HOME

TheInfoList




A cookbook or cookery book is a kitchen reference containing
recipe A recipe is a set of instructions that describes how to prepare or make something, especially a dish Dish, dishes or DISH may refer to: Culinary * Dish (food), something prepared to be eaten * Dishware, plates and bowls for eating, cutting b ...

recipe
s. Cookbooks may be general, or may specialize in a particular cuisine or category of food. Recipes in cookbooks are organized in various ways: by
course Course may refer to: Directions or navigation * Course (navigation), the path of travel * Course (orienteering), a series of control points visited by orienteers during a competition, marked with red/white flags in the terrain, and corresponding ...
(appetizer, first course, main course, dessert), by main ingredient, by cooking technique, alphabetically, by region or country, and so on. They may include illustrations of finished
dishes Dish, dishes or DISH may refer to: Culinary * Dish (food), something prepared to be eaten * Dishware, plates and bowls for eating, cutting boards, silverware Communications * Dish antenna a type of antenna * Dish Network, a satellite television ...
and preparation steps; discussions of cooking techniques, advice on kitchen equipment, ingredients, and substitutions; historical and cultural notes; and so on. Cookbooks may be written by individual authors, who may be chefs, cooking teachers, or other food writers; they may be written by collectives; or they may be anonymous. They may be addressed to home cooks, to professional restaurant cooks, to institutional cooks, or to more specialized audiences. Some cookbooks are didactic, with detailed recipes addressed to beginners or people learning to cook particular dishes or cuisines; others are simple aide-memoires, which may document the composition of a dish or even precise measurements, but not detailed techniques.


History


Early works

Ancient
Mesopotamian Mesopotamia ( grc, Μεσοποταμία ''Mesopotamíā''; ar, بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن ; syc, ܐܪܡ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ, or , ) is a historical region of Western Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in th ...

Mesopotamian
recipes have been found on three Akkadian tablets, dating to about 1700 BC. The earliest collection of recipes that has survived in Europe is ''
De re coquinaria ''Apicius'' is a collection of Roman Empire, Roman cookery recipes. It is thought to have been compiled in the 1st century AD in a language in many ways closer to Vulgar Latin, Vulgar than to Classical Latin. Later recipes using Vulgar Latin ...
'', written in
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
. An early version was first compiled sometime in the 1st century and has often been attributed to the Roman gourmet
Marcus Gavius Apicius Marcus Gavius Apicius is believed to have been a Roman gourmet Gourmet (, ) is a cultural ideal associated with the culinary arts of fine food and drink, or haute cuisine, which is characterized by refined, even elaborate preparations and presen ...
, though this has been cast in doubt by modern research. An ''
Apicius ''Apicius'' is a collection of Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (m ...

Apicius
'' came to designate a book of recipes. The current text appears to have been compiled in the late 4th or early 5th century; the first print edition is from 1483. It records a mix of ancient Greek and Roman cuisine, but with few details on preparation and cooking. An abbreviated epitome entitled ''Apici Excerpta a Vinidario'', a "pocket Apicius" by
Vinidarius Vinidarius (fl. 5th century AD) was the purported compiler of a small collection of cooking recipes named ''Apici excerpta a Vinidario''. This is preserved in a single 8th‑century uncial manuscript in Latin, claiming to be excerpts from the recipe ...
, "an illustrious man", was made in the
Carolingian The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolingus, Carolings, Karolinger or Karlings) was a Frankish Frankish may refer to: * Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples The historic ...
era. In spite of its late date it represents the last manifestation of the cuisine of Antiquity. The earliest cookbooks known in Arabic are those of al-Warraq (an early 10th-century compendium of recipes from the 9th and 10th centuries) and al-Baghdadi (13th century). ''
Manasollasa The ', also known as ''Abhilashitartha Chintamani'', is an early 12th-century Sanskrit text composed by the Kalyani Chalukya The Western Chalukya Empire ruled most of the Deccan Plateau, western Deccan, South India, between the 10th and 12th c ...
'' from India contains recipes of vegetarian and non-vegetarian
cuisines A cuisine is a style of cooking characterized by distinctive ingredients, techniques and dishes, and usually associated with a specific culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), no ...

cuisines
, which preceded the cookbook writing history in Europe by a century. While the text is not the first among Indian books to describe fermented foods, it contains a range of cuisines based on fermentation of cereals and flours. Chinese recipe books are known from the
Tang dynasty The Tang dynasty (, ; ), or Tang Empire, was an imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907, with an interregnum An interregnum (plural interregna or interregnums) is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organiza ...
, but most were lost. One of the earliest surviving Chinese-language cookbooks is
Hu Sihui Hu Sihui (, 和斯輝, 忽斯慧, also Hu Zheng Qi Huei; active nr. 1314–1330) was a Chinese court therapist and dietitian during Yuan dynasty. He is known for his book ''Yinshan Zhengyao'' (''Dietary Principles''), that became a classic in Chin ...
's "
Yinshan Zhengyao Hu Sihui (, 和斯輝, 忽斯慧, also Hu Zheng Qi Huei; active nr. 1314–1330) was a Chinese court therapist and dietitian during Yuan dynasty. He is known for his book ''Yinshan Zhengyao'' (''Dietary Principles''), that became a classic in Chin ...
" (Important Principles of Food and Drink), believed to be from 1330. Hu Sihui,
Buyantu Khan Buyantu Khan (Mongolian Language, Mongolian: Буянт хаан), born Ayurbarwada, also known by the temple name Renzong (Emperor Renzong of Yuan (Standard Mandarin, Chinese: 元仁宗, April 9, 1285 – March 1, 1320), was the fourth List of em ...
's dietitian and therapist, recorded a Chinese-inflected Central Asian cuisine as eaten by the Yuan court; his recipes were adapted from foods eaten all over the
Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire of the 13th and 14th centuries was the List of largest empires, largest contiguous land empire in history and the second largest empire by landmass, second only to the British Empire. Originating in Mongolia in East Asia, the ...
. ''
Eumsik dimibang The ''Eumsik dimibang'' or ''Gyugon siuibang'' is a Korea cuisine, Korean cookbook written around 1670 by Jang Gye-hyang, Lady Jang (張氏, 1598~1680) from Andong Clan, Gyeongsang Province during the Joseon Dynasty. The author was in the noble ' ...
'', written around 1670, is the oldest
Korea Korea is a region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment (environmental ...

