HOME

TheInfoList




R.E.M. was an American
rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) In geology, a rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its Chemical compound, chemical composition and ...
band from
Athens, Georgia Athens, officially Athens–Clarke County, is a consolidated city–county In local government in the United States, United States local government, a consolidated city-county is formed when one or more city, cities and their surrounding Count ...
, formed in 1980 by drummer
Bill Berry William Thomas Berry (born July 31, 1958) is a retired American musician who was the drummer for the alternative rock Alternative rock (also called alternative music, alt-rock, or simply alternative) is a category of that emerged from ...
, guitarist
Peter Buck Peter Lawrence Buck (born December 6, 1956) is an American musician A musician is a person who Composer, composes, Conducting, conducts, or Performing arts, performs music. According to the United States Employment Service, "musician" is a ...
, bassist
Mike Mills Michael Edward Mills (born December 17, 1958) is an American multi-instrumentalist A multi-instrumentalist is a musician who plays two or more musical instrument A musical instrument is a device created or adapted to make Music, musical soun ...
, and lead vocalist
Michael Stipe John Michael Stipe (born January 4, 1960) is an American singer-songwriter and artist, best known as the lead singer and lyricist of alternative rock band R.E.M. He is known for his distinctive vocal quality, poetic lyrics and unique stage prese ...
, who were students at the
University of Georgia , mottoeng = To teach and to inquire into the nature of things.'To serve' was later added to the motto without changing the seal, so the university motto in English now is "To teach, to serve, and to inquire into the nature of thi ...
. Liner notes from some of the band's albums list attorney
Bertis Downs Bertis Edwin Downs IV (born July 13, 1956) is an American entertainment lawyer. He originally provided legal counsel A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate An advocate is a professional in the field of law. Di ...
and manager
Jefferson Holt Jefferson Holt is the founder of Daniel 13 Press and manager of rock band R.E.M. R.E.M. was an American rock band from Athens, Georgia Athens, officially Athens–Clarke County, is a consolidated city–county and college town in the U.S. s ...
as non-musical members. One of the first
alternative rock Alternative rock (also called alternative music, alt-rock, or simply alternative) is a category of rock music that emerged from the independent music underground of the 1970s and became widely popular in the 1990s. "Alternative" refers to th ...
bands, R.E.M. was noted for Buck's ringing, arpeggiated guitar style; Stipe's distinctive vocal quality, unique stage presence, and obscure lyrics; Mills's melodic bass lines and backing vocals; and Berry's tight, economical drumming style. In the early 1990s, other alternative rock acts such as
Nirvana ' (, , ; sa, निर्वाण} ''nirvāṇa'' ; Pali Pali () is a Middle Indo-AryanIndo-Aryan refers to: * Indo-Aryan languages ** Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni or Mitanni-Aryan * Indo-Aryan peoples, the various peoples sp ...
and Pavement viewed R.E.M. as a pioneer of the genre. After Berry left the band in 1997, the band continued its career in the 2000s with mixed critical and commercial success. The band broke up amicably in 2011 with members devoting time to solo projects after having sold more than 85 million albums worldwide and becoming one of the world's best-selling music acts. R.E.M. released its first single, "
Radio Free Europe Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL) is a United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North ...
", in 1981 on the independent record label
Hib-Tone Hib-Tone is an American recording label, based in Atlanta, Georgia, founded by Jonny Hibbert, a law student at Woodrow Wilson College of Law, in 1981. The label has released eight records, including two full-length albums by the bands Design and R ...
. It was followed by the ''
Chronic Town ''Chronic Town'' is the debut Extended play, EP by American alternative rock band R.E.M., released on August 24, 1982 on I.R.S. Records. ''Chronic Town'' is the first illustration of R.E.M.'s signature musical style: jangling guitars, chords played ...
'' EP in 1982, the band's first release on
I.R.S. Records I.R.S. Records was an American record label founded by Miles Copeland III, Jay Boberg, and Carl Grasso in 1979. I.R.S. produced some of the most popular bands of the 1980s, and was particularly known for issuing records by college rock College ro ...
. In 1983, the group released its critically acclaimed debut album, '' Murmur'', and built its reputation over the next few years through releases every year from 1984 to 1988: '' Reckoning'', ''
Fables of the Reconstruction ''Fables of the Reconstruction'', also known as ''Reconstruction of the Fables'', is the third studio album by American alternative rock band R.E.M., released on I.R.S. Records on June 10, 1985. The Joe Boyd-produced album was the first recorded ...
'', ''
Lifes Rich Pageant ''Lifes Rich Pageant'' is the fourth studio album by the American alternative rock band R.E.M., released on July 28, 1986. R.E.M. chose Don Gehman to produce the album, which was recorded at John Mellencamp's Belmont Mall Studios in Belmont, India ...
'', ''
Document A document is a writing, written, drawing, drawn, presented, or memorialized representation of thought, often the manifestation of nonfiction, non-fictional, as well as fictional, content. The word originates from the Latin ''Documentum'', whic ...
'' and ''
Green Green is the color between blue and yellow on the visible spectrum. It is evoked by light which has a dominant wavelength of roughly 495570 Nanometre, nm. In subtractive color systems, used in painting and color printing, it is created by ...
'', including an intermittent b-side compilation ''
Dead Letter Office Dead letter mail or undeliverable mail is mail The mail or post is a system for physically transporting postcard A postcard or post card is a piece of thick paper or thin Card stock, cardboard, typically rectangular, intended for writing ...
''. Don Dixon and
Mitch Easter Mitchell Blake Easter (born November 15, 1954) is a musician, songwriter, and record producer. Frequently associated with the jangle pop Jangle pop is a subgenre of pop rock Pop rock (also typeset as pop/rock) is rock music Rock music ...
produced their first two albums,
Joe Boyd Joe Boyd (born August 5, 1942) is an American record producer A record producer is a recording project's creative and technical leader, commanding studio time and coaching artists, and in popular genres typically creates the song's very sound ...
handled production on ''Fables of the Reconstruction'' and
Don Gehman Don Gehman is an American record producer, best known for his work in the 1980s with John Mellencamp John J. Mellencamp (born October 7, 1951), previously known as Johnny Cougar, John Cougar, and John Cougar Mellencamp, is an American music ...
produced ''Lifes Rich Pageant.'' Thereafter, R.E.M. settled on
Scott Litt Scott Warren Litt (born March 10, 1954) is an American record producer A record producer is a recording project's creative and technical leader, commanding studio time and coaching artists, and in popular genres typically creates the song's ver ...
as producer for the next 10years during the band's most successful period of their career. They also started co-producing their material and playing other instruments in the studio apart from the main ones they play. With constant touring, and the support of
college radio Campus radio (also known as college radio, university radio or student radio) is a type of radio station Radio broadcasting is transmission of audio Audio most commonly refers to sound In physics Physics (from grc, φυσ ...
following years of underground success, R.E.M. achieved a mainstream hit with the 1987 single " The One I Love". The group signed to Warner Bros. Records in 1988, and began to espouse political and environmental concerns while playing large arenas worldwide. R.E.M.'s most commercially successful albums, '' Out of Time'' (1991) and ''
Automatic for the People ''Automatic for the People'' is the eighth studio album by American alternative rock Alternative rock (also called alternative music, alt-rock, or simply alternative) is a category of rock music that emerged from the independent music unde ...
'' (1992), put them in the vanguard of alternative rock just as it was becoming mainstream. ''Out of Time'' received seven nominations at the
34th Annual Grammy Awards The 34th Annual Grammy Awards were held on February 25, 1992, recognizing accomplishments by musicians from the previous year (1991). Natalie Cole Natalie Maria Cole (February 6, 1950 – December 31, 2015) was an American singer, songwriter, a ...
, and lead single "
Losing My Religion "Losing My Religion" is a song by the American alternative rock band R.E.M. The song was released as the first single from the group's 1991 album ''Out of Time (album), Out of Time''. Built on a mandolin riff, "Losing My Religion" was an unlike ...
", was R.E.M.'s highest-charting and best-selling hit. ''
Monster A monster is a type of fictional creature found in horror Horror may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Genres *Horror fiction, a genre of fiction **Japanese horror, Japanese horror fiction **Korean horror, Korean horror fiction *Horr ...
'' (1994) continued its run of success. The band began its first tour in six years to support the album; the tour was marred by medical emergencies suffered by three of the band members. In 1996, R.E.M. re-signed with Warner Bros. for a reported US$80 million, at the time the most expensive recording contract ever. The tour was productive and the band recorded the following album mostly during soundchecks. The resulting record, ''
New Adventures in Hi-Fi ''New Adventures in Hi-Fi'' is the tenth studio album by the American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of Ameri ...
'' (1996), is hailed as the band's last great album and the members' favorite, growing in cult status over the years. Berry left the band the following year, and Stipe, Buck, and Mills continued as a musical trio, supplemented by studio and live musicians, such as multi-instrumentalists
Scott McCaughey Scott Lewis McCaughey is an American singer, guitarist and songwriter and the leader of the Seattle and Portland, Oregon, Portland-based bands The Young Fresh Fellows and The Minus 5. He was also an auxiliary member of the American rock music, ...
and
Ken Stringfellow Kenneth Stuart Stringfellow (born October 30, 1968) is an American singer, songwriter, multi-instrumentalist, arranger, and producer. Best known for his work with The Posies, R.E.M., and the re-formed Big Star, Stringfellow's discography include ...

