HOME
The Info List - Samos



--- Advertisement ---


(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

SAMOS (/ˈseɪmɒs, ˈsæmoʊs/ ; Greek : Σάμος) is a Greek island in the eastern Aegean Sea , south of Chios
Chios
, north of Patmos and the Dodecanese
Dodecanese
, and off the coast of Asia Minor
Asia Minor
, from which it is separated by the 1.6-kilometre (1.0 mi)-wide Mycale Strait . It is also a separate regional unit of the North Aegean region, and the only municipality of the regional unit.

In ancient times Samos
Samos
was an especially rich and powerful city-state , particularly known for its vineyards and wine production. It is home to Pythagoreion and the Heraion of Samos , a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site that includes the Eupalinian aqueduct
Eupalinian aqueduct
, a marvel of ancient engineering. Samos
Samos
is the birthplace of the Greek philosopher and mathematician Pythagoras
Pythagoras
, after whom the Pythagorean theorem is named, the philosopher Epicurus
Epicurus
, and the astronomer Aristarchus of Samos
Samos
, the first known individual to propose that the Earth revolves around the sun . Samian wine was well known in antiquity, and is still produced on the island.

The island was governed by the semi-autonomous Principality of Samos under Ottoman suzerainty from 1835 until it joined Greece
Greece
in 1912.

CONTENTS

* 1 Geography

* 1.1 Image gallery * 1.2 Fauna * 1.3 Climate

* 2 History

* 2.1 Early and Classical Antiquity
Classical Antiquity

* 2.1.1 Eupalinian aqueduct
Eupalinian aqueduct
* 2.1.2 Persian Wars and Persian rule * 2.1.3 Peloponnesian War
Peloponnesian War
* 2.1.4 Famous Samians of Antiquity

* 2.2 Hellenistic and Roman Eras * 2.3 Byzantine and Genoese Eras

* 2.4 Ottoman rule

* 2.4.1 Greek Revolution * 2.4.2 The autonomous Principality

* 2.5 Modern Era

* 3 Government

* 3.1 Province

* 4 Economy

* 4.1 Cuisine

* 5 Architecture

* 6 Notable people

* 6.1 Ancient * 6.2 Modern

* 7 Gallery * 8 See also * 9 Notes * 10 References * 11 Further reading * 12 External links

GEOGRAPHY

The area of the island is 477.395 km2 (184.3 sq mi), and it is 43 km (27 mi) long and 13 km (8 mi) wide. It is separated from Anatolia
Anatolia
by the approximately 1-mile-wide (1.6 km) Mycale Strait. While largely mountainous, Samos
Samos
has several relatively large and fertile plains.

A great portion of the island is covered with vineyards , from which muscat wine is made. The most important plains except the capital, Vathy , in the northeast, are that of Karlovasi
Karlovasi
, in the northwest, Pythagoreio , in the southeast, and Marathokampos in the southwest. The island's population is 33,814, which is the 9th most populous of the Greek islands. The Samian climate is typically Mediterranean, with mild rainy winters, and warm rainless summers.

Samos' relief is dominated by two large mountains, Ampelos and Kerkis (anc. Kerketeus). The Ampelos massif (colloquially referred to as "Karvounis") is the larger of the two and occupies the center of the island, rising to 1,095 metres (3,593 ft). Mt. Kerkis, though smaller in area is the taller of the two and its summit is the island's highest point, at 1,434 metres (4,705 ft). The mountains are a continuation of the Mycale range on the Anatolian mainland.

According to Strabo
Strabo
, the name Samos
Samos
is from Phoenician meaning "rise by the shore".

IMAGE GALLERY

*

NASA satellite 3D view of Samos. *

Psalida Beach. At the distant background Mount Kerketeas. *

View of Poseidonio.

FAUNA

Samos
Samos
is home to many surprising species including the golden jackal , stone marten , wild boar , flamingos and monk seal .

CLIMATE

Samos
Samos
is one of the sunniest places in Europe with almost 3300 hours of sunshine annually or 74% of the day time. Its climate is mild and wet in winter and dry in summer.

