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In
linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying ...

linguistics
, syntax () is the study of how words and
morphemes A morpheme is the smallest meaningful lexical itemIn lexicography, a lexical item (or lexical unit / LU, lexical entry) is a single word, a part of a word, or a chain of words ( catena) that forms the basic elements of a language's lexicon A l ...
combine to form larger units such as phrases and sentences. Central concerns of syntax include
word order In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languag ...
,
grammatical relations In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include p ...

grammatical relations
, hierarchical sentence structure (
constituency An electoral district, also known as an election district, legislative district, voting district, constituency, riding, ward, division, (election) precinct, electoral area, circumscription, or electorate, is a subdivision of a larger state Sta ...
),
agreement Agreement may refer to: Agreements between people and organizations * Gentlemen's agreement, not enforceable by law * Trade agreement, between countries * Consensus, a decision-making process * Contract, enforceable in a court of law ** Meeting of ...
, the nature of crosslinguistic variation, and the relationship between form and meaning. There are numerous approaches to syntax which differ in their central assumptions and goals.


Etymology

The word ''syntax'' comes from
Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively to the diale ...
: "coordination", which consists of ''syn'', "together", and ''táxis'', "an ordering".


Topics

The field of syntax contains a number of various topics that a syntactic theory is often designed to handle. The relation between these topics are treated differently in different theories, and some of them may not be considered distinct, but instead derived from each other (i.e. word order can be seen as the result of movement rules derived from grammatical relations).


Sequencing of subject, verb, and object

One basic description of a language's syntax is the sequence in which the subject (S),
verb A verb () is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (''bring'', ''read'', ''walk'', ''run'', ''learn''), an occurrence (''happen'', ''become''), or a state of being (''be'', ''exist'', ''stand''). In the usual description of E ...
(V), and
object Object may refer to: General meanings * Object (philosophy), a thing, being, or concept ** Entity, something that is tangible and within the grasp of the senses ** Object (abstract), an object which does not exist at any particular time or pl ...
(O) usually appear in sentences. Over 85% of languages usually place the subject first, either in the sequence SVO or the sequence SOV. The other possible sequences are VSO, VOS, OVS, and OSV, the last three of which are rare. In most generative theories of syntax, these surface differences arise from a more complex clausal phrase structure, and each order may be compatible with multiple derivations. However, word order can also reflect the semantics or function of the ordered elements.


Grammatical relations

Another description of a language considers the set of possible grammatical relations in a language or in general, and how they behave in relation to each other in the
morphosyntactic alignment In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languag ...
of the language. The description of grammatical relations can also reflect transitivity, passivization, and head-dependent-marking or other agreement. Languages have different criteria for grammatical relations, and e.g. subjecthood criteria can have implications for how the subject is referred to from a relative clause or coreferential with an element in an infinite clause.


Constituency

Constituency is the feature of being a
constituent Constituent or constituency may refer to: In politics * Electoral district An electoral district, also known as an election district, legislative district, voting district, constituency, riding, ward, division, (election) precinct, electoral ar ...
and how words can work together to form a constituent (or ''phrase''). Constituents are often moved as units, and the constituent can be the domain of agreement. Some languages discontinuous phrases, where words belonging to the same constituent are not immediately adjacent, but broken up by other constituents. Constituents can be
recursive Recursion (adjective: ''recursive'') occurs when a thing is defined in terms of itself or of its type. Recursion is used in a variety of disciplines ranging from linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It e ...

recursive
as they can consist of other constituents, potentially of the same type.


Early history

The ''Aṣṭādhyāyī'' of
Pāṇini (Devanagari: पाणिनि, ) was a Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language ...
(c. 4th century BC in
Ancient India According to consensus in modern genetics, anatomically modern humans first arrived on the Indian subcontinent from Africa between 73,000 and 55,000 years ago. Quote: "Y-Chromosome and Mt-DNA data support the colonization of South Asia by mod ...

Ancient India
), is often cited as an example of a premodern work that approaches the sophistication of a modern syntactic theory (as works on
grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the ...
were written long before modern syntax came about). In the West, the school of thought that came to be known as "traditional grammar" began with the work of
Dionysius Thrax Dionysius Thrax ( grc-gre, Διονύσιος ὁ Θρᾷξ ''Dionysios o Thrax'', 170–90 BC) was a Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hel ...
. For centuries, a framework known as (first expounded in 1660 by
Antoine Arnauld Antoine Arnauld (6 February 16128 August 1694) was a France, French Roman Catholic theology, theologian, philosopher and mathematician. He was one of the leading intellectuals of the Jansenist group of Port-Royal Abbey, Paris, Port-Royal and had ...

