The Info List - Samos

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(/ˈseɪmɒs, ˈsæmoʊs/; Greek: Σάμος) is a Greek island in the eastern Aegean Sea, south of Chios, north of Patmos
and the Dodecanese, and off the coast of Asia Minor, from which it is separated by the 1.6-kilometre (1.0 mi)-wide Mycale
Strait. It is also a separate regional unit of the North Aegean
North Aegean
region, and the only municipality of the regional unit. In ancient times Samos
was an especially rich and powerful city-state, particularly known for its vineyards and wine production.[1] It is home to Pythagoreion
and the Heraion of Samos, a UNESCO
World Heritage Site that includes the Eupalinian aqueduct, a marvel of ancient engineering. Samos
is the birthplace of the Greek philosopher and mathematician Pythagoras, after whom the Pythagorean theorem
Pythagorean theorem
is named, the philosopher Epicurus, and the astronomer Aristarchus of Samos, the first known individual to propose that the Earth revolves around the sun. Samian wine was well known in antiquity, and is still produced on the island. The island was governed by the semi-autonomous Principality of Samos under Ottoman suzerainty from 1835 until it joined Greece
in 1912.[1]


1 Etymology 2 Geography

2.1 Image gallery 2.2 Fauna 2.3 Climate

3 History

3.1 Early and Classical Antiquity

3.1.1 Eupalinian aqueduct 3.1.2 Persian Wars and Persian rule 3.1.3 Peloponnesian War 3.1.4 Famous Samians of Antiquity

3.2 Hellenistic and Roman Eras 3.3 Byzantine and Genoese Eras 3.4 Ottoman rule

3.4.1 Greek Revolution 3.4.2 Autonomous Principality

3.5 Modern era

4 Government

4.1 Province

5 Economy

5.1 Cuisine

6 UNESCO 7 Notable people

7.1 Ancient 7.2 Modern

8 Gallery 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links

Etymology[edit] Strabo
derived the name from the Phoenician word sama meaning "high".[2][3][4] Geography[edit] The area of the island is 477.395 km2 (184.3 sq mi),[5] and it is 43 km (27 mi) long and 13 km (8 mi) wide. It is separated from Anatolia
by the approximately 1-mile-wide (1.6 km) Mycale
Strait. While largely mountainous, Samos
has several relatively large and fertile plains. A great portion of the island is covered with vineyards, from which muscat wine is made. The most important plains except the capital, Vathy, in the northeast, are that of Karlovasi, in the northwest, Pythagoreio, in the southeast, and Marathokampos
in the southwest. The island's population is 33,814, which is the 9th most populous of the Greek islands. The Samian climate is typically Mediterranean, with mild rainy winters, and warm rainless summers. Samos' relief is dominated by two large mountains, Ampelos and Kerkis (anc. Kerketeus). The Ampelos massif (colloquially referred to as "Karvounis") is the larger of the two and occupies the center of the island, rising to 1,095 metres (3,593 ft). Mt. Kerkis, though smaller in area is the taller of the two and its summit is the island's highest point, at 1,434 metres (4,705 ft). The mountains are a continuation of the Mycale
range on the Anatolian mainland.[1] According to Strabo, the name Samos
is from Phoenician meaning "rise by the shore". Image gallery[edit]

NASA satellite 3D view of Samos.

Psalida Beach. At the distant background Mount Kerketeas.

View of Poseidonio.

Fauna[edit] Samos
is home to many surprising species including the golden jackal, stone marten, wild boar, flamingos and monk seal.[6] Climate[edit] Samos
is one of the sunniest places in Europe with almost 3300 hours of sunshine annually or 74% of the day time. Its climate is mild and wet in winter and dry in summer.

Climate data for Samos
Airport, Greece

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 20.4 (68.7) 21.4 (70.5) 24.0 (75.2) 28.0 (82.4) 34.4 (93.9) 39.4 (102.9) 43.0 (109.4) 40.6 (105.1) 37.2 (99) 31.6 (88.9) 26.0 (78.8) 23.0 (73.4) 43.0 (109.4)

Average high °C (°F) 13.4 (56.1) 13.7 (56.7) 16.3 (61.3) 19.8 (67.6) 25.1 (77.2) 30.5 (86.9) 33.7 (92.7) 33.6 (92.5) 28.6 (83.5) 23.6 (74.5) 18.8 (65.8) 14.9 (58.8) 22.67 (72.8)

Daily mean °C (°F) 10.6 (51.1) 10.7 (51.3) 12.8 (55) 15.9 (60.6) 20.5 (68.9) 25.8 (78.4) 28.8 (83.8) 28.8 (83.8) 24.4 (75.9) 20.0 (68) 15.4 (59.7) 12.2 (54) 18.83 (65.88)

