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Epicurus
EPICURUS (/ˌɛpɪˈkjʊərəs/ or /ˌɛpɪˈkjɔːrəs/ ; Greek : Ἐπίκουρος, _Epíkouros_, "ally, comrade"; 341–270 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher who founded the school of philosophy called Epicureanism . Only a few fragments and letters of Epicurus's 300 written works remain. Much of what is known about Epicurean philosophy derives from later followers and commentators. For Epicurus, the purpose of philosophy was to attain the happy, tranquil life, characterized by _ataraxia _—peace and freedom from fear—and _aponia _—the absence of pain—and by living a self-sufficient life surrounded by friends. He taught that pleasure and pain are measures of what is good and evil; death is the end of both body and soul and therefore should not be feared; the gods neither reward nor punish humans; the universe is infinite and eternal; and events in the world are ultimately based on the motions and interactions of atoms moving in empty space
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Samos
SAMOS (/ˈseɪmɒs, ˈsæmoʊs/ ; Greek : Σάμος) is a Greek island in the eastern Aegean Sea , south of Chios
Chios
, north of Patmos and the Dodecanese
Dodecanese
, and off the coast of Asia Minor
Asia Minor
, from which it is separated by the 1.6-kilometre (1.0 mi)-wide Mycale Strait . It is also a separate regional unit of the North Aegean region, and the only municipality of the regional unit. In ancient times Samos
Samos
was an especially rich and powerful city-state , particularly known for its vineyards and wine production. It is home to Pythagoreion and the Heraion of Samos , a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site that includes the Eupalinian aqueduct
Eupalinian aqueduct
, a marvel of ancient engineering
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Classical Athens
The city of ATHENS ( Ancient Greek : Ἀθῆναι, _Athênai_, modern pronunciation _Athínai_) during the classical period of Ancient Greece (508–322 BC) was the major urban center of the notable polis (city-state ) of the same name, located in Attica , Greece , leading the Delian League in the Peloponnesian War against Sparta and the Peloponnesian League . Athenian democracy was established in 508 BC under Cleisthenes following the tyranny of Isagoras . This system remained remarkably stable, and with a few brief interruptions remained in place for 180 years, until 322 BC (aftermath of Lamian War ). The peak of Athenian hegemony was achieved in the 440s to 430s BC, known as the Age of Pericles
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Ancient Philosophy
This page lists some links to ANCIENT PHILOSOPHY. In Western philosophy , the spread of Christianity in the Roman Empire marked the ending of Hellenistic philosophy and ushered in the beginnings of Medieval philosophy , whereas in Eastern philosophy , the spread of Islam through the Arab Empire marked the end of Old Iranian philosophy and ushered in the beginnings of early Islamic philosophy
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Epicureanism
EPICUREANISM is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of the ancient Greek philosopher Epicurus
Epicurus
, founded around 307 BC. Epicurus
Epicurus
was an atomic materialist , following in the steps of Democritus
Democritus
. His materialism led him to a general attack on superstition and divine intervention . Following Aristippus —about whom very little is known— Epicurus
Epicurus
believed that what he called "pleasure" was the greatest good, but that the way to attain such pleasure was to live modestly, to gain knowledge of the workings of the world, and to limit one's desires. This would lead one to attain a state of tranquility (ataraxia ) and freedom from fear as well as an absence of bodily pain (aponia ). The combination of these two states constitutes happiness in its highest form
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Atomism
ATOMISM (from Greek ἄτομον, atomon, i.e. "uncuttable", "indivisible" ) is a natural philosophy that developed in several ancient traditions. The atomists theorized that nature consists of two fundamental principles: atom and void. Unlike their modern scientific namesake in atomic theory , philosophical atoms come in an infinite variety of shapes and sizes, each indestructible, immutable and surrounded by a void where they collide with the others or hook together forming a cluster. Clusters of different shapes, arrangements, and positions give rise to the various macroscopic substances in the world. References to the concept of atomism and its atoms are found in ancient India
India
and ancient Greece . In the West, atomism emerged in the 5th century BCE with Leucippus
Leucippus
and Democritus
Democritus

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Materialism
MATERIALISM is a form of philosophical monism which holds that matter is the fundamental substance in nature , and that all things, including mental things and consciousness , are results of material interactions. Materialism is closely related to physicalism , the view that all that exists is ultimately physical. Philosophical physicalism has evolved from materialism with the discoveries of the physical sciences to incorporate more sophisticated notions of physicality than mere ordinary matter, such as: spacetime , physical energies and forces , dark matter , and so on. Thus the term "physicalism" is preferred over "materialism" by some, while others use the terms as if they are synonymous . Philosophies contradictory to materialism or physicalism include idealism , pluralism , dualism , and other forms of monism
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Democritus
DEMOCRITUS (/dɪˈmɒkrɪtəs/ ; Greek : Δημόκριτος, Dēmókritos, meaning "chosen of the people"; c. 460 – c. 370 BC) was an influential Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
pre-Socratic philosopher primarily remembered today for his formulation of an atomic theory of the universe . Democritus
Democritus