Antoine Arnauld
in a book of the same title) dominated work in syntax: as its basic premise the assumption that language is a direct reflection of thought processes and therefore there is a single, most natural way to express a thought. However, in the 19th century, with the development of
historical-comparative linguistics Historical linguistics, also termed diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change Language change is variation over time in a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including sp ...
, linguists began to realize the sheer diversity of human language and to question fundamental assumptions about the relationship between language and logic. It became apparent that there was no such thing as the most natural way to express a thought, and therefore
logic Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning. Informal logic seeks to characterize Validity (logic), valid arguments informally, for instance by listing varieties of fallacies. Formal logic represents statements and ar ...

logic
could no longer be relied upon as a basis for studying the structure of language. The
Port-Royal grammar The ''Port-Royal Grammar'' (originally ''Grammaire générale et raisonnée contenant les fondemens de l'art de parler, expliqués d'une manière claire et naturelle'', "General and Rational Grammar, containing the fundamentals of the art of speaki ...
modeled the study of syntax upon that of logic. (Indeed, large parts of the
Port-Royal Logic ''Port-Royal Logic'', or ''Logique de Port-Royal'', is the common name of ''La logique, ou l'art de penser'', an important textbook on logic first published anonymously in 1662 by Antoine Arnauld and Pierre Nicole, two prominent members of the Jan ...
were copied or adapted from the ''Grammaire générale''.) Syntactic categories were identified with logical ones, and all sentences were analyzed in terms of "subject – copula – predicate". Initially, this view was adopted even by the early comparative linguists such as
Franz Bopp Franz Bopp (; 14 September 1791 – 23 October 1867) was a German linguist known for extensive and pioneering comparative work on Indo-European languages. Early life Bopp was born in Mainz, but the political disarray in the Republic of M ...

Franz Bopp
. The central role of syntax within
theoretical linguistics Theoretical linguistics is a term in linguistics which, like the related term general linguistics, can be understood in different ways. Both can be taken as a reference to theory of language Theory of language is a topic from philosophy of languag ...
became clear only in the 20th century, which could reasonably be called the "century of syntactic theory" as far as linguistics is concerned. (For a detailed and critical survey of the history of syntax in the last two centuries, see the monumental work by Giorgio Graffi (2001).)


Theories of syntax

There are a number of theoretical approaches to the discipline of syntax. One school of thought, founded in the works of
Derek Bickerton Derek Bickerton (March 25, 1926 – March 5, 2018) was an English-born American linguist and professor at the University of Hawaii A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an institution Institutions, according to Samuel P. Huntington, ...
, sees syntax as a branch of biology, since it conceives of syntax as the study of linguistic knowledge as embodied in the human
mind The mind is the set of faculties responsible for mental phenomena A phenomenon (; plural phenomena) is an observable fact or event. The term came into its modern philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fun ...

mind
. Other linguists (e.g.,
Gerald Gazdar Gerald James Michael Gazdar (born 24 February 1950) is a linguist Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed ...
) take a more Platonistic view, since they regard syntax to be the study of an abstract
formal system A formal system is an used for inferring theorems from axioms according to a set of rules. These rules, which are used for carrying out the inference of theorems from axioms, are the logical calculus of the formal system. A formal system is essen ...
. Yet others (e.g.,
Joseph Greenberg Joseph Harold Greenberg (May 28, 1915 – May 7, 2001) was an American linguistics, linguist, known mainly for his work concerning linguistic typology and the genetic relationship (linguistics), genetic classification of languages. Life Early ...
) consider syntax a taxonomical device to reach broad generalizations across languages. Syntacticians have attempted to explain the causes of word-order variation within individual languages and cross-linguistically. Much of such work has been done within frameworks of generative grammar which assumes that the core of syntax depends on a
genetic structure Genetic structure refers to any pattern in the genetics, genetic makeup of individuals within a population. Genetic structure allows for information about an individual to be inferred from other members of the same population. In trivial terms, al ...
which is common to all mankind. Typological research of the languages of the world has however found few absolute
universals In metaphysics, a universal is what particular things have in common, namely characteristics or qualities. In other words, universals are repeatable or recurrent entities that can be instantiated or exemplified by many particular things. For example ...
, leading some to conclude that none of syntax has to be directly genetic. Alternative explanations, such as those by functional linguists, have been sought in
language processing Language processing refers to the way humans use words to communicate ideas and feelings, and how such communications are processed and understood. Language processing is considered to be a uniquely human ability that is not produced with the same ...