Ken Stringfellow
and drummers
Joey Waronker Jon Joseph Waronker (born May 20, 1969) is an American drummer and music producer. He is best known as a regular session musician of both Beck (musician), Beck and R.E.M., and as member of the experimental rock bands Atoms for Peace (band), Atoms ...
and
Bill Rieflin William Frederick Rieflin (September 30, 1960 – March 24, 2020) was an American musician. Rieflin came to prominence in the 1990s mainly for his work as a drummer with groups (particularly in the industrial rock and industrial metal scene ...

Bill Rieflin
. They also parted ways with their longtime manager Jefferson Holt and band's attorney Bertis Downs assumed managerial duties. Seeking to also renovate their sound, the band stopped working with Scott Litt, co-producer and contributor to six of their studio albums and hired Pat McCarthy as co-producer, who had participated before that as mixer and engineer on their last two albums. After the electronic experimental direction of '' Up'' (1998) that was commercially unsuccessful, '' Reveal'' (2001) was referred to as "a conscious return to their classic sound" which received general acclaim. In 2007, the band was inducted into the
Rock and Roll Hall of Fame The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame (RRHOF), sometimes simply referred to as the Rock Hall, is a museum A museum ( ; plural museums or, rarely, musea) is a building or institution that Preservation (library and archival science), cares for a ...

Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
, in its first year of eligibility and Berry reunited with the band for the ceremony and to record a cover of
John Lennon John Winston Ono Lennon (born John Winston Lennon; 9 October 19408 December 1980) was an English singer, songwriter, musician and peace activist A peace movement is a social movement A social movement is a loosely organized effort by ...
's " #9 Dream" for the compilation album '' Instant Karma: The Amnesty International Campaign to Save Darfur'' to benefit
Amnesty International Amnesty International (also referred to as Amnesty or AI) is a non-governmental organization A non-governmental organization, or simply an NGO, is an organization An organization, or organisation (Commonwealth English The use ...

Amnesty International
's campaign to alleviate the
Darfur conflict The War in Darfur, also nicknamed the Land Cruiser War, is a major armed conflict in the Darfur Darfur ( ; ar, دار فور, Dār Fūr, lit=Realm of the Fur Fur is a thick growth of hair Hair is a protein filament that gro ...
. Looking for a change of sound after lukewarm reception for ''
Around the Sun ''Around the Sun'' is the 13th studio album by the American alternative rock band R.E.M., released in October 2004 on Warner Bros. Records. Description The album was released in two editions: CD only, and a limited-edition box set with the CD ...
'' (2004), the band collaborated with co-producer
Jacknife Lee Garret "Jacknife" Lee is an Irish music producer and mixer. He has worked with a variety of artists, including the Cars, U2, R.E.M., the Killers, Robbie Williams, Snow Patrol, Bloc Party, Two Door Cinema Club, AFI (band), AFI, the Hives, Weezer, O ...
on their last two studio albums—the well-received ''
Accelerate In mechanics Mechanics (Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its popu ...
'' (2008) and ''
Collapse into Now ''Collapse into Now'' is the fifteenth and final studio album by the American alternative rock band R.E.M., released on March 7, 2011, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. Produced by Jacknife Lee, who previously worked with the band on ''Acceler ...
'' (2011)—as well as their first live albums after decades of touring. R.E.M. disbanded amicably in September 2011, with former members having continued with various musical projects, and several live and archival albums have since been released.


History


1980–1982: Formation and first releases

In January 1980,
Peter Buck Peter Lawrence Buck (born December 6, 1956) is an American musician A musician is a person who Composer, composes, Conducting, conducts, or Performing arts, performs music. According to the United States Employment Service, "musician" is a ...
met
Michael Stipe John Michael Stipe (born January 4, 1960) is an American singer-songwriter and artist, best known as the lead singer and lyricist of alternative rock band R.E.M. He is known for his distinctive vocal quality, poetic lyrics and unique stage prese ...
in Wuxtry Records, the Athens record store where Buck worked. The pair discovered that they shared similar tastes in music, particularly in
punk rock Punk rock (or simply punk) is a music genre A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time to produce a composition through the elements of melody, harmony, ...
and
proto-punk Proto-punk (or protopunk) is the rock music Rock music is a broad genre of popular music Popular music is music with wide appeal that is typically distributed to large audiences through the music industry. These forms and styles can be ...
artists like
Patti Smith Patricia Lee Smith (born December 30, 1946) is an American singer-songwriter, musician, author, and poet who became an influential component of the New York City punk rock Punk rock (or simply punk) is a music genre A music genre is a ...

Patti Smith
,
Television Television, sometimes shortened to TV or telly, is a telecommunication Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire A wire is a single usually cylindrical A cylinder (from Gre ...
, and
the Velvet Underground The Velvet Underground was an American rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals included, its Chemi ...
. Stipe said, "It turns out that I was buying all the records that
uck UCK may refer to: * Ubuntu Customization Kit, a tool to create a customized Live CD of Ubuntu *UCK, the National Rail code for Uckfield railway station Uckfield railway station is the southern terminus of a branch of the Oxted Line in England, s ...

uck
was saving for himself." Through mutual friend Kathleen O'Brien, Stipe and Buck then met fellow
University of Georgia , mottoeng = To teach and to inquire into the nature of things.'To serve' was later added to the motto without changing the seal, so the university motto in English now is "To teach, to serve, and to inquire into the nature of thi ...
students
Bill Berry William Thomas Berry (born July 31, 1958) is a retired American musician who was the drummer for the alternative rock Alternative rock (also called alternative music, alt-rock, or simply alternative) is a category of that emerged from ...
and
Mike Mills Michael Edward Mills (born December 17, 1958) is an American multi-instrumentalist A multi-instrumentalist is a musician who plays two or more musical instrument A musical instrument is a device created or adapted to make Music, musical soun ...
, who had played music together since high school and lived together in Georgia. The quartet agreed to collaborate on several songs; Stipe later commented that "there was never any grand plan behind any of it". Their still-unnamed band spent a few months rehearsing in a deconsecrated
Episcopal Episcopal may refer to: *Of or relating to a bishop, an overseer in the Christian church *Episcopate, the see of a bishop – a diocese *Episcopal Church (disambiguation), any church with "Episcopal" in its name ** Episcopal Church (United State ...
church in Athens, and played its first show on April 5, 1980, supporting the Side Effects at O'Brien's birthday party held in the same church, performing a mix of originals and 1960s and 1970s covers. After considering names such as Cans of Piss, Negro Eyes, and Twisted Kites, the band settled on "R.E.M.", which Stipe selected at random from a dictionary. ''R.E.M.'' is well known as an initialism for rapid eye movement, the dream stage of sleep; however, sleep researcher Dr. Rafael Pelayo reports that when his colleague Dr.
William Dement William is a male given name of Germanic languages, Germanic origin.Hanks, Hardcastle and Hodges, ''Oxford Dictionary of First Names'', Oxford University Press, 2nd edition, , p. 276. It became very popular in the English language after the Norm ...
, the sleep scientist who coined the term ''REM'', reached out to the band, Dr. Dement was told that the band was named "not after REM sleep". The band members eventually dropped out of school to focus on their developing group. They found a manager in
Jefferson Holt Jefferson Holt is the founder of Daniel 13 Press and manager of rock band R.E.M. R.E.M. was an American rock band from Athens, Georgia Athens, officially Athens–Clarke County, is a consolidated city–county and college town in the U.S. s ...
, a record store clerk who was so impressed by an R.E.M. performance in his hometown of
Chapel Hill, North Carolina Chapel Hill is a town in Orange County, North Carolina, Orange, Durham County, North Carolina, Durham and Chatham County, North Carolina, Chatham counties in the U.S. state of North Carolina. Its population was 57,233 in the 2010 United States Ce ...
, that he moved to Athens. R.E.M.'s success was almost immediate in Athens and surrounding areas; the band drew progressively larger crowds for shows, which caused some resentment in the Athens music scene. Over the next year and a half, R.E.M. toured throughout the Southern United States. Touring was arduous because a touring circuit for alternative rock bands did not then exist. The group toured in an old blue van driven by Holt, and lived on a food allowance of $2 each per day. During April 1981, R.E.M. recorded its first single, "
Radio Free Europe Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL) is a United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North ...
", at producer
Mitch Easter Mitchell Blake Easter (born November 15, 1954) is a musician, songwriter, and record producer. Frequently associated with the jangle pop Jangle pop is a subgenre of pop rock Pop rock (also typeset as pop/rock) is rock music Rock music ...
's Drive-In Studios in
Winston-Salem, North Carolina Winston-Salem is a city in and the county seat of Forsyth County, North Carolina, Forsyth County, North Carolina, United States. In 2020, the population was 249,545 making it the second largest municipality in the Piedmont Triad region, the List ...

