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Gesture
A gesture is a form of non-verbal communication Nonverbal communication (NVC) is the transmission of messages or signals through a nonverbal platform such as eye contact Eye contact occurs when two people look at each other's eyes at the same time. In human beings Humans (''Homo sapie ... or non-vocal communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to b ... in which visible bodily actions communicate particular messages, either in place of, or in conjunction with, speech Speech is human vocal communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, .... Gestures include movement of the hand ...
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David McNeill
Glenn David McNeill (born 1933 in California California is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ..., United States) is an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is ... psychologist A psychologist is a professional who practices psychology and studies normal and abnormal mental states, perceptual, cognitive, emotional, and social processes and behavior by experimenting with, and observing, interpreting, and recording how ... and writer A writer is a person who uses written words in different styles and techniques to communicate ideas. Writers produce differen ...
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Non-verbal Communication
Nonverbal communication (NVC) is the transmission of messages or signals through a nonverbal platform such as eye contact Eye contact occurs when two people look at each other's eyes at the same time. In human beings Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification ..., facial expression A facial expression is one or more motions or positions of the muscle Skeletal muscles (commonly referred to as muscles) are organs An organ is a group of tissues with similar functions. Plant life and animal life rely on many organs that ...s, gesture A gesture is a form of non-verbal communication Nonverbal communication (NVC) is the transmission of messages or signals through a nonverbal platform such as eye contact Eye contact occurs when two people look at each other's eyes at the ...s, posture, and body language Body language is a type of nonverbal communicat ...
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Origin Of Language
The origin of language (spoken and signed, as well as language-related technological systems such as writing), its relationship with human evolution, and its consequences have been subjects of study for centuries. Scholars wishing to study the origins of language must draw inferences from evidence such as the fossil record A fossil (from Classical Latin: , literally 'obtained by digging') is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age. Examples include bones, Seashell, shells, exoskeletons, stone imprints of a ..., archaeological evidence, contemporary language diversity, studies of language acquisition Language acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language (in other words, gain the ability to be aware of language and to understand it), as well as to produce and use words and sentence (lingu ..., and comparisons between human language A language is a struct ...
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Origin Of Language
The origin of language (spoken and signed, as well as language-related technological systems such as writing), its relationship with human evolution, and its consequences have been subjects of study for centuries. Scholars wishing to study the origins of language must draw inferences from evidence such as the fossil record A fossil (from Classical Latin: , literally 'obtained by digging') is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age. Examples include bones, Seashell, shells, exoskeletons, stone imprints of a ..., archaeological evidence, contemporary language diversity, studies of language acquisition Language acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language (in other words, gain the ability to be aware of language and to understand it), as well as to produce and use words and sentence (lingu ..., and comparisons between human language A language is a struct ...
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Sign Language
Sign languages (also known as signed languages) are languages that use the visual-manual modality to convey meaning. Sign languages are expressed through manual articulations in combination with non-manual elements. Sign languages are full-fledged natural languages with their own grammar and lexicon. Sign languages are not universal and they are not mutually intelligible In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include p ... with each other, although there are also striking similarities among sign languages. Linguists consider both spoken and signed communication to be types of natural language, meaning that both emerged through an abstract, protracted aging process and evolved over time without meticulous planning. Sign language should not be confused with body language, a type of n ...
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John Bulwer
John Bulwer (baptised 16 May 1606 – buried 16 October 1656 ) was an English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ... physician A physician (American English), medical practitioner (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth English), medical doctor, or simply doctor, is a professional who practices medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintainin ... and early Baconian natural philosopher who wrote five works exploring the Body and human communication, particularly by gesture A gesture is a form of non-verbal communication Nonverbal communication (NVC) is the transmission of messages or signals through a nonverbal platform such as eye contact Eye contact occurs when two people look at each other's eyes at the .... He was the fi ...