CLIMATE DATA FOR SAMOS AIRPORT, GREECE

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 20.4 (68.7) 21.4 (70.5) 24.0 (75.2) 28.0 (82.4) 34.4 (93.9) 39.4 (102.9) 43.0 (109.4) 40.6 (105.1) 37.2 (99) 31.6 (88.9) 26.0 (78.8) 23.0 (73.4) 43.0 (109.4)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 13.4 (56.1) 13.7 (56.7) 16.3 (61.3) 19.8 (67.6) 25.1 (77.2) 30.5 (86.9) 33.7 (92.7) 33.6 (92.5) 28.6 (83.5) 23.6 (74.5) 18.8 (65.8) 14.9 (58.8) 22.67 (72.8)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 10.6 (51.1) 10.7 (51.3) 12.8 (55) 15.9 (60.6) 20.5 (68.9) 25.8 (78.4) 28.8 (83.8) 28.8 (83.8) 24.4 (75.9) 20.0 (68) 15.4 (59.7) 12.2 (54) 18.83 (65.88)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 7.7 (45.9) 7.7 (45.9) 9.3 (48.7) 12.1 (53.8) 15.9 (60.6) 21.0 (69.8) 24.0 (75.2) 24.1 (75.4) 20.2 (68.4) 16.5 (61.7) 12.1 (53.8) 9.5 (49.1) 15.01 (59.03)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) −2.4 (27.7) −3.4 (25.9) −1.0 (30.2) 5.0 (41) 7.4 (45.3) 8.8 (47.8) 14.8 (58.6) 16.4 (61.5) 12.2 (54) 7.0 (44.6) 1.0 (33.8) −1.4 (29.5) −3.4 (25.9)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 148.5 (5.846) 102.8 (4.047) 85.9 (3.382) 31.8 (1.252) 15.5 (0.61) 2.7 (0.106) 0.7 (0.028) 1.1 (0.043) 22.7 (0.894) 28.9 (1.138) 110.4 (4.346) 163.7 (6.445) 714.7 (28.137)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS 12.4 10.4 8.6 7.4 4.0 1.1 0.2 0.1 1.4 4.6 9.3 13.7 73.2

AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 70.2 68.1 67.5 64.4 59.1 50.5 43.7 46.0 51.6 62.2 68.6 72.6 61.3

Source #1: Hellenic National Meteorological Service (temperature and precipitation days)

Source #2: NOAA (precipitation, and extremes)

HISTORY

Main article: History of Samos

THIS ARTICLE SHOULD INCLUDE A BRIEF SUMMARY OF HISTORY OF SAMOS . See:Summary style for information on how to properly incorporate it into this article's main text. (August 2016)

EARLY AND CLASSICAL ANTIQUITY

Further information: Ancient Greece
Greece
Kouros of Samos, the largest surviving Kouros in Greece, showing Egyptian influence (Archaeological Museum of Samos).

In classical antiquity the island was a center of Ionian culture and luxury, renowned for its Samian wines and its red pottery (called Samian ware
Samian ware
by the Romans). Its most famous building was the Ionic order archaic Temple of goddess Hera
Hera
—the Heraion .

Concerning the earliest history of Samos, literary tradition is singularly defective. At the time of the great migrations it received an Ionian population which traced its origin to Epidaurus in Argolis : Samos
Samos
became one of the twelve members of the Ionian League . By the 7th century BC it had become one of the leading commercial centers of Greece. This early prosperity of the Samians seems largely due to the island's position near trade-routes, which facilitated the importation of textiles from inner Asia Minor, but the Samians also developed an extensive oversea commerce. They helped to open up trade with the population that lived around the Black Sea as well as with Egypt, Cyrene (Libya), Corinth, and Chalcis. This caused them to become bitter rivals with Miletus
Miletus
. Samos
Samos
was able to become so prominent despite the growing power of the Persian empire because of the alliance they had with the Egyptians and their powerful fleet. The Samians are also credited with having been the first Greeks to reach the Straits of Gibraltar.

