HOME

TheInfoList




Modern architecture, or modernist architecture, was an architectural movement or
architectural style An architectural style is a set of characteristics and features that make a building or other structure notable or historically identifiable. It is a sub-class of Style (visual arts), style in the visual arts generally, and most styles in archite ...
based upon new and innovative technologies of construction, particularly the use of glass, steel, and
reinforced concrete Reinforced concrete (RC), also called reinforced cement concrete (RCC), is a composite material A composite material (also called a composition material or shortened to composite, which is the common name) is a material which is produced from ...
; the idea that form should follow function ( functionalism); an embrace of
minimalism In visual arts The visual arts are art forms such as painting, drawing, printmaking, sculpture Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions. It is one of the plastic arts. Durable sculptural processe ...
; and a rejection of ornament. It emerged in the first half of the 20th century and became dominant after
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
until the 1980s, when it was gradually replaced as the principal style for institutional and
corporate A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality, legal entity representing an association of people, whether Natural person, natural, Legal person, legal ...

corporate
buildings by
postmodern architecture Postmodern architecture is a style or movement which emerged in the 1960s as a reaction against the austerity, formality, and lack of variety of modern architecture, particularly in the International Style (architecture), international style ad ...
.


Origins

File:Crystal Palace.PNG,
The Crystal Palace The Crystal Palace was a cast iron and plate glass structure, originally built in Hyde Park, London, Hyde Park, London, to house the Great Exhibition of 1851. The exhibition took place from 1 May to 15 October 1851, and more than 14,000 exhibito ...
(1851) was one of the first buildings to have
cast plate glass Architectural glass is glass that is used as a building material Building material is material used for construction Construction is a general term meaning the and to form , , or ,"Construction" def. 1.a. 1.b. and 1.c. ''Oxford Engl ...
windows supported by a
cast-iron Cast iron is a group of iron Iron () is a with Fe (from la, ) and 26. It is a that belongs to the and of the . It is, on , right in front of (32.1% and 30.1%, respectively), forming much of Earth's and . It is the fourth most ...
frame File:Maison François Coignet 2.jpg, The first house built of reinforced concrete, designed by François Coignet (1853) in
Saint-DenisSaint Denis may refer to: People * Saint Denis of Paris, 3rd-century Christian martyr and saint, patron saint of Paris * Denis the Carthusian (1402–1471) * Brent St. Denis (born 1950), Canadian politician * Frédéric St-Denis (born 1986), Canad ...
near Paris File:Home Insurance Building.JPG, The
Home Insurance Building The Home Insurance Building was a skyscraper A skyscraper is a large continuously habitable building having multiple floors. Modern sources currently define skyscrapers as being at least 100 metres or 150 metres in height, though there is no ...

Home Insurance Building
in Chicago, by
William Le Baron Jenney William LeBaron Jenney (September 25, 1832 – June 14, 1907) was an American architect An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connectio ...
(1884) File:Construction tour eiffel5.JPG, The
Eiffel Tower The Eiffel Tower ( ; french: links=yes, tour Eiffel ) is a on the in , France. It is named after the engineer , whose company designed and built the tower. Locally nicknamed "''La dame de fer''" (French for "Iron Lady"), it was const ...

Eiffel Tower
being constructed (August 1887–89)
Modern architecture emerged at the end of the 19th century from revolutions in technology, engineering, and building materials, and from a desire to break away from historical architectural styles and to invent something that was purely functional and new. The revolution in materials came first, with the use of
cast iron Cast iron is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content more than 2%. Its usefulness derives from its relatively low melting temperature. The alloy constituents affect its colour when fractured: white cast iron has carbide impuritie ...
,
drywall Drywall (also known as plasterboard, wallboard, sheet rock, gypsum board, buster board, custard board, or gypsum panel) is a panel made of calcium sulfate Calcium sulfate (or calcium sulphate) is the inorganic compound with the formula CaSO4 ...

