SAMOS (/ˈseɪmɒs, ˈsæmoʊs/ ; Greek : Σάμος) is a Greek
island in the eastern
Aegean Sea , south of
Chios , north of Patmos
Dodecanese , and off the coast of
Asia Minor , from which it
is separated by the 1.6-kilometre (1.0 mi)-wide
Mycale Strait . It is
also a separate regional unit of the
North Aegean region, and the only
municipality of the regional unit.
In ancient times
Samos was an especially rich and powerful city-state
, particularly known for its vineyards and wine production. It is
Pythagoreion and the
Heraion of Samos , a
Heritage Site that includes the
Eupalinian aqueduct , a marvel of
Samos is the birthplace of the Greek philosopher
Pythagoras , after whom the
Pythagorean theorem is
named, the philosopher
Epicurus , and the astronomer Aristarchus of
Samos , the first known individual to propose that the Earth revolves
around the sun . Samian wine was well known in antiquity, and is still
produced on the island.
The island was governed by the semi-autonomous Principality of Samos
under Ottoman suzerainty from 1835 until it joined
Greece in 1912.
* 1 Geography
* 1.1 Image gallery
* 1.2 Fauna
* 1.3 Climate
* 2 History
* 2.1 Early and
* 2.1.2 Persian Wars and Persian rule
* 2.1.4 Famous Samians of Antiquity
* 2.2 Hellenistic and Roman Eras
* 2.3 Byzantine and Genoese Eras
* 2.4 Ottoman rule
* 2.4.1 Greek Revolution
* 2.4.2 The autonomous Principality
* 2.5 Modern Era
* 3 Government
* 3.1 Province
* 4 Economy
* 4.1 Cuisine
* 5 Architecture
* 6 Notable people
* 6.1 Ancient
* 6.2 Modern
* 7 Gallery
* 8 See also
* 9 Notes
* 10 References
* 11 Further reading
* 12 External links
The area of the island is 477.395 km2 (184.3 sq mi), and it is 43 km
(27 mi) long and 13 km (8 mi) wide. It is separated from
the approximately 1-mile-wide (1.6 km)
Mycale Strait. While largely
Samos has several relatively large and fertile plains.
A great portion of the island is covered with vineyards , from which
muscat wine is made. The most important plains except the capital,
Vathy , in the northeast, are that of
Karlovasi , in the northwest,
Pythagoreio , in the southeast, and
Marathokampos in the southwest.
The island's population is 33,814, which is the 9th most populous of
the Greek islands. The Samian climate is typically Mediterranean, with
mild rainy winters, and warm rainless summers.
Samos' relief is dominated by two large mountains, Ampelos and Kerkis
(anc. Kerketeus). The Ampelos massif (colloquially referred to as
"Karvounis") is the larger of the two and occupies the center of the
island, rising to 1,095 metres (3,593 ft). Mt. Kerkis, though smaller
in area is the taller of the two and its summit is the island's
highest point, at 1,434 metres (4,705 ft). The mountains are a
continuation of the
Mycale range on the Anatolian mainland.
Strabo , the name
Samos is from Phoenician meaning "rise
by the shore".
NASA satellite 3D view of Samos.
Psalida Beach. At the distant background Mount Kerketeas.
View of Poseidonio.
Samos is home to many surprising species including the golden jackal
, stone marten , wild boar , flamingos and monk seal .
Samos is one of the sunniest places in Europe with almost 3300 hours
of sunshine annually or 74% of the day time. Its climate is mild and
wet in winter and dry in summer.
CLIMATE DATA FOR SAMOS AIRPORT, GREECE
RECORD HIGH °C (°F)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F)
DAILY MEAN °C (°F)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F)
RECORD LOW °C (°F)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS
AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%)
Source #1: Hellenic National Meteorological Service (temperature
and precipitation days)
Source #2: NOAA (precipitation, and extremes)
History of Samos
THIS ARTICLE SHOULD INCLUDE A BRIEF SUMMARY OF HISTORY OF SAMOS .