language processing
. It is suggested that the brain finds it easier to
parse Parsing, syntax analysis, or syntactic analysis is the process of analyzing a string of symbols A symbol is a mark, sign, or word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be ut ...

parse
syntactic patterns which are either right or left branching, but not mixed. The most widely held approach is the performance–grammar correspondence hypothesis by John A. Hawkins who suggests that language is a non-innate
adaptation In , adaptation has three related meanings. Firstly, it is the dynamic evolutionary process that fits s to their environment, enhancing their . Secondly, it is a state reached by the population during that process. Thirdly, it is a or adapti ...
to innate
cognitive Cognition () refers to "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses". It encompasses many aspects of intellectual function Intellectual functioning refers to the "general ment ...
mechanisms. Cross-linguistic tendencies are considered as being based on language users' preference for grammars that are organized efficiently, and on their avoidance of word orderings which cause processing difficulty. Some languages however exhibit regular inefficient patterning. These include the VO languages
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a populat ...
, with the
adpositional phrase An adpositional phrase, in linguistics, is a syntactic category that includes ''prepositional phrases'', ''postpositional phrases'', and ''circumpositional phrases''. Adpositional phrases contain an adposition (preposition, postposition, or circu ...
before the verb, and
Finnish Finnish may refer to: * Something or someone from, or related to Finland * Finnish culture * Finnish people or Finns, the primary ethnic group in Finland * Finnish language, the national language of the Finnish people * Finnish cuisine See also

...
which has postpositions; but there are few other profoundly exceptional languages.


Syntactic models


Dependency grammar

Dependency grammar Dependency grammar (DG) is a class of modern grammatical In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling t ...
is an approach to sentence structure where syntactic units are arranged according to the dependency relation, as opposed to the constituency relation of
phrase structure grammar The term phrase structure grammar was originally introduced by Noam Chomsky Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system ...
s. Dependencies are directed links between words. The (finite) verb is seen as the root of all clause structure and all the other words in the clause are either directly or indirectly dependent on this root. Some prominent dependency-based theories of syntax are: *
Recursive categorical syntax Recursive categorical syntax, also known as algebraic syntax, is an algebra Algebra (from ar, الجبر, lit=reunion of broken parts, bonesetting, translit=al-jabr) is one of the areas of mathematics, broad areas of mathematics, together wit ...
, or Algebraic syntax * Functional generative description * Meaning–text theory *
Operator grammar Operator grammar is a mathematical theory of human language that explains how language carries information. This theory is the culmination of the life work of Zellig Harris, with major #Bibliography, publications toward the end of the last century. ...
* Word grammar
Lucien Tesnière Lucien Tesnière (; May 13, 1893 – December 6, 1954) was a prominent and influential French linguist Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from ...

Lucien Tesnière
(1893–1954) is widely seen as the father of modern dependency-based theories of syntax and grammar. He argued vehemently against the binary division of the clause into subject and
predicate Predicate or predication may refer to: Computer science *Syntactic predicate (in parser technology) guidelines the parser process Linguistics *Predicate (grammar), a grammatical component of a sentence Philosophy and logic * Predication (philo ...
that is associated with the grammars of his day (S → NP VP) and which remains at the core of most phrase structure grammars. In the place of this division, he positioned the verb as the root of all clause structure.