The feud between Miletus
Miletus
and Samos
Samos
broke out into open strife during the Lelantine War (7th century BC), with which we may connect a Samian innovation in Greek naval warfare, the use of the trireme . The result of this conflict was to confirm the supremacy of the Milesians in eastern waters for the time being; but in the 6th century the insular position of Samos
Samos
preserved it from those aggressions at the hands of Asiatic kings to which Miletus
Miletus
was henceforth exposed. About 535 BC, when the existing oligarchy was overturned by the tyrant Polycrates , Samos
Samos
reached the height of its prosperity. Its navy not only protected it from invasion, but ruled supreme in Aegean waters. The city was beautified with public works, and its school, of sculptors, metal-workers and engineers achieved high repute.

Eupalinian Aqueduct

Main article: Tunnel of Eupalinos Inside the Eupalinian aqueduct .

In the 6th century BC Samos
Samos
was ruled by the famous tyrant Polycrates . During his reign, two working groups under the lead of the engineer Eupalinos dug a tunnel through Mount Kastro to build an aqueduct to supply the ancient capital of Samos
Samos
with fresh water, as this was of the utmost defensive importance (since being underground, it was not easily detected by an enemy who could otherwise cut off the supply). Eupalinos' tunnel is particularly notable because it is the second earliest tunnel in history to be dug from both ends in a methodical manner. With a length of over 1 km (0.6 mi), Eupalinos' subterranean aqueduct is today regarded as one of the masterpieces of ancient engineering. The aqueduct is now part of the UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site , the Pythagoreion .

Persian Wars And Persian Rule

After Polycrates' death Samos
Samos
suffered a severe blow when the Persian Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
conquered and partly depopulated the island. It had regained much of its power when in 499 BC it joined the general revolt of the Ionian city-states against Persia; but owing to its long-standing jealousy of Miletus
Miletus
it rendered indifferent service, and at the decisive battle of Lade (494 BC) part of its contingent of sixty ships was guilty of outright treachery. In 479 BC the Samians led the revolt against Persia, during the Battle of Mycale, which was part of the offensive by the Delian League
Delian League
(led by Cimon).

Peloponnesian War

During the Peloponnesian War
Peloponnesian War
(431–404 BC), Samos
Samos
took the side of Athens
Athens
against Sparta
Sparta
, providing their port to the Athenian fleet . In the Delian League
Delian League
they held a position of special privilege and remained actively loyal to Athens
Athens
until 440 when a dispute with Miletus, which the Athenians had decided against them, induced them to secede. With a fleet of sixty ships they held their own for some time against a large Athenian fleet led by Pericles
Pericles
himself, but after a protracted siege were forced to capitulate. It was punished, but Thucydides
Thucydides
tells us not as harshly as other states which rebelled against Athens. Most in the past had been forced to pay tribute but Samos
Samos
was only told to repay the damages that the rebellion cost the Athenians: 1,300 talents, to pay back in installments of 50 talents per annum.

At the end of the Peloponnesian War, Samos
Samos
appears as one of the most loyal dependencies of Athens, serving as a base for the naval war against the Peloponnesians and as a temporary home of the Athenian democracy during the revolution of the Four Hundred at Athens
Athens
(411 BC), and in the last stage of the war was rewarded with the Athenian franchise. This friendly attitude towards Athens
Athens
was the result of a series of political revolutions which ended in the establishment of a democracy. After the downfall of Athens, Samos
Samos
was besieged by Lysander and again placed under an oligarchy.

In 394 the withdrawal of the Spartan navy induced the island to declare its independence and reestablish a democracy, but by the peace of Antalcidas (387) it fell again under Persian dominion. It was recovered by the Athenians in 366 after a siege of eleven months, and received a strong body of military settlers, the cleruchs which proved vital in the Social War (357-355 BC) . After the Lamian War (322), when Athens
Athens
was deprived of Samos, the vicissitudes of the island can no longer be followed.

Famous Samians Of Antiquity

Panorama of Pythagoreion , the place of birth of Pythagoras
Pythagoras
.