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Body Language
Body language is a type of nonverbal communication Nonverbal communication (NVC) is the transmission of messages or signals through a nonverbal platform such as eye contact Eye contact occurs when two people look at each other's eyes at the same time. In human beings Humans (''Homo sapi ... in which physical behaviors, as opposed to words, are used to express or convey the information. Such behavior includes facial expression A facial expression is one or more motions or positions of the muscle Skeletal muscles (commonly referred to as muscles) are organs An organ is a group of tissues with similar functions. Plant life and animal life rely on many organs that ...s, body posture, gesture A gesture is a form of non-verbal communication Nonverbal communication (NVC) is the transmission of messages or signals through a nonverbal platform such as eye contact Eye contact occurs when two people look at each other's eyes at the ...s, eye movement, tou ...
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Andrea De Jorio
Andrea De Jorio (1769–1851) was an Italian antiquarian who is remembered today among ethnographers as the first ethnographer of body language, in his work ''La mimica degli antichi investigata nel gestire napoletano'', 1832 ("The mime of the Ancients investigated through Neapolitan gesture"). The work has been mined, refined and criticized. Born on the island of Procida in the Gulf of Naples, De Jorio became a Canon (priest), Canon at the Cathedral of Naples, a respected archaeologist under the pre-modern conditions of his times, and a curator at the predecessor to the National Archaeological Museum (Naples), Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Naples. He wrote extensively about the then-recent excavations of classical antiquity near Naples, such as Pompeii, Herculaneum, and Cumae. His recognition in the frescos of Pompeii and Herculaneum provided him with his insight, that the gestures depicted were familiar to him in the streets of modern Naples. The book stressed the continuity ...
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Antiquarian
An antiquarian or antiquary (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...: ''antiquarius'', meaning pertaining to ancient times) is an aficionado or student of antiquities struggling with a Lapith The Lapiths (; grc, Λαπίθαι) are a group of legendary people in Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myths originally told by the Ancient Greece, ancient Greeks, and a genre of Ancient Greek folklor ... or things of the past. More specifically, the term is used for those who study history History (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxima ... with ...
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Natural Philosophy
Natural philosophy or philosophy of nature (from Latin ''philosophia naturalis'') was the philosophy, philosophical study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science. From the ancient world, at least since Aristotle, to the 19th century, ''natural philosophy'' was the common term for the study of nature. It was in the 19th century that the concept of science received its modern shape, with different subjects within science emerging, such as astronomy, biology, and physics. Institutions and communities devoted to science were founded. Isaac Newton's book, ''Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica'' (1687) (English: ''Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy''), reflects the use of the term ''natural philosophy'' in the 17th century. Even in the 19th century, a treatise by William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, Kelvin and Peter Tait (physicist), Peter Tait, which helped define much of modern physics, bore the title ''Treatis ...
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Baconian Method
The Baconian method is the investigative method developed by Francis Bacon, Sir Francis Bacon, one of the founders of modern science, and thus a first formulation of a modern scientific method. The method was put forward in Bacon's book ''Novum Organum'' (1620), or 'New Method', and was supposed to replace the methods put forward in Aristotle's ''Organon''. This method was influential upon the History of scientific method#Francis Bacon's eliminative induction, development of the scientific method in modern science; but also more generally in the early modern rejection of medieval Aristotelianism. Description in the ''Novum Organum'' Bacon's view of induction Bacon's method is an example of the application of inductive reasoning. However, Bacon's method of induction is much more complex than the essential inductive process of making generalisations from observations. Bacon's method begins with description of the requirements for making the careful, systematic observations necessary ...
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Physician
A physician (American English), medical practitioner (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth English), medical doctor, or simply doctor, is a professional who practices medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining or restoring health through the Medical education, study, Medical diagnosis, diagnosis, prognosis and therapy, treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments. Physicians may focus their practice on certain disease categories, types of patients, and methods of treatment—known as Specialty (medicine), specialities—or they may assume responsibility for the provision of continuing and comprehensive medical care to individuals, families, and communities—known as general practitioner, general practice. Medical practice properly requires both a detailed knowledge of the Discipline (academia), academic disciplines, such as anatomy and physiology, pathophysiology, underlying diseases and their treatment—the ''scien ...
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