Categorial grammar

Categorial grammarCategorial grammar is a family of formalisms in natural language syntax In linguistics, syntax () is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of Sentence (linguistics), sentences (sentence structure) in a given Natur ...
is an approach in which constituents combine as
function Function or functionality may refer to: Computing * Function key A function key is a key on a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern comp ...
and
argument In logic Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning Reason is the capacity of consciously making sense of things, applying logic Logic (from Ancient Greek, Greek: grc, wikt:λογική, λογική, lab ...
, according to combinatory possibilities specified in their syntactic categories. For example, where other approaches might posit a rule that combines a noun phrase (NP) and a verb phrase (VP), CG would posit a syntactic category ''NP'' and another ''NP\S'', read as "a category that searches to the left (indicated by \) for an NP (the element on the left) and outputs a sentence (the element on the right)." So the syntactic category for an
intransitive In grammar In linguistics, the grammar (from Ancient Greek ''grammatikḗ'') of a natural language is its set of structure, structural constraints on speakers' or writers' composition of clause (linguistics), clauses, phrases, and words. Th ...

intransitive
verb is a complex formula representing the fact that the verb acts as a
function word In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages ...
requiring an NP as an input and produces a sentence level structure as an output. This complex category is notated as (NP\S) instead of V. The category of
transitive verb A transitive verb is a verb A verb () is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (''bring'', ''read'', ''walk'', ''run'', ''learn''), an occurrence (''happen'', ''become''), or a state of being (''be'', ''exist'', ''stand''). ...
is defined as an element that requires two NPs (its subject and its direct object) to form a sentence. This is notated as (NP/(NP\S)) which means "a category that searches to the right (indicated by /) for an NP (the object), and generates a function (equivalent to the VP) which is (NP\S), which in turn represents a function that searches to the left for an NP and produces a sentence."
Tree-adjoining grammarTree-adjoining grammar (TAG) is a grammar formalism defined by Aravind Joshi. Tree-adjoining grammars are somewhat similar to context-free grammar In formal language theory, a context-free grammar (CFG) is a formal grammar whose Production (compu ...
is a categorial grammar that adds in partial
tree structure A tree structure, tree diagram, or tree model is a way of representing the hierarchical A hierarchy (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , from , 'president of sacred rites') is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) that a ...

tree structure
s to the categories.


Stochastic/probabilistic grammars/network theories

Theoretical approaches to syntax that are based upon
probability theory Probability theory is the branch of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are containe ...
are known as stochastic grammars. One common implementation of such an approach makes use of a
neural network Artificial neural networks (ANNs), usually simply called neural networks (NNs), are computing systems vaguely inspired by the biological neural networks that constitute animal brain A brain is an organ (anatomy), organ that serves as the ...

neural network
or
connectionism Connectionism is an approach in the fields of cognitive science Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary, scientific study of the mind and its processes. It examines the nature, the tasks, and the functions of cognition Cognition () ref ...
.


Functional grammars

Functionalist models of grammar study the form–function interaction by performing a structural and a functional analysis. *
Functional discourse grammar Functional grammar (FG) and functional discourse grammar (FDG) are grammar In linguistics, the grammar (from Ancient Greek ''grammatikḗ'') of a natural language is its set of structure, structural constraints on speakers' or writers' composit ...
(Dik) * Prague linguistic circle *
Role and reference grammar Role and reference grammar (RRG) is a model of grammar In linguistics, the grammar (from Ancient Greek ''grammatikḗ'') of a natural language is its set of structure, structural constraints on speakers' or writers' composition of clause (lingu ...
(RRG) *
Systemic functional grammar Systemic functional grammar (SFG) is a form of grammatical description originated by Michael Halliday. It is part of a social semiotics, semiotic approach to language called ''systemic functional linguistics''. In these two terms, ''systemic'' r ...


Generative syntax

Generative syntax is the study of syntax within the overarching framework of
generative grammar Generative grammar, or generativism , is a linguistic theory that regards linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying ...
. Generative theories of syntax typically propose analyses of grammatical patterns using formal tools such as
phrase structure grammar The term phrase structure grammar was originally introduced by Noam Chomsky Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system ...
s augmented with additional operations such as
syntactic movement Syntactic movement is the means by which some theories of syntax address discontinuities. Movement was first postulated by structuralist linguists who expressed it in terms of ''discontinuous constituents'' or ''displacement''. Certain constitue ...
. Their goal in analyzing a particular language is to specify rules which generate all and only the expressions which are
well-formed Well-formed or wellformed indicate syntactic correctness and may refer to: * Well-formedness, quality of linguistic elements that conform to grammar rules * Well-formed formula, a string that is generated by a formal grammar in logic * Well-formed ...
in that language. In doing so, they seek to identify innate domain-specific principles of linguistic cognition, in line with the wider goals of the generative enterprise. Generative syntax is among the approaches that adopt the principle of the
autonomy of syntax In linguistics, the autonomy of syntax is the assumption that syntax is Arbitrariness, arbitrary and self-contained with respect to meaning, semantics, pragmatics, discourse function, and other factors external to language.Croft (1995) Autonomy and ...
, assuming that meaning and communicative intent is determined by the syntax rather than the other way around. Generative syntax was proposed in the late 1950s by
Noam Chomsky Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gesture ...