Winston-Salem, North Carolina
. Initially distributing it as a four-track demo tape to clubs, record labels and magazines, the single was released in July 1981 on the local
independent record label An independent record label (or indie label) is a record label A record label, or record company, is a brand A brand is a name, term, design, symbol or any other feature that identifies one seller's good or service as distinct from tho ...
Hib-Tone Hib-Tone is an American recording label, based in Atlanta, Georgia, founded by Jonny Hibbert, a law student at Woodrow Wilson College of Law, in 1981. The label has released eight records, including two full-length albums by the bands Design and R ...
with an initial pressing of 1,000 copies—600 of which were sent out as promotional copies. The single quickly sold out, and another 6,000 copies were pressed due to popular demand, despite the original pressing leaving off the record label's contact details. Despite its limited pressing, the single garnered critical acclaim, and was listed as one of the ten best singles of the year by ''
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
''. R.E.M. recorded the ''
Chronic Town ''Chronic Town'' is the debut Extended play, EP by American alternative rock band R.E.M., released on August 24, 1982 on I.R.S. Records. ''Chronic Town'' is the first illustration of R.E.M.'s signature musical style: jangling guitars, chords played ...
'' EP with Mitch Easter in October 1981, and planned to release it on a new indie label named Dasht Hopes. However,
I.R.S. Records I.R.S. Records was an American record label founded by Miles Copeland III, Jay Boberg, and Carl Grasso in 1979. I.R.S. produced some of the most popular bands of the 1980s, and was particularly known for issuing records by college rock College ro ...
acquired a demo of the band's first recording session with Easter that had been circulating for months. The band turned down the advances of major label
RCA Records RCA Records is an American record label A record label, or record company, is a brand A brand is a name, term, design, symbol or any other feature that identifies one seller's good or service as distinct from those of other sellers. Bra ...

RCA Records
in favor of I.R.S., with whom it signed a contract in May 1982. I.R.S. released ''Chronic Town'' that August as its first American release. A positive review of the EP by ''
NME ''New Musical Express'' (''NME'') is a British music, film and culture website and brand. Founded as a newspaper in 1952, with the publication being referred to as a 'rock inkie', the NME would become a magazine that ended up as a free publi ...
'' praised the songs' auras of mystery, and concluded, "R.E.M. ring true, and it's great to hear something as unforced and cunning as this."


1982–1988: I.R.S. Records and cult success

I.R.S. first paired R.E.M. with producer
Stephen Hague Stephen Hague (born 1960) is an American record producer most active with various United Kingdom, British acts in the 1980s. Early life Hague was born in Portland, Maine in 1960. Early career Starting his career as a member of the band Jules a ...
to record its debut album. Hague's emphasis on technical perfection left the band unsatisfied, and the band members asked the label to let them record with Easter. I.R.S. agreed to a "tryout" session, allowing the band to return to
North Carolina North Carolina () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily news ...

North Carolina
and record the song "Pilgrimage" with Easter and producing partner Don Dixon. After hearing the track, I.R.S. permitted the group to record the album with Dixon and Easter. Because of its bad experience with Hague, the band recorded the album via a process of negation, refusing to incorporate rock music clichés such as
guitar solo A guitar solo is a melodic A melody (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast E ...
s or then-popular
synthesizer A synthesizer (also spelled synthesiser) is an electronic musical instrument An electronic musical instrument is a musical instrument that produces sound using electronics, electronic circuitry. Such an instrument sounds by outputting an el ...

synthesizer
s, in order to give its music a timeless feel. The completed album, '' Murmur'', was greeted with critical acclaim upon its release in 1983, with ''
Rolling Stone ''Rolling Stone'' is an American monthly magazine that focuses on music, politics, and popular culture. It was founded in San Francisco, California San Francisco (/Help:IPA/English, ˌsæn fɹənˈsɪskoʊ/; Spanish language, Spanish ...
'' listing the album as its record of the year. The album reached number 36 on the ''
Billboard A billboard (also called a hoarding in the UK and many other parts of the world) is a large outdoor advertising Out-of-home (OOH) advertising, also called outdoor advertising, outdoor media, and out-of-home media, is advertising experienced ...
'' album chart. A re-recorded version of "Radio Free Europe" was the album's lead single and reached number 78 on the ''Billboard'' singles chart in 1983. Despite the acclaim awarded the album, ''Murmur'' sold only about 200,000 copies, which I.R.S.'s Jay Boberg felt was below expectations. R.E.M. made its first national television appearance on ''
Late Night with David Letterman ''Late Night with David Letterman'' is an American late-night talk show A late-night talk show is a genre of talk show popular in the United States, where the format originated. It is generally structured around humorous monologues about th ...
'' in October 1983, during which the group performed a new, unnamed song. The piece, eventually titled " So. Central Rain (I'm Sorry)", became the first single from the band's second album, '' Reckoning'' (1984), which was also recorded with Easter and Dixon. The album met with critical acclaim; ''NME''s
Mat Snow Mat Snow (born 20 October 1958) is an English music journalist, magazine editor, and author. From 1995 to 1999, he was the editor of ''Mojo better known as is a Japanese Folk music, folk singer and Music in Japanese animation, anime song sin ...
wrote that ''Reckoning'' "confirms R.E.M. as one of the most beautifully exciting groups on the planet". While ''Reckoning'' peaked at number 27 on the US album charts—an unusually high chart placing for a
college rock College rock was the alternative rock Alternative rock (also called alternative music, alt-rock, or simply alternative) is a category of rock music that emerged from the independent music underground of the 1970s and became widely popular i ...
band at the time—scant airplay and poor distribution overseas resulted in it charting no higher than number 91 in Britain. The band's third album, ''
Fables of the Reconstruction ''Fables of the Reconstruction'', also known as ''Reconstruction of the Fables'', is the third studio album by American alternative rock band R.E.M., released on I.R.S. Records on June 10, 1985. The Joe Boyd-produced album was the first recorded ...
'' (1985), demonstrated a change in direction. Instead of Dixon and Easter, R.E.M. chose producer
Joe Boyd Joe Boyd (born August 5, 1942) is an American record producer A record producer is a recording project's creative and technical leader, commanding studio time and coaching artists, and in popular genres typically creates the song's very sound ...
, who had worked with
Fairport Convention Fairport Convention are a British folk rock British folk rock is a form of folk rock which developed in the United Kingdom from the mid 1960s, and was at its most significant in the 1970s. Though the merging of folk and rock music came fro ...

Fairport Convention
and
Nick Drake Nicholas Rodney Drake (19 June 1948 – 25 November 1974) was an English singer-songwriter known for his acoustic guitar-based songs. He did not find a wide audience during his lifetime, but his work gradually achieved wider notice and rec ...
, to record the album in England. The band members found the sessions unexpectedly difficult, and were miserable due to the cold winter weather and what they considered to be poor food; the situation brought the band to the verge of break-up. The gloominess surrounding the sessions worked its way into the context for the album's themes. Lyrically, Stipe began to create storylines in the mode of Southern mythology, noting in a 1985 interview that he was inspired by "the whole idea of the old men sitting around the fire, passing on ... legends and fables to the grandchildren". They toured Canada in July and August 1985, and Europe in October of that year, including the Netherlands, England (including one concert at London's
Hammersmith Palais The Hammersmith Palais de Danse, in its last years simply named Hammersmith Palais, was a dance hall and entertainment venue in Hammersmith, London, England that operated from 1919 until 2007. It was the first ''palais de danse''  to be ...

Hammersmith Palais
), Ireland, Scotland, France, Switzerland, Belgium and West Germany. On October 2, 1985, the group played a concert in
Bochum Bochum ( , also , ; wep, Baukem) is the sixth largest city of the most populous Germany, German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia after Cologne, Düsseldorf, Dortmund, Essen and Duisburg, and its 364,920 (2016) inhabitants make it the Lis ...

Bochum
, West Germany, for the German TV show ''
Rockpalast ''Rockpalast'' (''Rock Palace'') is a German music television show that broadcasts live on German television station Westdeutscher Rundfunk (WDR). ''Rockpalast'' started in 1974 and continues to this day. Hundreds of Rock music, rock, heavy meta ...

Rockpalast
''. Stipe had bleached his hair blond during this time. R.E.M. invited California punk band
Minutemen Minutemen were civilian colonists who independently formed militia A militia () is generally an army An army (from Latin ''arma'' "arms, weapons" via Old French ''armée'', "armed" eminine, ground force or land force is a fighting force ...
to open for them on part of the US tour, and organized a benefit for the family of Minutemen frontman
D. Boon Dennes Dale "D." Boon (April 1, 1958 – December 22, 1985) was an American singer, songwriter, and guitarist. Boon was best known as the guitarist and vocalist of the American punk rock Punk rock (or simply punk) is a music genre A musi ...
who died in a December 1985 car crash shortly after the tour's conclusion. ''Fables of the Reconstruction'' performed poorly in Europe and its critical reception was mixed, with some critics regarding it as dreary and poorly recorded. As with the previous records, the singles from ''Fables of the Reconstruction'' were mostly ignored by mainstream radio. Meanwhile, I.R.S. was becoming frustrated with the band's reluctance to achieve mainstream success. For its fourth album, R.E.M. enlisted
John Mellencamp John J. Mellencamp (born October 7, 1951), previously known as Johnny Cougar, John Cougar, and John Cougar Mellencamp, is an American musician, singer-songwriter, painter, actor, and film director. He is known for his catchy brand of heartland ...

