COMMUNICATION (from Latin commūnicāre, meaning "to share" ) is the act of conveying intended meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules.
The main steps inherent to all communication are:
* The forming of communicative motivation or reason .
The scientific study of communication can be divided into:
The channel of communication can be visual , auditory , tactile (such
Human communication is unique for its extensive use of abstract language . Development of civilization has been closely linked with progress in telecommunication .
* 1 Non-verbal * 2 Verbal * 3 Written communication and its historical development * 4 Business * 5 Political * 6 Family * 7 Interpersonal
* 8 Barriers to effectiveness
* 8.1 Cultural aspects
* 9 Nonhuman
* 9.1 Animals
* 9.2 Plants and fungi
* 10 Models
Main article: Nonverbal communication
Nonverbal communication describes the processes of conveying a type
of information in the form of non-linguistic representations. Examples
of nonverbal communication include haptic communication , chronemic
communication , gestures , body language , facial expressions , eye
contact , and how one dresses.
Nonverbal communication also relates to
intent of a message. Examples of intent are voluntary, intentional
movements like shaking a hand or winking, as well as involuntary, such
Nonverbal communication demonstrates one of Wazlawick's laws: you cannot not communicate. Once proximity has formed awareness, living creatures begin interpreting any signals received. Some of the functions of nonverbal communication in humans are to complement and illustrate, to reinforce and emphasize, to replace and substitute, to control and regulate, and to contradict the denovative message.
Nonverbal cues are heavily relied on to express communication and to interpret others’ communication and can replace or substitute verbal messages. However, non-verbal communication is ambiguous. When verbal messages contradict non-verbal messages, observation of non-verbal behaviour is relied on to judge another’s attitudes and feelings, rather than assuming the truth of the verbal message alone.
There are several reasons as to why non-verbal communication plays a vital role in communication:
“Non-verbal communication is omnipresent.” They are included in every single communication act. To have total communication, all non-verbal channels such as the body, face, voice, appearance, touch, distance, timing, and other environmental forces must be engaged during face-to-face interaction. Written communication can also have non-verbal attributes. E-mails and web chats allow individual’s the option to change text font colours, stationary, emoticons, and capitalization in order to capture non-verbal cues into a verbal medium.
“Non-verbal behaviours are multifunctional.” Many different non-verbal channels are engaged at the same time in communication acts, and allow the chance for simultaneous messages to be sent and received.
“Non-verbal behaviours may form a universal language system.” Smiling, crying, pointing, caressing, and glaring are non-verbal behaviours that are used and understood by people regardless of nationality. Such non-verbal signals allow the most basic form of communication when verbal communication is not effective due to language barriers.
Verbal communication is the spoken or written conveyance of a
message. Human language can be defined as a system of symbols
(sometimes known as lexemes ) and the grammars (rules) by which the
symbols are manipulated. The word "language" also refers to common
properties of languages.
As previously mentioned, language can be characterized as symbolic. Charles Ogden and I.A Richards developed The Triangle of Meaning model to explain the symbol (the relationship between a word), the referent (the thing it describes), and the meaning (the thought associated with the word and the thing)
The properties of language are governed by rules.
The meanings that are attached to words can be literal; or otherwise known as denotative, which relates to the topic being discussed, or, the meanings take context and relationships into account, otherwise known as connotative; relating to the feelings, history, and power dynamics of the communicators.
WRITTEN COMMUNICATION AND ITS HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT
Over time the forms of and ideas about communication have evolved through the continuing progression of technology. Advances include communications psychology and media psychology, an emerging field of study.
The progression of written communication can be divided into three "information communication revolutions":
* Written communication first emerged through the use of
pictographs. The pictograms were made in stone, hence written
communication was not yet mobile. Pictograms began to develop
standardized and simplified forms.
* The next step occurred when writing began to appear on paper ,
papyrus, clay, wax, and other media with common shared writing
systems, leading to adaptable alphabets .
Main article: Business communication
Business communication is used for a wide variety of activities including, but not limited to: strategic communications planning, media relations, public relations (which can include social media, broadcast and written communications, and more), brand management, reputation management, speech-writing, customer-client relations, and internal/employee communications.
