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Epicurus
EPICURUS (/ˌɛpɪˈkjʊərəs/ or /ˌɛpɪˈkjɔːrəs/ ; Greek : Ἐπίκουρος, Epíkouros, "ally, comrade"; 341–270 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher who founded the school of philosophy called Epicureanism
Epicureanism
. Only a few fragments and letters of Epicurus's 300 written works remain. Much of what is known about Epicurean philosophy derives from later followers and commentators. For Epicurus, the purpose of philosophy was to attain the happy, tranquil life, characterized by ataraxia —peace and freedom from fear—and aponia —the absence of pain—and by living a self-sufficient life surrounded by friends
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Aristippus The Younger
ARISTIPPUS THE YOUNGER (/ˌærəˈstɪpəs/ ; Greek : Ἀρίστιππος), of Cyrene , was the grandson of Aristippus of Cyrene , and is widely believed to have formalized the principles of Cyrenaic philosophy. He lived in the second half of the 4th century BC. His mother was Arete , daughter of the elder Aristippus, and it was she who imparted her father's philosophy to her son, hence he received the nickname "Mother-taught" (metrodidaktos). Among his pupils was Theodorus the Atheist . Not much else is known about Aristippus the Younger. The idea that he systemised his grandfather's philosophy is based on the authority of Aristocles (as quoted by Eusebius ): Among other hearers was his own daughter Arete, who having borne a son named him Aristippus, and he from having been introduced by her to philosophical studies was called his mother's pupil (μητροδίδακτος)
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Sigmund Freud
SIGMUND FREUD (/ˈfrɔɪd/ FROYD ; German: ; born SIGISMUND SCHLOMO FREUD; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis , a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst. Freud
Freud
was born to Galician Jewish parents in the Moravian town of Freiberg , in the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
. He qualified as a doctor of medicine in 1881 at the University of Vienna . Upon completing his habilitation in 1885, he was appointed a docent in neuropathology and became an affiliated professor in 1902. Freud lived and worked in Vienna
Vienna
, having set up his clinical practice there in 1886. In 1938 Freud
Freud
left Austria to escape the Nazis . He died in exile in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in 1939
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Charles Darwin
CHARLES ROBERT DARWIN, FRS FRGS FLS FZS (/ˈdɑːrwɪn/ ; 12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist , geologist and biologist , best known for his contributions to the science of evolution . He established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors and, in a joint publication with Alfred Russel Wallace , introduced his scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection , in which the struggle for existence has a similar effect to the artificial selection involved in selective breeding . Darwin published his theory of evolution with compelling evidence in his 1859 book On the Origin of Species , overcoming scientific rejection of earlier concepts of transmutation of species . By the 1870s, the scientific community and much of the general public had accepted evolution as a fact
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David Pearce (philosopher)
DAVID PEARCE is co-founder of Humanity+ , formerly the World Transhumanist Association, and a prominent figure within the transhumanism movement. Based in Brighton
Brighton
, England, Pearce maintains a series of websites devoted to transhumanist topics and what he calls the "hedonistic imperative", a moral obligation to work towards the abolition of suffering in all sentient life. His book-length internet manifesto, The Hedonistic Imperative (1995), outlines how pharmacology , genetic engineering , nanotechnology and neurosurgery could converge to eliminate all forms of unpleasant experience from human and non-human life, replacing suffering with "gradients of bliss". Pearce calls this the "abolitionist project". A vegan , Pearce argues that humans have a responsibility not only to avoid cruelty to animals within human society but also to redesign the global ecosystem so that animals do not suffer in the wild
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Hadrian
HADRIAN (/ˈheɪdriən/ ; Latin : Publius Aelius Hadrianus Augustus; 24 January 76 – 10 July 138) was Roman emperor
Roman emperor
from 117 to 138. He is known for building Hadrian\'s Wall , which marked the northern limit of Britannia . He also rebuilt the Pantheon and constructed the Temple of Venus and Roma . Philhellene in most of his tastes, he is considered by some to have been a humanist , and he is regarded as the third of the Five Good Emperors . Hadrian
Hadrian
was born Publius Aelius Hadrianus into a Hispano-Roman family. Although Italica near Santiponce (in modern-day Spain) is often considered his birthplace, his actual place of birth remains uncertain. It is generally accepted that he came from a family with centuries-old roots in Hispania. His predecessor, Trajan
Trajan
, was a maternal cousin of Hadrian's father
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Fred Feldman (philosopher)
FRED FELDMAN (born Newark, New Jersey
Newark, New Jersey
, 1941) is an American philosopher who specializes in ethical theory . CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links BIOGRAPHY Fred Feldman received his PhD degree in philosophy from Brown University , where he studied under Roderick Chisholm . His doctoral dissertation concerned the metaphysics of identity . He is Emeritus Professor of Philosophy at the University of Massachusetts Amherst
University of Massachusetts Amherst
, where he spent almost his entire academic career. His books include Doing the Best We Can (Kluwer, 1986), Confrontations with the Reaper (Oxford, 1992), Pleasure and the Good Life (Oxford, 2004), and What is this thing called happiness? (Oxford, 2010)
