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) , image_map = Nova Scotia in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English (''de facto'') , RegionalLang = French, Scots Gaelic , capital =
Halifax Halifax commonly refers to: *Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada *Halifax, West Yorkshire, England *Halifax (bank), a British bank Halifax may also refer to: Places Australia *Halifax, Queensland *Halifax Bay, North Queensland Canada Nova Scotia *Hali ...
, largest_city =
Halifax Halifax commonly refers to: *Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada *Halifax, West Yorkshire, England *Halifax (bank), a British bank Halifax may also refer to: Places Australia *Halifax, Queensland *Halifax Bay, North Queensland Canada Nova Scotia *Hali ...
, largest_metro = Halifax , Premier =
Tim Houston Timothy Jerome Houston (born April 10, 1970) is a Canadian politician who is the 30th and current premier of Nova Scotia The premier of Nova Scotia is the first minister to the lieutenant governor A lieutenant governor, lieutenant-governor, ...
, PremierParty = PC , Viceroy =
Arthur LeBlanc Arthur Joseph LeBlanc (born 1943) is the 33rd and current Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia, Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia. Early life and education Born in West Arichat, Nova Scotia, West Arichat, Nova Scotia, LeBlanc attended St. Francis ...
, ViceroyType = Lieutenant Governor , Legislature = Nova Scotia House of Assembly , PCI = 39,092 , area_rank = 12th , area_total_km2 = 55284 , area_land_km2 = 52942 , area_water_km2 = 2342 , PercentWater = 4.2 , population_demonym = Nova Scotian, Bluenoser , population_rank = 7th , population_total = 923598 , population_ref = , population_as_of = 2016 , population_est = 998,832 , pop_est_as_of = 2021 Q4 , pop_est_ref = , DensityRank = 2nd , Density_km2 = 17.4 , GDP_year = 2016 , GDP_total =  billion , GDP_rank = 7th , GDP_per_capita = , GDP_per_capita_rank = 12th , AdmittanceOrder = 1st, with
New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , capital = Fredericton Fredericton (; ) is the capital of the Provinces and territor ...

New Brunswick
,
Ontario ("Loyal she began, loyal she remains") , Label_map = yes , image_map = Ontario in Canada 2.svg , map_alt = Map showing Ontario's location east/central of Canada. , coordinates = , cap ...

Ontario
,
Quebec ) , image_shield=Armoiries du Québec.svg , image_flag=Flag of Quebec.svg , coordinates= , AdmittanceDate=July 1, 1867 , AdmittanceOrder=1st, with New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , ...

Quebec
, AdmittanceDate = 1 July 1867 , HouseSeats = 11 , SenateSeats = 10 , timezone1 = Atlantic , utc_offset1 = -04:00 , PostalAbbreviation = NS , PostalCodePrefix = B , iso_code = CA-NS , website = novascotia.ca , flower =
Mayflower ''Mayflower'' was an English ship that transported a group of English families, known today as the Pilgrims (Plymouth Colony), Pilgrims, from England to the New World in 1620. After a grueling 10 weeks at sea, ''Mayflower'', with 102 passenger ...

Mayflower
, tree =
Red spruce ''Picea rubens'', commonly known as red spruce, is a species of spruce A spruce is a tree of the genus ''Picea'' , a genus of about 35 species of coniferous evergreen trees in the family Pinaceae, found in the northern temperate and boreal ec ...

Red spruce
, bird =
Osprey The osprey or more specifically the western osprey (''Pandion haliaetus'') — also called sea hawk, river hawk, and fish hawk — is a Diurnality, diurnal, piscivore, fish-eating bird of prey with a cosmopolitan range. It is a large Bird of ...

Osprey
, HDI=0.903Very high, HDI_rank=11th, HDI_year=2019 Nova Scotia ( ) ( gd, Alba Nuadh; french: Nouvelle-Écosse) is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...

Canada
. It is one of the three
Maritime provinces The Maritimes, also called the Maritime provinces, is a region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), human impact characteristics ( human geography), and the interaction of h ...
and one of the four
Atlantic provinces Atlantic Canada, also called the Atlantic provinces, a term developed for the convenience of the federal government after Newfoundland joined Canada in 1949, is the region of Eastern Canada comprising the four provinces and territories of Canada, ...

Atlantic provinces
. Nova Scotia is
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
for "New Scotland". Most of the population are
native Native may refer to: People * Jus soli, citizenship by right of birth * Indigenous peoples, peoples with a set of specific rights based on their historical ties to a particular territory ** Native Americans (disambiguation) In arts and entertain ...
English-speakers. The province's population reached 1 million in December 202

With a population of 923,598 as of 2016, it is the most populous of Canada's four
Atlantic provinces Atlantic Canada, also called the Atlantic provinces, a term developed for the convenience of the federal government after Newfoundland joined Canada in 1949, is the region of Eastern Canada comprising the four provinces and territories of Canada, ...

Atlantic provinces
. It is the country's Population of Canada by province and territory, second-most densely populated province and second-smallest province by area, both after
Prince Edward Island (''The small protected by the great'') , image_map = Prince Edward Island in Canada (special marker) 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English language, English (''d ...

Prince Edward Island
. Its area of includes
Cape Breton Island Cape Breton Island (french: link=no, île du Cap-Breton, formerly '; gd, Ceap Breatainn or '; mic, Unamaꞌki) is an island on the Atlantic coast of North America and part of the province of Nova Scotia, Canada. The island accounts for 18. ...

Cape Breton Island
and 3,800 other coastal islands. The
peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from 'almost' and 'island') is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other planetary body A planet is an astronomical body Astronomy (from el ...

peninsula
that makes up Nova Scotia's
mainland Mainland is defined as "relating to or forming the main part of a country or continent, not including the islands around it egardless of status under territorial jurisdiction by an entity" The term is often human geography, politically, econo ...
is connected to the rest of
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
by the
Isthmus of Chignecto The Isthmus of Chignecto is an isthmus An isthmus ( or ; plural: isthmuses or isthmi; from grc, ἰσθμός, isthmós, neck) is a narrow piece of land connecting two larger areas across an expanse of water by which they are otherwise separate ...
, on which the province's land border with
New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , capital = Fredericton Fredericton (; ) is the capital of the Provinces and territor ...

New Brunswick
is located. The province borders the
Bay of Fundy The Bay of Fundy (french: Baie de Fundy) is a bay between the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, with a small portion touching the US state of Maine. It has an extremely high tidal range. The name is likely a corruption of the F ...

Bay of Fundy
and
Gulf of Maine , image = , alt = , caption = , image_bathymetry = GulfofMaine2.jpg , alt_bathymetry = , caption_bathymetry = Major features of the Gulf of Maine , location = Northeast coast of the ...
to the west and the to the south and east, and is separated from Prince Edward Island and the island of
Newfoundland Newfoundland and Labrador (, ) is the easternmost provinces and territories of Canada, province of Canada, in the country's Atlantic Canada, Atlantic region. It is composed of the island of Newfoundland (island), Newfoundland and the continental ...
by the
Northumberland Northumberland () is a ceremonial county The counties and areas for the purposes of the lieutenancies, also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England and informally known as ceremonial counties, are areas of England to which lord-li ...
and straits, respectively. The land that comprises what is now Nova Scotia was inhabited by the
Miꞌkmaq The Miꞌkmaq (also ''Mi'gmaq'', ''Lnu'', ''Miꞌkmaw'' or ''Miꞌgmaw''; ; ) are a First Nations people of the Indigenous peoples of the Northeastern Woodlands, Northeastern Woodlands, indigenous to the areas now known as Canada's Atlantic Canada ...
people at the time of European exploration. In 1605,
Acadia Acadia (french: link=no, Acadie) was a colony of New France New France (french: Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanni ...

Acadia
,
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
's first
New France New France (french: Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its extends from the to the a ...