Korea
n cookbook and the first cookbook written by a woman in East Asia. After a long interval, the first recipe books to be compiled in Europe since Late Antiquity started to appear in the late thirteenth century. About a hundred are known to have survived, some fragmentary, from the age before printing. The earliest genuinely medieval recipes have been found in a Danish manuscript dating from around 1300, which in turn are copies of older texts that date back to the early 13th century or perhaps earlier. Low and
High German The High German dialects (german: hochdeutsche Mundarten), or simply High German (; not to be confused with Standard High German which is imprecisely also called ''High German''), comprise the varieties Variety may refer to: Science and te ...
manuscripts are among the most numerous. Among them is ''Daz buch von guter spise'' ("The Book of Good Food") written c. 1350 in Würzberg and ''Kuchenmeysterey'' ("Kitchen Mastery"), the first printed German cookbook from 1485. Two French collections are probably the most famous: ''
Le Viandier ''Le Viandier'' (often called ''Le Viandier de Taillevent'', ) is a recipe collection generally credited to Guillaume Tirel File:Tombe de Taillevent.jpg, Guillaume Tirel's tombstone at the church of :fr:Église Saint-Léger de Saint-Germain-en-La ...
'' ("The Provisioner") was compiled in the late 14th century by
Guillaume Tirel Guillaume Tirel, known as Taillevent (French language, French: "wind-cutter" i.e. an idle swaggerer) (born ca. 1310 in Pont-Audemer – 1395), was an important figure in the early history of French cuisine. He was cook to the Court of France at ...
, master chef for two French kings; and '' Le Menagier de Paris'' ("The Householder of Paris"), a household book written by an anonymous middle class Parisian in the 1390s.
Du fait de cuisine The late medieval cookbook '' Du fait de cuisine'' ("On cookery") was written in 1420 in part to compete with the Duchy of Burgundy, court of Burgundy by Maistre Chiquart, master chef of Amadeus VIII, Duke of Savoy.It was edited from the Ms. S 103 ...
is another Medieval French cookbook, written in 1420. From Southern Europe there is the 14th century
Valencian Valencian () or Valencian language () is the official, historical and traditional name used in the Valencian Community (Spain), and extra-officially in the Carche, El Carche comarca in Región de Murcia, Murcia (Spain), to refer to the Romance ...
manuscript Llibre de Sent Soví (1324), the
Catalan Catalan may refer to: Catalonia From, or related to Catalonia: * Catalan language, a Romance language * Catalans, an ethnic group formed by the people from, or with origins in, Catalonia * Països Catalans, territories where Catalan is spoken * C ...
("The book of all recipes of dishes") and several Italian collections, notably the Venetian mid-14th century ''Libro per Cuoco'', with its 135 recipes alphabetically arranged. The printed ''
De honesta voluptate et valetudine ''De honesta voluptate et valetudine'' (''On honest indulgence and good health'', often shortened to ''De honesta voluptate'') was the first cookbook ever printed. Written ca. 1465 by Bartolomeo Platina Image:Melozzo da Forlì 001.jpg, 250px, ''S ...
'' ("On honourable pleasure"), first published in 1475, is one of the first cookbooks based on Renaissance ideals, and, though it is as much a series of moral essays as a cookbook, has been described as "the anthology that closed the book on medieval Italian cooking". Medieval English cookbooks include ''
The Forme of Cury ''The Forme of Cury'' (''The Method of Cooking'', from Middle French Middle French (french: moyen français) is a historical division of the French language French ( or ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family The Indo ...
'' and ''
Utilis Coquinario ''Utilis Coquinario'' is an English cookery book written in Middle English Middle English (abbreviated to ME) was a form of the English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Ind ...
'', both written in the fourteenth century.
The Forme of Cury ''The Forme of Cury'' (''The Method of Cooking'', from Middle French Middle French (french: moyen français) is a historical division of the French language French ( or ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family The Indo ...
is a cookbook authored by the chefs of
Richard II Richard II (6 January 1367 – c. 14 February 1400), also known as Richard of Bordeaux, was King of England from 1377 until he was List of deposed politicians, deposed in 1399. Richard's father, Edward the Black Prince, Edward, Prince of ...

Richard II
.
Utilis Coquinario ''Utilis Coquinario'' is an English cookery book written in Middle English Middle English (abbreviated to ME) was a form of the English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Ind ...
is a similar cookbook though written by an unknown author. Another English manuscript (1390s) includes the earliest recorded recipe for ravioli, even though ravioli did not originate in England.


