver
takes it in a different meaning. For example- ASAP, Rest room
Technological multi-tasking and absorbency- With a rapid increase in
technologically-driven communication in the past several decades,
individuals are increasingly faced with condensed communication in the
form of e-mail, text, and social updates. This has, in turn, led to a
notable change in the way younger generations communicate and perceive
their own self-efficacy to communicate and connect with others. With
the ever-constant presence of another "world" in one's pocket,
individuals are multi-tasking both physically and cognitively as
constant reminders of something else happening somewhere else bombard
them. Though perhaps too new of an advancement to yet see long-term
effects, this is a notion currently explored by such figures as Sherry
Fear of being criticized-This is a major factor that prevents good
communication. If we exercise simple practices to improve our
communication skill, we can become effective communicators. For
example, read an article from the newspaper or collect some news from
the television and present it in front of the mirror. This will not
only boost your confidence but also improve your language and
Gender barriers- Most communicators whether aware or not, often have a
set agenda. This is very notable among the different genders. For
example, many women are found to be more critical in addressing
conflict. It's also been noted that men are more than likely to
withdraw from conflict when in comparison to women. This breakdown
and comparison not only shows that there are many factors to
communication between two specific genders but also room for
improvement as well as established guidelines for all.
Cultural differences exist within countries (tribal/regional
differences, dialects etc.), between religious groups and in
organisations or at an organisational level - where companies, teams
and units may have different expectations, norms and idiolects.
Families and family groups may also experience the effect of cultural
barriers to communication within and between different family members
or groups. For example: words, colours and symbols have different
meanings in different cultures. In most parts of the world, nodding
your head means agreement, shaking your head means no, except in some
parts of the world.
Communication to a great extent is influenced by culture and cultural
Understanding cultural aspects of
communication refers to having knowledge of different cultures in
order to communicate effectively with cross culture people. Cultural
aspects of communication are of great relevance in today's world which
is now a global village, thanks to globalisation. Cultural aspects of
communication are the cultural differences which influences
communication across borders. Impact of cultural differences on
communication components are explained below:
Verbal communication refers to form of communication which uses
spoken and written words for expressing and transferring views and
Language is the most important tool of verbal communication and
it is the area where cultural difference play its role. All countries
have different languages and to have a better understanding of
different culture it is required to have knowledge of languages of
Non verbal communication
Non verbal communication is a very wide concept and it includes all
the other forms of communication which do not uses written or spoken
Non verbal communication
Non verbal communication takes following forms:
Paralinguistics are the voice involved in communication other than
actual language and involves tones, pitch, vocal cues etc. It also
include sounds from throat and all these are greatly influenced by
cultural differences across borders.
Proxemics deals with the concept of space element in communication.
Proxemics explains four zones of spaces namely intimate personal,
social and public. This concept differs with different culture as the
permissible space vary in different countries.
Artifactics studies about the non verbal signals or communication
which emerges from personal accessories such as dresses or fashion
accessories worn and it varies with culture as people of different
countries follow different dressing codes.
Chronemics deal with the time aspects of communication and also
include importance given to the time. Some issues explaining this
concept are pauses, silences and response lag during an interaction.
This aspect of communication is also influenced by cultural
differences as it is well known that there is a great difference in
the value given by different cultures to time.
Kinesics mainly deals with the body languages such as postures,
gestures, head nods, leg movements etc. In different countries, the
same gestures and postures are used to convey different messages.
Sometimes even a particular kinesic indicating something good in a
country may have a negative meaning in any other culture.
So in order to have an effective communication across world it is
desirable to have a knowledge of cultural variables effecting
According to Michael Walsh and Ghil'ad Zuckermann, Western
conversational interaction is typically "dyadic", between two
particular people, where eye contact is important and the speaker
controls the interaction; and "contained" in a relatively short,
defined time frame. However, traditional Aboriginal conversational
interaction is "communal", broadcast to many people, eye contact is
not important, the listener controls the interaction; and
"continuous", spread over a longer, indefinite time frame.