was born in Abdera , Thrace
Thrace
, around 460 BC, although, some thought it was 490 BC. His exact contributions are difficult to disentangle from those of his mentor Leucippus
Leucippus
, as they are often mentioned together in texts. Their speculation on atoms, taken from Leucippus, bears a passing and partial resemblance to the 19th-century understanding of atomic structure that has led some to regard Democritus
Democritus
as more of a scientist than other Greek philosophers; however, their ideas rested on very different bases
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Pyrrho
PYRRHO (/ˈpɪroʊ/ ; Greek : Πύρρων Pyrrōn, c. 360 BC – c. 270 BC), was a Greek philosopher of Classical antiquity
Classical antiquity
and is credited as being the first Greek skeptic philosopher. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Philosophy * 3 Indian influences on Pyrrho
Pyrrho
* 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 External links LIFE Pyrrho
Pyrrho
was from Elis
Elis
, on the Ionian Sea
Ionian Sea
. Diogenes Laërtius
Diogenes Laërtius
, quoting from Apollodorus of Athens , says that Pyrrho
Pyrrho
was at first a painter, and that pictures by him were exhibited in the gymnasium at Elis
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Seneca The Younger
SENECA THE YOUNGER (c. 4 BC – AD 65), fully LUCIUS ANNAEUS SENECA and also known simply as SENECA (/ˈsɛnɪkə/ ), was a Roman Stoic philosopher , statesman, dramatist , and—in one work—humorist of the Silver Age of Latin literature . As a tragedian, he is best-known for his _ Medea _ and _ Thyestes _. He was a tutor and later advisor to emperor Nero . He was forced to take his own life for alleged complicity in the Pisonian conspiracy to assassinate Nero. However, some sources state that he may have been innocent. His father was Seneca the Elder , his elder brother was Lucius Junius Gallio Annaeanus , and his nephew was the poet Lucan
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Hermarchus
HERMARCHUS or HERMARCH (Greek : Ἕρμαρχoς, Hermarkhos, "reign of Hermes"; c. 325-c. 250 BC ), sometimes incorrectly written HERMACHUS (Greek : Ἕρμαχoς, Hermakhos), was an Epicurean philosopher. He was the disciple and successor of Epicurus
Epicurus
as head of the school. None of his writings survive. He wrote works directed against Plato
Plato
, Aristotle
Aristotle
, and Empedocles
Empedocles
. A fragment from his Against Empedocles, preserved by Porphyry , discusses the need for law in society. His views on the nature of the gods are quoted by Philodemus
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Lucretius
TITUS LUCRETIUS CARUS (/ˈtaɪtəs lʊˈkriːʃəs/ ; c. 15 October 99 BC – c. 55 BC) was a Roman poet and philosopher . His only known work is the didactic philosophical poem _ De rerum natura _ about the tenets and philosophy of Epicureanism , and which is usually translated into English as _On the Nature of Things_. Lucretius has been credited with originating the concept of the three-age system which was formalised from 1834 by C. J. Thomsen . Very little is known about Lucretius's life; the only certain fact is that he was either a friend or client of Gaius Memmius , to whom the poem was addressed and dedicated. _De rerum natura_ was a considerable influence on the Augustan poets , particularly Virgil (in his _ Aeneid _ and _ Georgics _, and to a lesser extent on the _ Eclogues _) and Horace
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Thomas Hobbes
THOMAS HOBBES (/hɒbz/ ; 5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts THOMAS HOBBES OF MALMESBURY, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy . Hobbes is best known for his 1651 book _ Leviathan _, which established the social contract theory that has served as the foundation for most later Western political philosophy. In addition to political philosophy, Hobbes also contributed to a diverse array of other fields, including history , jurisprudence , geometry , the physics of gases , theology , ethics , and general philosophy
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Immanuel Kant
IMMANUEL KANT (/kænt/ ; German: ; 22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy . Kant argued that the human mind creates the structure of human experience, that reason is the source of morality , that aesthetics arises from a faculty of disinterested judgment , that space and time are forms of human sensibility, and that the world as it is "in-itself" is independent of man's concepts of it. Kant took himself to have effected a "Copernican revolution " in philosophy , akin to Copernicus ' reversal of the age-old belief that the sun revolved around the earth. His beliefs continue to have a major influence on contemporary philosophy, especially the fields of metaphysics , epistemology , ethics , political theory , and aesthetics . Politically, Kant was one of the earliest exponents of the idea that perpetual peace could be secured through universal democracy and international cooperation
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Jeremy Bentham
JEREMY BENTHAM (/ˈbɛnθəm/ ; 15 February 1748 – 6 June 1832) was an English philosopher , jurist , and social reformer . He is regarded as the founder of modern utilitarianism . Bentham defined as the "fundamental axiom" of his philosophy the principle that "it is the greatest happiness of the greatest number that is the measure of right and wrong". He became a leading theorist in Anglo- American philosophy of law , and a political radical whose ideas influenced the development of welfarism . He advocated individual and economic freedom , the separation of church and state , freedom of expression , equal rights for women, the right to divorce, and the decriminalising of homosexual acts. He called for the abolition of slavery , the abolition of the death penalty , and the abolition of physical punishment , including that of children. He has also become known in recent years as an early advocate of animal rights
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