Modern cookbooks

With the advent of the
printing press A printing press is a mechanical device for applying pressure to an ink Ink is a gel, sol, or solution Image:SaltInWaterSolutionLiquid.jpg, Making a saline water solution by dissolving Salt, table salt (sodium chloride, NaCl) in wate ...
in the 16th and 17th centuries, numerous books were written on how to manage households and prepare food. In Holland and England competition grew between the noble families as to who could prepare the most lavish banquet. By the 1660s, cookery had progressed to an art form and good cooks were in demand. Many of them published their own books detailing their recipes in competition with their rivals. Many of these books have now been translated and are available online. By the 19th century, the Victorian preoccupation for domestic respectability brought about the emergence of cookery writing in its modern form. In 1796, the first known American cookbook titled, ''
American Cookery ''American Cookery'', by Amelia Simmons, is the first known cookbook A cookbook or cookery book is a kitchen reference containing recipe A recipe is a set of instructions that describes how to prepare or make something, especially a dish ...
'', written by Amelia Simmons, was published in
Hartford, Connecticut Hartford is the capital city A capital or capital city is the municipality holding primary status in a Department (country subdivision), department, country, Constituent state, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as ...
. Until then, the cookbooks printed and used in the
Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colonies or the Thirteen American Colonies, were a group of Kingdom of Great Britain, British colonies on the Atlantic coast of North America. Founded in the 17th and 18th centuries, th ...
were British. The first modern cookery writer and compiler of recipes for the home was
Eliza Acton Eliza Acton (17 April 1799 – 13 February 1859) was an English food writer and poet who produced one of Britain's first cookery books aimed at the domestic reader, ''Modern Cookery for Private Families''. The book introduced the now-univ ...
. Her pioneering cookbook, ''
Modern Cookery for Private Families ''Modern Cookery for Private Families'' is an English cookery book by Eliza Acton. It was first published by Longmans in 1845, and was a best-seller, running through 13 editions by 1853, though its sales were later overtaken by Mrs Beeton. On th ...
'' (1845), was aimed at the domestic reader rather than the professional cook or chef. This was an immensely influential book, and it established the format for modern writing about cookery. The publication introduced the now-universal practice of listing the ingredients and suggested cooking times with each recipe. It included the first recipe for
Brussels sprouts The brussels sprout is a member of the Gemmifera Group A group is a number A number is a mathematical object used to counting, count, measurement, measure, and nominal number, label. The original examples are the natural numbers 1, 2, 3, ...
. Contemporary chef
Delia Smith Delia is a feminine given name A given name (also known as a first name or forename) is the part of a personal name A personal name, or full name, in onomastic Onomastics or onomatology is the study of the etymology, history, and use ...
is quoted as having called Acton "the best writer of recipes in the English language". ''Modern Cookery'' long survived her, remaining in print until 1914 and available more recently in facsimile reprint. Acton's work was an important influence on
Isabella Beeton Isabella Mary Beeton (' Mayson; 14 March 1836 – 6 February 1865), known as Mrs Beeton, was an English journalist, editor and writer. Her name is particularly associated with her first book, the 1861 work ''Mrs Beeton's Book of Household ...

Isabella Beeton
, who published ''
Mrs Beeton's Book of Household Management The book best known as ''Mrs Beeton's Book of Household Management'', also published as ''Mrs Beeton's Cookery Book'', is an extensive guide to running a household in Victorian Victorian or Victorians may refer to: 19th century * Victorian ...
'' in 24 monthly parts between 1857 and 1861. The book was a guide to running a
Victorian Victorian or Victorians may refer to: 19th century * Victorian era, British history during Queen Victoria's 19th-century reign ** Victorian architecture ** Victorian house ** Victorian decorative arts ** Victorian fashion ** Victorian literature ...
household, with advice on fashion,
child care Child care, otherwise known as day care, is the care and supervision of a child or multiple children at a time, whose ages range from two weeks to eighteen years. Child care is a broad topic that covers a wide spectrum of professionals, institut ...
,
animal husbandry Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Ex ...
, poisons, the management of
servants A domestic worker is a person who works within the scope of a residence. The term "domestic service" applies to the equivalent occupational category. In traditional English contexts, such a person was said to be "in service". Domestic workers p ...
, science, religion, and industrialism. Despite its title, most of the text consisted of recipes, such that another popular name for the volume is ''Mrs Beeton's Cookbook''. Most of the recipes were illustrated with coloured engravings, and it was the first book to show recipes in a format that is still used today. Many of the recipes were plagiarised from earlier writers, including Acton. In 1885 the ''Virginia Cookery Book'' was published by Mary Stuart Smith. In 1896 the American cook
Fannie Farmer Fannie Merritt Farmer (23 March 1857 – 16 January 1915) was an American culinary expert whose ''Boston Cooking-School Cook Book The ''Boston Cooking-School Cook Book'' (1896) by Fannie Farmer is a 19th-century general reference cookbook which ...
(1857–1915) published ''The Boston Cooking School Cookbook'' which contained some 1,849 recipes.