Barriers due to relational distances aspects
Arising from research in Risk Communication, the "4 Distances
Model" (Acronym 4DM, originally by Daniele Trevisani, 1990)
highlights the presence of "relational distances" in system-to-system
or human-to-human communication, a distance whose effect is that of
degrading progressively both understanding and agreement. The higher
the relational distance, the more communication results become
difficult to achieve in terms of effectiveness and expected output.
The 4 Distances regard differences in (1) the "Self's Distance",
acceptance or refusal of other's self-perception of roles (e.g.
Communication Codes (linguistic and non verbal)
(3) underlying values and world views, and (d) personal experiences
(both emotional and objectual). The approach has been applied in
several fields including health professions, analysis of critical
incidents due to communications misunderstanding in the International
Space Station., and in "Intelligent Decision Support System" for
See also: Biocommunication (science), Interspecies communication, and
Every information exchange between living organisms — i.e.
transmission of signals that involve a living sender and receiver can
be considered a form of communication; and even primitive creatures
such as corals are competent to communicate. Nonhuman communication
also include cell signaling, cellular communication, and chemical
transmissions between primitive organisms like bacteria and within the
plant and fungal kingdoms.
The broad field of animal communication encompasses most of the issues
Animal communication can be defined as any behavior of
one animal that affects the current or future behavior of another
animal. The study of animal communication, called zoo semiotics
(distinguishable from anthroposemiotics, the study of human
communication) has played an important part in the development of
ethology, sociobiology, and the study of animal cognition. Animal
communication, and indeed the understanding of the animal world in
general, is a rapidly growing field, and even in the 21st century so
far, a great share of prior understanding related to diverse fields
such as personal symbolic name use, animal emotions, animal culture
and learning, and even sexual conduct, long thought to be well
understood, has been revolutionized.
Plants and fungi
Communication is observed within the plant organism, i.e. within plant
cells and between plant cells, between plants of the same or related
species, and between plants and non-plant organisms, especially in the
Plant roots communicate with rhizome bacteria, fungi, and
insects within the soil. Recent research has shown that most of the
microorganism plant communication processes are neuron-like.
Plants also communicate via volatiles when exposed to herbivory attack
behavior, thus warning neighboring plants. In parallel they
produce other volatiles to attract parasites which attack these
Fungi communicate to coordinate and organize their growth and
development such as the formation of Marcelia and fruiting bodies.
Fungi communicate with their own and related species as well as with
non fungal organisms in a great variety of symbiotic interactions,
especially with bacteria, unicellular eukaryote, plants and insects
through biochemicals of biotic origin. The biochemicals trigger the
fungal organism to react in a specific manner, while if the same
chemical molecules are not part of biotic messages, they do not
trigger the fungal organism to react. This implies that fungal
organisms can differentiate between molecules taking part in biotic
messages and similar molecules being irrelevant in the situation. So
far five different primary signalling molecules are known to
coordinate different behavioral patterns such as filamentation,
mating, growth, and pathogenicity. Behavioral coordination and
production of signaling substances is achieved through interpretation
processes that enables the organism to differ between self or
non-self, a biotic indicator, biotic message from similar, related, or
non-related species, and even filter out "noise", i.e. similar
molecules without biotic content.
Bacteria quorum sensing
Communication is not a tool used only by humans, plants and animals,
but it is also used by microorganisms like bacteria. The process is
called quorum sensing. Through quorum sensing, bacteria are able to
sense the density of cells, and regulate gene expression accordingly.
This can be seen in both gram positive and gram negative bacteria.
This was first observed by Fuqua et al. in marine microorganisms like
V. harveyi and V. fischeri.
Main article: Models of communication
Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication
Communication major dimensions scheme
Interactional Model of Communication
Berlo's Sender-Message-Channel-Receiver Model of Communication
Transactional model of communication
Communication code scheme
The first major model for communication was introduced by Claude
Warren Weaver for Bell Laboratories in 1949 The
original model was designed to mirror the functioning of radio and
telephone technologies. Their initial model consisted of three primary
parts: sender, channel, and receiver. The sender was the part of a
telephone a person spoke into, the channel was the telephone itself,
and the receiver was the part of the phone where one could hear the
other person. Shannon and Weaver also recognized that often there is
static that interferes with one listening to a telephone conversation,
which they deemed noise.