New France
colony, was founded with the creation of Acadia's capital, . Britain fought France for the territory on numerous occasions for over a century afterwards. The
Fortress of Louisbourg The Fortress of Louisbourg (french: Forteresse de Louisbourg) is a National Historic Sites of Canada, National Historic Site and the location of a one-quarter partial reconstruction of an 18th-century Kingdom of France, French fortress at Louisbou ...

Fortress of Louisbourg
was a key focus point in the battle for control. Following the
Great Upheaval The Expulsion of the Acadians, also known as the Great Upheaval, the Great Expulsion, the Great Deportation, and the Deportation of the Acadians (French language, French: or ), was the Ethnic cleansing, forced removal by the British Empire, B ...
(1755-1763) where the British deported the
Acadian The Acadians (french: Acadiens, ''Acadiennes'' ) are the descendants of the French colonial empire, French who Old Acadian Villages of Nova Scotia, settled in Acadia during the 17th and 18th centuries. Some are also descended from the Algonqui ...
s en masse, the Conquest of New France (1758-1760) by the British, and the Treaty of Paris (1763), France had to surrender Acadia to the
British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. ...

British Empire
. During the
American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the Revolutionary War and the American War of Independence, was initiated by delegates from Thirteen Colonies, thirteen American colonies of British America in Continental Congress ...
(1775-1783), thousands of
Loyalists Loyalism, in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. ...
settled in Nova Scotia. In 1848, Nova Scotia became the first British colony to achieve
responsible government Responsible government is a conception of a system of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ' ...
, and it federated in July 1867 with New Brunswick and the
Province of Canada The Province of Canada (or the United Province of Canada or the United Canadas) (french: link=no, Province du Canada) was a British North America, British colony in North America from 1841 to 1867. Its formation reflected recommendations mad ...
(now
Ontario ("Loyal she began, loyal she remains") , Label_map = yes , image_map = Ontario in Canada 2.svg , map_alt = Map showing Ontario's location east/central of Canada. , coordinates = , cap ...

Ontario
and
Quebec ) , image_shield=Armoiries du Québec.svg , image_flag=Flag of Quebec.svg , coordinates= , AdmittanceDate=July 1, 1867 , AdmittanceOrder=1st, with New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , ...

Quebec
) to form what is now the country of Canada. Nova Scotia's
capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowercase (or more formally ''minusc ...
and largest city is
Halifax Halifax commonly refers to: *Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada *Halifax, West Yorkshire, England *Halifax (bank), a British bank Halifax may also refer to: Places Australia *Halifax, Queensland *Halifax Bay, North Queensland Canada Nova Scotia *Hali ...
, which today is home to about 45 percent of the province's population. Halifax is the thirteenth-largest census metropolitan area in Canada, the largest city in Atlantic Canada, and Canada's second-largest coastal city after
Vancouver Vancouver ( ) is a major city in western Canada Western Canada, also referred to as the Western Provinces and more commonly known as the West, is a region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth desc ...

Vancouver
.


Etymology

"Nova Scotia" means "New
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the Celtic languages, Celtic branch of the Indo-European ...

Scotland
" in
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
and is the recognized
English-language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading language of international discourse in the 21st centu ...

English-language
name for the province. In both French and
Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig ), also known as Scots Gaelic and Gaelic, is a Goidelic language The Goidelic or Gaelic languages ( ga, teangacha Gaelacha; gd, cànanan Goidhealach; gv, çhengaghyn Gaelgagh) form one of the two groups o ...
, the province is directly translated as "New Scotland" (French: '. Gaelic: '). In general, Romance and Slavic languages use a direct translation of "New Scotland", while most other languages use direct transliterations of the Latin / English name. The province was first named in the 1621 Royal Charter granting to
Sir William Alexander William Alexander, 1st Earl of Stirling Earl of Stirling was a title in the Peerage of Scotland. It was created on 14 June 1633 for William Alexander, 1st Earl of Stirling, William Alexander, 1st Viscount of Stirling. He had already been cr ...
in 1632 the right to settle lands including modern Nova Scotia,
Cape Breton Island Cape Breton Island (french: link=no, île du Cap-Breton, formerly '; gd, Ceap Breatainn or '; mic, Unamaꞌki) is an island on the Atlantic coast of North America and part of the province of Nova Scotia, Canada. The island accounts for 18. ...

Cape Breton Island
,
Prince Edward Island (''The small protected by the great'') , image_map = Prince Edward Island in Canada (special marker) 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English language, English (''d ...

Prince Edward Island
,
New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , capital = Fredericton Fredericton (; ) is the capital of the Provinces and territor ...

New Brunswick
and the
Gaspé Peninsula The Gaspé Peninsula, also known as Gaspesia ( French: ''Gaspésie'') is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while being connected to a mainland from ...
.


Geography

Nova Scotia is Canada's second-smallest province in area, after
Prince Edward Island (''The small protected by the great'') , image_map = Prince Edward Island in Canada (special marker) 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English language, English (''d ...

Prince Edward Island
. The province's mainland is the
Nova Scotia peninsula frame, Artist's conception of a white dwarf, right, accreting hydrogen from the Roche lobe of its larger companion star A nova (plural novae or novas) is a transient astronomical eventA transient astronomical event, often shortened by astronome ...

Nova Scotia peninsula
, surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean and including numerous bays and estuaries. Nowhere in Nova Scotia is more than from the ocean.
Cape Breton Island Cape Breton Island (french: link=no, île du Cap-Breton, formerly '; gd, Ceap Breatainn or '; mic, Unamaꞌki) is an island on the Atlantic coast of North America and part of the province of Nova Scotia, Canada. The island accounts for 18. ...

Cape Breton Island
, a large island to the northeast of the Nova Scotia mainland, is also part of the province, as is
Sable Island Sable Island (french: île de Sable, literally "island of sand") is a small Canadian island situated southeast of Halifax, Nova Scotia, and about southeast of the closest point of mainland Nova Scotia in the North Atlantic Ocean. The island is ...
, a small island notorious for being the site of offshore shipwrecks, approximately from the province's southern coast. Nova Scotia has many ancient fossil-bearing rock formations. These formations are particularly rich on the
Bay of Fundy The Bay of Fundy (french: Baie de Fundy) is a bay between the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, with a small portion touching the US state of Maine. It has an extremely high tidal range. The name is likely a corruption of the F ...

Bay of Fundy
's shores. Blue Beach near Hantsport, , on the
Bay of Fundy The Bay of Fundy (french: Baie de Fundy) is a bay between the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, with a small portion touching the US state of Maine. It has an extremely high tidal range. The name is likely a corruption of the F ...

Bay of Fundy
's shores, has yielded an abundance of
Carboniferous The Carboniferous ( ) is a geologic period The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that classifies Geology, geological strata (stratigraphy) in time. It is used by geologists, paleontology, paleontologists, and other ...
-age fossils. Wasson's Bluff, near the town of Parrsboro, has yielded both
Triassic The Triassic ( ) is a geologic period The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that classifies Geology, geological strata (stratigraphy) in time. It is used by geologists, paleontology, paleontologists, and other earth ...

Triassic
- and
Jurassic The Jurassic ( ) is a geologic period The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that classifies Geology, geological strata (stratigraphy) in time. It is used by geologists, paleontology, paleontologists, and other earth ...
-age fossils. The highest point is
White HillWhite Hill may refer to: Locations on Earth *White Hill, Ireland, a mountain of 630 metres located in County Wicklow, Ireland *White Hill (Forest of Bowland), a moor of 544 metres located in the Forest of Bowland, England *White Hill (Nova Scotia) ...
at 533m (1,749 ft) above sea level, situated amongst the
Cape Breton Highlands The Cape Breton Highlands (french: Plateau du Cap-Breton, gd, Àrd-thalamh Cheap Bhreatainn), commonly called the Highlands, refer to a highland or mountainous plateau across the northern part of Cape Breton Island Cape Breton Island (fr ...