Average low °C (°F) 7.7 (45.9) 7.7 (45.9) 9.3 (48.7) 12.1 (53.8) 15.9 (60.6) 21.0 (69.8) 24.0 (75.2) 24.1 (75.4) 20.2 (68.4) 16.5 (61.7) 12.1 (53.8) 9.5 (49.1) 15.01 (59.03)

Record low °C (°F) −2.4 (27.7) −3.4 (25.9) −1.0 (30.2) 5.0 (41) 7.4 (45.3) 8.8 (47.8) 14.8 (58.6) 16.4 (61.5) 12.2 (54) 7.0 (44.6) 1.0 (33.8) −1.4 (29.5) −3.4 (25.9)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 148.5 (5.846) 102.8 (4.047) 85.9 (3.382) 31.8 (1.252) 15.5 (0.61) 2.7 (0.106) 0.7 (0.028) 1.1 (0.043) 22.7 (0.894) 28.9 (1.138) 110.4 (4.346) 163.7 (6.445) 714.7 (28.137)

Average precipitation days 12.4 10.4 8.6 7.4 4.0 1.1 0.2 0.1 1.4 4.6 9.3 13.7 73.2

Average relative humidity (%) 70.2 68.1 67.5 64.4 59.1 50.5 43.7 46.0 51.6 62.2 68.6 72.6 61.3

Source #1: Hellenic National Meteorological Service (temperature and precipitation days)[7]

Source #2: NOAA (precipitation, and extremes)[8]

History[edit] Main article: History of Samos

This article should include a brief summary of History of Samos. See Wikipedia:Summary style for information on how to properly incorporate it into this article's main text. (August 2016)

Early and Classical Antiquity[edit] Further information: Ancient Greece

Kouros of Samos, the largest surviving Kouros in Greece, showing Egyptian influence (Archaeological Museum of Samos).

In classical antiquity the island was a center of Ionian culture and luxury, renowned for its Samian wines and its red pottery (called Samian ware
Samian ware
by the Romans). Its most famous building was the Ionic order archaic Temple of goddess Hera—the Heraion.[1] Concerning the earliest history of Samos, literary tradition is singularly defective. At the time of the great migrations it received an Ionian population which traced its origin to Epidaurus
in Argolis: Samos
became one of the twelve members of the Ionian League. By the 7th century BC it had become one of the leading commercial centers of Greece. This early prosperity of the Samians seems largely due to the island's position near trade-routes, which facilitated the importation of textiles from inner Asia Minor, but the Samians also developed an extensive oversea commerce. They helped to open up trade with the population that lived around the Black Sea as well as with Egypt, Cyrene (Libya), Corinth, and Chalcis. This caused them to become bitter rivals with Miletus. Samos
was able to become so prominent despite the growing power of the Persian empire because of the alliance they had with the Egyptians and their powerful fleet. The Samians are also credited with having been the first Greeks to reach the Straits of Gibraltar.[9] The feud between Miletus
and Samos
broke out into open strife during the Lelantine War (7th century BC), with which we may connect a Samian innovation in Greek naval warfare, the use of the trireme. The result of this conflict was to confirm the supremacy of the Milesians in eastern waters for the time being; but in the 6th century the insular position of Samos
preserved it from those aggressions at the hands of Asiatic kings to which Miletus
was henceforth exposed. About 535 BC, when the existing oligarchy was overturned by the tyrant Polycrates, Samos
reached the height of its prosperity. Its navy not only protected it from invasion, but ruled supreme in Aegean waters. The city was beautified with public works, and its school, of sculptors, metal-workers and engineers achieved high repute.[1]

Heraion of Samos

Eupalinian aqueduct[edit] Main article: Tunnel of Eupalinos

Inside the Eupalinian aqueduct.