Perhaps the most famous persons ever connected with classical Samos were the philosopher and mathematician Pythagoras
Pythagoras
and the fabulist Aesop . In 1955 the town of Tigani was renamed Pythagoreio in honor of the philosopher.

Other notable personalities include the philosopher Epicurus
Epicurus
, who was of Samian birth and the astronomer Aristarchus of Samos , whom history credits with the first recorded heliocentric model of the solar system . The historian Herodotus
Herodotus
, known by his Histories resided in Samos
Samos
for a while.

There was a school of sculptors and architects that included Rhoecus , the architect of the Temple of Hera
Hera
(Olympia) , and the great sculptor and inventor Theodorus , who is said to have invented with Rhoecus the art of casting statues in bronze .

The vases of Samos
Samos
were among the most characteristic products of Ionian pottery in the 6th century.

HELLENISTIC AND ROMAN ERAS

Main articles: Hellenistic Greece
Greece
and Roman Greece
Greece

For some time (about 275–270 BC) Samos
Samos
served as a base for the Egyptian fleet of the Ptolemies , at other periods it recognized the overlordship of Seleucid Syria. In 189 BC, it was transferred by the Romans to their vassal, the Attalid dynasty's Hellenistic kingdom of Pergamon
Pergamon
, in Asia Minor
Asia Minor
.

Enrolled from 133 in the Roman province of Asia Minor, Samos
Samos
sided with Aristonicus (132) and Mithridates (88) against its overlord, and consequently forfeited its autonomy, which it only temporarily recovered between the reigns of Augustus
Augustus
and Vespasian
Vespasian
. Nevertheless, Samos
Samos
remained comparatively flourishing, and was able to contest with Smyrna
Smyrna
and Ephesus
Ephesus
the title "first city of lonia"; it was chiefly noted as a health resort and for the manufacture of pottery. Since Emperor Diocletian's Tetrarchy it became part of the Provincia Insularum, in the diocese of Asiana in the eastern empire's pretorian prefecture of Oriens.

BYZANTINE AND GENOESE ERAS

Further information: Byzantine Greece
Greece
and Republic of Genoa Vronda monastery Church of Kokkari The harbour of Pythagoreion

As part of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
, Samos
Samos
became part of the namesake theme . After the 13th century it passed through much the same changes of government as Chios
Chios
, and, like the latter island, became the property of the Genoese firm of Giustiniani (1346–1566; 1475 interrupted by an Ottoman period). It was also ruled by Tzachas between 1081–1091.

OTTOMAN RULE

Further information: Ottoman Greece
Greece

Samos
Samos
came under Ottoman rule in 1475 or c. 1479/80, at which time the island was practically abandoned due to the effects of piracy and the plague. The island remained desolate for almost a full century before the Ottoman authorities, by now in secure control of the Aegean, undertook a serious effort to repopulate the island.

In 1572/3, the island was granted as a personal domain (hass) to Kilic Ali Pasha , the Kapudan Pasha (the Ottoman Navy
Ottoman Navy
's chief admiral). Settlers, including Greeks and Arvanites from the Peloponnese and the Ionian Islands
Ionian Islands
, as well as the descendants of the original inhabitants who had fled to Chios
Chios
, were attracted through the concession of certain privileges such as a seven-year tax exemption, a permanent exemption from the tithe in exchange for a lump annual payment of 45,000 piastres , and a considerable autonomy in local affairs. The island recovered gradually, reaching a population of some 10,000 in the 17th century, which was still concentrated mostly in the interior. It was not until the mid-18th century that the coast began to be densely settled as well.

Under Ottoman rule, Samos
Samos
(Ottoman Turkish : سيسام Sisam) came under the administration of the Kapudan Pasha's Eyalet of the Archipelago , usually as part of the Sanjak of Rhodes rather than as a distinct province. Locally, the Ottoman authorities were represented by a voevoda , who was in charge of the fiscal administration, the kadi (judge), the island's Orthodox bishop and four notables representing the four districts of the island (Vathy , Chora , Karlovasi
Karlovasi
and Marathokampos ). Ottoman rule was interrupted during the Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774 , when the island came under Russian control in 1771–1774.

The Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca
Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca
that concluded the war contained clauses that enabled a great expansion of the commercial activities of the Ottoman Empire's Greek Orthodox population. Samian merchants also took advantage of this, and an urban mercantile class based on commerce and shipping began to grow. The Samian merchants' voyages across the Mediterranean, as well as the settlement of Greeks from the Ionian Islands
Ionian Islands
(which in 1797 had passed from Venice to the French Republic ), introduced to Samos
Samos
the progressive ideas of the Age of Enlightenment and of the French Revolution
French Revolution
, and led to the formation of two rival political parties, the progressive-radical Karmanioloi ("Carmagnoles", named after the French Revolutionary song Carmagnole
Carmagnole
) and the reactionary Kallikantzaroi ("goblins ") who represented mostly the traditional land-holding elites. Under the leadership of Lykourgos Logothetis , in 1807 the Karmanioloi gained power in the island, introducing liberal and democratic principles and empowering the local popular assembly at the expense of the land-holding notables. Their rule lasted until 1812, when they were overthrown by the Ottoman authorities and their leaders expelled from the island.

Greek Revolution

Flag of the Administration of Samos
Samos
during the Greek War of Independence (1821–1830). Lykourgos Logothetis, leader of the Revolution in Samos.

In March 1821, the Greek War of Independence
Greek War of Independence
broke out, and on 18 April, under the leadership of Logothetis and the Karmanioloi, Samos too joined the uprising. In May, a revolutionary government with its own constitution was set up to administer the island, mostly inspired by Logothetis.

The Samians successfully repulsed three Ottoman attempts to recapture the island: in summer 1821, in July 1824, when Greek naval victories off Samos
Samos
and at Gerontas averted the threat of an invasion, and again in summer 1826. In 1828, the island became formally incorporated into the Hellenic State under Governor Ioannis Kapodistrias
Ioannis Kapodistrias
, as part of the province of the Eastern Sporades , but the London Protocol of 1830 excluded Samos
Samos
from the borders of the independent Greek state.

The Samians refused to accept their re-subordination to the Sultan, and Logothetis declared Samos
Samos
to be an independent state, governed as before under the provisions of the 1821 constitution. Finally, due to the pressure of the Great Powers
Great Powers
, Samos
Samos
was declared an autonomous, tributary principality under Ottoman suzerainty . The Samians still refused to accept this decision until an Ottoman fleet enforced it in May 1834, forcing the revolutionary leadership and a part of the population to flee to independent Greece, where they settled near Chalkis
Chalkis
.

The Autonomous Principality

Main article: Principality of Samos Flag of the Principality of Samos. It is the contemporary Greek flag with the two upper quadrants in red to symbolize Ottoman suzerainty.

In 1834, the island of Samos
Samos
became the territory of the Principality of Samos
Samos
, a semi-independent state tributary to Ottoman Turkey, paying the annual sum of £2,700. It was governed by a Christian of Greek descent though nominated by the Porte, who bore the title of "Prince." The prince was assisted in his function as chief executive by a 4-member senate. These were chosen by him out of eight candidates nominated by the four districts of the island: Vathy, Chora, Marathokampos, and Karlovasi. The actual legislative power belonged to a chamber of 36 deputies, presided over by the Greek Orthodox Metropolitan. The seat of the government was the port of Vathý.

The modern capital of the island was, until the early 20th century, at Chora, about 2 miles (3.2 km) from the sea and from the site of the ancient city.

After reconsidering political conditions, the capital was moved to Vathy, at the head of a deep bay on the North coast. This became the residence of the prince and the seat of government.

Since then a new town has grown, with a harbour.

MODERN ERA

The union with the Kingdom of Greece
Greece
in 1912. Statue of a lion, erected in 1930 to celebrate the centenary of Greek independence.