Companies with limited resources may choose to engage in only a few of these activities, while larger organizations may employ a full spectrum of communications. Since it is difficult to develop such a broad range of skills, communications professionals often specialize in one or two of these areas but usually have at least a working knowledge of most of them. By far, the most important qualifications communications professionals can possess are excellent writing ability, good 'people' skills, and the capacity to think critically and strategically.
* In "radical reading" the audience rejects the meanings, values, and viewpoints built into the text by its makers. Effect: message refusal. * In "dominant reading", the audience accepts the meanings, values, and viewpoints built into the text by its makers. Effect: message acceptance. * In "subordinate reading" the audience accepts, by and large, the meanings, values, and worldview built into the text by its makers. Effect: obey to the message.
Holistic approaches are used by communication campaign leaders and communication strategists in order to examine all the options, "actors" and channels that can generate change in the semiotic landscape, that is, change in perceptions , change in credibility , change in the "memetic background", change in the image of movements, of candidates, players and managers as perceived by key influencers that can have a role in generating the desired "end-state".
The modern political communication field is highly influenced by the
framework and practices of "information operations" doctrines that
derive their nature from strategic and military studies. According to
this view, what is really relevant is the concept of acting on the
Family communication is the study of the communication perspective in a broadly defined family, with intimacy and trusting relationship. The main goal of family communication is to understand the interactions of family and the pattern of behaviors of family members in different circumstances. Open and honest communication creates an atmosphere that allows family members to express their differences as well as love and admiration for one another. It also helps to understand the feelings of one another.
Family communication study looks at topics such as family rules, family roles or family dialectics and how those factors could affect the communication between family members. Researchers develop theories to understand communication behaviors. Family communication study also digs deep into certain time periods of family life such as marriage, parenthood or divorce and how communication stands in those situations. It is important for family members to understand communication as a trusted way which leads to a well constructed family.
In simple terms, interpersonal communication is the communication between one person and another (or others). It is often referred to as face-to-face communication between two (or more) people. Both verbal and nonverbal communication, or body language , play a part in how one person understands another. In verbal interpersonal communication there are two types of messages being sent: a content message and a relational message. Content messages are messages about the topic at hand and relational messages are messages about the relationship itself. This means that relational messages come across in how one says something and it demonstrates a person’s feelings, whether positive or negative, towards the individual they are talking to, indicating not only how they feel about the topic at hand, but also how they feel about their relationship with the other individual.
There are many different aspects to interpersonal communication including;
- Audiovisual Perception of
* The concept follows the idea that our words change what form they take based on the stress level or urgency of the situation. * It also explores the concept that stuttering during speech shows the audience that there is a problem or that the situation is more stressful.
- The Attachment Theory
* This is the combined work of John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth (Ainsworth "> * AMBIGUITY OF WORDS/PHRASES- Words sounding the same but having different meaning can convey a different meaning altogether. Hence the communicator must ensure that the receiver receives the same meaning. It is better if such words are avoided by using alternatives whenever possible. * INDIVIDUAL LINGUISTIC ABILITY- The use of jargon , difficult or inappropriate words in communication can prevent the recipients from understanding the message. Poorly explained or misunderstood messages can also result in confusion. However, research in communication has shown that confusion can lend legitimacy to research when persuasion fails. * PHYSIOLOGICAL BARRIERS- These may result from individuals' personal discomfort, caused—for example—by ill health, poor eyesight or hearing difficulties. * BYPASSING-These happens when the communicators (sender and the receiver) do not attach the same symbolic meanings to their words. It is when the sender is expressing a thought or a word but the receiver take it in a different meaning. For example- ASAP, Rest room * TECHNOLOGICAL MULTI-TASKING AND ABSORBENCY- With a rapid increase in technologically-driven communication in the past several decades, individuals are increasingly faced with condensed communication in the form of e-mail, text, and social updates. This has, in turn, led to a notable change in the way younger generations communicate and perceive their own self-efficacy to communicate and connect with others. With the ever-constant presence of another "world" in one's pocket, individuals are multi-tasking both physically and cognitively as constant reminders of something else happening somewhere else bombard them. Though perhaps too new of an advancement to yet see long-term effects, this is a notion currently explored by such figures as Sherry Turkle. * FEAR OF BEING CRITICIZED-This is a major factor that prevents good communication. If we exercise simple practices to improve our communication skill, we can become effective communicators. For example, read an article from the newspaper or collect some news from the television and present it in front of the mirror. This will not only boost your confidence, but also improve your language and vocabulary. * GENDER BARRIERS- Most communicators whether aware or not, often have a set agenda. This is very notable among the different genders. For example, many women are found to be more critical in addressing conflict. It's also been noted that men are more than likely to withdraw from conflict when in comparison to women. This breakdown and comparison not only shows that there are many factors to communication between two specific genders, but also room for improvement as well as established guidelines for all.