John Mellencamp
's producer
Don Gehman Don Gehman is an American record producer, best known for his work in the 1980s with John Mellencamp John J. Mellencamp (born October 7, 1951), previously known as Johnny Cougar, John Cougar, and John Cougar Mellencamp, is an American music ...
. The result, ''
Lifes Rich Pageant ''Lifes Rich Pageant'' is the fourth studio album by the American alternative rock band R.E.M., released on July 28, 1986. R.E.M. chose Don Gehman to produce the album, which was recorded at John Mellencamp's Belmont Mall Studios in Belmont, India ...
'' (1986), featured Stipe's vocals closer to the forefront of the music. In a 1986 interview with the ''
Chicago Tribune The ''Chicago Tribune'' is a daily newspaper based in Chicago (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map = , map_caption = Interactive maps of Chicago , coordinates = , coordinates_footnote ...

Chicago Tribune
'', Peter Buck related, "Michael is getting better at what he's doing, and he's getting more confident at it. And I think that shows up in the projection of his voice." The album improved markedly upon the sales of ''Fables of the Reconstruction'' and reached number 21 on the ''Billboard'' album chart. The single " Fall on Me" also picked up support on commercial radio. The album was the band's first to be certified gold for selling 500,000 copies. While American college radio remained R.E.M.'s core support, the band was beginning to chart hits on mainstream rock formats; however, the music still encountered resistance from
Top 40 radio Contemporary hit radio (also known as CHR, contemporary hits, hit list, current hits, hit music, top 40, or pop radio) is a radio format A radio format or programming format (not to be confused with broadcast programming Broadcast programm ...
. Following the success of ''Lifes Rich Pageant'', I.R.S. issued ''
Dead Letter Office Dead letter mail or undeliverable mail is mail The mail or post is a system for physically transporting postcard A postcard or post card is a piece of thick paper or thin Card stock, cardboard, typically rectangular, intended for writing ...
'', a compilation of tracks recorded by the band during their album sessions, many of which had either been issued as
B-side A-side and B-side are terms used to refer to the two sides of phonograph record A phonograph disc record (also known as a gramophone disc record, especially in ), or simply a phonograph record, gramophone record, disc record, long-playin ...
s or left unreleased altogether. Shortly thereafter, I.R.S. compiled R.E.M.'s music video catalog (except "Wolves, Lower") as the band's first video release, '' Succumbs''. Don Gehman was unable to produce R.E.M.'s fifth album, so he suggested the group work with
Scott Litt Scott Warren Litt (born March 10, 1954) is an American record producer A record producer is a recording project's creative and technical leader, commanding studio time and coaching artists, and in popular genres typically creates the song's ver ...
. Litt would be the producer for the band's next five albums. ''
Document A document is a writing, written, drawing, drawn, presented, or memorialized representation of thought, often the manifestation of nonfiction, non-fictional, as well as fictional, content. The word originates from the Latin ''Documentum'', whic ...
'' (1987) featured some of Stipe's most openly political lyrics, particularly on "Welcome to the Occupation" and "Exhuming McCarthy", which were reactions to the
conservative Conservatism is an aesthetic Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of beauty and taste (sociology), taste, as well as the philosophy of art (its own area of philosophy that comes out of ae ...
political environment of the 1980s under American president
Ronald Reagan Ronald Wilson Reagan ( ; February 6, 1911June 5, 2004) was an American politician who served as the 40th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the and of the . The president directs the of ...

Ronald Reagan
.
Jon Pareles Jon Pareles (born October 25, 1953) is an American journalist A journalist is an individual trained to collect/gather information in form of text, audio or pictures, processes them to a news-worthy form and disseminates it to the public. The ...
of ''
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
'' wrote in his review of the album, "''Document'' is both confident and defiant; if R.E.M. is about to move from cult-band status to mass popularity, the album decrees that the band will get there on its own terms." ''Document'' was R.E.M.'s breakthrough album, and the first single " The One I Love" charted in the Top 20 in the US, UK, and Canada. By January 1988, ''Document'' had become the group's first album to sell a million copies. In light of the band's breakthrough, the December 1987 cover of ''Rolling Stone'' declared R.E.M. "America's Best Rock & Roll Band".


1988–1997: International breakout and alternative rock stardom

Frustrated that its records did not see satisfactory overseas distribution, R.E.M. left I.R.S. when its contract expired and signed with the major label Warner Bros. Records. Though other labels offered more money, R.E.M. ultimately signed with Warner Bros.—reportedly for an amount between $6 million and $12 million—due to the company's assurance of total creative freedom. (Jay Boberg claimed that R.E.M.'s deal with Warner Bros. was for $22 million, which Peter Buck disputed as "definitely wrong".) In the aftermath of the group's departure, I.R.S. released the 1988 "best of" compilation ''
Eponymous An eponym is a person, place, or thing after whom or which someone or something is, or is believed to be, named. The adjectives derived from eponym include ''eponymous'' and ''eponymic''. Word usage The term ''eponym'' functions in multiple ...
'' (assembled with input from the band members) to capitalize on assets the company still possessed. The band's 1988 Warner Bros. debut, ''
Green Green is the color between blue and yellow on the visible spectrum. It is evoked by light which has a dominant wavelength of roughly 495570 Nanometre, nm. In subtractive color systems, used in painting and color printing, it is created by ...
'', was recorded in
Memphis Memphis most commonly refers to: * Memphis, Egypt, a former capital of ancient Egypt * Memphis, Tennessee, a major American city Memphis may also refer to: Places United States * Memphis, Alabama * Memphis, Florida * Memphis, Indiana * Memphis ...
, Tennessee, and showcased the group experimenting with its sound. The record's tracks ranged from the upbeat first single "
Stand Stand or The Stand may refer to: *A grove (nature) A grove is a small group of tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. I ...
" (a hit in the United States), to more political material, like the rock-oriented "
Orange Crush Crush is a brand of carbonated soft drinks owned and marketed internationally by Keurig Dr Pepper, originally created as an Orange soft drink, orange soda, Orange Crush. Crush mainly competes with Coca-Cola's Fanta, and Sunkist (soft drink), Su ...
" and "World Leader Pretend", which address the
Vietnam War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Vietnam War , partof = the Indochina Wars The Indochina Wars ( vi, Chiến tranh Đông Dương) were a series of wars fought in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled ...
and the
Cold War The Cold War was a period of geopolitical Geopolitics (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country loc ...
, respectively. ''Green'' has gone on to sell four million copies worldwide. The band supported the album with its biggest and most visually developed tour to date, featuring back-projections and
art film An art film is typically an independent film An independent film, independent movie, indie film, or indie movie is a feature film A feature film, or feature-length film, is a narrative film (motion picture or "movie") with a running time l ...
s playing on the stage. After the ''Green'' tour, the band members unofficially decided to take the following year off, the first extended break in the band's career. In 1990 Warner Bros. issued the music video compilation '' Pop Screen'' to collect clips from the ''Document'' and ''Green'' albums, followed a few months later by the video album '' Tourfilm'' featuring live performances filmed during the Green World Tour. R.E.M. reconvened in mid-1990 to record its seventh album, '' Out of Time''. In a departure from ''Green'', the band members often wrote the music with non-traditional rock instrumentation including
mandolin A mandolin ( it, mandolino ; literally "small mandola The mandola (US and Canada) or tenor mandola (Ireland and UK) is a fretted, stringed musical instrument A musical instrument is a device created or adapted to make Music, musical sound ...

mandolin
,
organ Organ may refer to: Biology * Organ (biology) In biology, an organ is a collection of Tissue (biology), tissues joined in a structural unit to serve a common function. In the biological organization , hierarchy of life, an organ lies betwee ...
, and instead of adding them as overdubs later in the creative process. Released in March 1991, ''Out of Time'' was the band's first album to top both the US and UK charts. The record eventually sold 4.2 million copies in the US alone, and about 12 million copies worldwide by 1996. The album's lead single "
Losing My Religion "Losing My Religion" is a song by the American alternative rock band R.E.M. The song was released as the first single from the group's 1991 album ''Out of Time (album), Out of Time''. Built on a mandolin riff, "Losing My Religion" was an unlike ...
" was a worldwide hit that received heavy rotation on radio, as did the music video on
MTV MTV (originally an initialism of Music Television) is an American cable channel Channel, channels, channeling, etc., may refer to: Geography * Channel (geography), in physical geography, a landform consisting of the outline (banks) of th ...

MTV
and
VH1 VH1 (originally an initialism An acronym is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning ...