Types of cookbooks

Cookbooks that serve as basic kitchen references (sometimes known as "kitchen bibles") began to appear in the
early modern period The early modern period of modern history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's past. It is understood through archaeology, anthropology, genetics, and linguistics, and since the History of writing, adve ...
. They provided not just recipes but overall instruction for both kitchen technique and household management. Such books were written primarily for housewives and occasionally domestic servants as opposed to professional cooks, and at times books such as ''
The Joy of Cooking ''Joy of Cooking'', often known as "''The Joy of Cooking''", is one of the United States' most-published cookbook, cookbooks. It has been in print continuously since 1936 and has sold more than 20 million copies. It was self-publishing, publishe ...
'' (
USA The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country primarily located in North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and a ...
), '' La bonne cuisine de Madame E. Saint-Ange'' (
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...
), ''The
Art of Cookery ''The Art of Cookery Made Plain and Easy'' is a cookbook A cookbook or cookery book is a kitchen reference containing recipe A recipe is a set of instructions that describes how to prepare or make something, especially a dish Dish, dish ...

Art of Cookery
'' ( UK, USA), ''
Il cucchiaio d'argento ''Il cucchiaio d'argento'' (), or ''The Silver Spoon'' in English, is a major Italian cookbook and kitchen reference work originally published in 1950 by the design and architecture magazine ''Domus (magazine), Domus''. It contains about 2000 recip ...
'' (
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest ...
), and ''
A Gift to Young Housewives ''A Gift to Young Housewives'' ( rus, Пода́рок молоды́м хозя́йкам, r=Podarok molodym khozyaykam) is a Russian literature, Russian cookbook written and compiled by Elena Ivanovna Molokhovets (née Burman; ) and usually refe ...
'' (
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...
) have served as references of record for national cuisines. Cookbook also tell stories of the writers themselves and reflect upon the era in which they are written. They often reveal notions of social, political, environmental or economic contexts. For example, during the era of industrialization, convenience foods were brought into many households and were integrated and present in cookbooks written in this time. Related to this class are instructional cookbooks, which combine recipes with in-depth, step-by-step recipes to teach beginning cooks basic concepts and techniques. In vernacular literature, people may collect traditional recipes in
family cookbooks {{Nofootnotes, date=February 2008 Family cookbooks are collections of recipes, sometimes including family history and photos of the family members. These cookbooks may be written in notebooks, put in ring binders, or professionally published by one ...
. While western cookbooks usually group recipes for main courses by the main ingredient of the dishes,
Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or ...
cookbooks usually group them by cooking techniques (e.g., fried foods,
steam Steam is water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and Color of water, nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the fl ...

steam
ed foods, and
grill
grill
ed foods). Both styles of cookbook have additional recipe groupings such as
soup Soup is a primarily liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible In fluid mechanics or more generally continuum mechanics, incompressible flow (isochoric process, isochoric flow) refers to a fluid flow, flow in which the material de ...

soup
s or
sweets Candy, also called sweets (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone substantial codification of ...

sweets
.


International and ethnic

International and ethnic cookbooks fall into two categories: the kitchen references of other cultures, translated into other languages; and books translating the recipes of another culture into the languages, techniques, and ingredients of a new audience. The latter style often doubles as a sort of culinary travelogue, giving background and context to a recipe that the first type of book would assume its audience is already familiar with. Popular Puerto Rican cookbook, Cocina Criolla, written by Carmen Aboy Valldejuli, includes recipes that are typically of traditional Puerto Rican cuisine such as
mofongo Mofongo () is a Puerto Rican dish with fried plantains as its main ingredient An ingredient is a substance that forms part of a mixture In chemistry, a mixture is a material made up of two or more different chemical substances which are ...

mofongo
and
pasteles ''Pasteles'' (; singular ''pastel''), also pastelles in the English-speaking Caribbean, are a traditional dish in several Latin American and Caribbean countries. In Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, and the Caribb ...

pasteles
. Valldejuli's cookbook was not only important to Puerto Ricans, but also very popular in the United States where her original cookbook has since been published in several editions, including English versions. These include The Art of Caribbean Cookery - Doubleday, 1957; Puerto Rican Cookery - Pelican Publishing, 1983; and, Juntos en la Cocina (co-authored with her husband, Luis F. Valldejuli) - Pelican Publishing, 1986.


Professional cookbooks

Professional cookbooks are designed for the use of working chefs and culinary students and sometimes double as textbooks for culinary schools. Such books deal not only in recipes and techniques, but often service and kitchen workflow matters. Many such books deal in substantially larger quantities than home cookbooks, such as making sauces by the liter or preparing dishes for large numbers of people in a
catering Catering is the business Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (such as goods and services). Simply put, it is "any activity or enterprise entered into for profit." Hav ...

catering
setting. While the most famous of such books today are books like ''
Le guide culinaire ''Le Guide Culinaire'' () is Escoffier Georges Auguste Escoffier (; 28 October 1846 – 12 February 1935) was a French chef An Italian chef preparing a truffle for diners A chef is a trained professional cook and tradesman who is profic ...
'' by
Escoffier Georges Auguste Escoffier (; 28 October 1846 – 12 February 1935) was a French chef A chef is a trained professional cook and tradesman A tradesman, skilled tradesman, or tradie refers to a skilled worker who specializes in a particu ...

Escoffier
or ''The Professional Chef'' by the
Culinary Institute of America The Culinary Institute of America (CIA) is an American Private university, private college and culinary school specializing in Culinary art, culinary, baking, and pastry arts education. The school's Hyde Park campus of the Culinary Institute of ...
, such books go at least back to medieval times, represented then by works such as
Taillevent Guillaume Tirel's tombstone at the church of :fr:Église Saint-Léger de Saint-Germain-en-Laye Guillaume Tirel, known as Taillevent ( French: "wind-cutter" i.e. an idle swaggerer) (born ca. 1310 in Pont-Audemer – 1395), was an important figu ...