Noam Chomsky
, building on earlier work by
Zellig Harris Zellig Sabbettai Harris (October 23, 1909 – May 22, 1992) was an influential American linguist Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin La ...
,
Louis Hjelmslev Louis Trolle Hjelmslev (; 3 October 189930 May 1965) was a Danish linguist whose ideas formed the basis of the Copenhagen School of linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every ...
, among others. Since then, numerous theories have been proposed under its umbrella: *
Transformational grammarIn linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include pho ...

Transformational grammar
(TG) (Original theory of generative syntax laid out by Chomsky in ''Syntactic Structures'' in 1957) *
Government and binding theory Government and binding (GB, GBT) is a theory of syntax In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses t ...
(GB) (revised theory in the tradition of TG developed mainly by Chomsky in the 1970s and 1980s) *
Minimalist program In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most langu ...
(MP) (a reworking of the theory out of the GB framework published by Chomsky in 1995)Chomsky, Noam (1995). The Minimalist Program. MIT Press. Other theories that find their origin in the generative paradigm are: *
Arc pair grammarIn linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include pho ...
*
Generalized phrase structure grammarGeneralized phrase structure grammar (GPSG) is a framework for describing the syntax and semantics of natural languages. It is a type of Constraint-based grammar, constraint-based phrase structure grammar. Constraint based grammars are based around d ...
(GPSG) *
Generative semantics Generative semantics was a research program in theoretical linguistics which held that syntax, syntactic structures are computed on the basis of meaning (linguistics), meanings rather than the other way around. Generative semantics developed out ...
*
Head-driven phrase structure grammarHead-driven phrase structure grammar (HPSG) is a highly lexicalized, constraint-based grammar developed by Carl Pollard and Ivan Sag. It is a type of phrase structure grammar The term phrase structure grammar was originally introduced by Noam Cho ...
(HPSG) *
Lexical functional grammar Lexical functional grammar (LFG) is a constraint-based grammar framework in theoretical linguistics Theoretical linguistics is a term in linguistics which, like the related term general linguistics, can be understood in different ways. Both can b ...
(LFG) *
Nanosyntax Nanosyntax is an approach to syntax where the terminal nodes of Concrete syntax tree, syntactic parse trees may be reduced to units smaller than a morpheme. Each unit may stand as an irreducible element and not be required to form a further "subtree ...
*
Relational grammarIn linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include pho ...
(RG) * Harmonic grammar (HG)


Cognitive and usage-based grammars

The Cognitive Linguistics framework stems from
generative grammar Generative grammar, or generativism , is a linguistic theory that regards linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying ...
, but adheres to
evolutionary Evolution is change in the Heredity, heritable Phenotypic trait, characteristics of biological populations over successive generations. These characteristics are the Gene expression, expressions of genes that are passed on from parent to offsp ...
rather than
Chomskyan
Chomskyan
linguistics. Cognitive models often recognise the generative assumption that the object belongs to the verb phrase. Cognitive frameworks include: *
Cognitive grammar Cognitive grammar is a cognitive approach to language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have a writing ...
*
Construction grammar Construction grammar (often abbreviated CxG) is a family of theories within the field of cognitive linguistics Cognitive linguistics is an interdisciplinary branch of linguistics, combining knowledge and research from cognitive science, cogniti ...
(CxG) *
Emergent grammar Interactional linguistics is an interdisciplinary approach to grammar and Interactivity, interaction in the fields of linguistics, the sociology of language, and anthropology. Not only is Interactional Linguistics about language grammar and use, but ...


See also

* List of syntactic phenomena * Metasyntax * Musical syntax *
Semiotics Semiotics (also called semiotic studies) is the study of sign processes (semiosis Semiosis (, ), or sign process, is any form of activity Activity may refer to: * Action (philosophy), in general * Human activity: human behavior, in sociology ...