The island was finally united with the Kingdom of Greece
Greece
in 1913, a few months after the outbreak of the First Balkan War . Although other Aegean islands had been quickly captured by the Greek Navy , Samos
Samos
was initially left to its existing status quo out of a desire not to upset the Italians in the nearby Dodecanese
Dodecanese
. The Greek fleet landed troops on the island on 13 March 1913. The clashes with the Ottoman garrison were short-lived as the Ottomans withdrew to the Anatolian mainland, so that the island was securely in Greek hands by 16 March.

During World War II
World War II
, the island was occupied by the Italians from May 1941 until the Italian surrender in September 1943. Samos
Samos
was briefly taken over by Greek and British forces on 31 October, but following the Allied defeat in the Battle of Leros and a fierce aerial bombardment, the island was abandoned on 19 November and taken over by German troops. The German occupation lasted until 4 October 1944, when the island was liberated by the Greek Sacred Band .

On August 3, 1989, a Short 330
Short 330
aircraft of the Olympic Airways (now Olympic Airlines ) crashed near Samos
Samos
Airport ; thirty-one passengers died.

GOVERNMENT

Samos
Samos
is a separate regional unit of the North Aegean region, and the only municipality of the regional unit. As a part of the 2011 Kallikratis government reform, the regional unit Samos
Samos
was created out of part of the former Samos Prefecture . At the same reform, the current municipality Samos
Samos
was created out of the 4 former municipalities:

* Karlovasi
Karlovasi
* Marathokampos * Pythagoreio * Vathy

Samos
Samos
has a sister town called Samo , which is located in Calabria
Calabria
, Italy
Italy
.

PROVINCE

The province of Samos
Samos
(Greek : Επαρχία Σάμου) was one of the provinces of the Samos
Samos
Prefecture. It had the same territory as the present regional unit. It was abolished in 2006.

ECONOMY

Muscat of Samos
Samos

The Samian economy depends mainly on agriculture and the tourist industry which has been growing steadily since the early 1980s. The main agricultural products include grapes , honey , olives , olive oil , citrus fruit, dried figs , almonds and flowers. The Muscat grape is the main crop used for wine production. Samian wine is also exported under several other appellations.

CUISINE

Local specialities:

* Bourekia ( Börek ) * Katimeria * Katades (dessert) * Moustalevria (dessert) * Muscat of Samos
Samos
(wine)

ARCHITECTURE

View of Marathokampos village. Agios Nikolaos Church, Karlovasi
Karlovasi
. Picture of the town of Karlovasi
Karlovasi
.

The island is the location of the joint UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Sites of the Heraion of Samos and the Pythagoreion which were inscribed in UNESCO's World Heritage list in 1992.

NOTABLE PEOPLE

ANCIENT

* Aegles , athlete * Aeschrion of Samos , poet * Aesop , storyteller * Aethlius (writer) * Agatharchus , painter * Agathocles (writer) * Aristarchus of Samos (3rd century BC), astronomer and mathematician, the first known individual to propose that the Earth revolves around the sun * Asclepiades of Samos , epigrammist and poet * Asius of Samos , poet * Conon of Samos , astronomer and mathematician * Creophylus of Samos , legendary singer * Duris of Samos (4th-3rd century BC), historian * Epicurus
Epicurus
(4th century BC), philosopher, founder of the Epicurean school of philosophy * Melissus of Samos , philosopher * Nicaenetus of Samos , poet * Philaenis (4th-3rd century BC), courtesan and writer * Polycrates (6th century BC), tyrant of Samos * Pythagoras
Pythagoras
(6th century BC), philosopher, mathematician, and religious leader, after whom the Pythagorean theorem is named ('the square on the hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle is equal to the sum of the squares on the other two sides') * Pythagoras
Pythagoras
(sculptor) * Rhoecus (6th century BC), sculptor * Telesarchus of Samos (6th century BC), aristocrat * Theodorus (6th century BC), sculptor and architect * Theon of Samos , painter

MODERN

* Lykourgos Logothetis (1772–1850), leader of the Samians during the revolution of 1821 * Themistoklis Sofoulis
Themistoklis Sofoulis
(1860–1949), politician and PM of Greece * Ion Ghica
Ion Ghica
(1816–1897), Romanian revolutionary, mathematician, diplomat, prime minister of Romania, first president of the Romanian Academy, prince of Samos * Nikos Stavridis (1910–1987), actor * Nerses Ounanian (1924-1957), Armenian-Uruguayan sculptor