Cape Breton Highlands
in the far north of the province. The province contains 5,400 lakes.


Climate

Nova Scotia lies in the mid-temperate zone and, although the province is almost surrounded by water, the climate is closer to
continental climate Continental climates often have a significant annual variation in temperature (hot summers and cold winters). They tend to occur in the middle latitudes (40 to 55 north), within large landmasses where prevailing winds In meteorology Mete ...
rather than
maritime Maritime may refer to: Geography * Maritime Alps, a mountain range in the southwestern part of the Alps * Maritime Region, a region in Togo * Maritime Southeast Asia * The Maritimes, the Canadian provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince ...
. The winter and summer temperature extremes of the continental climate are moderated by the ocean. However, winters are cold enough to be classified as continental—still being nearer the freezing point than inland areas to the west. The Nova Scotian climate is in many ways similar to the central
Baltic Sea The Baltic Sea is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Denmark Denmark ( da, Danmark, ) is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that a ...

Baltic Sea
coast in Northern Europe, only wetter and snowier. This is true although Nova Scotia is some fifteen parallels further south. Areas not on the Atlantic coast experience warmer summers more typical of inland areas, and winter lows are a little colder. On 12 August 2020, the community of Grand Étang, famous for its Les Suêtes winds recorded a balmy overnight low of Described on the provincial vehicle licence plate as Canada's Ocean Playground, Nova Scotia is surrounded by four major bodies of water: the
Gulf of Saint Lawrence The Gulf of St. Lawrence (French language, French: ''Golfe du Saint-Laurent'') is the outlet of the North American Great Lakes via the St. Lawrence River into the Atlantic Ocean. The gulf is a semi-enclosed sea, covering an area of about and conta ...

Gulf of Saint Lawrence
to the north, the
Bay of Fundy The Bay of Fundy (french: Baie de Fundy) is a bay between the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, with a small portion touching the US state of Maine. It has an extremely high tidal range. The name is likely a corruption of the F ...

Bay of Fundy
to the west, the
Gulf of Maine , image = , alt = , caption = , image_bathymetry = GulfofMaine2.jpg , alt_bathymetry = , caption_bathymetry = Major features of the Gulf of Maine , location = Northeast coast of the ...
to the southwest, and the Atlantic Ocean to the east.


History

The province includes regions of the Mi'kmaq nation of Mi'kma'ki ('), the territory of which extends across the Maritimes, parts of
Maine Maine () is a U.S. state, state in the New England region of the United States, bordered by New Hampshire to the west; the Gulf of Maine to the southeast; and the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Qu ...

Maine
,
Newfoundland Newfoundland and Labrador (, ) is the easternmost provinces and territories of Canada, province of Canada, in the country's Atlantic Canada, Atlantic region. It is composed of the island of Newfoundland (island), Newfoundland and the continental ...
and the
Gaspé Peninsula The Gaspé Peninsula, also known as Gaspesia ( French: ''Gaspésie'') is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while being connected to a mainland from ...
. The Mi'kmaq people are part of the large Algonquian-language family and inhabited Nova Scotia at the time the first European colonists arrived.


European settlement

The first Europeans to settle in what is now Nova Scotia were the French, who arrived in 1604, and Catholic Mi'kmaq and Acadians formed the majority of the population of the colony for the next 150 years. In 1605, French colonists established the first permanent European settlement in the future Canada (and the first north of
Florida Florida is a U.S. state, state located in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United States. Florida is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia (U.S. state), Geor ...
) at
Port Royal Port Royal is a village located at the end of the Palisadoes, at the mouth of Kingston Harbour, in southeastern Jamaica. Founded in 1494 by the Spanish Empire, Spanish, it was once the largest city in the Caribbean, functioning as the centre of ...
, founding what would become known as
Acadia Acadia (french: link=no, Acadie) was a colony of New France New France (french: Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanni ...

Acadia
. Warfare was a notable feature in Nova Scotia during the 17th and 18th centuries. During the first 80 years the French and Acadians lived in Nova Scotia, nine significant military clashes took place as the English and Scottish (later British),
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * ...
and French fought for possession of the area. These encounters happened at
Port Royal Port Royal is a village located at the end of the Palisadoes, at the mouth of Kingston Harbour, in southeastern Jamaica. Founded in 1494 by the Spanish Empire, Spanish, it was once the largest city in the Caribbean, functioning as the centre of ...
,
Saint John Saint John or St. John sometimes refers to John the Apostle John the Apostle ( arc, ܝܘܚܢܢ ܫܠܝܚܐ, ; he, יוחנן בן זבדי, ; grc, Ἰωάννης; cop, ⲓⲱⲁⲛⲛⲏⲥ or ; la, Ioannes; ) was one of the Twelve Apostles ...
, Cap de Sable (present-day Port La Tour, Nova Scotia),
Jemseg Jemseg is a Canada, Canadian rural community in Cambridge Parish, New Brunswick, Cambridge Parish, Queens County, New Brunswick, Queens County, New Brunswick. It is located on the east bank of the Jemseg River along its short run from Grand Lake (Ne ...
(1674 and 1758) and Baleine (1629). The Acadian Civil War took place from 1640 to 1645. Beginning with
King William's War King William's War (1688–1697, also known as the Second Indian War, Father Baudoin's War, Jean-Vincent d'Abbadie de Saint-Castin, Castin's War, or the First Intercolonial War in French language, French) was the North American theater of the Nin ...
in 1688, a series of six wars took place between the English/British and the French, with Nova Scotia being a consistent theatre of conflict between the two powers.


18th century

Hostilities between the British and French resumed from 1702 to 1713, known as
Queen Anne's War Queen Anne's War (1702–1713) was the second in a series of French and Indian Wars fought in North America involving the colonial empires of Great Britain, France, and Spain; it took place during the reign of Anne, Queen of Great Britain Ann ...
. The British siege of Port Royal took place in 1710, ending French-rule in peninsular Acadia. The subsequent signing of the
Treaty of Utrecht The Peace of Utrecht was a series of peace treaties A peace treaty is an agreement between two or more hostile parties, usually countries or government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized commun ...

Treaty of Utrecht
in 1713 formally recognized this, while returning
Cape Breton Island Cape Breton Island (french: link=no, île du Cap-Breton, formerly '; gd, Ceap Breatainn or '; mic, Unamaꞌki) is an island on the Atlantic coast of North America and part of the province of Nova Scotia, Canada. The island accounts for 18. ...

Cape Breton Island
(') and
Prince Edward Island (''The small protected by the great'') , image_map = Prince Edward Island in Canada (special marker) 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English language, English (''d ...

Prince Edward Island
(') to the French. Despite the British conquest of Acadia in 1710, Nova Scotia remained primarily occupied by Catholic Acadians and Mi'kmaq, who confined British forces to Annapolis and to Canso. Present-day New Brunswick then still formed a part of the French colony of Acadia. Immediately after the capture of Port Royal in 1710,
Francis Nicholson Lieutenant-general (United Kingdom), Lieutenant-General Sir Francis Nicholson (12 November 1655 – ) was a British Army General officer, general and Colonialism, colonial official who served as the List of colonial governors of South Carolina, ...
announced it would be renamed
Annapolis Royal Annapolis Royal, formerly known as Port Royal, is a town located in the western part of Annapolis County, Nova Scotia, Canada. Today's Annapolis Royal is the second French settlement known by the same name and should not be confused with the 160 ...
in honour of
Queen Anne Queen Anne often refers to: * Anne, Queen of Great Britain (1665–1714), queen of England, Scotland and Ireland (1702–1707) and of Great Britain (1707–1714) **Queen Anne style architecture, an architectural style from her reign, and its revival ...