Semiotics
*
Syntactic category A syntactic category is a syntactic unit that theories of syntax In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics enco ...
* ''
Syntax In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the ...
'' (academic journal) * Syntax (programming languages) * Syntax–Semantics Interface * Usage


Syntactic terms

* Adjective * Adjective phrase * Adjunct (grammar), Adjunct * Adpositional phrase * Adverb * Anaphora (linguistics), Anaphora * Answer ellipsis * Antecedent (grammar), Antecedent * Antecedent-contained deletion * Appositive * Argument (linguistics), Argument * Article (grammar), Article * Grammatical aspect, Aspect * Attributive adjective and predicative adjective * Auxiliary verb * Binding (linguistics), Binding * Branching (linguistics), Branching * c-command * Grammatical case, Case * Syntactic category, Category * Catena (linguistics), Catena * Clause * Closed class word * Comparison (grammar), Comparative * Complement (linguistics), Complement * Compound (linguistics), Compound noun and adjective * Grammatical conjugation, Conjugation * Conjunction (grammar), Conjunction * Constituent (linguistics), Constituent * Coordination (linguistics), Coordination * Coreference * Crossover effects, Crossover * Dangling modifier * Declension *
Dependency grammar Dependency grammar (DG) is a class of modern grammatical In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling t ...
* Dependent-marking language, Dependent marking * Determiner (linguistics), Determiner * Discontinuity (linguistics), Discontinuity * Do-support * Dual (grammatical number), Dual (form for two) * Ellipsis * Endocentric * Exceptional case-marking * Syntactic expletive, Expletive * Extraposition * Finite verb * Function word * Gapping * Grammatical gender, Gender * Gerund * Government (linguistics), Government * Head (linguistics), Head * Head-marking language, Head marking * Infinitive * Inverse copular constructions, Inverse copular construction * Inversion (linguistics), Inversion * Lexical item * Logical form (linguistics) * m-command * Measure word (classifier) * Merge (linguistics), Merge * Modal particle * Modal verb * Grammatical modifier, Modifier * Grammatical mood, Mood * Syntactic movement, Movement * Movement paradox *
Nanosyntax Nanosyntax is an approach to syntax where the terminal nodes of Concrete syntax tree, syntactic parse trees may be reduced to units smaller than a morpheme. Each unit may stand as an irreducible element and not be required to form a further "subtree ...
* Negative inversion * Non-configurational language * Non-finite verb * Noun * Noun ellipsis * Noun phrase * Grammatical number, Number * Object (grammar), Object * Open class (linguistics), Open class word * Parasitic gap * Part of speech * Grammatical particle, Particle * Periphrasis * Grammatical person, Person * Personal pronoun * Pied-piping * Phrasal verb * Phrase * Phrase structure grammar * Plural * Predicate (grammar), Predicate * Predicative expression * Preposition and postposition * Pronoun * Pseudogapping * Raising (linguistics), Raising * Grammatical relation * Restrictiveness * Right node raising * Sandhi * Scrambling (linguistics), Scrambling * Selection (linguistics), Selection * Sentence (linguistics), Sentence * Separable verb * Shifting (syntax), Shifting * Grammatical number, Singular * Sluicing * Small clause * Stripping (linguistics), Stripping * Subcategorization * Subject (grammar), Subject * Subject-auxiliary inversion * Subject-verb inversion * Subordination (linguistics), Subordination * Superlative * Grammatical tense, Tense * Topicalization * Tough movement * Uninflected word * V2 word order * Valency (linguistics), Valency * Verb * Verb phrase * Verb phrase ellipsis * Voice (grammar), Voice * Wh-movement * Word order * X-bar theory


References


Citations


Sources

* * * * * An interdisciplinary essay on the interplay between logic and linguistics on syntactic theories. * Tesnière, Lucien (1969). ''Éleménts de syntaxe structurale''. 2nd edition. Paris: Klincksieck.


Further reading

* 5 Volumes; 77 case studies of syntactic phenomena. * * Attempts to be a theory-neutral introduction. The companion surveys the major theories. Jointly reviewed in ''The Canadian Journal of Linguistics'' 54(1), March 2009
pp. 172–175
* * part II: Computational approaches to syntax.


External links


The syntax of natural language: An online introduction using the Trees program
eatrice Santorini & Anthony Kroch, University of Pennsylvania, 2007 {{Authority control Syntax, Syntactic entities, Grammar Language Branches of linguistics Philosophy of language Semiotics Linguistics terminology, +