In the 6th century BC Samos
was ruled by the famous tyrant Polycrates. During his reign, two working groups under the lead of the engineer Eupalinos
dug a tunnel through Mount Kastro to build an aqueduct to supply the ancient capital of Samos
with fresh water, as this was of the utmost defensive importance (since being underground, it was not easily detected by an enemy who could otherwise cut off the supply). Eupalinos' tunnel is particularly notable because it is the second earliest tunnel in history to be dug from both ends in a methodical manner.[10] With a length of over 1 km (0.6 mi), Eupalinos' subterranean aqueduct is today regarded as one of the masterpieces of ancient engineering. The aqueduct is now part of the UNESCO
World Heritage Site, the Pythagoreion. Persian Wars and Persian rule[edit] After Polycrates' death Samos
suffered a severe blow when the Persian Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
conquered and partly depopulated the island. It had regained much of its power when in 499 BC it joined the general revolt of the Ionian city-states against Persia; but owing to its long-standing jealousy of Miletus
it rendered indifferent service, and at the decisive battle of Lade (494 BC) part of its contingent of sixty ships was guilty of outright treachery. In 479 BC the Samians led the revolt against Persia, during the Battle of Mycale,[1] which was part of the offensive by the Delian League
Delian League
(led by Cimon). Peloponnesian War[edit] During the Peloponnesian War
Peloponnesian War
(431–404 BC), Samos
took the side of Athens
against Sparta, providing their port to the Athenian fleet. In the Delian League
Delian League
they held a position of special privilege and remained actively loyal to Athens
until 440 when a dispute with Miletus, which the Athenians had decided against them, induced them to secede. With a fleet of sixty ships they held their own for some time against a large Athenian fleet led by Pericles
himself, but after a protracted siege were forced to capitulate.[1] It was punished, but Thucydides
tells us not as harshly as other states which rebelled against Athens. Most in the past had been forced to pay tribute but Samos
was only told to repay the damages that the rebellion cost the Athenians: 1,300 talents, to pay back in installments of 50 talents per annum. At the end of the Peloponnesian War, Samos
appears as one of the most loyal dependencies of Athens, serving as a base for the naval war against the Peloponnesians and as a temporary home of the Athenian democracy during the revolution of the Four Hundred at Athens
(411 BC), and in the last stage of the war was rewarded with the Athenian franchise. This friendly attitude towards Athens
was the result of a series of political revolutions which ended in the establishment of a democracy. After the downfall of Athens, Samos
was besieged by Lysander
and again placed under an oligarchy.[1] In 394 the withdrawal of the Spartan navy induced the island to declare its independence and reestablish a democracy, but by the peace of Antalcidas (387) it fell again under Persian dominion. It was recovered by the Athenians in 366 after a siege of eleven months, and received a strong body of military settlers, the cleruchs which proved vital in the Social War (357-355 BC). After the Lamian War
Lamian War
(322), when Athens
was deprived of Samos, the vicissitudes of the island can no longer be followed.[1] Famous Samians of Antiquity[edit]

Panorama of Pythagoreion, the place of birth of Pythagoras.

Perhaps the most famous persons ever connected with classical Samos were the philosopher and mathematician Pythagoras
and the fabulist Aesop. In 1955 the town of Tigani was renamed Pythagoreio
in honor of the philosopher. Other notable personalities include the philosopher Epicurus, who was of Samian birth and the astronomer Aristarchus of Samos, whom history credits with the first recorded heliocentric model of the solar system. The historian Herodotus, known by his Histories resided in Samos
for a while. There was a school of sculptors and architects that included Rhoecus, the architect of the Temple of Hera
(Olympia), and the great sculptor and inventor Theodorus, who is said to have invented with Rhoecus the art of casting statues in bronze. The vases of Samos
were among the most characteristic products of Ionian pottery in the 6th century. Hellenistic and Roman Eras[edit] Main articles: Hellenistic Greece
and Roman Greece For some time (about 275–270 BC) Samos
served as a base for the Egyptian fleet of the Ptolemies, at other periods it recognized the overlordship of Seleucid Syria. In 189 BC, it was transferred by the Romans to their vassal, the Attalid
dynasty's Hellenistic kingdom of Pergamon, in Asia Minor.[1] Enrolled from 133 in the Roman province of Asia Minor, Samos
sided with Aristonicus (132) and Mithridates (88) against its overlord, and consequently forfeited its autonomy, which it only temporarily recovered between the reigns of Augustus
and Vespasian. Nevertheless, Samos
remained comparatively flourishing, and was able to contest with Smyrna
and Ephesus
the title "first city of lonia";[1] it was chiefly noted as a health resort and for the manufacture of pottery. Since Emperor Diocletian's Tetrarchy
it became part of the Provincia Insularum, in the diocese of Asiana in the eastern empire's pretorian prefecture of Oriens.[1] Byzantine and Genoese Eras[edit] Further information: Byzantine Greece
and Republic of Genoa

Vronta monastery

Church in Kokkari

The harbour of Pythagoreion

As part of the Byzantine Empire, Samos
became part of the namesake theme. After the 13th century it passed through much the same changes of government as Chios, and, like the latter island, became the property of the Genoese firm of Giustiniani (1346–1566; 1475 interrupted by an Ottoman period). It was also ruled by Tzachas between 1081–1091.[1] Ottoman rule[edit] Further information: Ottoman Greece