See:Summary style for information on how to properly
incorporate it into this article's main text. (August 2016)
EARLY AND CLASSICAL ANTIQUITY
Further information: Ancient
Kouros of Samos, the
Kouros in Greece, showing Egyptian influence
(Archaeological Museum of Samos).
In classical antiquity the island was a center of Ionian culture and
luxury, renowned for its Samian wines and its red pottery (called
Samian ware by the Romans). Its most famous building was the Ionic
order archaic Temple of goddess
Hera —the Heraion .
Concerning the earliest history of Samos, literary tradition is
singularly defective. At the time of the great migrations it received
an Ionian population which traced its origin to
Samos became one of the twelve members of the
Ionian League . By the
7th century BC it had become one of the leading commercial centers of
Greece. This early prosperity of the Samians seems largely due to the
island's position near trade-routes, which facilitated the importation
of textiles from inner Asia Minor, but the Samians also developed an
extensive oversea commerce. They helped to open up trade with the
population that lived around the Black Sea as well as with Egypt,
Cyrene (Libya), Corinth, and Chalcis. This caused them to become
bitter rivals with
Samos was able to become so prominent
despite the growing power of the Persian empire because of the
alliance they had with the Egyptians and their powerful fleet. The
Samians are also credited with having been the first Greeks to reach
the Straits of Gibraltar.
The feud between
Samos broke out into open strife during
the Lelantine War (7th century BC), with which we may connect a Samian
innovation in Greek naval warfare, the use of the trireme . The result
of this conflict was to confirm the supremacy of the Milesians in
eastern waters for the time being; but in the 6th century the insular
Samos preserved it from those aggressions at the hands of
Asiatic kings to which
Miletus was henceforth exposed. About 535 BC,
when the existing oligarchy was overturned by the tyrant
Samos reached the height of its prosperity. Its navy not only
protected it from invasion, but ruled supreme in Aegean waters. The
city was beautified with public works, and its school, of sculptors,
metal-workers and engineers achieved high repute.
Tunnel of Eupalinos Inside the Eupalinian
In the 6th century BC
Samos was ruled by the famous tyrant Polycrates
. During his reign, two working groups under the lead of the engineer
Eupalinos dug a tunnel through Mount Kastro to build an aqueduct to
supply the ancient capital of
Samos with fresh water, as this was of
the utmost defensive importance (since being underground, it was not
easily detected by an enemy who could otherwise cut off the supply).
Eupalinos' tunnel is particularly notable because it is the second
earliest tunnel in history to be dug from both ends in a methodical
manner. With a length of over 1 km (0.6 mi), Eupalinos' subterranean
aqueduct is today regarded as one of the masterpieces of ancient
engineering. The aqueduct is now part of the
UNESCO World Heritage
Site , the
Persian Wars And Persian Rule
After Polycrates' death
Samos suffered a severe blow when the Persian
Achaemenid Empire conquered and partly depopulated the island. It had
regained much of its power when in 499 BC it joined the general revolt
of the Ionian city-states against Persia; but owing to its
long-standing jealousy of
Miletus it rendered indifferent service, and
at the decisive battle of Lade (494 BC) part of its contingent of
sixty ships was guilty of outright treachery. In 479 BC the Samians
led the revolt against Persia, during the Battle of Mycale, which was
part of the offensive by the
Delian League (led by Cimon).
Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC),
Samos took the side of
Sparta , providing their port to the Athenian fleet .