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Ajita Kesakambali
AJITA KESAKAMBALI (Chinese : 無勝髮褐; pinyin : Wúshèng Fàhè) was an ancient Indian philosopher in the 6th century BC. He is considered to be the first known proponent of Indian materialism . He was probably a contemporary of the Buddha and Mahavira
Mahavira
. It has frequently been noted that the doctrines of the Lokayata school were considerably drawn from Ajita's teachings. CONTENTS* 1 Philosophy * 1.1 From Buddhist sources * 1.2 Modern interpretations * 2 See also * 3 Notes * 4 References PHILOSOPHYLike those of Lokayatins , nothing survives of Ajita's teachings in script, except some scattered references made by his opponents for the sake of refutation. Thus, due to the nature of these references, the basic framework of his philosophy has to be derived by filtering out obscure legends associated with him
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Greek Language
GREEK ( Modern Greek : ελληνικά , elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα ( listen ), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean . It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary , were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin
Latin
, Cyrillic
Cyrillic
, Armenian , Coptic , Gothic and many other writing systems
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Michel Foucault
PAUL-MICHEL FOUCAULT (15 October 1926 – 25 June 1984), generally known as MICHEL FOUCAULT (French: ), was a French philosopher , historian of ideas , social theorist , and literary critic . Foucault's theories primarily addressed the relationship between power and knowledge , and how they are used as a form of social control through societal institutions. Though often cited as a post-structuralist and postmodernist , Foucault rejected these labels, preferring to present his thought as a critical history of modernity . His thought has influenced academics, especially those working in sociology , cultural studies , literary theory and critical theory . Activist groups have also found his theories compelling
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Thomas Hobbes
THOMAS HOBBES (/hɒbz/ ; 5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts THOMAS HOBBES OF MALMESBURY, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy . Hobbes is best known for his 1651 book Leviathan , which established the social contract theory that has served as the foundation for most later Western political philosophy. In addition to political philosophy, Hobbes also contributed to a diverse array of other fields, including history , jurisprudence , geometry , the physics of gases , theology , ethics , and general philosophy
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Thomas Jefferson
THOMAS JEFFERSON (April 13 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American Founding Father who was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and later served as the third President of the United States from 1801 to 1809. Previously, he was elected the second Vice President of the United States
President of the United States
, serving under John Adams
John Adams
from 1797 to 1801. A proponent of democracy, republicanism , and individual rights motivating American colonists to break from Great Britain and form a new nation, he produced formative documents and decisions at both the state and national level. He was a land owner and farmer. Jefferson was primarily of English ancestry, born and educated in colonial Virginia
Virginia
. He graduated from the College of William his mother was Jane Randolph
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Christian Hedonism
CHRISTIAN HEDONISM is a Christian doctrine found in some evangelical circles, particularly those of the Reformed tradition especially in the circle of John Piper. The term was coined by Reformed Baptist pastor John Piper in his 1986 book Desiring God based on Vernard Eller 's earlier use of the term "hedonism" to describe the same concept. Piper summarizes this philosophy of the Christian life as "God is most glorified in us when we are most satisfied in Him." Christian Hedonism
Hedonism
may anachronistically describe the theology of Jonathan Edwards : "God made the world that he might communicate, and the creature receive, his glory; but that it might received both by the mind and heart. He that testifies His having an idea of God's glory glorify God so much as he that testifies also his approbation of it and his delight in it." Piper has said, "The great goal of all Edward's work was the glory of God
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Seneca The Younger
SENECA THE YOUNGER (c. 4 BC – AD 65), fully LUCIUS ANNAEUS SENECA and also known simply as SENECA (/ˈsɛnɪkə/ ), was a Roman Stoic philosopher , statesman, dramatist , and—in one work—humorist of the Silver Age of Latin literature . As a tragedian, he is best-known for his Medea
Medea
and Thyestes . He was a tutor and later advisor to emperor Nero
Nero
. He was forced to take his own life for alleged complicity in the Pisonian conspiracy to assassinate Nero. However, some sources state that he may have been innocent. His father was Seneca the Elder , his elder brother was Lucius Junius Gallio Annaeanus , and his nephew was the poet Lucan
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David Hume
DAVID HUME (/ˈhjuːm/ ; born DAVID HOME; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS ) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher , historian , economist , and essayist , who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism , skepticism , and naturalism . Hume's empiricist approach to philosophy places him with John Locke
John Locke
, Francis Bacon
Francis Bacon
, and Thomas Hobbes
Thomas Hobbes
as a British Empiricist . Beginning with his A Treatise of Human Nature (1739), Hume strove to create a total naturalistic science of man that examined the psychological basis of human nature
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