map, 1574

came under Ottoman rule in 1475[11] or c. 1479/80,[12] at which time the island was practically abandoned due to the effects of piracy and the plague. The island remained desolate for almost a full century before the Ottoman authorities, by now in secure control of the Aegean, undertook a serious effort to repopulate the island.[12] In 1572/3, the island was granted as a personal domain (hass) to Kilic Ali Pasha, the Kapudan Pasha (the Ottoman Navy's chief admiral). Settlers, including Greeks and Arvanites
from the Peloponnese
and the Ionian Islands, as well as the descendants of the original inhabitants who had fled to Chios, were attracted through the concession of certain privileges such as a seven-year tax exemption, a permanent exemption from the tithe in exchange for a lump annual payment of 45,000 piastres, and a considerable autonomy in local affairs.[12] The island recovered gradually, reaching a population of some 10,000 in the 17th century, which was still concentrated mostly in the interior. It was not until the mid-18th century that the coast began to be densely settled as well.[12] Under Ottoman rule, Samos
(Ottoman Turkish: سيسام Sisam) came under the administration of the Kapudan Pasha's Eyalet of the Archipelago, usually as part of the Sanjak of Rhodes rather than as a distinct province.[11] Locally, the Ottoman authorities were represented by a voevoda, who was in charge of the fiscal administration, the kadi (judge), the island's Orthodox bishop and four notables representing the four districts of the island (Vathy, Chora, Karlovasi
and Marathokampos).[12] Ottoman rule was interrupted during the Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774, when the island came under Russian control in 1771–1774.[12] The Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca
Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca
that concluded the war contained clauses that enabled a great expansion of the commercial activities of the Ottoman Empire's Greek Orthodox population. Samian merchants also took advantage of this, and an urban mercantile class based on commerce and shipping began to grow.[12] The Samian merchants' voyages across the Mediterranean, as well as the settlement of Greeks from the Ionian Islands
Ionian Islands
(which in 1797 had passed from Venice to the French Republic), introduced to Samos
the progressive ideas of the Age of Enlightenment and of the French Revolution, and led to the formation of two rival political parties, the progressive-radical Karmanioloi ("Carmagnoles", named after the French Revolutionary song Carmagnole) and the reactionary Kallikantzaroi ("goblins") who represented mostly the traditional land-holding elites. Under the leadership of Lykourgos Logothetis, in 1807 the Karmanioloi gained power in the island, introducing liberal and democratic principles and empowering the local popular assembly at the expense of the land-holding notables. Their rule lasted until 1812, when they were overthrown by the Ottoman authorities and their leaders expelled from the island.[12] Greek Revolution[edit]

Flag of the Administration of Samos
during the Greek War of Independence (1821–1830).

Lykourgos Logothetis, leader of the Revolution in Samos.

In March 1821, the Greek War of Independence
Greek War of Independence
broke out, and on 18 April, under the leadership of Logothetis and the Karmanioloi, Samos too joined the uprising. In May, a revolutionary government with its own constitution was set up to administer the island, mostly inspired by Logothetis.[13] The Samians successfully repulsed three Ottoman attempts to recapture the island: in summer 1821, in July 1824, when Greek naval victories off Samos
and at Gerontas averted the threat of an invasion, and again in summer 1826. In 1828, the island became formally incorporated into the Hellenic State under Governor Ioannis Kapodistrias, as part of the province of the Eastern Sporades, but the London Protocol of 1830 excluded Samos
from the borders of the independent Greek state.[13] The Samians refused to accept their re-subordination to the Sultan, and Logothetis declared Samos
to be an independent state, governed as before under the provisions of the 1821 constitution. Finally, due to the pressure of the Great Powers, Samos
was declared an autonomous, tributary principality under Ottoman suzerainty. The Samians still refused to accept this decision until an Ottoman fleet enforced it in May 1834, forcing the revolutionary leadership and a part of the population to flee to independent Greece, where they settled near Chalkis.[13] Autonomous Principality[edit] Main article: Principality of Samos

Flag of the Principality of Samos. It is the contemporary Greek flag with the two upper quadrants in red to symbolize Ottoman suzerainty.

In 1834, the island of Samos
became the territory of the Principality of Samos, a semi-independent state tributary to Ottoman Turkey, paying the annual sum of £2,700. It was governed by a Christian of Greek descent though nominated by the Porte, who bore the title of "Prince." The prince was assisted in his function as chief executive by a 4-member senate. These were chosen by him out of eight candidates nominated by the four districts of the island: Vathy, Chora, Marathokampos, and Karlovasi. The actual legislative power belonged to a chamber of 36 deputies, presided over by the Greek Orthodox Metropolitan. The seat of the government was the port of Vathý.[1] The modern capital of the island was, until the early 20th century, at Chora, about 2 miles (3.2 km) from the sea and from the site of the ancient city.[1] After reconsidering political conditions, the capital was moved to Vathy, at the head of a deep bay on the North coast. This became the residence of the prince and the seat of government.[1] Since then a new town has grown, with a harbour.[citation needed] Modern era[edit]

The union with the Kingdom of Greece
in 1912.