Taillevent
's ''
Viandier ''Le Viandier'' (often called ''Le Viandier de Taillevent'', ) is a cookbook, recipe collection generally credited to Guillaume Tirel, alias ''Taillevent''. However, the earliest version of the work was written around 1300, about 10 years before Ti ...
'' and Chiquart d'Amiço's ''Du fait de cuisine''.


Single-subject

Single-subject books, usually dealing with a specific ingredient, technique, class of dishes or target group (e.g. for kids), are quite common as well.
Jack Monroe Jack Monroe (born 17 March 1988) is a British food writer, journalist and activist known for campaigning on poverty Poverty is the state of having little material possessions or income In microeconomics, income is the Consumption ( ...
for example features low budget recipes. Some imprints such as
Chronicle Books Chronicle Books is a San Francisco San Francisco (; Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, ...
have specialized in this sort of book, with books on dishes like
curries Curry is a variety of dishes originating in the Indian subcontinent. It uses a combination of spices or herbs, usually including ground turmeric Turmeric (pronounced , also or ) is a flowering plant The flowering plants, also known a ...

curries
,
pizza Pizza (, ) is a dish Dish, dishes or DISH may refer to: Culinary * Dish (food), something prepared to be eaten * Dishware, plates and bowls for eating, cutting boards, silverware Communications * Dish antenna a type of antenna * Dish Ne ...

pizza
, and simplified ethnic food. Popular subjects for narrow-subject books on technique include
grilling Grilling is a form of cooking Cooking, cookery, or culinary arts is the art, science, and craft of using heat In thermodynamics, heat is energy in transfer to or from a thermodynamic system, by mechanisms other than thermodynam ...

grilling
/
barbecue Barbecue or barbeque (informally BBQ in the UK; Barbie in Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian contine ...

barbecue
,
baking Baking is a method of preparing food that uses dry heat, typically in an oven, but can also be done in hot ashes, or on hot stones. The most common baked item is bread but many other types of foods are baked. Heat is gradually transferred "fro ...

baking
,
outdoor cooking Outdoor cooking differs substantially from kitchen-based cooking, the most obvious difference being lack of an easily defined kitchen area. As a result, campers and backpackers have developed a significant body of techniques and specialized e ...

outdoor cooking
, and even recipe cloning (Recipe cloning is copying commercial recipes where the original is a
trade secret Trade secrets are a type of intellectual property that comprise formulas, best practice, practices, business process, processes, designs, legal instrument, instruments, patterns, or compilations of information that have inherent economic value be ...
).


Community

Community cookbooks (also known as compiled, regional, charitable, and fund-raising cookbooks) are a unique genre of culinary literature. Community cookbooks focus on home cooking, often documenting regional, ethnic, family, and societal traditions, as well as local history.
Sondra Gotlieb Sondra Gotlieb (née Kaufman; 1936 in Winnipeg, Manitoba)Sondra Gotlieb
in The Canadian ...
, for example, wrote her cookbooks on Canadian food culture by visiting people and homes by region. She gathered recipes, observed the foodways, observed the people and their traditions of each region by being in their own homes. Gotlieb did this so that she could put together a comprehensive cookbook based on the communities and individuals that make up Canada.
Gooseberry Patch Gooseberry Patch is an American company that publishes cookbooks A cookbook or cookery book is a kitchen reference containing recipes. Cookbooks may be general, or may specialize in a particular cuisine or category of food. Recipes in cookboo ...
has been publishing community-style cookbooks since 1992 and built their brand on this community. Community cookbooks have sometimes been created to offer a counter-narrative of historical events or sustain a community through difficult times. ''The Historical Cookbook of the American Negro'', published in 1958 by the
National Council of Negro Women The National Council of Negro Women (NCNW) is a nonprofit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for ...
, includes recipes that illuminate histories of Black resistance, including "
Nat Turner Nat Turner's Rebellion, also known as the Southampton Insurrection, was a rebellion Rebellion, uprising, or insurrection is a refusal of obedience or order. It refers to the open resistance against the orders of an established authority ...
Crackling Bread." The 1976 ''People's Philadelphia Cookbook'', published by grassroots organization The People's Fund, includes recipes from members of the
Black Panther Party The Black Panther Party (BPP), originally the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense, was a Black Power Black Power is a political slogan The following is a list of notable 18th, 19th, 20th and 21st-century political slogan A slogan i ...
,
The United Farm Workers
The United Farm Workers
, and the Gay Activist Alliance of Philadelphia. For ''In Memory's Kitchen'', written in the 1940s by Jewish women interned at the Theresienstadt concentration camp in Czechoslovakia, women drew on their memories to contribute recipes.


Chefs

Cookbooks can also document the food of a specific chef (particularly in conjunction with a
cooking show A cooking show, cookery show, or cooking program (also spelled cooking programme in British English) is a television genre that presents food preparation, often in a restaurant kitchen or on a Television studio, studio set, or at the host's p ...
) or restaurant. Many of these books, particularly those written by or for a well-established cook with a long-running TV show or popular restaurant, become part of extended series of books that can be released over the course of many years. Popular chef-authors throughout history include people such as
Delia Smith Delia is a feminine given name A given name (also known as a first name or forename) is the part of a personal name A personal name, or full name, in onomastic Onomastics or onomatology is the study of the etymology, history, and use ...
,
Julia Child Julia Carolyn Child (née__NOTOC__ A birth name is the name of the person given upon their birth. The term may be applied to the surname In some cultures, a surname, family name, or last name is the portion of one's personal name that i ...