Queen Anne
. As a result of
Father Rale's War The Dummer's War (1722–1725, also known as Father Rale's War, Lovewell's War, Greylock's War, the Three Years War, the 4th Anglo-Abenaki War, or the Wabanaki-New England War of 1722–1725) was a series of battles between New England and the Waba ...
(1722–1725), the Mi'kmaq signed a series of treaties with Great Britain in 1725. The Mi'kmaq signed a treaty of "submission" to the British crown. However, conflict between the Acadians, Mi'kmaq, French, and the British persisted in the following decades with
King George's War King George's War (1744–1748) is the name given to the military operations in North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be described as ...
(1744–1748).
Father Le Loutre's War Father Le Loutre's War (1749–1755), also known as the Indian War, the Micmac War and the Anglo-Micmac War, took place between King George's War and the French and Indian War in Acadia and Nova Scotia. On one side of the conflict, the Kingdom ...
(1749–1755) began when
Edward Cornwallis Edward Cornwallis ( – 14 January 1776) was a British career military officer and was a member of the aristocratic Cornwallis family, who reached the rank of Lieutenant General Lieutenant general or lieutenant-general (Lt Gen, LTG and ...

Edward Cornwallis
arrived to establish
Halifax Halifax commonly refers to: *Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada *Halifax, West Yorkshire, England *Halifax (bank), a British bank Halifax may also refer to: Places Australia *Halifax, Queensland *Halifax Bay, North Queensland Canada Nova Scotia *Hali ...
with 13 transports on 21 June 1749. A General Court, made up of the governor and the council, was the highest court in the colony at the time.
Jonathan Belcher Jonathan Belcher (8 January 1681/231 August 1757) was a merchant, politician and slave trader from Province of Massachusetts Bay, colonial Massachusetts who served as the List of colonial governors of New Hampshire, governor of New Hampshire fr ...
was sworn in as chief justice of the Nova Scotia Supreme Court on 21 October 1754."Timeline History of the Nova Scotia Supreme Court"
The first legislative assembly in Halifax, under the Governorship of Charles Lawrence, met on 2 October 1758. During the
French and Indian War The French and Indian War (1754–1763) was a theater of the Seven Years' War The Seven Years' War (1756–1763) is widely considered to be the first global conflict in history, and was a struggle for world supremacy between Great Britain ...

French and Indian War
of 1754–63 (the North American theatre of the
Seven Years' War The Seven Years' War (1756–1763) is widely considered to be the first global conflict in history, and was a struggle for world supremacy between Kingdom of Great Britain, Great Britain and Kingdom of France, France. In Europe, the conflict ar ...
of 1756–1763), the British
deported Deportation is the expulsion of a person or group of people from a place or country. The term ''expulsion'' is often used as a synonym for deportation, though expulsion is more often used in the context of international law, while deportation is ...
the Acadians and recruited
New England Planters New is an adjective referring to something recently made, discovered, or created. New or NEW may refer to: Music * New, singer of K-pop group The Boyz Boyz or The Boyz may refer to: Music Bands *The Boyz (German band), a German boy band of th ...
to resettle the colony. The 75-year period of war ended with the
Halifax Treaties The Halifax Treaties were 11 written documents signed by the various bands of the Miꞌkmaq and the British in Halifax, Nova Scotia between 1760 and 1761. The Treaties ended the conflict that had persisted between the two peoples for 85 years. T ...
between the British and the Mi'kmaq (1761). After the war, some Acadians were allowed to return. In 1763, most of Acadia (Cape Breton Island, St. John's Island (now
Prince Edward Island (''The small protected by the great'') , image_map = Prince Edward Island in Canada (special marker) 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English language, English (''d ...

Prince Edward Island
), and New Brunswick) became part of Nova Scotia. In 1765, the county of Sunbury was created. This included the territory of present-day
New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , capital = Fredericton Fredericton (; ) is the capital of the Provinces and territor ...

New Brunswick
and eastern
Maine Maine () is a U.S. state, state in the New England region of the United States, bordered by New Hampshire to the west; the Gulf of Maine to the southeast; and the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Qu ...

Maine
as far as the
Penobscot River The Penobscot River () is a U.S. Geological Survey. National Hydrography Dataset high-resolution flowline dataThe National Map, accessed June 22, 2011 river in the U.S. state In the , a state is a , of which there are currently 50. Bou ...

Penobscot River
. In 1769, St. John's Island became a separate colony. The
American Revolution The American Revolution was an ideological and political revolution which occurred in colonial North America between 1765 and 1783. The Americans in the Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colo ...
(1775–1783) had a significant impact on shaping Nova Scotia. Initially, Nova Scotia—"the 14th American Colony" as some called it—displayed ambivalence over whether the colony should join the more southern colonies in their defiance of Britain, and rebellion flared at the
Battle of Fort Cumberland The Battle of Fort Cumberland (also known as the Eddy Rebellion) was an attempt by a small number of militia A militia () is generally an army or some other Military organization, fighting organization of non-professional soldiers, citizens o ...
(1776) and at the Siege of Saint John (1777). Throughout the war, American privateers devastated the maritime economy by capturing ships and looting almost every community outside of Halifax. These American raids alienated many sympathetic or neutral Nova Scotians into supporting the British. By the end of the war, Nova Scotia had outfitted a number of privateers to attack American shipping. British military forces based at Halifax succeeded in preventing American support for rebels in Nova Scotia and deterred any invasion of Nova Scotia. However the British navy failed to establish naval supremacy. While the British captured many American privateers in battles such as the Naval battle off Halifax (1782), many more continued attacks on shipping and settlements until the final months of the war. The Royal Navy struggled to maintain British supply lines, defending convoys from American and French attacks as in the fiercely fought convoy battle, the Naval battle off Cape Breton (1781). After the Thirteen Colonies and their French allies forced the British forces to surrender (1781), approximately 33,000
Loyalists Loyalism, in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. ...
(the King's Loyal Americans, allowed to place "United Empire Loyalist" after their names) settled in Nova Scotia (14,000 of them in what became New Brunswick) on lands granted by the Crown as some compensation for their losses. (The British administration divided Nova Scotia and hived off Cape Breton and
New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , capital = Fredericton Fredericton (; ) is the capital of the Provinces and territor ...

New Brunswick
in 1784). The Loyalist exodus created new communities across Nova Scotia, including Shelburne, Nova Scotia, Shelburne, which briefly became one of the larger British settlements in North America, and infused Nova Scotia with additional capital and skills. There are also a number of Black loyalists buried in unmarked graves in the Old Burying Ground (Halifax, Nova Scotia). However the migration also caused political tensions between Loyalist leaders and the leaders of the existing
New England Planters New is an adjective referring to something recently made, discovered, or created. New or NEW may refer to: Music * New, singer of K-pop group The Boyz Boyz or The Boyz may refer to: Music Bands *The Boyz (German band), a German boy band of th ...
settlement. The Loyalist influx also pushed Nova Scotia's 2000 Mi'kmaq People to the margins as Loyalist land grants encroached on ill-defined native lands. As part of the Loyalist migration, about 3,000 Black Loyalists arrived; they founded the largest free Black settlement in North America at Birchtown, Nova Scotia, Birchtown, near Shelburne. Many Nova Scotian communities were Nova Scotia in the American Revolution#Loyalist settlements, settled by British regiments that fought in the war.


19th century

During the War of 1812, Nova Scotia's contribution to the British war effort involved communities either purchasing or building various privateer ships to attack U.S. vessels. Perhaps the most dramatic moment in the war for Nova Scotia occurred when HMS Shannon (1806), HMS ''Shannon'' escorted the captured American frigate USS Chesapeake (1799), USS ''Chesapeake'' into Halifax Harbour (1813). Many of the U.S. prisoners were kept at Deadman's Island, Halifax. During this century, Nova Scotia became the first colony in British North America and in the
British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. ...