drywall
plate glass Plate glass, flat glass or sheet glass is a type of glass Glass is a non- crystalline, often transparency and translucency, transparent amorphous solid, that has widespread practical, technological, and decorative use in, for example, windo ...
, and
reinforced concrete Reinforced concrete (RC), also called reinforced cement concrete (RCC), is a composite material A composite material (also called a composition material or shortened to composite, which is the common name) is a material which is produced from ...
, to build structures that were stronger, lighter, and taller. The
cast plate glass Architectural glass is glass that is used as a building material Building material is material used for construction Construction is a general term meaning the and to form , , or ,"Construction" def. 1.a. 1.b. and 1.c. ''Oxford Engl ...
process was invented in 1848, allowing the manufacture of very large windows.
The Crystal Palace The Crystal Palace was a cast iron and plate glass structure, originally built in Hyde Park, London, Hyde Park, London, to house the Great Exhibition of 1851. The exhibition took place from 1 May to 15 October 1851, and more than 14,000 exhibito ...
by
Joseph Paxton Sir Joseph Paxton (3 August 1803 – 8 June 1865) was an English gardener A gardener is someone who practices gardening Gardening is the practice of growing and cultivating plants as part of horticulture Horticulture is the art of cultiva ...

Joseph Paxton
at the
Great Exhibition opens the Great Exhibition in The Crystal Palace The Crystal Palace was a cast iron and plate glass structure, originally built in Hyde Park, London, Hyde Park, London, to house the Great Exhibition of 1851. The exhibition took place from 1 M ...
of 1851 was an early example of iron and plate glass construction, followed in 1864 by the first glass and metal
curtain wall Curtain wall may refer to: * Curtain wall (architecture), the outer skin of a modern building * Curtain wall (fortification), the outer wall of a castle or defensive wall between two bastions In the United States, the Great Depression led to a new style for government buildings, sometimes called PWA Moderne, for the Public Works Administration, which launched gigantic construction programs in the U.S. to stimulate employment. It was essentially classical architecture stripped of ornament, and was employed in state and federal buildings, from post offices to the largest office building in the world at that time, The Pentagon, Pentagon (1941–43), begun just before the United States entered the Second World War.


American modernism (1919–1939)

File:Ennis House front view 2005.jpg, Ennis House in Los Angeles, by Frank Lloyd Wright (1924) File:Fallingwater - DSC05643.JPG, Fallingwater by Frank Lloyd Wright (1928–34) File:Lovell Beach House 02.jpg, Lovell Beach House in Newport Beach by Rudolph Schindler (architect), Rudolph Schindler (1926) File:Lovell House 2.jpg, Lovell House, Lovell Health House in Los Feliz, Los Angeles, California, by Richard Neutra (1927–29) During the 1920s and 1930s, Frank Lloyd Wright resolutely refused to associate himself with any architectural movements. He considered his architecture to be entirely unique and his own. Between 1916 and 1922, he broke away from his earlier prairie house style and worked instead on houses decorated with textured blocks of cement; this became known as his "Mayan style", after the pyramids of the ancient Mayan civilization. He experimented for a time with modular mass-produced housing. He identified his architecture as "Usonian", a combination of USA, "utopian" and "organic social order". His business was severely affected by the beginning of the Great Depression that began in 1929; he had fewer wealthy clients who wanted to experiment. Between 1928 and 1935, he built only two buildings: a hotel near Chandler, Arizona, and the most famous of all his residences, Fallingwater (1934–37), a vacation house in Pennsylvania for Edgar J. Kaufman. Fallingwater is a remarkable structure of concrete slabs suspended over a waterfall, perfectly uniting architecture and nature. The Austrian architect Rudolph Schindler (architect), Rudolph Schindler designed what could be called the first house in the modern style in 1922, the Schindler house. Schindler also contributed to American modernism with his design for the Lovell Beach House in Newport Beach. The Austrian architect Richard Neutra moved to the United States in 1923, worked for a short time with Frank Lloyd Wright, also quickly became a force in American architecture through his modernist design for the same client, the Lovell House, Lovell Health House in Los Angeles. Neutra's most notable architectural work was the Kaufmann Desert House in 1946, and he designed hundreds of further projects.