Delian League they held a position of special privilege and
remained actively loyal to
Athens until 440 when a dispute with
Miletus, which the Athenians had decided against them, induced them to
secede. With a fleet of sixty ships they held their own for some time
against a large Athenian fleet led by
Pericles himself, but after a
protracted siege were forced to capitulate. It was punished, but
Thucydides tells us not as harshly as other states which rebelled
against Athens. Most in the past had been forced to pay tribute but
Samos was only told to repay the damages that the rebellion cost the
Athenians: 1,300 talents, to pay back in installments of 50 talents
At the end of the Peloponnesian War,
Samos appears as one of the most
loyal dependencies of Athens, serving as a base for the naval war
against the Peloponnesians and as a temporary home of the Athenian
democracy during the revolution of the Four Hundred at
BC), and in the last stage of the war was rewarded with the Athenian
franchise. This friendly attitude towards
Athens was the result of a
series of political revolutions which ended in the establishment of a
democracy. After the downfall of Athens,
Samos was besieged by
Lysander and again placed under an oligarchy.
In 394 the withdrawal of the Spartan navy induced the island to
declare its independence and reestablish a democracy, but by the peace
of Antalcidas (387) it fell again under Persian dominion. It was
recovered by the Athenians in 366 after a siege of eleven months, and
received a strong body of military settlers, the cleruchs which proved
vital in the
Social War (357-355 BC) . After the
Lamian War (322),
Athens was deprived of Samos, the vicissitudes of the island can
no longer be followed.
Famous Samians Of Antiquity
Pythagoreion , the place of birth of
Perhaps the most famous persons ever connected with classical Samos
were the philosopher and mathematician
Pythagoras and the fabulist
Aesop . In 1955 the town of Tigani was renamed
Pythagoreio in honor of
Other notable personalities include the philosopher
Epicurus , who
was of Samian birth and the astronomer
Aristarchus of Samos , whom
history credits with the first recorded heliocentric model of the
solar system . The historian
Herodotus , known by his Histories
Samos for a while.
There was a school of sculptors and architects that included Rhoecus
, the architect of the Temple of
Hera (Olympia) , and the great
sculptor and inventor Theodorus , who is said to have invented with
Rhoecus the art of casting statues in bronze .
The vases of
Samos were among the most characteristic products of
Ionian pottery in the 6th century.
HELLENISTIC AND ROMAN ERAS
Main articles: Hellenistic
Greece and Roman
For some time (about 275–270 BC)
Samos served as a base for the
Egyptian fleet of the
Ptolemies , at other periods it recognized the
overlordship of Seleucid Syria. In 189 BC, it was transferred by the
Romans to their vassal, the
Attalid dynasty's Hellenistic kingdom of
Pergamon , in
Asia Minor .
Enrolled from 133 in the Roman province of Asia Minor,
with Aristonicus (132) and Mithridates (88) against its overlord, and
consequently forfeited its autonomy, which it only temporarily
recovered between the reigns of
Vespasian . Nevertheless,
Samos remained comparatively flourishing, and was able to contest with
Ephesus the title "first city of lonia"; it was chiefly
noted as a health resort and for the manufacture of pottery. Since
Tetrarchy it became part of the Provincia
Insularum, in the diocese of Asiana in the eastern empire's pretorian
prefecture of Oriens.
BYZANTINE AND GENOESE ERAS
Further information: Byzantine
Republic of Genoa
Vronda monastery Church of
Kokkari The harbour of
As part of the
Byzantine Empire ,
Samos became part of the namesake
theme . After the 13th century it passed through much the same changes
of government as
Chios , and, like the latter island, became the
property of the Genoese firm of Giustiniani (1346–1566; 1475
interrupted by an Ottoman period). It was also ruled by Tzachas
Further information: Ottoman
Samos came under Ottoman rule in 1475 or c. 1479/80, at which time
the island was practically abandoned due to the effects of piracy and
the plague. The island remained desolate for almost a full century
before the Ottoman authorities, by now in secure control of the
Aegean, undertook a serious effort to repopulate the island.