Julia Child
,
James Beard James Andrews Beard (May 5, 1903 – January 23, 1985) was an American chef, cookbook A cookbook or cookery book is a kitchen reference containing recipe A recipe is a set of instructions that describes how to prepare or make somethi ...

James Beard
,
Nigella Lawson Nigella Lucy Lawson (born 6 January 1960) is an English food writer and television cook. She is the daughter of Nigel Lawson, Lord Lawson of Blaby, a former Conservative Conservatism is an aesthetic Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is ...
, Edouard de Pomiane, Jeff Smith,
Emeril Lagasse Emeril John Lagassé III ( ; born October 15, 1959) is an American celebrity chef, restaurateur, television personality, cookbook author, and National Best Recipe award winner for his "Turkey and Hot Sausage Chili" recipe in 2003. He is a regio ...
,
Claudia Roden Claudia Roden (nee Douek; born 1936) is an Egyptian Egyptian describes something of, from, or related to Egypt. Egyptian or Egyptians may refer to: Nations and ethnic groups * Egyptians, a national group in North Africa ** Egyptian culture, a ...
,
Madhur Jaffrey Madhur Jaffrey CBE The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry An order of chivalry, order of knighthood, chivalric order, or equestrian order is an order of knights typically founded during or inspire ...

Madhur Jaffrey
,
Katsuyo Kobayashi was a Japanese celebrity chef, food writer, and founder/leader of the charity "Kagurazaka Women's Choir". Katsuyo Kobayashi was born in Osaka in 1937. When she got married at the age of 21, she couldn’t cook although she was a homemaker. She star ...
, and possibly even
Apicius ''Apicius'' is a collection of Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (m ...

Apicius
, the semi-pseudonymous author of the Roman cookbook
De re coquinaria ''Apicius'' is a collection of Roman Empire, Roman cookery recipes. It is thought to have been compiled in the 1st century AD in a language in many ways closer to Vulgar Latin, Vulgar than to Classical Latin. Later recipes using Vulgar Latin ...
, who shared a name with at least one other famous food figure of the ancient world.


Famous cookbooks

Famous cookbooks from the past, in chronological order, include: *''
De re coquinaria ''Apicius'' is a collection of Roman Empire, Roman cookery recipes. It is thought to have been compiled in the 1st century AD in a language in many ways closer to Vulgar Latin, Vulgar than to Classical Latin. Later recipes using Vulgar Latin ...
(The Art of Cooking)'' (late 4th / early 5th century) by
Apicius ''Apicius'' is a collection of Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (m ...

Apicius
*''Kitab al-Tabikh'' (''The Book of Dishes'') (10th century) by
Ibn Sayyar al-Warraq Abu Muhammad al-Muthaffar ibn Nasr ibn Sayyār al-Warrāq ( ar, أبو محمد المظفر بن نصر ابن سيار الوراق) was an Arab author from Baghdad Baghdad (; ar, بَغْدَاد ) is the capital of Iraq Iraq ( ar ...
*''Kitab al-Tabikh'' (''The Book of Dishes'') (1226) by
Muhammad bin Hasan al-BaghdadiMuḥammad bin al-Ḥasan bin Muḥammad bin al-Karīm al-Baghdadi, usually called al-Baghdadi (d. 1239 AD), was the compiler of an early Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.S ...
*''
Liber de Coquina The ''Liber de Coquina'' ("The book of cooking/cookery") is one of the oldest medieval cookbooks. Two codices that contain the work survive from the beginning of the 14th century. Both are preserved at the Bibliothèque Nationale A library i ...
(The Book of Cookery)'' (late 13th / early 14th century) by two unknown authors from France and Italy *''
Forme of Cury ''The Forme of Cury'' (''The Method of Cooking'', from Middle French Middle French (french: moyen français) is a historical division of the French language that covers the period from the 14th to the 16th century. It is a period of transition ...
'' (14th century) by the Master Cooks of
King Richard II of England Richard II (6 January 1367 – c. 14 February 1400), also known as Richard of Bordeaux, was King of England This list of kings and queens of the begins with , who initially ruled , one of the which later made up modern England. Al ...

King Richard II of England
*''Viandier'' (14th century) by Guillaume Tirel alias
Taillevent Guillaume Tirel's tombstone at the church of :fr:Église Saint-Léger de Saint-Germain-en-Laye Guillaume Tirel, known as Taillevent ( French: "wind-cutter" i.e. an idle swaggerer) (born ca. 1310 in Pont-Audemer – 1395), was an important figu ...

Taillevent
*''De honesta voluptate et valetudine'' (1475) by
Bartolomeo Platina Bartolomeo Sacchi (; 1421 – 21 September 1481), known as Platina (in Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ...

Bartolomeo Platina
- the first cookbook printed in a native language (Italian) in 1487 *''Cookbook of Infanta Maria of Portugal'' (c. 1565) - the oldest extant
Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portuguese language ** Portug ...

Portuguese
cookbook * ''
The Good Huswifes Jewell ''The Good Huswifes Jewell'' is an English cookery book by the cookery and housekeeping writer Thomas Dawson (cook), Thomas Dawson, first published in 1585. It includes recipes for medicines as well as food. To the spices found in Medieval Engli ...
'' (1585) by Thomas Dawson * ''
The English Huswife ''The English Huswife'' is a book of English cookery and remedies by Gervase Markham Gervase (or Jervis) Markham (ca. 1568 – 3 February 1637) was an English poet A poet is a person who creates poetry. Poets may describe themselve ...
'' (1615) by
Gervase Markham Gervase (or Jervis) Markham (ca. 1568 – 3 February 1637) was an English poet A poet is a person who creates poetry. Poets may describe themselves as such or be described as such by others. A poet may simply be a writer of poetry, or ma ...
*''Arte de Cocina, Pastelaria, Vizcocheria e Conservaria'' by Francisco Martinez Montiño - palace cook of King
Philip II of Spain Philip II) in Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption ...