Paris International Exposition of 1937 and the architecture of dictators

File:Paris 75016 Fontaines du Trocadéro 20090815.jpg, The Palais de Chaillot by Louis-Hippolyte Boileau, Jacques Carlu and Léon Azéma from the Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne, 1937 Paris International Exposition File:Paris-1937Expo.jpg, The Pavilion of Nazi Germany (left) faced the Pavilion of Stalin's Soviet Union (right) at the 1937 Paris Exposition. File:Rutes Històriques a Horta-Guinardó-pabello republica 02.jpg, Reconstruction of the Pavilion of the Second Spanish Republic by Josep Lluis Sert (1937) displayed Picasso's painting ''Guernica (Picasso), Guernica'' (1937) File:Nazi party rally grounds (1938) 3.jpg, The Zeppelinfield stadium in Nuremberg, Germany (1934), built by Albert Speer for Nazi Party rallies File:Como, ex casa del fascio 04.JPG, The ''Casa del Fascio'' (House of Fascism) in Como, Italy, by Giuseppe Terragni (1932–1936) File:Palais de Tokyo, Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris.jpg, Palais de Tokyo, Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris The Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne, 1937 Paris International Exposition in Paris effectively marked the end of the Art Deco, and of pre-war architectural styles. Most of the pavilions were in a neoclassical Deco style, with colonnades and sculptural decoration. The pavilions of Nazi Germany, designed by Albert Speer, in a German neoclassical style topped by eagle and swastika, faced the pavilion of the Soviet Union, topped by enormous statues of a worker and a peasant carrying a hammer and sickle. As to the modernists, Le Corbusier was practically, but not quite invisible at the Exposition; he participated in the Pavilion des temps nouveaux, but focused mainly on his painting. The one modernist who did attract attention was a collaborator of Le Corbusier, Josep Lluis Sert, the Spanish architect, whose pavilion of the Second Spanish Republic was pure modernist glass and steel box. Inside it displayed the most modernist work of the Exposition, the painting ''Guernica (Picasso), Guernica'' by Pablo Picasso. The original building was destroyed after the Exposition, but it was recreated in 1992 in Barcelona. The rise of nationalism in the 1930s was reflected in the Fascist architecture of Italy, and Nazi architecture of Germany, based on classical styles and designed to express power and grandeur. The Nazi architecture, much of it designed by Albert Speer, was intended to awe the spectators by its huge scale. Adolf Hitler intended to turn Berlin into the capital of Europe, grander than Rome or Paris. The Nazis closed the Bauhaus, and the most prominent modern architects soon departed for Britain or the United States. In Italy, Benito Mussolini wished to present himself as the heir to the glory and empire of ancient Rome. Mussolini's government was not as hostile to modernism as The Nazis; the spirit of Rationalism (architecture), Italian Rationalism of the 1920s continued, with the work of architect Giuseppe Terragni. His ''Casa del Fascio'' in Como, headquarters of the local Fascist party, was a perfectly modernist building, with geometric proportions (33.2 meters long by 16.6 meters high), a clean facade of marble, and a Renaissance-inspired interior courtyard. Opposed to Terragni was Marcello Piacitini, a proponent of monumental fascist architecture, who rebuilt the University of Rome, and designed the Italian pavilion at the 1937 Paris Exposition, and planned a grand reconstruction of Rome on the fascist model.