In 1572/3, the island was granted as a personal domain (hass) to
Kilic Ali Pasha , the
Kapudan Pasha (the
Ottoman Navy 's chief
admiral). Settlers, including Greeks and
Arvanites from the
Peloponnese and the
Ionian Islands , as well as the descendants of the
original inhabitants who had fled to
Chios , were attracted through
the concession of certain privileges such as a seven-year tax
exemption, a permanent exemption from the tithe in exchange for a lump
annual payment of 45,000 piastres , and a considerable autonomy in
local affairs. The island recovered gradually, reaching a population
of some 10,000 in the 17th century, which was still concentrated
mostly in the interior. It was not until the mid-18th century that the
coast began to be densely settled as well.
Under Ottoman rule,
Samos (Ottoman Turkish : سيسام Sisam) came
under the administration of the Kapudan Pasha's Eyalet of the
Archipelago , usually as part of the
Sanjak of Rhodes rather than as a
distinct province. Locally, the Ottoman authorities were represented
by a voevoda , who was in charge of the fiscal administration, the
kadi (judge), the island's Orthodox bishop and four notables
representing the four districts of the island (Vathy , Chora ,
Marathokampos ). Ottoman rule was interrupted during
Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774 , when the island came under
Russian control in 1771–1774.
Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca
Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca that concluded the war contained
clauses that enabled a great expansion of the commercial activities of
the Ottoman Empire's Greek Orthodox population. Samian merchants also
took advantage of this, and an urban mercantile class based on
commerce and shipping began to grow. The Samian merchants' voyages
across the Mediterranean, as well as the settlement of Greeks from the
Ionian Islands (which in 1797 had passed from Venice to the French
Republic ), introduced to
Samos the progressive ideas of the Age of
Enlightenment and of the
French Revolution , and led to the formation
of two rival political parties, the progressive-radical Karmanioloi
("Carmagnoles", named after the French Revolutionary song
and the reactionary Kallikantzaroi ("goblins ") who represented mostly
the traditional land-holding elites. Under the leadership of Lykourgos
Logothetis , in 1807 the Karmanioloi gained power in the island,
introducing liberal and democratic principles and empowering the local
popular assembly at the expense of the land-holding notables. Their
rule lasted until 1812, when they were overthrown by the Ottoman
authorities and their leaders expelled from the island.
Flag of the Administration of
Samos during the Greek War of
Independence (1821–1830). Lykourgos Logothetis, leader of the
Revolution in Samos.
In March 1821, the
Greek War of Independence
Greek War of Independence broke out, and on 18
April, under the leadership of Logothetis and the Karmanioloi, Samos
too joined the uprising. In May, a revolutionary government with its
own constitution was set up to administer the island, mostly inspired
The Samians successfully repulsed three Ottoman attempts to recapture
the island: in summer 1821, in July 1824, when Greek naval victories
Samos and at Gerontas averted the threat of an invasion, and again
in summer 1826. In 1828, the island became formally incorporated into
the Hellenic State under Governor
Ioannis Kapodistrias , as part of
the province of the Eastern
Sporades , but the London Protocol of 1830
Samos from the borders of the independent Greek state.
The Samians refused to accept their re-subordination to the Sultan,
and Logothetis declared
Samos to be an independent state, governed as
before under the provisions of the 1821 constitution. Finally, due to
the pressure of the
Great Powers ,
Samos was declared an autonomous,
tributary principality under Ottoman suzerainty . The Samians still
refused to accept this decision until an Ottoman fleet enforced it in
May 1834, forcing the revolutionary leadership and a part of the
population to flee to independent Greece, where they settled near
The Autonomous Principality
Principality of Samos Flag of the Principality of
Samos. It is the contemporary Greek flag with the two upper quadrants
in red to symbolize Ottoman suzerainty.
In 1834, the island of
Samos became the territory of the Principality
Samos , a semi-independent state tributary to Ottoman Turkey,
paying the annual sum of £2,700. It was governed by a Christian of
Greek descent though nominated by the Porte, who bore the title of
"Prince." The prince was assisted in his function as chief executive
by a 4-member senate. These were chosen by him out of eight candidates
nominated by the four districts of the island: Vathy, Chora,
Marathokampos, and Karlovasi. The actual legislative power belonged to
a chamber of 36 deputies, presided over by the Greek Orthodox
Metropolitan. The seat of the government was the port of Vathý.