British Empire
to achieve
responsible government Responsible government is a conception of a system of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ' ...
in January–February 1848 and become self-governing colony, self-governing through the efforts of Joseph Howe. Nova Scotia had established representative government in 1758, an achievement later commemorated by the erection of the Sir Sandford Fleming Park, Dingle Tower in 1908. Nova Scotians fought in the Crimean War of 1853–1856. The Welsford-Parker Monument in Halifax is the second-oldest war monument in Canada (1860) and the only Crimean War monument in North America. It commemorates the Siege of Sevastopol (1854–1855), 1854–55 Siege of Sevastopol. Thousands of Nova Scotians fought in the American Civil War (1861–1865), primarily on behalf of the Union (American Civil War), North. Marquis, Greg. ''In Armageddon's Shadow: The Civil War and Canada's Maritime Provinces''. McGill-Queen's University Press. 1998. The British Empire (including Nova Scotia) s:British proclamation of neutrality in the American Civil War, declared itself neutral in the conflict. As a result, Britain (and Nova Scotia) continued to trade with both the Confederate States of America, South and the North. Nova Scotia's economy boomed during the Civil War.


Post-Confederation history

Soon after the American Civil War, Pro-Canadian Confederation List of premiers of Nova Scotia, premier Charles Tupper led Nova Scotia into Canadian Confederation on 1 July 1867, along with New Brunswick and the
Province of Canada The Province of Canada (or the United Province of Canada or the United Canadas) (french: link=no, Province du Canada) was a British North America, British colony in North America from 1841 to 1867. Its formation reflected recommendations mad ...
. The Anti-Confederation Party was led by Joseph Howe. Almost three months later, in the election of 18 September 1867, the Anti-Confederation Party won 18 out of 19 federal seats, and 36 out of 38 seats in the provincial legislature. Throughout the 19th century, numerous businesses developed in Nova Scotia became of pan-Canadian and international importance: the Starr Manufacturing Company (first skate-manufacturer in Canada), the Bank of Nova Scotia, Cunard Line, Alexander Keith's Brewery, Morse's Tea Company (first tea company in Canada), among others. Nova Scotia became a world leader in both building and owning wooden sailing ships in the second half of the 19th century. Nova Scotia produced internationally recognized shipbuilders Donald McKay and William Dawson Lawrence. The fame Nova Scotia achieved from sailors was assured when Joshua Slocum became the first man to sail single-handedly around the world (1895). International attention continued into the following century with the many racing victories of the ''Bluenose'' schooner. Nova Scotia was also the birthplace and home of Samuel Cunard, a United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, British shipping magnate (born at Halifax (former city), Halifax, Nova Scotia) who founded the Cunard Line. In December 1917, about 2,000 people were killed in the Halifax Explosion. In April 2020, 2020 Nova Scotia attacks, a killing spree occurred across the province and became the deadliest rampage in Canada's history.


Demography


Ethnic origins

According to the 2016 Canadian census the largest ethnic group in Nova Scotia is Scottish people, Scottish (30.0%), followed by English (28.9%), Irish (21.6%), French (16.5%), German (10.7%), First Nations (5.4%), Dutch (3.5%), Métis (2.9%), and Acadian (2.6%). 42.6% of respondents identified their ethnicity as "Canadian".


Language

The Canada 2016 Census, 2016 Canadian census showed a population of 923,598. Of the 904,285 singular responses to the census question concerning mother tongue, the most commonly reported languages were: Figures shown are for the number of single-language responses and the percentage of total single-language responses. Nova Scotia is home to the largest
Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig ), also known as Scots Gaelic and Gaelic, is a Goidelic language The Goidelic or Gaelic languages ( ga, teangacha Gaelacha; gd, cànanan Goidhealach; gv, çhengaghyn Gaelgagh) form one of the two groups o ...
-speaking community outside of Scotland, with a small number of native speakers in Pictou County, Antigonish County, and
Cape Breton Island Cape Breton Island (french: link=no, île du Cap-Breton, formerly '; gd, Ceap Breatainn or '; mic, Unamaꞌki) is an island on the Atlantic coast of North America and part of the province of Nova Scotia, Canada. The island accounts for 18. ...

Cape Breton Island
, and the language is taught in a number of secondary schools throughout the province. In 2018 the government launched a new Gaelic vehicle licence plate to raise awareness of the language and help fund Gaelic language and culture initiatives. They estimated that there were 2,000 Gaelic speakers in the province.


Religion

In 1871, the largest religious denominations were Presbyterian with 103,500 (27%); Roman Catholic with 102,000 (26%); Baptist with 73,295 (19%); Anglican with 55,124 (14%); Methodist with 40,748 (10%), Lutheran with 4,958 (1.3%); and Congregationalist with 2,538 (0.65%). According to the 2011 census, the largest denominations by number of adherents were Christians with 78.2%. About 21.18% were non-religious and 1% were Muslims. Jews, Hindus, and Sikhs constitute around 0.20%.


Economy

Nova Scotia's List of Canadian provinces and territories by gross domestic product, per capita GDP in 2016 was , significantly lower than the national average per capita GDP of . GDP growth has lagged behind the rest of the country for at least the past decade.Province of Nova Scotia
/ref> As of 2017, the median family income in Nova Scotia was $85,970, below the national average of $92,990; in Halifax the figure rises to $98,870. The province is the world's largest exporter of Christmas trees, lobster, gypsum, and Berry, wild berries. Its export value of fish exceeds $1 billion, and fish products are received by 90 countries around the world. Nevertheless, the province's imports far exceed its exports. While these numbers were roughly equal from 1992 until 2004, since that time the trade deficit has ballooned. In 2012, exports from Nova Scotia were 12.1% of provincial GDP, while imports were 22.6%. Nova Scotia's traditionally Natural resource, resource-based economy has diversified in recent decades. The rise of Nova Scotia as a viable jurisdiction in North America, historically, was driven by the ready availability of natural resources, especially the Fish stocks, fish stocks off the Scotian Shelf. The Fishing, fishery was a pillar of the economy since its development as part of
New France New France (french: Nouvelle-France) was the area colonized by France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its extends from the to the a ...

New France
in the 17th century; however, the fishery suffered a sharp decline due to overfishing in the late 20th century. The collapse of the Atlantic Cod, cod stocks and the closure of this sector resulted in a loss of approximately 20,000 jobs in 1992. Other sectors in the province were also hit hard, particularly during the last two decades: coal mining in Cape Breton and northern mainland Nova Scotia has virtually ceased, and a Sydney Steel Corporation, large steel mill in Sydney, Nova Scotia, Sydney closed during the 1990s. More recently, the high value of the Canadian dollar relative to the US dollar has hurt the forestry industry, leading to the shutdown of a long-running Bowater Mersey Paper Company Limited, pulp and paper mill near Liverpool, Nova Scotia, Liverpool. Mining, especially of gypsum and salt and to a lesser extent silica, peat and barite, is also a significant sector. Since 1991, Offshore drilling, offshore oil and gas has become an important part of the economy, although production and revenue are now declining. However, agriculture remains an important sector in the province, particularly in the Annapolis Valley. Nova Scotia's defence and aerospace sector generates approximately $500 million in revenues and contributes about $1.5 billion to the provincial economy each year.Nova Scotia Business Inc
Defence, Security & Aerospace
Retrieved 10 October 2008.
To date, 40% of Canada's military assets reside in Nova Scotia. Nova Scotia has the fourth-largest film industry in Canada hosting over 100 productions yearly, more than half of which are the products of international film and television producers. In 2015, the government of Nova Scotia eliminated tax credits to film production in the province, jeopardizing the industry given most other jurisdictions continue to offer such credits. The province also boasts a rapidly developing Information Technology, Information & Communication Technology (ICT) sector which consists of over 500 companies, and employs roughly 15,000 people. In 2006, the manufacturing sector brought in over $2.6 billion in chained GDP, the largest output of any industrial sector in Nova Scotia. Michelin remains by far the largest single employer in this sector, operating three production plants in the province. Michelin is also the province's largest private-sector employer.