Statue of a lion in Samos
town; erected in 1930 to celebrate the centenary of Greek independence.

The island was finally united with the Kingdom of Greece
in 1913, a few months after the outbreak of the First Balkan War. Although other Aegean islands had been quickly captured by the Greek Navy, Samos
was initially left to its existing status quo out of a desire not to upset the Italians in the nearby Dodecanese. The Greek fleet landed troops on the island on 13 March 1913. The clashes with the Ottoman garrison were short-lived as the Ottomans withdrew to the Anatolian mainland, so that the island was securely in Greek hands by 16 March.[14][15] During World War II, the island was occupied by the Italians from May 1941 until the Italian surrender
Italian surrender
in September 1943. Samos
was briefly taken over by Greek and British forces on 31 October, but following the Allied defeat in the Battle of Leros
Battle of Leros
and a fierce aerial bombardment, the island was abandoned on 19 November and taken over by German troops. The German occupation lasted until 4 October 1944, when the island was liberated by the Greek Sacred Band. On August 3, 1989, a Short 330
Short 330
aircraft of the Olympic Airways (now Olympic Airlines) crashed near Samos
Airport; thirty-one passengers died. Government[edit] Samos
is a separate regional unit of the North Aegean
North Aegean
region, and the only municipality of the regional unit. As a part of the 2011 Kallikratis government reform, the regional unit Samos
was created out of part of the former Samos
Prefecture. At the same reform, the current municipality Samos
was created out of the 4 former municipalities:[16]

Karlovasi Marathokampos Pythagoreio Vathy

has a sister town called Samo, which is located in Calabria, Italy. Province[edit] The province of Samos
(Greek: Επαρχία Σάμου) was one of the provinces of the Samos
Prefecture. It had the same territory as the present regional unit.[17] It was abolished in 2006. Economy[edit]

Muscat of Samos

Samian wine

The Samian economy depends mainly on agriculture[citation needed] and the tourist industry[18] which has been growing steadily since the early 1980s. The main agricultural products include grapes, honey, olives, olive oil, citrus fruit, dried figs, almonds and flowers. The Muscat grape
Muscat grape
is the main crop used for wine production. Samian wine is also exported under several other appellations. Cuisine[edit] Local specialities:

Bourekia (Börek) Katimeria Katades (dessert) Moustalevria (dessert) Muscat of Samos


View of Marathokampos

Agios Nikolaos Church, Karlovasi.

Picture of the town of Karlovasi.

The island is the location of the joint UNESCO
World Heritage Sites of the Heraion of Samos
Heraion of Samos
and the Pythagoreion
which were inscribed in UNESCO's World Heritage list in 1992.[19] Notable people[edit] Ancient[edit]

Aegles, athlete Aeschrion of Samos, poet Aesop, storyteller Aethlius (writer) Agatharchus, painter Agathocles (writer) Aristarchus of Samos
Aristarchus of Samos
(3rd century BC), astronomer and mathematician, the first known individual to propose that the Earth revolves around the sun Asclepiades of Samos, epigrammist and poet Asius of Samos, poet Conon of Samos, astronomer and mathematician Creophylus of Samos, legendary singer Duris of Samos (4th-3rd century BC), historian Epicurus
(4th century BC), philosopher, founder of the Epicurean school of philosophy Melissus of Samos, philosopher Nicaenetus of Samos, poet Philaenis
(4th-3rd century BC), courtesan and writer Polycrates
(6th century BC), tyrant of Samos Pythagoras
(6th century BC), philosopher, mathematician, and religious leader, after whom the Pythagorean theorem
Pythagorean theorem
is named ('the square on the hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle is equal to the sum of the squares on the other two sides') Pythagoras
(sculptor) Rhoecus (6th century BC), sculptor Telesarchus of Samos
Telesarchus of Samos
(6th century BC), aristocrat Theodorus (6th century BC), sculptor and architect Theon of Samos, painter


Lykourgos Logothetis
Lykourgos Logothetis
(1772–1850), leader of the Samians during the revolution of 1821 Themistoklis Sofoulis
Themistoklis Sofoulis
(1860–1949), politician and PM of Greece Ion Ghica
Ion Ghica
(1816–1897), Romanian revolutionary, mathematician, diplomat, prime minister of Romania, first president of the Romanian Academy, prince of Samos Nikos Stavridis (1910–1987), actor Nerses Ounanian
Nerses Ounanian
(1924-1957), Armenian-Uruguayan sculptor


The town hall and the archaeological museum in Vathy

St Spyridon, Samos

Old tobacco factory, Samos


International Airport

See also[edit]