The modern capital of the island was, until the early 20th century,
at Chora, about 2 miles (3.2 km) from the sea and from the site of the
After reconsidering political conditions, the capital was moved to
Vathy, at the head of a deep bay on the North coast. This became the
residence of the prince and the seat of government.
Since then a new town has grown, with a harbour.
The union with the Kingdom of
Greece in 1912. Statue of a
lion, erected in 1930 to celebrate the centenary of Greek
The island was finally united with the Kingdom of
Greece in 1913, a
few months after the outbreak of the
First Balkan War . Although other
Aegean islands had been quickly captured by the
Greek Navy ,
initially left to its existing status quo out of a desire not to upset
the Italians in the nearby
Dodecanese . The Greek fleet landed troops
on the island on 13 March 1913. The clashes with the Ottoman garrison
were short-lived as the Ottomans withdrew to the Anatolian mainland,
so that the island was securely in Greek hands by 16 March.
World War II
World War II , the island was occupied by the Italians from
May 1941 until the
Italian surrender in September 1943.
briefly taken over by Greek and British forces on 31 October, but
following the Allied defeat in the
Battle of Leros and a fierce aerial
bombardment, the island was abandoned on 19 November and taken over by
German troops. The German occupation lasted until 4 October 1944, when
the island was liberated by the Greek Sacred Band .
On August 3, 1989, a
Short 330 aircraft of the Olympic Airways (now
Olympic Airlines ) crashed near
Samos Airport ; thirty-one passengers
Samos is a separate regional unit of the
North Aegean region, and the
only municipality of the regional unit. As a part of the 2011
Kallikratis government reform, the regional unit
Samos was created out
of part of the former
Samos Prefecture . At the same reform, the
Samos was created out of the 4 former
Samos has a sister town called Samo , which is located in
The province of
Samos (Greek : Επαρχία Σάμου) was one of
the provinces of the
Samos Prefecture. It had the same territory as
the present regional unit. It was abolished in 2006.
The Samian economy depends mainly on agriculture and the tourist
industry which has been growing steadily since the early 1980s. The
main agricultural products include grapes , honey , olives , olive oil
, citrus fruit, dried figs , almonds and flowers. The
Muscat grape is
the main crop used for wine production. Samian wine is also exported
under several other appellations.
* Bourekia (
* Katades (dessert)
* Muscat of
Marathokampos village. Agios Nikolaos Church,
Karlovasi . Picture of the town of
The island is the location of the joint
UNESCO World Heritage Sites
Heraion of Samos and the
Pythagoreion which were inscribed in
UNESCO's World Heritage list in 1992.
Aegles , athlete
Aeschrion of Samos , poet
Aesop , storyteller
Agatharchus , painter
Aristarchus of Samos (3rd century BC), astronomer and
mathematician, the first known individual to propose that the Earth
revolves around the sun
Asclepiades of Samos , epigrammist and poet
Asius of Samos , poet
Conon of Samos , astronomer and mathematician
Creophylus of Samos , legendary singer
Duris of Samos (4th-3rd century BC), historian
Epicurus (4th century BC), philosopher, founder of the Epicurean
school of philosophy
Melissus of Samos , philosopher
Nicaenetus of Samos , poet
Philaenis (4th-3rd century BC), courtesan and writer
Polycrates (6th century BC), tyrant of Samos
Pythagoras (6th century BC), philosopher, mathematician, and
religious leader, after whom the
Pythagorean theorem is named ('the
square on the hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle is equal to the
sum of the squares on the other two sides')
Rhoecus (6th century BC), sculptor
Telesarchus of Samos (6th century BC), aristocrat
* Theodorus (6th century BC), sculptor and architect
Theon of Samos , painter
Lykourgos Logothetis (1772–1850), leader of the Samians during
the revolution of 1821
Themistoklis Sofoulis (1860–1949), politician and PM of Greece
Ion Ghica (1816–1897), Romanian revolutionary, mathematician,
diplomat, prime minister of Romania, first president of the Romanian
Academy, prince of Samos
Nikos Stavridis (1910–1987), actor
Nerses Ounanian (1924-1957), Armenian-Uruguayan sculptor
Ruins at the
Heraion of Samos
Samos International Airport
1904 Samos earthquake
* ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Bunbury, Caspari & Gardner 1911
, p. 116.