GALLERY

*

Ruins at the Heraion of Samos *

Kokkari beach *

Samos International Airport *

Traditional dress

SEE ALSO

* 1904 Samos earthquake * Pauly-Wissowa * Xenophon
Xenophon

NOTES

* ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Bunbury, Caspari & Gardner 1911 , p. 116. * ^ "Population ">(PDF) (in Greek). National Statistical Service of Greece. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-09-21. * ^ "Conservation Action Plan for the golden jackal (Canis aureus) in Greece" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-07-10. Retrieved 2012-11-07. * ^ " Samos
Samos
Climate". Hellenic National Meteorological Service. Retrieved 15 October 2012. * ^ "Climate Data for Samos" . National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 15 October 2012. * ^ " Samos
Samos
(island, Greece) - Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2012-11-07. * ^ The Siloam Tunnel was first * ^ A B Birken, Andreas (1976). Die Provinzen des Osmanischen Reiches. Beihefte zum Tübinger Atlas des Vorderen Orients (in German). 13. Reichert. p. 107. ISBN 9783920153568 . * ^ A B C D E F G H Landros Christos; Kamara Afroditi; Dawson Maria-Dimitra; Spiropoulou Vaso (10 July 2005). "Samos: 2.3. Ottoman rule". Cultural Portal
Portal
of the Aegean Archipelago. Foundation of the Hellenic World. Retrieved 2 April 2013. * ^ A B C Landros Christos, Kamara Afroditi; Dawson Maria-Dimitra; Spiropoulou Vaso (10 July 2005). "Samos: 2.4. The Greek War of Independence, 1821.". Cultural Portal
Portal
of the Aegean Archipelago. Foundation of the Hellenic World. Retrieved 2 April 2013. * ^ Hall, Richard C. (2000). The Balkan Wars, 1912–1913: Prelude to the First World War. Routledge. p. 64. ISBN 0-415-22946-4 . * ^ Erickson, Edward J. (2003). Defeat in Detail: The Ottoman Army in the Balkans, 1912–1913. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 158–159. ISBN 0-275-97888-5 . * ^ "Kallikratis reform law text" (PDF). * ^ "Detailed census results 1991" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-03. (39 MB) (in Greek) (in French) * ^ Ioannis Spilanis, H. Vayanni et K. Glyptou (2012). Evaluating the tourism activity in a destination: the case of Samos
Samos
Island, Revue Etudes Caribéennes, http://etudescaribeennes.revues.org/6257 * ^ " Pythagoreion and Heraion of Samos - UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Centre". Whc.unesco.org. 2009-09-18. Retrieved 2012-11-07.

REFERENCES

Attribution

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Bunbury, Edward Herbert; Caspari, Maximilian Otto Bismarck; Gardner, Ernest Arthur (1911). "Samos". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica . 24 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 116–117.

FURTHER READING

Ancient sources

* Herodotus, especially book iii. * Strabo
Strabo
xiv. pp. 636–639 * Thucydides, especially books i. and viii. * Xenophon, Hellenica, books i. ii.