Tourism

The Nova Scotia tourism industry includes more than 6,500 direct businesses, supporting nearly 40,000 jobs. Cruise ships pay regular visits to the province. In 2010, the Port of Halifax received 261,000 passengers and Sydney 69,000. This industry contributes approximately $1.3 billion annually to the economy. A 2008 Nova Scotia tourism campaign included advertising a fictional mobile phone called Pomegranate (phone), Pomegranate and establishing website, which after reading about "new phone" redirected to tourism info about region. Nova Scotia's tourism industry showcases Nova Scotia's culture, scenery and coastline. Nova Scotia has many museums reflecting its ethnic heritage, including the Glooscap Heritage Centre, Grand-Pré National Historic Site, Hector (ship), Hector Heritage Quay and the Black Cultural Centre for Nova Scotia. Other museums tell the story of its working history, such as the Cape Breton Miners' Museum, and the Maritime Museum of the Atlantic. Nova Scotia is home to several internationally renowned musicians and there are visitor centres in the home towns of Hank Snow, Rita MacNeil, and Anne Murray Centre. There are also numerous music and cultural festivals such as the Stan Rogers Folk Festival, Celtic Colours, the Nova Scotia Gaelic Mod, Royal Nova Scotia International Tattoo, the Atlantic Film Festival and the Atlantic Fringe Festival. The province has List of National Historic Sites of Canada in Nova Scotia, 87 National Historic Sites of Canada, including the Habitation at Port-Royal, the
Fortress of Louisbourg The Fortress of Louisbourg (french: Forteresse de Louisbourg) is a National Historic Sites of Canada, National Historic Site and the location of a one-quarter partial reconstruction of an 18th-century Kingdom of France, French fortress at Louisbou ...

Fortress of Louisbourg
and Citadel Hill (Fort George) in Halifax. Nova Scotia has two national parks, Kejimkujik National Park, Kejimkujik and Cape Breton Highlands National Park, Cape Breton Highlands, and many other List of protected areas of Nova Scotia, protected areas. The
Bay of Fundy The Bay of Fundy (french: Baie de Fundy) is a bay between the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, with a small portion touching the US state of Maine. It has an extremely high tidal range. The name is likely a corruption of the F ...

Bay of Fundy
has the highest tidal range in the world, and the iconic Peggys Cove, Nova Scotia, Peggys Cove is internationally recognized and receives 600,000-plus visitors a year. Lunenburg, Nova Scotia, Old Town Lunenburg is a port town on the South Shore that was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Acadian Skies and Mi'kmaq Lands is a starlight reserve in southwestern Nova Scotia. It is the first certified UNESCO-Starlight Tourist Destination. Starlight tourist destinations are locations that offer conditions for observations of stars which are protected from light pollution.


Government and politics

Nova Scotia is ordered by a Parliamentary system, parliamentary government within the construct of constitutional monarchy; the monarchy in Nova Scotia is the foundation of the executive, Legislature, legislative, and Judiciary, judicial branches. The sovereign is Queen Elizabeth II, who also serves as head of state of Commonwealth realm, 14 other Commonwealth countries, each of Canada's nine other provinces, and the Canadian federal realm, and resides predominantly in the United Kingdom. As such, the Queen's representative, the Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia (at present Arthur Joseph LeBlanc), carries out most of the royal duties in Nova Scotia. The direct participation of the royal and viceroyal figures in any of these areas of governance is limited, though; in practice, their use of the executive powers is directed by Executive Council of Nova Scotia, the Executive Council, a committee of Minister of the Crown, ministers of the Crown responsible to the unicameral, elected Nova Scotia House of Assembly, House of Assembly and chosen and headed by the Premier of Nova Scotia (presently Tim Houston), the head of government. To ensure the stability of government, the lieutenant governor will usually appoint as premier the person who is the current leader of the political party that can obtain the confidence of a plurality (voting), plurality in the House of Assembly. The leader of the party with the second-most seats usually becomes the Leader of the Opposition (Nova Scotia), Leader of Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition (presently Iain Rankin) and is part of an adversarial parliamentary system intended to keep the government in check. Each of the 51 Member of the Legislative Assembly, Members of the Legislative Assembly in the House of Assembly is elected by single member plurality in an electoral district (Canada), electoral district or riding. General elections must be called by the lieutenant governor on the advice of the premier, or may be triggered by the government losing a confidence vote in the House. There are three dominant political parties in Nova Scotia: the Nova Scotia Liberal Party, Liberal Party, the Nova Scotia New Democratic Party, New Democratic Party, and the Progressive Conservative Association of Nova Scotia, Progressive Conservative Party. The other two registered parties are the Green Party of Nova Scotia and the Atlantica Party, neither of which has a seat in the House of Assembly. The province's revenue comes mainly from the taxation of personal and corporate income, although taxes on tobacco and alcohol, its stake in the Atlantic Lottery Corporation, and oil and gas royalties are also significant. In 2006–07, the province passed a budget of $6.9 billion, with a projected $72 million surplus. Federal equalization payments account for $1.385 billion, or 20.07% of the provincial revenue. The province participates in the Harmonized Sales Tax, HST, a blended sales tax collected by the federal government using the Goods and Services Tax (Canada), GST tax system.


Administrative divisions

Municipal-level governance is provided by 50 municipalities, of which there are three types: regional municipalities, towns, and county or district municipalities. Villages can exist within county or district municipalities, with a limited authority and an elected council. Nova Scotia is divided into List of counties of Nova Scotia, 18 counties. 9 of the original 18 counties retain a county-level government while the rest are either governed by List of municipalities in Nova Scotia, regional or district municipalities. Regional municipalities are coextensive with the borders with a historic county, while historic counties governed by district municipalities are split into two district municipalities each. Despite this, Statistics Canada uses all counties of Nova Scotia for the purposes of administering the census and presenting its data, and they remain used in common parlance as geographic identifiers by Nova Scotians. There are three regional municipalities. They may incorporate under the ''Municipal Government Act'' (''MGA'') of 1998, which came into force on 1 April 1999, while towns, county municipalities and district municipalities are continued as municipalities under the ''MGA''. The ''MGA'' gives municipal councils the power to make bylaws for "health, well being, safety and protection of persons" and "safety and protection of property" in addition to a few expressed powers.The regional municipality of
Halifax Halifax commonly refers to: *Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada *Halifax, West Yorkshire, England *Halifax (bank), a British bank Halifax may also refer to: Places Australia *Halifax, Queensland *Halifax Bay, North Queensland Canada Nova Scotia *Hali ...
is the capital and largest municipality of Nova Scotia by population with 403,131 residents representing of the total population of the province and land area at . Pictou was the first municipality to incorporate , and the newest municipalities are Halifax and Region of Queens Municipality, Nova Scotia, Region of Queens Municipality both amalgamating into their present regional municipality form of government . There are 26 towns, nine county municipalities and 12 district municipalities.


Culture


Cuisine

The cuisine of Nova Scotia is typically Canadian cuisine, Canadian with an emphasis on local seafood. One endemic dish (in the sense of "peculiar to" and "originating from") is the donair, Halifax donair, a distant variant of the doner kebab prepared using thinly sliced beef meatloaf and a sweet condensed milk sauce. As well, Hodge-Podge (soup), hodge podge, a creamy soup of fresh baby vegetables, is native to Nova Scotia. The province is also known for a dessert called blueberry Dumpling, grunt.