* ^ "Population ">(PDF) (in Greek). National Statistical Service of
Greece. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-09-21.
* ^ "Conservation Action Plan for the golden jackal (Canis aureus)
in Greece" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-07-10.
* ^ "
Samos Climate". Hellenic National Meteorological Service.
Retrieved 15 October 2012.
* ^ "Climate Data for Samos" . National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration. Retrieved 15 October 2012.
* ^ "
Samos (island, Greece) - Britannica Online Encyclopedia".
Britannica.com. Retrieved 2012-11-07.
* ^ The
Siloam Tunnel was first
* ^ A B Birken, Andreas (1976). Die Provinzen des Osmanischen
Reiches. Beihefte zum Tübinger Atlas des Vorderen Orients (in
German). 13. Reichert. p. 107. ISBN 9783920153568 .
* ^ A B C D E F G H Landros Christos; Kamara Afroditi; Dawson
Maria-Dimitra; Spiropoulou Vaso (10 July 2005). "Samos: 2.3. Ottoman
Portal of the Aegean Archipelago. Foundation of the
Hellenic World. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
* ^ A B C Landros Christos, Kamara Afroditi; Dawson Maria-Dimitra;
Spiropoulou Vaso (10 July 2005). "Samos: 2.4. The Greek War of
Independence, 1821.". Cultural
Portal of the Aegean Archipelago.
Foundation of the Hellenic World. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
* ^ Hall, Richard C. (2000). The Balkan Wars, 1912–1913: Prelude
to the First World War. Routledge. p. 64. ISBN 0-415-22946-4 .
* ^ Erickson, Edward J. (2003). Defeat in Detail: The Ottoman Army
in the Balkans, 1912–1913. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp.
158–159. ISBN 0-275-97888-5 .
* ^ "Kallikratis reform law text" (PDF).
* ^ "Detailed census results 1991" (PDF). Archived from the
original (PDF) on 2016-03-03. (39 MB) (in Greek) (in French)
* ^ Ioannis Spilanis, H. Vayanni et K. Glyptou (2012). Evaluating
the tourism activity in a destination: the case of
Samos Island, Revue
Etudes Caribéennes, http://etudescaribeennes.revues.org/6257
* ^ "
Heraion of Samos -
UNESCO World Heritage
Centre". Whc.unesco.org. 2009-09-18. Retrieved 2012-11-07.
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public
domain : Bunbury, Edward Herbert; Caspari, Maximilian Otto Bismarck;
Gardner, Ernest Arthur (1911). "Samos". In Chisholm, Hugh.
Encyclopædia Britannica . 24 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
* Herodotus, especially book iii.
Strabo xiv. pp. 636–639
* Thucydides, especially books i. and viii.
* Xenophon, Hellenica, books i. ii.
* A. Agelarakis, "Anthropologic Results: The Geometric Period
Necropolis at Pythagoreion". Archival Report.
Samos Island Antiquities
Authority, Greece, (2003).
* J. P. Barron, The Silver Coins of
Samos (London, 1966).
* J. Boehlau, Aus ionischen and italischen Nekropolen (Leipzig,
1898). (E. H. B.; M. 0. B. C.; E. Ga.).
* C. Curtius, Urkunden zur Geschichte von
Samos (Wesel, 1873).