VH1
. "Losing My Religion" was R.E.M.'s highest-charting single in the US, reaching number four on the ''Billboard'' charts. "There've been very few life-changing events in our career because our career has been so gradual," Mills said years later. "If you want to talk about life changing, I think 'Losing My Religion' is the closest it gets". The album's second single, "
Shiny Happy People "Shiny Happy People" is a song by American rock band R.E.M. R.E.M. was an American rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is c ...
" (one of three songs on the record to feature vocals from
Kate Pierson Catherine Elizabeth Pierson (born April 27, 1948) is an American singer, lyricist, and one of the singers and founding members of the B-52's. She plays guitar, Bass guitar, bass and various keyboard instruments. In the B-52s, she has performed ...
of fellow Athens band
the B-52's The B-52s (styled as The B-52's until 2008) is an American New wave music, new wave band formed in Athens, Georgia, in 1976. The original lineup consisted of Fred Schneider (vocals, percussion), Kate Pierson (vocals, keyboards, synth bass), Cind ...
), was also a major hit, reaching number 10 in the US and number six in the UK. ''Out of Time'' garnered R.E.M. seven nominations at the
1992 Grammy Awards The 34th Annual Grammy Awards were held on February 25, 1992, recognizing accomplishments by musicians from the previous year (1991). Natalie Cole won the most awards (three), including Grammy Award for Album of the Year, Album of the Year. Paul S ...
, the most nominations of any artist that year. The band won three awards: one for
Best Alternative Music Album The Grammy Award for Best Alternative Music Album is an award presented to recording artists for quality albums in the alternative genre at the Grammy Awards, a ceremony that was established in 1958 and originally called the Gramophone Awards. Ho ...
and two for "Losing My Religion",
Best Short Form Music Video The Grammy Award for Best Music Video is an honor presented at the Grammy Award The Grammy Award (stylized as GRAMMY, originally called Gramophone Award), or just Grammy, is an award presented by the Recording Academy, the US Recording Acade ...
and
Best Pop Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocal The Grammy Award The Grammy Award (stylized as GRAMMY, originally called Gramophone Award), or just Grammy, is an award presented by the Recording Academy, the US Recording Academy to recognize "Outstanding Achievement in the music industry" ...
. R.E.M. did not tour to promote ''Out of Time''; instead the group played a series of one-off shows, including an appearance taped for an episode of ''
MTV Unplugged ''MTV Unplugged'' is an American television series on MTV MTV (originally an initialism of Music Television) is an American cable channel that launched on August 1, 1981. Based in New York City, it serves as the flagship property of th ...
'' and released music videos for each song on the video album '' This Film Is On''. The band also performed "Losing My Religion" with members of the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra in Madison, Georgia, a
Madison-Morgan Cultural Center
as part of MTV's 10th anniversary special. After spending some months off, R.E.M. returned to the studio in 1991 to record its next album. Late in 1992, the band released ''
Automatic for the People ''Automatic for the People'' is the eighth studio album by American alternative rock Alternative rock (also called alternative music, alt-rock, or simply alternative) is a category of rock music that emerged from the independent music unde ...
''. Though the group had intended to make a harder-rocking album after the softer textures of ''Out of Time'', the somber ''Automatic for the People'' "[seemed] to move at an even more agonized crawl", according to ''Melody Maker''. The album dealt with themes of loss and mourning inspired by "that sense of ... turning thirty", according to Buck. Several songs featured string instrument, string arrangements by former Led Zeppelin bassist John Paul Jones (musician), John Paul Jones. Considered by a number of critics (as well as by Buck and Mills) to be the band's best album, ''Automatic for the People'' reached numbers one and two on UK and US charts, respectively, and generated the American Top 40 hit singles "Drive (R.E.M. song), Drive", "Man on the Moon (song), Man on the Moon", and "Everybody Hurts". The album would sell over fifteen million copies worldwide. As with ''Out of Time'', there was no tour in support of the album. The decision to forgo a tour, in conjunction with Stipe's physical appearance, generated rumors that the singer was dying or HIV-positive, which were vehemently denied by the band. After the band released two slow-paced albums in a row, R.E.M.'s 1994 album ''
Monster A monster is a type of fictional creature found in horror Horror may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Genres *Horror fiction, a genre of fiction **Japanese horror, Japanese horror fiction **Korean horror, Korean horror fiction *Horr ...
'' was, as Buck said, "a 'rock' record, with the rock in quotation marks." In contrast to the sound of its predecessors, the music of ''Monster'' consisted of distorted guitar tones, minimal overdubs, and touches of 1970s glam rock. Like ''Out of Time'', ''Monster'' topped the charts in both the US and UK. The record sold about nine million copies worldwide. The singles "What's the Frequency, Kenneth?" and "Bang and Blame" were the band's last American Top 40 hits, although all the singles from ''Monster'' reached the Top 30 on the British charts. Warner Bros. assembled the music videos from the album as well as those from ''Automatic for the People'' for release as ''Parallel (video), Parallel'' in 1995. In January 1995, R.E.M. set out on its first tour in six years. The tour was a huge commercial success, but the period was difficult for the group. On March 1, Berry collapsed on stage during a performance in Lausanne, Switzerland, having suffered a brain aneurysm. He had surgery immediately and recovered fully within a month. Berry's aneurysm was only the beginning of a series of health problems that plagued the ''Monster'' tour. Mills had to undergo abdominal surgery to remove an intestinal adhesion in July; a month later, Stipe had to have an emergency surgery to repair a hernia. Despite all the problems, the group had recorded the bulk of a new album while on the road. The band brought along eight-track recorders to capture its shows, and used the recordings as the base elements for the album. The final three performances of the tour were filmed at the Omni Coliseum in Atlanta, Georgia and released in home video form as ''Road Movie (video), Road Movie''. R.E.M. re-signed with Warner Bros. Records in 1996 for a reported $80 million (a figure the band constantly asserted originated with the media), rumored to be the largest recording contract in history at that point. The group's 1996 album ''
New Adventures in Hi-Fi ''New Adventures in Hi-Fi'' is the tenth studio album by the American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of Ameri ...
'' debuted at number two in the US and number one in the UK. The five million copies of the album sold were a reversal of the group's commercial fortunes of the previous five years. Critical reaction to the album was mostly favorable. In a 2017 retrospective on the band, Consequence of Sound ranked it third out of R.E.M.'s 15 full-length studio albums. The album is Stipe's favorite from R.E.M. and he considers it the band at their peak. Mills says "It usually takes a good few years for me to decide where an album stands in the pantheon of recorded work we've done. This one may be third behind ''Murmur'' and ''Automatic for the People''. According to DiscoverMusic: "Arguably less immediate and less accessible[...]''New Adventures in Hi-Fi'' is a sprawling, "White Album"-esque affair clocking in at 65 minutes. However, while it required some time and commitment from the listener, the record's contents were rich, compelling and frequently stunning. Accordingly, the album has continued to lobby for recognition and has long since earned its reputation as R.E.M.'s most unsung LP." While sales were impressive they were below their previous major label records. Time magazine, Time's writer Christopher John Farley argued that the lesser sales of the album were due to the declining commercial power of alternative rock as a whole. That same year, R.E.M. parted ways with manager Jefferson Holt, allegedly due to sexual harassment charges levied against him by a member of the band's home office in Athens. The group's lawyer
Bertis Downs Bertis Edwin Downs IV (born July 13, 1956) is an American entertainment lawyer. He originally provided legal counsel A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate An advocate is a professional in the field of law. Di ...
assumed managerial duties.


1997–2006: Continuing as three-piece with mixed success

In April 1997, the band convened at Buck's Kauai vacation home to record demos of material intended for the next album. The band sought to reinvent its sound and intended to incorporate drum loops and percussion experiments. Just as the sessions were due to begin in October, Berry decided, after months of contemplation and discussions with Downs and Mills, to tell the rest of the band that he was quitting. Berry told his bandmates that he would not quit if they would break up as a result, so Stipe, Buck, and Mills agreed to carry on as a three-piece with his blessing. Berry publicly announced his departure three weeks later in October 1997. Berry told the press, "I'm just not as enthusiastic as I have been in the past about doing this anymore . . . I have the best job in the world. But I'm kind of ready to sit back and reflect and maybe not be a pop star anymore." Stipe admitted that the band would be different without a major contributor: "For me, Mike, and Peter, as R.E.M., are we still R.E.M.? I guess a three-legged dog is still a dog. It just has to learn to run differently." The band cancelled its scheduled recording sessions as a result of Berry's departure. "Without Bill it was different, confusing", Mills later said. "We didn't know exactly what to do. We couldn't rehearse without a drummer." The remaining members of R.E.M. resumed work on the album in February 1998 at Toast Studios in San Francisco. The band ended its decade-long collaboration with Scott Litt and hired Patrick McCarthy (record producer), Pat McCarthy to produce the record. Nigel Godrich was taken on as assistant producer, and drafted in Screaming Trees member Barrett Martin and Beck's touring drummer
Joey Waronker Jon Joseph Waronker (born May 20, 1969) is an American drummer and music producer. He is best known as a regular session musician of both Beck (musician), Beck and R.E.M., and as member of the experimental rock bands Atoms for Peace (band), Atoms ...
. The recording process was tense, and the group came close to disbanding. Bertis Downs called an emergency meeting in which the band members resolved their problems and agreed to continue as a group. Led by the single "Daysleeper", '' Up'' (1998) debuted in the top ten in the US and UK. However, the album was a relative failure, selling 900,000 copies in the US by mid-1999 and eventually selling just over two million copies worldwide. While R.E.M.'s American sales were declining, the group's commercial base was shifting to the UK, where more R.E.M. records were sold per capita than any other country and the band's singles regularly entered the Top 20. A year after '' Up''s release, R.E.M. wrote the instrumental score to the Andy Kaufman biographical film ''Man on the Moon (film), Man on the Moon'', a first for the group. The film took its title from the ''Automatic for the People'' song of the same name. The song "The Great Beyond" was released as a single from the ''Man on the Moon (soundtrack), Man on the Moon'' soundtrack album. "The Great Beyond" only reached number 57 on the American pop charts, but was the band's highest-charting single ever in the UK, reaching number three in 2000. R.E.M. recorded the majority of its twelfth album '' Reveal'' (2001) in Canada and Ireland from May to October 2000. ''Reveal'' shared the "lugubrious pace" of ''Up'', and featured drumming by Joey Waronker, as well as contributions by
Scott McCaughey Scott Lewis McCaughey is an American singer, guitarist and songwriter and the leader of the Seattle and Portland, Oregon, Portland-based bands The Young Fresh Fellows and The Minus 5. He was also an auxiliary member of the American rock music, ...
(a co-founder of the band the Minus 5 with Buck), and
Ken Stringfellow Kenneth Stuart Stringfellow (born October 30, 1968) is an American singer, songwriter, multi-instrumentalist, arranger, and producer. Best known for his work with The Posies, R.E.M., and the re-formed Big Star, Stringfellow's discography include ...