Events and festivals

There are a number of festivals and cultural events that are recurring in Nova Scotia, or notable in its history. The following is an incomplete list of festivals and other cultural gatherings in the province: *Royal Nova Scotia International Tattoo *Annapolis Valley Apple Blossom Festival *Atlantic Theatre Festival *Atlantic Film Festival *Atlantic Band Festival *Cape Breton International Drum Festival *Cecilia Concerts Chamber Music Series *Celtic Colours *Evolve Festival *Pictou Lobster Carnival *Halifax Comedy Festival *Halifax Jazz Festival *Halifax Pride *Halifax Pop Explosion *Nova Scotia Gaelic Mod *Stan Rogers Folk Festival *Stoked for the Holidays *Strategic Partners *The Word on the Street (literary festival), The Word on the Street *Festival Antigonish Summer Theatre *Virgin Festival *New Glasgow Riverfront Jubilee *Wharf Rat Rally *Halifax Busker Festival *Hal-Con


Film and television

Nova Scotia has produced numerous film actors. Academy Award nominee Elliot Page (''Juno (film), Juno'', ''Inception'') was born in Halifax, Nova Scotia; five-time Academy Award nominee Arthur Kennedy (''Lawrence of Arabia (film), Lawrence of Arabia'', ''High Sierra (film), High Sierra'') called Nova Scotia his home; and two time Golden Globe winner Donald Sutherland (''MASH (film), MASH'', ''Ordinary People'') spent most of his youth in the province. Other actors include John Paul Tremblay, Robb Wells, Mike Smith (actor), Mike Smith and John Dunsworth of ''Trailer Park Boys'' and actress Joanne Kelly of ''Warehouse 13''. Nova Scotia has also produced numerous film directors such as Thom Fitzgerald (''The Hanging Garden (film), The Hanging Garden''), Daniel Petrie (''Resurrection (1980 film), Resurrection''—Academy Award nominee) and Acadian film director Phil Comeau's multiple award-winning local story (''Le secret de Jérôme (film), Le secret de Jérôme''). Nova Scotian stories are the subject of numerous feature films: ''Margaret's Museum'' (starring Helena Bonham Carter); ''The Bay Boy'' (directed by Daniel Petrie and starring Kiefer Sutherland); ''New Waterford Girl''; ''The Story of Adele H.'' (the story of unrequited love of Adèle Hugo); and two films of ''Evangeline'' (one starring Miriam Cooper and another starring Dolores del Río). There is a significant film industry in Nova Scotia. Feature filmmaking began in Canada with ''Evangeline'' (1913), made by Canadian Bioscope Company in Halifax, which released six films before it closed. The film has since been lost. Some of the award-winning feature films made in the province are ''Titanic (1997 film), Titanic'' (starring Leonardo DiCaprio and Kate Winslet); ''The Shipping News'' (starring Kevin Spacey and Julianne Moore); ''K-19: The Widowmaker'' (starring Harrison Ford and Liam Neeson); ''Amelia (film), Amelia'' (starring Hilary Swank, Richard Gere and Ewan McGregor) and ''The Lighthouse (2019 film), The Lighthouse'' (starring Robert Pattinson and William Dafoe). Nova Scotia has also produced numerous television series: ''This Hour Has 22 Minutes'', ''Don Messer's Jubilee'', ''Black Harbour'', ''Haven (TV series), Haven'', ''Trailer Park Boys'', ''Mr. D'', ''Call Me Fitz'', and ''Theodore Tugboat''. The ''Jesse Stone (character), Jesse Stone'' film series on CBS starring Tom Selleck is also routinely produced in the province.


Fine arts

Nova Scotia has long been a centre for artistic and cultural excellence. The capital, Halifax, hosts institutions such as Nova Scotia College of Art and Design University, Art Gallery of Nova Scotia, Neptune Theatre (Halifax), Neptune Theatre, Dalhousie Arts Centre, and the Two Planks and a Passion Theatre. The province is home to avant-garde visual art and traditional crafting, writing and publishing and a film industry. Much of the historic public art sculptures in the province were made by New York sculptor J. Massey Rhind as well as Canadian sculptors Hamilton MacCarthy, George William Hill (sculptor), George Hill, Emanuel Hahn and Louis-Philippe Hébert. Some of this public art was also created by Nova Scotian John Wilson (sculptor), John Wilson. Nova Scotian George Lang (builder), George Lang was a stone sculpture, stone sculptor who also built many landmark buildings in the province, including the Welsford-Parker Monument. Two valuable sculptures/ monuments in the province are in St. Paul's Church (Halifax): one by John Gibson (sculptor), John Gibson (for Richard John Uniacke, Jr.) and another monument by Sir Francis Leggatt Chantrey (for Amelia Ann Smyth). Both Gibson and Chantry were famous British sculptors during the Victorian era and have numerou sculptures in the Tate, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston and Westminster Abbey. Some of the province's greatest painters were Maud Lewis, William Valentine (painter), William Valentine, Maria Frances Ann Morris, Maria Morris, Jack L. Gray, Mabel Killiam Day, Ernest Lawson, Frances Bannerman, Alex Colville, Tom Forrestall and ship portrait artist John O'Brien (marine artist), John O'Brien. Some of most notable artists whose works have been acquired by Nova Scotia are British artist Joshua Reynolds (collection of Art Gallery of Nova Scotia); William Gush and William J. Weaver (both have works in Province House (Nova Scotia), Province House); Robert Field (painter), Robert Field (Government House (Nova Scotia), Government House), as well as leading American artists Benjamin West (self portrait in The Halifax Club, portrait of chief justice in Nova Scotia Supreme Court), John Singleton Copley, Robert Feke, and Robert Field (painter), Robert Field (the latter three have works in the Richard John Uniacke, Uniacke Estate). Two famous Nova Scotian photographers are Wallace R. MacAskill and Sherman Hines. Three of the most accomplished illustrators were George Wylie Hutchinson, Bob Chambers (cartoonist) and Donald A. Mackay.


Literature

There are numerous Nova Scotian authors who have achieved international fame: Thomas Chandler Haliburton (''Sam Slick, The Clockmaker''), Alistair MacLeod (''No Great Mischief''), Evelyn M. Richardson, Evelyn Richardson ''(We Keep A Light)'', Margaret Marshall Saunders ''(Beautiful Joe),'' Laurence Bradford Dakin, Laurence B. Dakin ''(Marco Polo),'' and Joshua Slocum ''(Sailing Alone Around the World).'' Other authors include Johanna Skibsrud ''(The Sentimentalists),'' Alden Nowlan ''(Bread, Wine and Salt),'' George Elliott Clarke ''(Execution Poems),'' Lesley Choyce ''(Nova Scotia: Shaped by the Sea),'' Thomas Raddall ''(Halifax: Warden of the North),'' Donna Morrissey ''(Kit's Law),'' and Frank Parker Day ''(Rockbound).'' Nova Scotia has also been the subject of numerous literary books. Some of the international best-sellers are: ''Last Man Out: The Story of the Springhill Mining Disaster'' (by Melissa Fay Greene) ; ''Curse of the Narrows: The Halifax Explosion 1917'' (by Laura MacDonald); "In the Village" (short story by Pulitzer Prize–winning author Elizabeth Bishop); and National Book Critics Circle Award winner ''Rough Crossings'' (by Simon Schama). Other authors who have written novels about Nova Scotian stories include: Linden MacIntyre (''The Bishop's Man''); Hugh MacLennan (''Barometer Rising''); Ernest Buckler (''The Valley and the Mountain''); Archibald MacMechan (''Red Snow on Grand Pré''), Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (long poem ''Evangeline''); Lawrence Hill (''The Book of Negroes (novel), The Book of Negroes'') and John Mack Faragher (''Great and Nobel Scheme'').


Media


News

The first newspaper to be printed in Nova Scotia was the Halifax Gazette on March 23, 1752. It was also the first newspaper printed anywhere in Canada. A single copy of the first issue of the Gazette exists today, which was acquired by Library and Archives Canada on June 20, 2002 from the Massachusetts Historical Society in Boston. Newsprint made from Pulp (paper), wood pulp was invented in 1844 by List of people from Nova Scotia, Nova Scotian Charles Fenerty and was presented to the Acadian Recorder as an alternative printing medium to the paper made from other plant fibers at the time, such as cotton, which was typically made from Cotton paper, discarded articles of clothing. Founded in 1874, the province's current primary daily broadsheet newspaper is The Chronicle Herald, which is circulated to 91,152 weekday customers, with the number increasing to 93,178 on Saturdays (2015). It is the most widely circulated newspaper in Atlantic Canada. The paper does not publish on Sundays. It is owned by the SaltWire Network, the largest media company in Atlantic Canada. The Nova Scotia Government also provides a digital archive of past newspapers via the Nova Scotia Archives website.