* P. Gardner,
Samos and Samian Coins (London, 1882).
* V. Guérin, Description de l'île de
Patmos et de l'île de Samos
* K. Hallof and A. P. Matthaiou (eds), Inscriptiones Chii et Sami
cum Corassiis Icariaque (Inscriptiones Graecae, xii. 6. 1–2). 2
vols. (Berolini–Novi Eboraci: de Gruyter, 2000; 2004).
* B. V. Head, Historia Numorum (Oxford, 1887), pp. 515–518.
* L. E. Hicks and G. F. Hill, Greek Historical Inscriptions (Oxford,
1901), No. 81.
* H. Kyrieleis, Führer durch das Heraion von
Samos (Athen, 1981).
* T. Panofka, Res Samiorum (Berlin, 1822).
Pauly-Wissowa (in German, on Antiquity)
* T. J. Quinn,
Athens and Samos,
* G. Shipley, A
History of Samos 800–188 BC (Oxford, 1987).
* R. Tölle-Kastenbein, Herodot und
Samos (Bochum, 1976).
* H. F. Tozer, Islands of the Aegean (London, 1890).
* K. Tsakos, Samos: A Guide to the History and Archaeology (Athens,
* H. Walter, Das Heraion von
Samos (München, 1976).
* Westermann, Großer Atlas zur Weltgeschichte (in German)
Volumes of the
Samos series of archaeological reports published by
the Deutsches Archäologisches Institut.
* 1. V. Milojčić, Die prähistorische Siedlung unter dem Heraion
* 2. R. C. S. Felsch, Das Kastro Tigani (Bonn, 1988).
* 3. A. E. Furtwängler, Der Nordbau im Heraion von
* 4. H. P. Isler, Das archaische Nordtor und seine Umgebung im
Samos (Bonn, 1978).
* 5. H. Walter, Frühe samische Gefäße (Bonn, 1968).
* 6.1. E. Walter-Karydi, Samische Gefäße des 6. Jahrhunderts v.
Chr. (Bonn, 1973).
* 7. G. Schmidt, Kyprische Bildwerke aus dem Heraion von Samos
* 8. U. Jantzen, Ägyptische und orientalische Bronzen aus dem
Samos (Bonn, 1972).
* 9. U. Gehrikg, with G. Schneider, Die Greifenprotomen aus dem
Samos (Bonn, 2004).
* 10. H. Kyrieleis, Der große Kuros von
Samos (Bonn, 1996).
* 11. B. Freyer-Schauenburg, Bildwerke der archaischen Zeit und des
strengen Stils (Bonn, 1974).
* 12. R. Horn, Hellenistische Bildwerke auf
Samos (Bonn, 1972).
* 14. R. Tölle-Kastenbein, Das Kastro Tigani (Bonn, 1974).
* 15. H. J. Kienast, Die Stadtmauer von
Samos (Bonn, 1978).
* 16. W. Martini, Das Gymnasium von
Samos (Bonn, 1984).
* 17. W. Martini and C. Streckner, Das Gymnasium von Samos: das
frühbyzantinische Klostergut (Bonn, 1993).
* 18. V. Jarosch, Samische Tonfiguren aus dem Heraion von Samos
* 19. H. J. Kienast, Die Wasserleitung des
Eupalinos auf Samos
* 20. U. Jantzen with W. Hautumm, W.-R. Megow, M. Weber, and H. J.
Kienast, Die Wasserleitung des Eupalinos: die Funde (Bonn, 2004).
* 22. B. Kreuzer, Die attisch schwarzfigurige Keramik aus dem
Samos (Bonn, 1998).
* 24.1. T. Schulz with H. J. Kienast, Die römischen Tempel im
Heraion von Samos: die Prostyloi (Bonn, 2002).
* 25. C. Hendrich, Die Säulenordnung des ersten Dipteros von Samos
Wikimedia Commons has media related to SAMOS ISLAND .
Samos travel guide from Wikivoyage