Philip II of Spain
(1680). *'' The Closet of the Eminently Learned Sir Kenelme Digbie Knight Opened'' by
Kenelm Digby Sir Kenelm Digby (11 July 1603 – 11 June 1665) was an English courtier A courtier () is a person who is often in attendance at the court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Ad ...
(1669) *''
Eumsik dimibang The ''Eumsik dimibang'' or ''Gyugon siuibang'' is a Korea cuisine, Korean cookbook written around 1670 by Jang Gye-hyang, Lady Jang (張氏, 1598~1680) from Andong Clan, Gyeongsang Province during the Joseon Dynasty. The author was in the noble ' ...
'' (1670) by Jang Gye-hyang of
Andong Andong () is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. ...

Andong
Jang clan *''Arte de Cozinha'' by Domingos Rodrigues - the first cookbook printed in Portuguese language, Portuguese (1680) *''Compendium ferculorum, albo Zebranie potraw'' by Stanisław Czerniecki – first cookbook in Polish (1682) *''The Compleat Housewife'' (first American edition 1742) by Eliza Smith *''Art of Cookery, The Art of Cookery, Made Plain and Easy'' (1747) by Hannah Glasse *''Hjelpreda I Hushållningen För Unga Fruentimber'' (1755) by Cajsa Warg *''The Experienced English Housekeeper'' (1769) by Elizabeth Raffald *''
American Cookery ''American Cookery'', by Amelia Simmons, is the first known cookbook A cookbook or cookery book is a kitchen reference containing recipe A recipe is a set of instructions that describes how to prepare or make something, especially a dish ...
'' (1796) by Amelia Simmons *''A New System of Domestic Cookery'' (1806) by Maria Eliza Rundell *''Le Cuisinier Royal'' (1817) by André Viard *''
Modern Cookery for Private Families ''Modern Cookery for Private Families'' is an English cookery book by Eliza Acton. It was first published by Longmans in 1845, and was a best-seller, running through 13 editions by 1853, though its sales were later overtaken by Mrs Beeton. On th ...
'' (1845) by
Eliza Acton Eliza Acton (17 April 1799 – 13 February 1859) was an English food writer and poet who produced one of Britain's first cookery books aimed at the domestic reader, ''Modern Cookery for Private Families''. The book introduced the now-univ ...
*''El Cocinero Puerto - Riqueño 1859 (author unknown) *''
Mrs Beeton's Book of Household Management The book best known as ''Mrs Beeton's Book of Household Management'', also published as ''Mrs Beeton's Cookery Book'', is an extensive guide to running a household in Victorian Victorian or Victorians may refer to: 19th century * Victorian ...
'' (1861) by Mrs Beeton *''Подарок молодым хозяйкам'', ''
A Gift to Young Housewives ''A Gift to Young Housewives'' ( rus, Пода́рок молоды́м хозя́йкам, r=Podarok molodym khozyaykam) is a Russian literature, Russian cookbook written and compiled by Elena Ivanovna Molokhovets (née Burman; ) and usually refe ...
'' (first Russian edition 1861) by Elena Molokhovets *''Domestic Cook Book: Containing a Careful Selection of Useful Receipts for the Kitchen'' (1866) by Malinda Russell – first known cookbook by an African American woman *''Pellegrino Artusi, La scienza in cucina e l'arte di mangiar bene'' (1891) by Pellegrino Artusi *''The Epicurean'' (1894) by Charles Ranhofer *''The Boston Cooking-School Cook Book'' (1896) by Fannie Merritt Farmer *''The Settlement Cook Book'' (1901) and 34 subsequent editions by Lizzie Black Kander *''The Cook's Decameron: A Study In Taste, Containing Over Two Hundred Recipes For Italian Dishes'' (1901) by Mrs. W.G. Waters *Various cookbooks (between 1903 and 1934) by Auguste Escoffier *''Edmonds Cookery Book'' (1908) by T.J. Edmonds Ltd *''
The Joy of Cooking ''Joy of Cooking'', often known as "''The Joy of Cooking''", is one of the United States' most-published cookbook, cookbooks. It has been in print continuously since 1936 and has sold more than 20 million copies. It was self-publishing, publishe ...
'' (1931) by Irma Rombauer *''Larousse Gastronomique'' (1938) *''Книга о вкусной и здоровой пище'', ''The Book of Tasty and Healthy Food'' (first Soviet edition 1939) by the Institute of Nutrition, USSR *''O Livro de Pantagruel'' (first edition 1946) by Bertha Rosa-Limpo *''A Book of Mediterranean Food'' (1950) by Elizabeth David *''
Il cucchiaio d'argento ''Il cucchiaio d'argento'' (), or ''The Silver Spoon'' in English, is a major Italian cookbook and kitchen reference work originally published in 1950 by the design and architecture magazine ''Domus (magazine), Domus''. It contains about 2000 recip ...
'' (1950) *''The Alice B. Toklas Cookbook'' (1954) by Alice B. Toklas *''Cooking with the Chinese Flavor'' (1956) and subsequent books by Lin Tsuifeng ("Mrs. Lin Yutang") *''Mrs Balbir Singh's Indian Cookery'' (1961) by Mrs Balbir Singh *''Mastering the Art of French Cooking'' (1961) by
Julia Child Julia Carolyn Child (née__NOTOC__ A birth name is the name of the person given upon their birth. The term may be applied to the surname In some cultures, a surname, family name, or last name is the portion of one's personal name that i ...