Radio

The province's first radio station was CHNS-FM which first aired on May 12, 1926 from the The Carleton, Carleton Hotel in Halifax by World War I Royal Canadian Corps of Signals, Signal Corps soldier William C. Borrett. Today the station is owned by Maritime Broadcasting System and goes by the on-air Brand, brand name ''89.9 The Wave'' and attracts a weekly average of 64,236 listeners between the ages of 25 and 54. It has a classic hits format, airing popular music from the 60s, 70s and 80s.


Music

Nova Scotia is home to Symphony Nova Scotia, a symphony orchestra based in Halifax. The province has produced more than its fair share of famous musicians, including Grammy Award winners Denny Doherty (from The Mamas & the Papas), Anne Murray, and Sarah McLachlan, country singers Hank Snow, George Canyon, George Canyon, and Drake Jensen, jazz vocalist Holly Cole, classical performers Portia White and Barbara Hannigan, multi Juno Award nominated rapper Classified (rapper), Classified, and such diverse artists as Rita MacNeil, Matt Mays, Sloan (band), Sloan, Feist (singer), Feist, Todd Fancey, The Rankin Family, Natalie MacMaster, Susan Crowe, Buck 65, Joel Plaskett, and the bands April Wine and Grand Dérangement (band), Grand Dérangement There are numerous songs written about Nova Scotia: The Ballad of Springhill (written by Peggy Seeger and performed by Irish folk singer Luke Kelly, a member of The Dubliners); several songs by Stan Rogers including Bluenose, Watching The Apples Grow, The Jeannie C (mentions Little Dover, NS), Barrett's Privateers, Giant, and The Rawdon Hills; Farewell to Nova Scotia (traditional); Blue Nose (Stompin' Tom Connors); She's Called Nova Scotia (by Rita MacNeil); Cape Breton (by David Myles (singer-songwriter), David Myles); Acadian Driftwood (by Robbie Robertson); Acadie (by Daniel Lanois); Song for the Mira, Song For The Mira (by Allister MacGillivray) and My Nova Scotia Home (by Hank Snow). Nova Scotia has produced many significant songwriters, such as Grammy Award winning Gordie Sampson, who has written songs for Carrie Underwood ("Jesus, Take the Wheel", "Just a Dream", "Get Out of This Town"), Martina McBride ("If I Had Your Name", "You're Not Leavin Me"), LeAnn Rimes ("Long Night", "Save Myself"), and George Canyon ("My Name"). Many of Hank Snow, Hank Snow's songs went on to be recorded by the likes of The Rolling Stones, Elvis Presley, and Johnny Cash. Cape Bretoners Allister MacGillivray and Leon Dubinsky have both written songs which, by being covered by so many popular artists, and by entering the repertoire of so many choirs around the world, have become iconic representations of Nova Scotian style, values and ethos. Dubinsky's pop ballad "Rise Again (The Rankin Family song), We Rise Again" might be called the unofficial anthem of Cape Breton. Music producer Brian Ahern (producer), Brian Ahern is a Nova Scotian. He got his start by being music director for CBC television's Singalong Jubilee. He later produced 12 albums for Anne Murray ("Snowbird", "Danny's Song" and "You Won't See Me"); 11 albums for Emmylou Harris (whom he married at his home in Halifax on 9 January 1977). He also produced discs for Johnny Cash, George Jones, Roy Orbison, Glen Campbell, Don Williams, Jesse Winchester and Linda Ronstadt. Grammy winning songwriter and music producer Cirkut, known for writing and producing songs for The Weeknd, Britney Spears, Miley Cyrus, and Katy Perry, was born and raised in Halifax before moving to Toronto in 2004.


Sports

Sport is an important part of Nova Scotia culture. There are numerous semi pro, university and amateur sports teams, for example, The Halifax Mooseheads, 2013 Canadian Hockey League Memorial Cup Champions, and the Cape Breton Screaming Eagles, both of the Quebec Major Junior Hockey League. The Halifax Hurricanes of the National Basketball League of Canada is another team that calls Nova Scotia home, and were 2016 league champions. Professional soccer came to the province in 2019 in the form of Canadian Premier League club HFX Wanderers FC. The Nova Scotia Open was a professional golf tournament on the Web.com Tour in 2014 and 2015. The province has also produced numerous athletes such as Sidney Crosby (ice hockey), Nathan Mackinnon (ice hockey), Lincoln Steen (Wrestling), Brad Marchand (ice hockey), Colleen Jones (curling), Al MacInnis (ice hockey), T. J. Grant (mixed martial arts), Rocky Johnson (wrestling, and father of Dwayne Johnson, Dwayne "The Rock" Johnson), George Dixon (boxer), George Dixon (boxing) and Kirk Johnson (boxing). The achievements of Nova Scotian athletes are presented at the Nova Scotia Sport Hall of Fame.


Education

The Minister of Education is responsible for the administration and delivery of education, as defined by the Education Act and other acts relating to colleges, universities and private schools. The powers of the Minister and the Department of Education are defined by the Ministerial regulations and constrained by the Governor-In-Council regulations. All children until the age of 16 are legally required to attend school or the parent needs to perform home schooling. Nova Scotia's education system is split up into eight different regions including; Tri-County (22 schools), Annapolis Valley (42 schools), South Shore (25 schools), Chignecto-Central (67 schools), Halifax (135 schools), Strait (20 schools), and Cape Breton-Victoria Regional Centre for Education (39 schools). Nova Scotia has more than 450 public schools for children. The public system offers primary to Grade 12. There are also private schools in the province. Public education is administered by seven regional school boards, responsible primarily for English instruction and French immersion, and also province-wide by the Conseil Scolaire Acadien Provincial, which administers French instruction to students whose primary language is French. The Nova Scotia Community College system has 13 campuses around the province. With a focus on training and education, the College (Canada), college was established in 1988 by amalgamating the province's former vocational schools. In addition to the provincial community college system, there are more than 90 registered private colleges in Nova Scotia. Ten universities are also situated in Nova Scotia, including Dalhousie University, University of King's College, Saint Mary's University (Halifax), Saint Mary's University, Mount Saint Vincent University, Nova Scotia College of Art and Design, NSCAD University, Acadia University, Université Sainte-Anne, Saint Francis Xavier University, Cape Breton University and the Atlantic School of Theology.


See also

* Outline of Nova Scotia * Index of Nova Scotia–related articles * Acadiensis, scholarly history journal covering Atlantic Canada * Bibliography of Nova Scotia


References


Bibliography

* * Brebner, John Bartlet. ''New England's Outpost. Acadia before the Conquest of Canada'' (1927) * Brebner, John Bartlet. ''The Neutral Yankees of Nova Scotia: A Marginal Colony During the Revolutionary Years'' (1937) * * * Grenier, John
The Far Reaches of Empire. War in Nova Scotia, 1710–1760
University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 2008. () * Landry, Peter. The Lion & The Lily. Vol. 1, Trafford Publishing, Victoria, BC., 2007. () * Murdoch, Beamish
History of Nova Scotia, Or Acadie
Vol 2. BiblioBazaar, LaVergne, TN, 1865. * Pryke, Kenneth G. ''Nova Scotia and Confederation, 1864–74'' (1979) () * Thomas Akins. History of Halifax, Brookhouse Press. 1895. (2002 edition) ()


External links


Government of Nova Scotia
* {{Authority control Nova Scotia, 1867 establishments in Canada Acadia Atlantic Canada British North America Former British colonies and protectorates in the Americas Former Scottish colonies Provinces of Canada States and territories established in 1867 The Maritimes