Cultural differences exist within countries (tribal/regional differences, dialects etc.), between religious groups and in organisations or at an organisational level - where companies, teams and units may have different expectations, norms and idiolects. Families and family groups may also experience the effect of cultural barriers to communication within and between different family members or groups. For example: words, colours and symbols have different meanings in different cultures. In most parts of the world, nodding your head means agreement, shaking your head means no, except in some parts of the world.
Verbal communication refers to form of communication which uses
spoken and written words for expressing and transferring views and
* Paralinguistics are the voice involved in communication other than actual language and involves tones , pitch , vocal cues etc. It also include sounds from throat and all these are greatly influenced by cultural differences across borders. * Proxemics deals with the concept of space element in communication. Proxemics explains four zones of spaces namely intimate personal, social and public. This concept differs with different culture as the permissible space vary in different countries. * Artifactics studies about the non verbal signals or communication which emerges from personal accessories such as dresses or fashion accessories worn and it varies with culture as people of different countries follow different dressing codes. * Chronemics deal with the time aspects of communication and also include importance given to the time. Some issues explaining this concept are pauses, silences and response lag during an interaction . This aspect of communication is also influenced by cultural differences as it is well known that there is a great difference in the value given by different cultures to time. * Kinesics mainly deals with the body languages such as postures , gestures , head nods , leg movements etc. In different countries, the same gestures and postures are used to convey different messages. Sometimes even a particular kinesic indicating something good in a country may have a negative meaning in any other culture.
So in order to have an effective communication across world it is desirable to have a knowledge of cultural variables effecting communication.
According to Michael Walsh and Ghil\'ad Zuckermann , Western conversational interaction is typically "dyadic", between two particular people, where eye contact is important and the speaker controls the interaction; and "contained" in a relatively short, defined time frame. However, traditional Aboriginal conversational interaction is "communal", broadcast to many people, eye contact is not important, the listener controls the interaction; and "continuous", spread over a longer, indefinite time frame.
Every information exchange between living organisms — i.e. transmission of signals that involve a living sender and receiver can be considered a form of communication; and even primitive creatures such as corals are competent to communicate. Nonhuman communication also include cell signaling , cellular communication , and chemical transmissions between primitive organisms like bacteria and within the plant and fungal kingdoms.
The broad field of animal communication encompasses most of the issues in ethology . Animal communication can be defined as any behavior of one animal that affects the current or future behavior of another animal. The study of animal communication, called zoo semiotics (distinguishable from anthroposemiotics , the study of human communication) has played an important part in the development of ethology , sociobiology , and the study of animal cognition . Animal communication, and indeed the understanding of the animal world in general, is a rapidly growing field, and even in the 21st century so far, a great share of prior understanding related to diverse fields such as personal symbolic name use, animal emotions , animal culture and learning , and even sexual conduct , long thought to be well understood, has been revolutionized. A special field of animal communication has been investigated in more detail such as vibrational communication.
PLANTS AND FUNGI
BACTERIA QUORUM SENSING
Models of communication Shannon and Weaver Model
The first major model for communication was introduced by Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver for Bell Laboratories in 1949 The original model was designed to mirror the functioning of radio and telephone technologies. Their initial model consisted of three primary parts: sender, channel, and receiver. The sender was the part of a telephone a person spoke into, the channel was the telephone itself, and the receiver was the part of the phone where one could hear the other person. Shannon and Weaver also recognized that often there is static that interferes with one listening to a telephone conversation , which they deemed noise.