Ken Stringfellow
(founder of the Posies). Global sales of the album were over four million, but in the United States ''Reveal'' sold about the same number of copies as ''Up''. The album was led by the single "Imitation of Life (song), Imitation of Life", which reached number six in the UK. Writing for ''Rock's Backpages'', The Rev. Al Friston described the album as "loaded with golden loveliness at every twist and turn", in comparison to the group's "essentially unconvincing work on ''New Adventures in Hi-Fi'' and ''Up''". Similarly, Rob Sheffield of ''
Rolling Stone ''Rolling Stone'' is an American monthly magazine that focuses on music, politics, and popular culture. It was founded in San Francisco, California San Francisco (/Help:IPA/English, ˌsæn fɹənˈsɪskoʊ/; Spanish language, Spanish ...
'' called ''Reveal'' "a spiritual renewal rooted in a musical one" and praised its "ceaselessly astonishing beauty". In 2003, Warner Bros. released the compilation album and DVD ''In Time: The Best of R.E.M. 1988–2003'' and ''In View: The Best of R.E.M. 1988–2003'', which featured two new songs, "Bad Day (R.E.M. song), Bad Day" and "Animal (R.E.M. song), Animal". At a 2003 concert in Raleigh, North Carolina, Berry made a surprise appearance, performing backing vocals on "Radio Free Europe". He then sat behind the drum kit for a performance of the early R.E.M. song "Permanent Vacation", marking his first performance with the band since his retirement. R.E.M. released ''
Around the Sun ''Around the Sun'' is the 13th studio album by the American alternative rock band R.E.M., released in October 2004 on Warner Bros. Records. Description The album was released in two editions: CD only, and a limited-edition box set with the CD ...
'' in 2004. During production of the album in 2002, Stipe said, "[The album] sounds like it's taking off from the last couple of records into unchartered R.E.M. territory. Kind of primitive and howling". After the album's release, Mills said, "I think, honestly, it turned out a little slower than we intended for it to, just in terms of the overall speed of songs." ''Around the Sun'' received a mixed critical reception, and peaked at number 13 on the ''Billboard'' charts. The first single from the album, "Leaving New York", was a Top 5 hit in the UK. For the record and subsequent tour, the band hired a new full-time touring drummer,
Bill Rieflin William Frederick Rieflin (September 30, 1960 – March 24, 2020) was an American musician. Rieflin came to prominence in the 1990s mainly for his work as a drummer with groups (particularly in the industrial rock and industrial metal scene ...

Bill Rieflin
, who had previously been a member of several industrial music acts such as Ministry (band), Ministry and Pigface, and remained in that role for the duration of the band's active years. The video album ''Perfect Square'' was released that same year.


2006–2011: Last albums, recognition and breakup

EMI released a compilation album covering R.E.M.'s work during its tenure on I.R.S. in 2006 called ''And I Feel Fine... The Best of the I.R.S. Years 1982–1987'' along with the video album ''When the Light Is Mine: The Best of the I.R.S. Years 1982–1987''—the label had previously released the compilations ''The Best of R.E.M.'' (1991), ''R.E.M.: Singles Collected'' (1994), and ''R.E.M.: In the Attic – Alternative Recordings 1985–1989'' (1997). That same month, all four original band members performed during the ceremony for their induction into the Georgia Music Hall of Fame. While rehearsing for the ceremony, the band recorded a cover of
John Lennon John Winston Ono Lennon (born John Winston Lennon; 9 October 19408 December 1980) was an English singer, songwriter, musician and peace activist A peace movement is a social movement A social movement is a loosely organized effort by ...
's " #9 Dream" for '' Instant Karma: The Amnesty International Campaign to Save Darfur'', a tribute album benefiting
Amnesty International Amnesty International (also referred to as Amnesty or AI) is a non-governmental organization A non-governmental organization, or simply an NGO, is an organization An organization, or organisation (Commonwealth English The use ...

Amnesty International
. The song—released as a single for the album and the campaign—featured Bill Berry's first studio recording with the band since his departure almost a decade earlier. In October 2006, R.E.M. was nominated for induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in its first year of eligibility. The band was one of five nominees accepted into the Hall that year, and the induction ceremony took place in March 2007 at New York's Waldorf-Astoria Hotel. The group—which was inducted by Pearl Jam lead singer Eddie Vedder—performed three songs with Bill Berry; "Gardening at Night", "Man on the Moon (song), Man on the Moon" and "Begin the Begin" as well as a cover of "I Wanna Be Your Dog". Work on the group's fourteenth album commenced in early 2007. The band recorded with producer
Jacknife Lee Garret "Jacknife" Lee is an Irish music producer and mixer. He has worked with a variety of artists, including the Cars, U2, R.E.M., the Killers, Robbie Williams, Snow Patrol, Bloc Party, Two Door Cinema Club, AFI (band), AFI, the Hives, Weezer, O ...
in Vancouver and Dublin, where it played five nights in the Olympia Theatre, Dublin, Olympia Theatre between June 30 and July 5 as part of a "working rehearsal". ''R.E.M. Live'', the band's first live album (featuring songs from a 2005 Dublin show), was released in October 2007. The group followed this with the 2009 live album ''Live at the Olympia (R.E.M. album), Live at The Olympia'', which features performances from its 2007 residency. R.E.M. released ''
Accelerate In mechanics Mechanics (Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its popu ...
'' in early 2008. The album debuted at number two on the ''Billboard'' charts, and became the band's eighth album to top the British album charts. ''Rolling Stone'' reviewer David Fricke considered ''Accelerate'' an improvement over the band's previous post-Berry albums, calling it "one of the best records R.E.M. have ever made". In 2010, R.E.M. released the video album ''R.E.M. Live from Austin, TX''—a concert recorded for ''Austin City Limits'' in 2008. The group recorded its fifteenth album, ''
Collapse into Now ''Collapse into Now'' is the fifteenth and final studio album by the American alternative rock band R.E.M., released on March 7, 2011, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. Produced by Jacknife Lee, who previously worked with the band on ''Acceler ...
'' (2011), with Jacknife Lee in locales including Berlin, Nashville, and New Orleans. For the album, the band aimed for a more expansive sound than the intentionally short and speedy approach implemented on ''
Accelerate In mechanics Mechanics (Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its popu ...
''. The album debuted at number five on the ''Billboard'' 200, becoming the group's tenth album to reach the top ten of the chart. This release fulfilled R.E.M.'s contractual obligations to Warner Bros., and the band began recording material without a contract a few months later with the possible intention of self-releasing the work. On September 21, 2011, R.E.M. announced via its website that it was "calling it a day as a band". Stipe said that he hoped fans realized it "wasn't an easy decision": "All things must end, and we wanted to do it right, to do it our way." Long-time associate and former Warner Bros. Senior Vice President of Emerging Technology Ethan Kaplan has speculated that shake-ups at the record label influenced the group's decision to disband. The group discussed breaking up for several years, but was encouraged to continue after the lackluster critical and commercial performance of ''Around the Sun''; according to Mills, "We needed to prove, not only to our fans and critics but to ourselves, that we could still make great records." They were also uninterested in the business end of recording as R.E.M. The band members finished their collaboration by assembling the compilation album ''Part Lies, Part Heart, Part Truth, Part Garbage 1982–2011'', which was released in November 2011. The album is the first to collect songs from R.E.M.'s I.R.S. and Warner Bros. tenures, as well as three songs from the group's final studio recordings from post-''Collapse into Now'' sessions. In November, Mills and Stipe did a brief span of promotional appearances in British media, ruling out the option of the group ever reuniting.


2011–present: Post-breakup releases and events

In 2014, ''Unplugged: The Complete 1991 and 2001 Sessions'' was released for Record Store Day. Music download, Digital download collections of Complete Rarities: I.R.S. 1982–1987, I.R.S. and Complete Rarities: Warner Bros. 1988–2011, Warner Bros. rarities followed. Later in the year, the band compiled the video album box set ''REMTV'', which collected their two ''Unplugged'' performances along with several other documentaries and live shows, while their record label released the box set ''7IN—83–88'', made up of 7-inch vinyl singles. In December 2015, the band members agreed to a distribution deal with Concord Bicycle Music to re-release their Warner Bros. albums. Continuing to maintain their copyright and intellectual property legacies, in March 2016, the band signed a new music publishing administration deal with Universal Music Publishing Group, and a year later, the band members left Broadcast Music, Inc., who had represented their performance rights for their entire career, and joined SESAC. The first release after their new publishing status was the 2018 box set ''R.E.M. at the BBC''. ''Live at the Borderline 1991'' followed for 2019's Record Store Day. R.E.M. was among hundreds of artists whose material was destroyed in the 2008 Universal fire. On March 24, 2020, session and touring drummer Bill Rieflin, who contributed on the band's last three records, died of cancer after years of battling the disease. In September 2021, a full decade after disbanding, Stipe reiterated that the band had no intention of regrouping: "We decided when we split up that that would just be really tacky and probably money-grabbing, which might be the impetus for a lot of bands to get back together."