1904 Samos
earthquake Pauly-Wissowa Xenophon Ancient regions of Anatolia


^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Bunbury, Caspari & Gardner 1911, p. 116. ^ Everett-Heath, John (2017). The Concise Dictionary of World Place Names. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780192556462.  ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=A5JKDgAAQBAJ&pg=PT258.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ Leaf, Walter (2010). Homer, the Iliad. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781108016872.  ^ "Population & housing census 2001 (incl. area and average elevation)" (PDF) (in Greek). National Statistical Service of Greece. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-09-21.  ^ "Conservation Action Plan for the golden jackal (Canis aureus) in Greece" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-07-10. Retrieved 2012-11-07.  ^ " Samos
Climate". Hellenic National Meteorological Service. Retrieved 15 October 2012.  ^ "Climate Data for Samos". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 15 October 2012.  ^ " Samos
(island, Greece) - Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2012-11-07.  ^ The Siloam Tunnel
Siloam Tunnel
was first Archived 2011-03-22 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b Birken, Andreas (1976). Die Provinzen des Osmanischen Reiches. Beihefte zum Tübinger Atlas des Vorderen Orients (in German). 13. Reichert. p. 107. ISBN 9783920153568.  ^ a b c d e f g h Landros Christos; Kamara Afroditi; Dawson Maria-Dimitra; Spiropoulou Vaso (10 July 2005). "Samos: 2.3. Ottoman rule". Cultural Portal
of the Aegean Archipelago. Foundation of the Hellenic World. Archived from the original on 22 May 2013. Retrieved 2 April 2013.  ^ a b c Landros Christos, Kamara Afroditi; Dawson Maria-Dimitra; Spiropoulou Vaso (10 July 2005). "Samos: 2.4. The Greek War of Independence, 1821". Cultural Portal
of the Aegean Archipelago. Foundation of the Hellenic World. Archived from the original on 22 May 2013. Retrieved 2 April 2013.  ^ Hall, Richard C. (2000). The Balkan Wars, 1912–1913: Prelude to the First World War. Routledge. p. 64. ISBN 0-415-22946-4.  ^ Erickson, Edward J. (2003). Defeat in Detail: The Ottoman Army in the Balkans, 1912–1913. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 158–159. ISBN 0-275-97888-5.  ^ "Kallikratis reform law text" (PDF).  ^ "Detailed census results 1991" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-03.  (39 MB) (in Greek) (in French) ^ Ioannis Spilanis, H. Vayanni et K. Glyptou (2012). Evaluating the tourism activity in a destination: the case of Samos
Island, Revue Etudes Caribéennes, http://etudescaribeennes.revues.org/6257 ^ " Pythagoreion
and Heraion of Samos
Heraion of Samos
World Heritage Centre". Whc.unesco.org. 2009-09-18. Retrieved 2012-11-07. 



 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Bunbury, Edward Herbert; Caspari, Maximilian Otto Bismarck; Gardner, Ernest Arthur (1911). "Samos". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 24 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 116–117.  Further reading[edit]

Ancient sources

Herodotus, especially book iii. Strabo
xiv. pp. 636–639 Thucydides, especially books i. and viii. Xenophon, Hellenica, books i. ii.

Modern texts

A. Agelarakis, "Anthropologic Results: The Geometric Period Necropolis at Pythagoreion". Archival Report. Samos
Island Antiquities Authority, Greece, (2003). J. P. Barron, The Silver Coins of Samos
(London, 1966). J. Boehlau, Aus ionischen and italischen Nekropolen (Leipzig, 1898). (E. H. B.; M. 0. B. C.; E. Ga.). C. Curtius, Urkunden zur Geschichte von Samos
(Wesel, 1873). P. Gardner, Samos
and Samian Coins (London, 1882). V. Guérin, Description de l'île de Patmos
et de l'île de Samos (Paris, 1856). K. Hallof and A. P. Matthaiou (eds), Inscriptiones Chii et Sami cum Corassiis Icariaque (Inscriptiones Graecae, xii. 6. 1–2). 2 vols. (Berolini–Novi Eboraci: de Gruyter, 2000; 2004). B. V. Head, Historia Numorum (Oxford, 1887), pp. 515–518. L. E. Hicks and G. F. Hill, Greek Historical Inscriptions (Oxford, 1901), No. 81. H. Kyrieleis, Führer durch das Heraion von Samos
(Athen, 1981). T. Panofka, Res Samiorum (Berlin, 1822). Pauly-Wissowa
(in German, on Antiquity) T. J. Quinn, Athens
and Samos, Chios
and Lesbos
(Manchester, 1981). G. Shipley, A History of Samos
History of Samos
800–188 BC (Oxford, 1987). R. Tölle-Kastenbein, Herodot und Samos
(Bochum, 1976). H. F. Tozer, Islands of the Aegean (London, 1890). K. Tsakos, Samos: A Guide to the History and Archaeology (Athens, 2003). H. Walter, Das Heraion von Samos
(München, 1976). Westermann, Großer Atlas zur Weltgeschichte (in German)

Volumes of the Samos
series of archaeological reports published by the Deutsches Archäologisches Institut.