In a simple model, often referred to as the transmission model or standard view of communication, information or content (e.g. a message in natural language ) is sent in some form (as spoken language ) from an emisor/ sender/ encoder to a destination/ receiver/ decoder. This common conception of communication simply views communication as a means of sending and receiving information. The strengths of this model are simplicity, generality, and quantifiability. Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver structured this model based on the following elements:
* An information source, which produces a message. * A transmitter, which encodes the message into signals * A channel, to which signals are adapted for transmission * A noise source, which distorts the signal while it propagates through the channel * A receiver, which 'decodes' (reconstructs) the message from the signal. * A destination, where the message arrives.
Shannon and Weaver argued that there were three levels of problems for communication within this theory. The technical problem: how accurately can the message be transmitted? The semantic problem: how precisely is the meaning 'conveyed'? The effectiveness problem: how effectively does the received meaning affect behavior?
Daniel Chandler critiques the transmission model by stating: It assumes communicators are isolated individuals. No allowance for differing purposes. No allowance for differing interpretations. No allowance for unequal power relations. No allowance for situational contexts.
In 1960, David Berlo expanded on Shannon and Weaver's (1949) linear model of communication and created the SMCR Model of Communication. The Sender-Message-Channel-Receiver Model of communication separated the model into clear parts and has been expanded upon by other scholars.
* Pragmatic (concerned with the relations between signs/expressions and their users) * Semantic (study of relationships between signs and symbols and what they represent) and * Syntactic (formal properties of signs and symbols).
Therefore, communication is social interaction where at least two interacting agents share a common set of signs and a common set of semiotic rules. This commonly held rule in some sense ignores autocommunication , including intrapersonal communication via diaries or self-talk, both secondary phenomena that followed the primary acquisition of communicative competences within social interactions.
In light of these weaknesses, Barnlund (2008) proposed a transactional model of communication. The basic premise of the transactional model of communication is that individuals are simultaneously engaging in the sending and receiving of messages.
In a slightly more complex form a sender and a receiver are linked
reciprocally. This second attitude of communication, referred to as
the constitutive model or constructionist view, focuses on how an
individual communicates as the determining factor of the way the
message will be interpreted.
Theories of coregulation describe communication as a creative and
dynamic continuous process, rather than a discrete exchange of
information. Canadian media scholar
Harold Innis had the theory that
people use different types of media to communicate and which one they
choose to use will offer different possibilities for the shape and
durability of society. His famous example of this is using ancient
Egypt and looking at the ways they built themselves out of media with
very different properties stone and papyrus. Papyrus is what he called
In any communication model, noise is interference with the decoding of messages sent over a channel by an encoder. There are many examples of noise:
* ENVIRONMENTAL NOISE.
To face communication noise, redundancy and acknowledgement must
often be used. Acknowledgements are messages from the addressee
informing the originator that his/her communication has been received
and is understood.
AS ACADEMIC DISCIPLINE
Main article: Communication studies
The academic discipline that deals with processes of human
communication is communication studies. The discipline encompasses a
range of topics, from face-to-face conversation to mass media outlets
such as television broadcasting.
Communication studies also examines
how messages are interpreted through the political, cultural,
economic, semiotic, hermeneutic, and social dimensions of their
Augmentative and alternative communication
Four Cs of 21st century learning
* ^ Harper, Douglas. "communication".
Online Etymology Dictionary .
* ^ C.E. Shannon. "A Mathematical Theory of Communication" (PDF).
Math.harvard.edu. Retrieved 2017-05-01.
* ^ "Types of Body Language". Simplybodylanguage.com. Retrieved
* ^ Wazlawick, Paul (1970's) opus
* ^ (Burgoon, J., Guerrero, L., Floyd, K., (2010). Nonverbal
Communication, Taylor & Francis. p.3 )
* ^ (Burgoon et al., p.4)
* ^ (Burgoon et al., p.4)
* ^ Ferguson, S., Terrion, J., (2014).
Library resources about COMMUNICATION -------------------------
* Resources in your library
* Innis, Harold ; Innis, Mary Q. (1975) . Empire and Communications
. Foreword by