Musical style

R.E.M. has been described as
alternative rock Alternative rock (also called alternative music, alt-rock, or simply alternative) is a category of rock music that emerged from the independent music underground of the 1970s and became widely popular in the 1990s. "Alternative" refers to th ...
,
college rock College rock was the alternative rock Alternative rock (also called alternative music, alt-rock, or simply alternative) is a category of rock music that emerged from the independent music underground of the 1970s and became widely popular i ...
, folk rock, jangle pop, and post-punk. In a 1988 interview, Peter Buck described R.E.M. songs as typically, "Minor key, mid-tempo, enigmatic, semi-folk-rock-balladish things. That's what everyone thinks and to a certain degree, that's true." All songwriting is credited to the entire band, even though individual members are sometimes responsible for writing the majority of a particular song.The Notorious Stuart Brothers. "A Date With Peter Buck". ''Bucketfull of Brains''. December 1987. Each member is given an equal vote in the songwriting process; however, Buck has conceded that Stipe, as the band's lyricist, can rarely be persuaded to follow an idea he does not favor. Among the original line-up, there were divisions of labor in the songwriting process: Stipe would write lyrics and devise melodies, Buck would edge the band in new musical directions, and Mills and Berry would fine-tune the compositions due to their greater musical experience. Michael Stipe sings in what R.E.M. biographer David Buckley described as "wailing, keening, arching vocal figures". Stipe often harmonizes with Mills in songs; in the chorus for "Stand", Mills and Stipe alternate singing lyrics, creating a dialogue. Early articles about the band focused on Stipe's singing style (described as "mumbling" by ''The Washington Post''), which often rendered his lyrics indecipherable. ''Creem'' writer John Morthland wrote in his review of ''Murmur'', "I still have no idea what these songs are about, because neither me nor anyone else I know has ever been able to discern R.E.M.'s lyrics." Stipe commented in 1984, "It's just the way I sing. If I tried to control it, it would be pretty false." Producer Joe Boyd convinced Stipe to begin singing more clearly during the recording of ''Fables of the Reconstruction''. Stipe later called chorus lyrics of "Sitting Still" from R.E.M. debut album, ''Murmur'', "nonsense", saying in a 1994 online chat, "You all know there aren't words, ''per se'', to a lot of the early stuff. I can't even remember them." In truth, Stipe carefully crafted the lyrics to many early R.E.M. songs. Stipe explained in 1984 that when he started writing lyrics they were like "simple pictures", but after a year he grew tired of the approach and "started experimenting with lyrics that didn't make exact linear sense, and it's just gone from there." In the mid-1980s, as Stipe's pronunciation while singing became clearer, the band decided that its lyrics should convey ideas on a more literal level. Mills explained, "After you've made three records and you've written several songs and they've gotten better and better lyrically the next step would be to have somebody question you and say, are you saying anything? And Michael had the confidence at that point to say yes . . ." Songs like "Cuyahoga" and "Fall on Me" on ''Lifes Rich Pageant'' dealt with such concerns as pollution. Stipe incorporated more politically oriented concerns into his lyrics on ''Document'' and ''Green''. "Our political activism and the content of the songs was just a reaction to where we were, and what we were surrounded by, which was just abject horror," Stipe said later. "In 1987 and '88 there was nothing to do but be active." Stipe has since explored other lyrical topics. ''Automatic for the People'' dealt with "mortality and dying. Pretty turgid stuff", according to Stipe, while ''Monster'' critiqued love and mass culture. Musically, Stipe stated that bands like T. Rex (band), T. Rex and Mott the Hoople "really impacted me". Peter Buck's style of playing guitar has been singled out by many as the most distinctive aspect of R.E.M.'s music. During the 1980s, Buck's "economical, arpeggiated, poetic" style reminded British music journalists of 1960s American folk rock band the Byrds. Buck has stated "[Byrds guitarist] Roger McGuinn was a big influence on me as a guitar player", but said it was Byrds-influenced bands, including Big Star and the Soft Boys, that inspired him more. Comparisons were also made with the guitar playing of Johnny Marr of alternative rock contemporaries the Smiths. While Buck professed being a fan of the group, he admitted he initially criticized the band simply because he was tired of fans asking him if he was influenced by Marr, whose band had in fact made their debut after R.E.M. Buck generally eschews guitar solos; he explained in 2002, "I know that when guitarists rip into this hot solo, people go nuts, but I don't write songs that suit that, and I am not interested in that. I can do it if I have to, but I don't like it." Mike Mills' melodic approach to bass playing is inspired by Paul McCartney of the Beatles and Chris Squire of Yes (band), Yes; Mills has said, "I always played a melodic bass, like a piano bass in some ways . . . I never wanted to play the traditional locked into the kick drum, root note bass work." Mills has more musical training than his bandmates, which he has said "made it easier to turn abstract musical ideas into reality."


Legacy

R.E.M. was pivotal in the creation and development of the alternative rock genre. AllMusic stated, "R.E.M. mark the point when post-punk turned into alternative rock." In the early 1980s, the musical style of R.E.M. stood in contrast to the post-punk and New wave music, new wave genres that had preceded it. Music journalist Simon Reynolds noted that the post-punk movement of the late 1970s and early 1980s "had taken whole swaths of music off the menu", particularly that of the 1960s, and that "After postpunk's demystification and New Pop's schematics, it felt liberating to listen to music rooted in mystical awe and blissed-out surrender." Reynolds declared R.E.M., a band that recalled the music of the 1960s with its "plangent guitar chimes and folk-styled vocals" and who "wistfully and abstractly conjured visions and new frontiers for America", one of "the two most important alt-rock bands of the day." With the release of ''Murmur'', R.E.M. had the most impact musically and commercially of the developing alternative genre's early groups, leaving in its wake a number of jangle pop followers. R.E.M.'s early breakthrough success served as an inspiration for other alternative bands. ''Spin (magazine), Spin'' referred to the "R.E.M. model"—career decisions that R.E.M. made that set guidelines for other underground artists to follow in their own careers. ''Spin's'' Charles Aaron wrote that by 1985, "They'd shown how far an underground, punk-inspired rock band could go within the industry without whoring out its artistic integrity in any obvious way. They'd figured out how to buy in, not sellout-in other words, they'd achieved the American Bohemian Dream." Steve Wynn (songwriter), Steve Wynn of Dream Syndicate said, "They invented a whole new ballgame for all of the other bands to follow whether it was Sonic Youth or The Replacements (band), the Replacements or
Nirvana ' (, , ; sa, निर्वाण} ''nirvāṇa'' ; Pali Pali () is a Middle Indo-AryanIndo-Aryan refers to: * Indo-Aryan languages ** Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni or Mitanni-Aryan * Indo-Aryan peoples, the various peoples sp ...
or Butthole Surfers. R.E.M. staked the claim. Musically, the bands did different things, but R.E.M. was first to show us you can be big and still be cool." Biographer David Buckley stated that between 1991 and 1994, a period that saw the band sell an estimated 30 million albums, R.E.M. "asserted themselves as rivals to U2 for the title of biggest rock band in the world." Over the course of its career, the band has sold over 85 million records worldwide. Alternative bands such as Nirvana, Pavement, Radiohead, Coldplay, Pearl Jam (the band's vocalist Eddie Vedder inducted R.E.M. into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame), Live (band), Live, Stone Temple Pilots, Collective Soul, Alice in Chains, Hootie and the Blowfish and Pwr Bttm have drawn inspiration from R.E.M.'s music. "When I was 15 years old in Richmond, Virginia, they were a ''very'' important part of my life," Pavement's Bob Nastanovich said, "as they were for all the members of our band." Pavement's contribution to the ''No Alternative'' compilation (1993) was "Unseen Power of the Picket Fence", a song about R.E.M.'s early days. Local H, according to the band's Twitter account, created their name by combining two R.E.M. songs: "Oddfellows Local 151" and "Swan Swan H". Kurt Cobain of Nirvana was a fan of R.E.M., and had unfulfilled plans to collaborate on a musical project with Stipe. Cobain told ''Rolling Stone'' in an interview earlier that year, "I don’t know how that band does what they do. God, they’re the greatest. They've dealt with their success like saints, and they keep delivering great music." During his show at the 40 Watt Club in October 2018, Johnny Marr said: "As a British musician coming out of the indie (music), indie scene in the early '80s, which I definitely am and am proud to have been, I can't miss this opportunity to acknowledge and pay my respects and honor the guys who put this town on the map for us in England. I'm talking about my comrades in guitar music, R.E.M. The Smiths really respected R.E.M. We had to keep an eye on what those guys were up to. It's an interesting thing for me, as a British musician, and all those guys as British musicians, to come to this place and play for you guys, knowing that it's the roots of Mike Mills and Bill Berry and Michael Stipe and my good friend Peter Buck."