1. V. Milojčić, Die prähistorische Siedlung unter dem Heraion (Bonn, 1961). 2. R. C. S. Felsch, Das Kastro Tigani (Bonn, 1988). 3. A. E. Furtwängler, Der Nordbau im Heraion von Samos
(Bonn, 1989). 4. H. P. Isler, Das archaische Nordtor und seine Umgebung im Heraion von Samos
(Bonn, 1978). 5. H. Walter, Frühe samische Gefäße (Bonn, 1968). 6.1. E. Walter-Karydi, Samische Gefäße des 6. Jahrhunderts v. Chr. (Bonn, 1973). 7. G. Schmidt, Kyprische Bildwerke aus dem Heraion von Samos
(Bonn, 1968). 8. U. Jantzen, Ägyptische und orientalische Bronzen aus dem Heraion von Samos
(Bonn, 1972). 9. U. Gehrikg, with G. Schneider, Die Greifenprotomen aus dem Heraion von Samos
(Bonn, 2004). 10. H. Kyrieleis, Der große Kuros von Samos
(Bonn, 1996). 11. B. Freyer-Schauenburg, Bildwerke der archaischen Zeit und des strengen Stils (Bonn, 1974). 12. R. Horn, Hellenistische Bildwerke auf Samos
(Bonn, 1972). 14. R. Tölle-Kastenbein, Das Kastro Tigani (Bonn, 1974). 15. H. J. Kienast, Die Stadtmauer von Samos
(Bonn, 1978). 16. W. Martini, Das Gymnasium von Samos
(Bonn, 1984). 17. W. Martini and C. Streckner, Das Gymnasium von Samos: das frühbyzantinische Klostergut (Bonn, 1993). 18. V. Jarosch, Samische Tonfiguren aus dem Heraion von Samos
(Bonn, 1994). 19. H. J. Kienast, Die Wasserleitung des Eupalinos
auf Samos
(Bonn, 1995). 20. U. Jantzen with W. Hautumm, W.-R. Megow, M. Weber, and H. J. Kienast, Die Wasserleitung des Eupalinos: die Funde (Bonn, 2004). 22. B. Kreuzer, Die attisch schwarzfigurige Keramik aus dem Heraion von Samos
(Bonn, 1998). 24.1. T. Schulz with H. J. Kienast, Die römischen Tempel im Heraion von Samos: die Prostyloi (Bonn, 2002). 25. C. Hendrich, Die Säulenordnung des ersten Dipteros von Samos (Bonn, 2007).

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Samos

travel guide from Wikivoyage Prefecture of Samos Municipality of Vathy - The capital of Samos World Statesmen - Greece

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Aegean Sea



 Greece  Turkey


Aegean civilizations Aegean dispute Aegean Islands

Aegean Islands


Amorgos Anafi Andros Antimilos Antiparos Delos Despotiko Donousa Folegandros Gyaros Ios Irakleia Kardiotissa Kea Keros Kimolos Koufonisia Kythnos Milos Mykonos Naxos Paros Polyaigos Rineia Santorini Schoinoussa Serifopoula Serifos Sifnos Sikinos Syros Therasia Tinos Vous


Agathonisi Arkoi Armathia Alimia Astakida Astypalaia Çatalada Chamili Farmakonisi Gaidaros Gyali Halki Imia/Kardak Kalolimnos Kalymnos Kandelioussa Kara Ada Karpathos Kasos Kinaros Kos Küçük Tavşan Adası Leipsoi
(Lipsi) Leros Levitha
(Lebynthos) Nimos Nisyros Pacheia Patmos Platy Pserimos Rhodes Salih Ada Saria Symi Syrna Telendos Tilos Zaforas

North Aegean

Agios Efstratios Agios Minas Ammouliani Ayvalık Islands Büyük Ada Chios Chryse Cunda Foça Islands Fournoi Korseon Icaria Imbros Koukonesi Lemnos Lesbos Metalik Ada Nisiopi Oinousses Pasas Psara Samiopoula Samos Samothrace Tenedos Thasos Thymaina Uzunada Zourafa


Aegina Agios Georgios Agistri Dokos Hydra Poros Psyttaleia Salamis Spetses


Adelfoi Islets Agios Georgios Skopelou Alonnisos Argos Skiathou Dasia Erinia Gioura Grammeza Kyra Panagia Lekhoussa Peristera Piperi Psathoura Repi Sarakino Skandili Skantzoura Skiathos Skopelos Skyropoula Skyros Tsoungria Valaxa