In a simple model, often referred to as the transmission model or
standard view of communication, information or content (e.g. a message
in natural language) is sent in some form (as spoken language) from an
emisor/ sender/ encoder to a destination/ receiver/ decoder. This
common conception of communication simply views communication as a
means of sending and receiving information. The strengths of this
model are simplicity, generality, and quantifiability. Claude Shannon
Warren Weaver structured this model based on the following
An information source, which produces a message.
A transmitter, which encodes the message into signals
A channel, to which signals are adapted for transmission
A noise source, which distorts the signal while it propagates through
A receiver, which 'decodes' (reconstructs) the message from the
A destination, where the message arrives.
Shannon and Weaver argued that there were three levels of problems for
communication within this theory.
The technical problem: how accurately can the message be transmitted?
The semantic problem: how precisely is the meaning 'conveyed'?
The effectiveness problem: how effectively does the received meaning
Daniel Chandler critiques the transmission model by stating:
It assumes communicators are isolated individuals.
No allowance for differing purposes.
No allowance for differing interpretations.
No allowance for unequal power relations.
No allowance for situational contexts.
In 1960, David Berlo expanded on Shannon and Weaver's (1949) linear
model of communication and created the SMCR Model of
Communication. The Sender-Message-Channel-Receiver Model of
communication separated the model into clear parts and has been
expanded upon by other scholars.
Communication is usually described along a few major dimensions:
Message (what type of things are communicated), source / emisor /
sender / encoder (by whom), form (in which form), channel (through
which medium), destination / receiver / target / decoder (to whom),
and Receiver. Wilbur Schram (1954) also indicated that we should also
examine the impact that a message has (both desired and undesired) on
the target of the message. Between parties, communication includes
acts that confer knowledge and experiences, give advice and commands,
and ask questions. These acts may take many forms, in one of the
various manners of communication. The form depends on the abilities of
the group communicating. Together, communication content and form make
messages that are sent towards a destination. The target can be
oneself, another person or being, another entity (such as a
corporation or group of beings).
Communication can be seen as processes of information transmission
with three levels of semiotic rules:
Pragmatic (concerned with the relations between signs/expressions and
Semantic (study of relationships between signs and symbols and what
they represent) and
Syntactic (formal properties of signs and symbols).
Therefore, communication is social interaction where at least two
interacting agents share a common set of signs and a common set of
semiotic rules. This commonly held rule in some sense ignores
autocommunication, including intrapersonal communication via diaries
or self-talk, both secondary phenomena that followed the primary
acquisition of communicative competences within social interactions.
In light of these weaknesses, Barnlund (2008) proposed a transactional
model of communication. The basic premise of the transactional
model of communication is that individuals are simultaneously engaging
in the sending and receiving of messages.
In a slightly more complex form a sender and a receiver are linked
reciprocally. This second attitude of communication, referred to as
the constitutive model or constructionist view, focuses on how an
individual communicates as the determining factor of the way the
message will be interpreted.
Communication is viewed as a conduit; a
passage in which information travels from one individual to another
and this information becomes separate from the communication itself. A
particular instance of communication is called a speech act. The
sender's personal filters and the receiver's personal filters may vary
depending upon different regional traditions, cultures, or gender;
which may alter the intended meaning of message contents. In the
presence of "communication noise" on the transmission channel (air, in
this case), reception and decoding of content may be faulty, and thus
the speech act may not achieve the desired effect. One problem with
this encode-transmit-receive-decode model is that the processes of
encoding and decoding imply that the sender and receiver each possess
something that functions as a codebook, and that these two code books
are, at the very least, similar if not identical. Although something
like code books is implied by the model, they are nowhere represented
in the model, which creates many conceptual difficulties.