Julia Child
*''Ten Talents (cookbook), Ten Talents'' (1968) by Rosalie Hurd *''Helen Gurley Brown's Single Girl's Cookbook'' (1969) by Helen Gurley Brown * The ''Fanny and Johnnie Cradock Cookery Programme'' (1970) by Fanny Cradock, Fanny and Johnnie Cradock *''Diet for a Small Planet'' (1971) by Frances Moore Lappé *''The Farm Vegetarian Cookbook'' (1975) by Louise Hagler *''The Complete International Jewish Cookbook'' (1976) by Evelyn Rose *''Moosewood Cookbook'' (1978) by Mollie Katzen *''Australian Women's Weekly Children's Birthday Cake Book'' (1980) by Maryanne Blacker and Pamela Clark


Collections and collectors

Several libraries have extensive collections of cookbooks. * Harvard's Schlesinger Library, Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America has a collection of 20,000 cookbooks and other books on food, including the earliest American cookbook, and the personal collections and papers of
Julia Child Julia Carolyn Child (née__NOTOC__ A birth name is the name of the person given upon their birth. The term may be applied to the surname In some cultures, a surname, family name, or last name is the portion of one's personal name that i ...

Julia Child
, M.F.K. Fisher, and the authors of ''
The Joy of Cooking ''Joy of Cooking'', often known as "''The Joy of Cooking''", is one of the United States' most-published cookbook, cookbooks. It has been in print continuously since 1936 and has sold more than 20 million copies. It was self-publishing, publishe ...
''. * New York University's Fales Library includes a Food and Cookery Collection of over 15,000 books, including the personal libraries of
James Beard James Andrews Beard (May 5, 1903 – January 23, 1985) was an American chef, cookbook A cookbook or cookery book is a kitchen reference containing recipe A recipe is a set of instructions that describes how to prepare or make somethi ...

James Beard
, Cecily Brownstone, and Dalia Carmel. * The Brotherton Library at University of Leeds holds a Designation Scheme, Designated Leeds University Library's Cookery Collection, Cookery Collection of over 8,000 books and 75 manuscripts, including the personal collections of Blanche Leigh, John Preston and Michael Bateman. Some individuals are notable for their collections of cookbooks, or their scholarly interest therein. Elizabeth Robins Pennell, an American critic in London from the 1880s, was an early writer on the subject, and has recently been called "one of the most well-known cookbook collectors in the world". Much of her collection eventually went to the Rare Book and Special Collections Division at the Library of Congress. Held alongside hers are the thousands of gastronomic volumes donated by food chemist Katherine Bitting; their collections were evaluated in tandem in ''Two Loaf-Givers'', by one of the LOC's curators; a digital version is available.


Usage outside the world of food

The term ''cookbook'' is sometimes used metaphorically to refer to any book containing a straightforward set of already tried and tested "
recipe A recipe is a set of instructions that describes how to prepare or make something, especially a dish Dish, dishes or DISH may refer to: Culinary * Dish (food), something prepared to be eaten * Dishware, plates and bowls for eating, cutting b ...

recipe
s" or instructions for a specific field or activity, presented in detail so that the users who are not necessarily expert in the field can produce workable results. Examples include a set of circuit designs in electronics, a book of Spell (paranormal), magic spells, or ''The Anarchist Cookbook'', a set of instructions on destruction and living outside the law. O'Reilly Media publishes a series of books about computer programming named the O'Reilly Media#Cookbook, Cookbook series, and each of these books contain hundreds of ready to use, cut and paste examples to solve a specific problem in a single programming language.


See also

*Cuisine *Culinary art *Diet food *Dish (food) *Food group *Food photography *Food preparation *Food presentation *Food writing *Foodpairing *Gourmet Museum and Library *Haute cuisine *Indian Cook Books *Kitchen *List of nutrition guides *Meal *Outline of food preparation *Portion size *Recipe *Restaurant *Stove *Whole food *:b:Cookbook:Table of Contents, Wikibooks Cookbook


Notes


References

*Adamson, Melitta Weiss ''Food in Medieval Times.'' Greenwood Press, Westport, CT. 2004. *''Food in the Middle Ages: A Book of Essays.'' Melitta Weiss Adamson (editor). Garland, New York. 1995. *''Regional Cuisines of Medieval Europe: A Book of Essays.'' edited by Melitta Weiss Adamson (editor). Routledge, New York. 2002.
What's the Recipe? - Our hunger for cookbooks.
Adam Gopnik, ''The New Yorker'', 2009.


External links

*Wikibooks:Cookbook:Table of Contents, The Wikibooks' open-content cookbook anyone can edit
Janice Bluestein Longone Culinary Archive
- a learning resource on the history of cookery books from the British Library
Baby food cookbooksFeeding America at Michigan State University Digital Library
a collection of influential early American cookbooks, including a large number of books specializing in immigrant cuisine
Home Economics (including cookbooks) at Project GutenbergMenus and Cookbooks at The New York Public Library
{{Authority control Cooking, Book Food-related literary genres Cookbooks, *