Awards


Campaigning and activism

Throughout R.E.M.'s career, its members sought to highlight social and political issues. According to the ''Los Angeles Times'', R.E.M. was considered to be one of the United States' "most liberal and politically correct rock groups." The band's members were "on the same page" politically, sharing a Modern liberalism in the United States, liberal and Progressivism, progressive outlook. Mills admitted that there was occasionally dissension between band members on what causes they might support, but acknowledged "Out of respect for the people who disagree, those discussions tend to stay in-house, just because we'd rather not let people know where the divisions lie, so people can't exploit them for their own purposes." An example is that in 1990 Buck noted that Stipe was involved with People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, but the rest of the band were not. R.E.M. helped raise funds for environmental, feminist and human rights causes, and were involved in campaigns to encourage voter registration. During the ''Green'' tour, Stipe spoke on stage to the audiences about a variety of socio-political issues. Through the late 1980s and 1990s, the band (particularly Stipe) increasingly used its media coverage on national television to mention a variety of causes it felt were important. One example is during the 1991 MTV Video Music Awards, Stipe wore a half-dozen white shirts emblazoned with slogans including "rainforest", "love knows no colors", and "handgun control now". R.E.M. helped raise awareness of Aung San Suu Kyi and Human rights in Myanmar, human rights violations in Myanmar, when they worked with the Freedom Campaign and the US Campaign for Burma. Stipe himself ran ads for the 1988 election, supporting Democratic Party (United States), Democratic presidential candidate and Massachusetts governor Michael Dukakis over then-Vice President George H. W. Bush. In 2004, the band participated in the Vote for Change tour that sought to mobilize American voters to support Democratic presidential candidate John Kerry. R.E.M.'s political stance, particularly coming from a wealthy rock band under contract to a label owned by a multinational corporation, received criticism from former ''Q magazine, Q'' editor Paul Du Noyer, who criticized the band's "celebrity liberalism", saying, "It's an entirely pain-free form of rebellion that they're adopting. There's no risk involved in it whatsoever, but quite a bit of shoring up of customer loyalty." From the late 1980s, R.E.M. was involved in the local politics of its hometown of Athens, Georgia. Buck explained to ''Sounds (magazine), Sounds'' in 1987, "Michael always says think local and act local—we have been doing a lot of stuff in our town to try and make it a better place." The band often donated funds to local charities and helped renovate and preserve historic buildings in the town. R.E.M.'s political clout was credited with the narrow election of Athens mayor Gwen O'Looney twice in the 1990s. The band is a member of the Canadian charity Artists Against Racism.


Members


Main members

*
Bill Berry William Thomas Berry (born July 31, 1958) is a retired American musician who was the drummer for the alternative rock Alternative rock (also called alternative music, alt-rock, or simply alternative) is a category of that emerged from ...
 – drums, percussion, backing vocals, occasional bass guitar and keyboards (1980–1997; occasional concert appearances with the band 2003–2007) *
Peter Buck Peter Lawrence Buck (born December 6, 1956) is an American musician A musician is a person who Composer, composes, Conducting, conducts, or Performing arts, performs music. According to the United States Employment Service, "musician" is a ...
 – lead guitar, mandolin, banjo, occasional bass guitar and keyboards (1980–2011) *
Mike Mills Michael Edward Mills (born December 17, 1958) is an American multi-instrumentalist A multi-instrumentalist is a musician who plays two or more musical instrument A musical instrument is a device created or adapted to make Music, musical soun ...
 – bass guitar, keyboards, backing vocals, occasional co-lead vocals and guitar (1980–2011) *
Michael Stipe John Michael Stipe (born January 4, 1960) is an American singer-songwriter and artist, best known as the lead singer and lyricist of alternative rock band R.E.M. He is known for his distinctive vocal quality, poetic lyrics and unique stage prese ...
 – lead vocals (1980–2011)


Non-musical members

* Several publications made by the band such as album liner notes and fan club mailers list attorney
Bertis Downs Bertis Edwin Downs IV (born July 13, 1956) is an American entertainment lawyer. He originally provided legal counsel A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate An advocate is a professional in the field of law. Di ...
and manager
Jefferson Holt Jefferson Holt is the founder of Daniel 13 Press and manager of rock band R.E.M. R.E.M. was an American rock band from Athens, Georgia Athens, officially Athens–Clarke County, is a consolidated city–county and college town in the U.S. s ...
as honorary non-musical members; the two joined up with R.E.M. in 1980/1981 and Holt left in 1996.


Touring and session musicians

*Buren Fowler – rhythm guitar (1986–1987) *Peter Holsapple – rhythm guitar, keyboards (1989–1991) *
Scott McCaughey Scott Lewis McCaughey is an American singer, guitarist and songwriter and the leader of the Seattle and Portland, Oregon, Portland-based bands The Young Fresh Fellows and The Minus 5. He was also an auxiliary member of the American rock music, ...
 – rhythm guitar, keyboards, backing vocals, occasional lead guitar (1994–2011) *Nathan December – rhythm and lead guitar (1994–1995) *
Joey Waronker Jon Joseph Waronker (born May 20, 1969) is an American drummer and music producer. He is best known as a regular session musician of both Beck (musician), Beck and R.E.M., and as member of the experimental rock bands Atoms for Peace (band), Atoms ...
 – drums, percussion (1998–2002) *Barrett Martin – percussion (1998) *
Ken Stringfellow Kenneth Stuart Stringfellow (born October 30, 1968) is an American singer, songwriter, multi-instrumentalist, arranger, and producer. Best known for his work with The Posies, R.E.M., and the re-formed Big Star, Stringfellow's discography include ...

Ken Stringfellow
 – keyboards, occasional rhythm guitar, bass guitar, backing vocals (1998–2005) *
Bill Rieflin William Frederick Rieflin (September 30, 1960 – March 24, 2020) was an American musician. Rieflin came to prominence in the 1990s mainly for his work as a drummer with groups (particularly in the industrial rock and industrial metal scene ...

Bill Rieflin
 – drums, percussion, occasional keyboards and guitar (2003–2011)


Timeline

Production timeline Touring and session members timeline


Discography

Studio albums * '' Murmur'' (1983) * '' Reckoning'' (1984) * ''
Fables of the Reconstruction ''Fables of the Reconstruction'', also known as ''Reconstruction of the Fables'', is the third studio album by American alternative rock band R.E.M., released on I.R.S. Records on June 10, 1985. The Joe Boyd-produced album was the first recorded ...
'' (1985) * ''
Lifes Rich Pageant ''Lifes Rich Pageant'' is the fourth studio album by the American alternative rock band R.E.M., released on July 28, 1986. R.E.M. chose Don Gehman to produce the album, which was recorded at John Mellencamp's Belmont Mall Studios in Belmont, India ...
'' (1986) * ''
Document A document is a writing, written, drawing, drawn, presented, or memorialized representation of thought, often the manifestation of nonfiction, non-fictional, as well as fictional, content. The word originates from the Latin ''Documentum'', whic ...
'' (1987) * ''
Green Green is the color between blue and yellow on the visible spectrum. It is evoked by light which has a dominant wavelength of roughly 495570 Nanometre, nm. In subtractive color systems, used in painting and color printing, it is created by ...
'' (1988) * '' Out of Time'' (1991) * ''
Automatic for the People ''Automatic for the People'' is the eighth studio album by American alternative rock Alternative rock (also called alternative music, alt-rock, or simply alternative) is a category of rock music that emerged from the independent music unde ...
'' (1992) * ''
Monster A monster is a type of fictional creature found in horror Horror may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Genres *Horror fiction, a genre of fiction **Japanese horror, Japanese horror fiction **Korean horror, Korean horror fiction *Horr ...
'' (1994) * ''
New Adventures in Hi-Fi ''New Adventures in Hi-Fi'' is the tenth studio album by the American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of Ameri ...
'' (1996) * '' Up'' (1998) * '' Reveal'' (2001) * ''
Around the Sun ''Around the Sun'' is the 13th studio album by the American alternative rock band R.E.M., released in October 2004 on Warner Bros. Records. Description The album was released in two editions: CD only, and a limited-edition box set with the CD ...
'' (2004) * ''
Accelerate In mechanics Mechanics (Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its popu ...
'' (2008) * ''
Collapse into Now ''Collapse into Now'' is the fifteenth and final studio album by the American alternative rock band R.E.M., released on March 7, 2011, on Warner Bros. Records, Warner Bros. Produced by Jacknife Lee, who previously worked with the band on ''Acceler ...
'' (2011)


See also

*List of alternative rock artists


References


Sources

* Black, Johnny. ''Reveal: The Story of R.E.M.'' Backbeat, 2004. * Buckley, David. ''R.E.M.: Fiction: An Alternative Biography''. Virgin, 2002. * Gray, Marcus. ''It Crawled from the South: An R.E.M. Companion''. Da Capo, 1997. Second edition. * Fletcher, Tony. ''Remarks Remade: The Story of R.E.M.'' Omnibus, 2002. . * Platt, John (editor). ''The R.E.M. Companion: Two Decades of Commentary''. Schirmer, 1998. * Sullivan, Denise. ''Talk About the Passion: R.E.M.: An Oral Biography''. Underwood-Miller, 1994.


External links

* * * * * *
Dynamic Range DB entry for R.E.M.
{{Featured article R.E.M., 1980 establishments in Georgia (U.S. state) 2011 disestablishments in Georgia (U.S. state) Alternative rock groups from Georgia (U.S. state) Brit Award winners Capitol Records artists Concord Bicycle Music artists Grammy Award winners I.R.S. Records artists Jangle pop groups Musical groups established in 1980 Musical groups disestablished in 2011 Musical groups from Athens, Georgia New West Records artists Rhino Records artists Warner Records artists Craft Recordings artists College rock musical groups