Theories of coregulation describe communication as a creative and
dynamic continuous process, rather than a discrete exchange of
information. Canadian media scholar
Harold Innis had the theory that
people use different types of media to communicate and which one they
choose to use will offer different possibilities for the shape and
durability of society.[page needed] His famous example of
this is using ancient Egypt and looking at the ways they built
themselves out of media with very different properties stone and
papyrus. Papyrus is what he called '
Space Binding'. it made possible
the transmission of written orders across space, empires and enables
the waging of distant military campaigns and colonial administration.
The other is stone and 'Time Binding', through the construction of
temples and the pyramids can sustain their authority generation to
generation, through this media they can change and shape communication
in their society.[page needed]
In any communication model, noise is interference with the decoding of
messages sent over a channel by an encoder. There are many examples of
Noise that physically disrupts communication,
such as standing next to loud speakers at a party, or the noise from a
construction site next to a classroom making it difficult to hear the
Physiological-impairment noise. Physical maladies that prevent
effective communication, such as actual deafness or blindness
preventing messages from being received as they were intended.
Semantic noise. Different interpretations of the meanings of certain
words. For example, the word "weed" can be interpreted as an
undesirable plant in a yard, or as a euphemism for marijuana.
Syntactical noise. Mistakes in grammar can disrupt communication, such
as abrupt changes in verb tense during a sentence.
Organizational noise. Poorly structured communication can prevent the
receiver from accurate interpretation. For example, unclear and badly
stated directions can make the receiver even more lost.
Cultural noise. Stereotypical assumptions can cause misunderstandings,
such as unintentionally offending a non-Christian person by wishing
them a "Merry Christmas".
Psychological noise. Certain attitudes can also make communication
difficult. For instance, great anger or sadness may cause someone to
lose focus on the present moment. Disorders such as autism may also
severely hamper effective communication.
To face communication noise, redundancy and acknowledgement must often
be used. Acknowledgements are messages from the addressee informing
the originator that his/her communication has been received and is
Message repetition and feedback about message received
are necessary in the presence of noise to reduce the probability of
misunderstanding. The act of disambiguation regards the attempt of
reducing noise and wrong interpretations, when the semantic value or
meaning of a sign can be subject to noise, or in presence of multiple
meanings, which makes the sense-making difficult. Disambiguation
attempts to decrease the likelihood of misunderstanding. This is also
a fundamental skill in communication processes activated by
counselors, psychotherapists, interpreters, and in coaching sessions
based on colloquium. In
Information Technology, the disambiguation
process and the automatic disambiguation of meanings of words and
sentences has also been an interest and concern since the earliest
days of computer treatment of language.
As academic discipline
The academic discipline that deals with processes of human
communication is communication studies. The discipline encompasses a
range of topics, from face-to-face conversation to mass media outlets
such as television broadcasting.
Communication studies also examines
how messages are interpreted through the political, cultural,
economic, semiotic, hermeneutic, and social dimensions of their
contexts. Statistics, as a quantitative approach to communication
science, has also been incorporated into research on communication
science in order to help substantiate claims.
Augmentative and alternative communication
Four Cs of 21st century learning
21st century skills
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Library resources about
Resources in your library
Innis, Harold; Innis, Mary Q. (1975) . Empire and
Communications. Foreword by
Marshall McLuhan (Revised ed.). Toronto:
University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-6119-2.
Media related to
Communication at Wikimedia Commons
Quotations related to
Communication at Wikiquote
History of communication
Intercultural / Interpersonal / Intrapersonal communication
Models of communication
Text and conversation theory
Mediated cross-border communication
Philosophy of language
Sociology of culture
Human intelligence topics
Fluid and crystallized intelligence
Models and theories
Fluid and crystallized intelligence
Areas of research
Evolution of human intelligence
Heritability of IQ
Intelligence and environment / health / longevity /
neuroscience / race
Outline of human intelligence / thought