Afentis Christos Agia Varvara Agioi Apostoloi Agioi Pantes Agioi Theodoroi Agios Nikolaos Anavatis Arnaouti Aspros Volakas Avgo Crete Daskaleia Dia Diapori Dionysades Elasa Ftena Trachylia Glaronisi Gramvousa Grandes Kalydon (Spinalonga) Karavi Karga Katergo Kavallos Kefali Kolokythas Koursaroi Kyriamadi Lazaretta Leon Mavros Mavros
Volakas Megatzedes Mochlos Nikolos Palaiosouda Peristeri Peristerovrachoi Petalida Petalouda Pontikaki Pontikonisi Praso (Prasonisi) Prosfora Pseira Sideros Souda Valenti Vryonisi


Antikythera Euboea Kythira Makronisos

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Administrative division of the Northern Aegean
Northern Aegean

Area 3,836 km2 (1,481 sq mi) Population 199,231 (as of 2011) Municipalities 9 (since 2011) Capital Mytilini

Regional unit of Chios

Chios Oinousses Psara

Regional unit of Ikaria

Fournoi Korseon Ikaria

Regional unit of Lemnos

Agios Efstratios Lemnos

Regional unit of Lesbos


Regional unit of Samos


Regional governor Christiana Kalogirou (since 2014) Decentralized Administration Aegean

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Subdivisions of the municipality of Samos

Municipal unit of Karlovasi

Agioi Theodoroi Drakaioi Karlovasi Kastania Kontaiika Kontakaiika Kosmadaioi Leka Platanos Ydroussa

Municipal unit of Marathokampos

Kallithea Koumaiika Marathokampos Neochori Skouraiika

Municipal unit of Pythagoreio

Chora Ireon Koumaradaioi Mavratzaioi Mesogeio Myloi Mytilinioi Pagondas Pandroso Pyrgos Pythagoreio Spatharaioi

Municipal unit of Vathy

Agios Konstantinos Ampelos Kokkari Manolates Palaiokastro Samos Stavrinides Vathy Vourliotes

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Third Journey of Paul the Apostle

1. Galatia 2. Phrygia 3. Ephesus 4. Macedonia 5. Corinth 6. Cenchreae 7. Macedonia (again) 8. Troas 9. Assos 10. Mytilene 11. Chios 12. Samos 13. Miletus 14. Cos 15. Rhodes 16. Patara 17. Tyre 18. Ptolemais 19. Caesarea 20. Jerusalem

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Ionian League

Chios Clazomenae Colophon Ephesus Erythrae Lebedus Miletus Myus Phocaea Priene Samos Teos

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Former provinces of Greece

Grouped by region and prefecture


East and West Attica



Aegina Hydra Kythira Piraeus Troizinia

West Attica


Central Greece


Livadeia Thebes


Chalcis Istiaia Karystia


Dorida Parnassida


Domokos Locris Phthiotis

Central Macedonia


Arnaia Chalkidiki


Imathia Naousa


Kilkis Paionia


Almopia Edessa Giannitsa


Fyllida Serres Sintiki Visaltia


Lagkadas Thessaloniki



Apokoronas Kissamos Kydonia Selino Sfakia


Kainourgio Malevizi Monofatsi Pediada Pyrgiotissa Temenos Viannos


Ierapetra Lasithi Mirampello Siteia


Agios Vasileios Amari Mylopotamos Rethymno

East Macedonia and Thrace


Alexandroupoli Didymoteicho Orestiada Samothrace Soufli


Kavala Nestos Pangaio Thasos


Komotini Sapes



Dodoni Konitsa Metsovo Pogoni


Filiates Margariti Souli Thyamida

Ionian Islands


Corfu Paxoi


Ithaca Kranaia Pali Sami

North Aegean


Lemnos Mithymna Mytilene Plomari


Ikaria Samos



Gortynia Kynouria Mantineia Megalopoli


Argos Ermionida Nafplia


Epidavros Limira Gytheio Lacedaemon Oitylo


Kalamai Messini Pylia Trifylia

South Aegean


Andros Kea Milos Naxos Paros Syros Thira Tinos


Kalymnos Karpathos Kos Rhodes



Agia Elassona Farsala Larissa Tyrnavos


Almyros Skopelos Volos


Kalampaka Trikala

West Greece


Aigialeia Kalavryta Patras


Missolonghi Nafpaktia Trichonida Valtos Vonitsa-Xiromero


Elis Olympia

West Macedonia


Eordaia Kozani Voio

Note: not all prefectures were subdivided into provinces.

Authority control