Modern texts

* A. Agelarakis, "Anthropologic Results: The Geometric Period Necropolis at Pythagoreion". Archival Report. Samos
Samos
Island Antiquities Authority, Greece, (2003). * J. P. Barron, The Silver Coins of Samos
Samos
(London, 1966). * J. Boehlau, Aus ionischen and italischen Nekropolen (Leipzig, 1898). (E. H. B.; M. 0. B. C.; E. Ga.). * C. Curtius, Urkunden zur Geschichte von Samos
Samos
(Wesel, 1873). * P. Gardner, Samos
Samos
and Samian Coins (London, 1882). * V. Guérin, Description de l'île de Patmos et de l'île de Samos (Paris, 1856). * K. Hallof and A. P. Matthaiou (eds), Inscriptiones Chii et Sami cum Corassiis Icariaque (Inscriptiones Graecae, xii. 6. 1–2). 2 vols. (Berolini–Novi Eboraci: de Gruyter, 2000; 2004). * B. V. Head, Historia Numorum (Oxford, 1887), pp. 515–518. * L. E. Hicks and G. F. Hill, Greek Historical Inscriptions (Oxford, 1901), No. 81. * H. Kyrieleis, Führer durch das Heraion von Samos
Samos
(Athen, 1981). * T. Panofka, Res Samiorum (Berlin, 1822). * Pauly-Wissowa (in German, on Antiquity) * T. J. Quinn, Athens
Athens
and Samos, Chios
Chios
and Lesbos
Lesbos
(Manchester, 1981). * G. Shipley, A History of Samos 800–188 BC (Oxford, 1987). * R. Tölle-Kastenbein, Herodot und Samos
Samos
(Bochum, 1976). * H. F. Tozer, Islands of the Aegean (London, 1890). * K. Tsakos, Samos: A Guide to the History and Archaeology (Athens, 2003). * H. Walter, Das Heraion von Samos
Samos
(München, 1976). * Westermann, Großer Atlas zur Weltgeschichte (in German)

Volumes of the Samos
Samos
series of archaeological reports published by the Deutsches Archäologisches Institut.

* 1. V. Milojčić, Die prähistorische Siedlung unter dem Heraion (Bonn, 1961). * 2. R. C. S. Felsch, Das Kastro Tigani (Bonn, 1988). * 3. A. E. Furtwängler, Der Nordbau im Heraion von Samos
Samos
(Bonn, 1989). * 4. H. P. Isler, Das archaische Nordtor und seine Umgebung im Heraion von Samos
Samos
(Bonn, 1978). * 5. H. Walter, Frühe samische Gefäße (Bonn, 1968). * 6.1. E. Walter-Karydi, Samische Gefäße des 6. Jahrhunderts v. Chr. (Bonn, 1973). * 7. G. Schmidt, Kyprische Bildwerke aus dem Heraion von Samos (Bonn, 1968). * 8. U. Jantzen, Ägyptische und orientalische Bronzen aus dem Heraion von Samos
Samos
(Bonn, 1972). * 9. U. Gehrikg, with G. Schneider, Die Greifenprotomen aus dem Heraion von Samos
Samos
(Bonn, 2004). * 10. H. Kyrieleis, Der große Kuros von Samos
Samos
(Bonn, 1996). * 11. B. Freyer-Schauenburg, Bildwerke der archaischen Zeit und des strengen Stils (Bonn, 1974). * 12. R. Horn, Hellenistische Bildwerke auf Samos
Samos
(Bonn, 1972). * 14. R. Tölle-Kastenbein, Das Kastro Tigani (Bonn, 1974). * 15. H. J. Kienast, Die Stadtmauer von Samos
Samos
(Bonn, 1978). * 16. W. Martini, Das Gymnasium von Samos
Samos
(Bonn, 1984). * 17. W. Martini and C. Streckner, Das Gymnasium von Samos: das frühbyzantinische Klostergut (Bonn, 1993). * 18. V. Jarosch, Samische Tonfiguren aus dem Heraion von Samos (Bonn, 1994). * 19. H. J. Kienast, Die Wasserleitung des Eupalinos auf Samos (Bonn, 1995). * 20. U. Jantzen with W. Hautumm, W.-R. Megow, M. Weber, and H. J. Kienast, Die Wasserleitung des Eupalinos: die Funde (Bonn, 2004). * 22. B. Kreuzer, Die attisch schwarzfigurige Keramik aus dem Heraion von Samos
Samos
(Bonn, 1998). * 24.1. T. Schulz with H. J. Kienast, Die römischen Tempel im Heraion von Samos: die Prostyloi (Bonn, 2002). * 25. C. Hendrich, Die Säulenordnung des ersten Dipteros von Samos (Bonn, 2007).

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikimedia Commons has media related to SAMOS ISLAND .

* Samos
Samos
travel guide from Wikivoyage *