New York World's Fair (1939)

File:1939fairhelicline.jpg, The Trylon and Perisphere, symbols of the 1939 World's Fair File:World Fair 1939 LOC gsc.5a03061.jpg, Pavilion of the Ford Motor Company, in the Streamline Moderne style File:RCA Exhibit Building 1939 World's Fair Postcard 2007.016 front.tif, The RCA Pavilion featured early public television broadcasts File:House of Glass Worlds Fair 1939 LOC gsc.5a03199.jpg, Living room of the House of Glass, showing what future homes would look like The 1939 New York World's Fair marked a turning point in architecture between Art Deco and modern architecture. The theme of the Fair was the ''World of Tomorrow'', and its symbols were the purely geometric trilon and perisphere sculpture. It had many monuments to Art Deco, such as the Ford Pavilion in the Streamline Moderne style, but also included the new International Style that would replace Art Deco as the dominant style after the War. The Pavilions of Finland, by Alvar Aalto, of Sweden by Sven Markelius, and of Brazil by Oscar Niemeyer and Lucio Costa, looked forward to a new style. They became leaders in the postwar modernist movement.


World War II: wartime innovation and postwar reconstruction (1939–1945)

File:Le Havre hiver 1944-1945.JPG, The center of Le Havre destroyed by bombing in 1944 File:LeHavre.jpg, The center of Le Havre as reconstructed by
Auguste Perret Auguste Perret (12 February 1874 – 25 February 1954) was a French architect and a pioneer of the architectural use of reinforced concrete File:Pantheon cupola.jpg, Interior of the Pantheon dome, seen from beneath. The concrete for the coffe ...

Auguste Perret
(1946–1964) File:Quonset hut emplacement in Japan.jpg, Quonset hut en route to Japan (1945)
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
(1939–1945) and its aftermath was a major factor in driving innovation in building technology, and in turn, architectural possibilities. The wartime industrial demands resulted in shortages of steel and other building materials, leading to the adoption of new materials, such as aluminum, The war and postwar period brought greatly expanded use of prefabricated building; largely for the military and government. The semi-circular metal Nissen hut of World War I was revived as the Quonset hut. The years immediately after the war saw the development of radical experimental houses, including the enameled-steel Lustron house (1947–1950), and Buckminster Fuller's experimental aluminum Dymaxion House. The unprecedented destruction caused by the war was another factor in the rise of modern architecture. Large parts of major cities, from Berlin, Tokyo, and Dresden to Rotterdam and east London; all the port cities of France, particularly Le Havre, Brest, Marseille, Cherbourg had been destroyed by bombing. In the United States, little civilian construction had been done since the 1920s; housing was needed for millions of American soldiers returning from the war. The postwar housing shortages in Europe and the United States led to the design and construction of enormous government-financed housing projects, usually in run-down center of American cities, and in the suburbs of Paris and other European cities, where land was available, One of the largest reconstruction projects was that of the city center of Le Havre, destroyed by the Germans and by Allied bombing in 1944; 133 hectares of buildings in the center were flattened, destroying 12,500 buildings and leaving 40,000 persons homeless. The architect
Auguste Perret Auguste Perret (12 February 1874 – 25 February 1954) was a French architect and a pioneer of the architectural use of reinforced concrete File:Pantheon cupola.jpg, Interior of the Pantheon dome, seen from beneath. The concrete for the coffe ...

Auguste Perret
, a pioneer in the use of reinforced concrete and prefabricated materials, designed and built an entirely new center to the city, with apartment blocks, cultural, commercial, and government buildings. He restored historic monuments when possible, and built a new church, St. Joseph, with a lighthouse-like tower in the center to inspire hope. His rebuilt city was declared a UNESCO World Heritage site in 2005.


Le Corbusier and the ''Cité Radieuse'' (1947–1952)

File:Unite d'Habitation salon.jpg, Salon and Terrace of an original unit of the Unité d'Habitation, now at the Cité de l'Architecture et du Patrimoine in Paris (1952) File:RonchampCorbu.jpg, The Notre Dame du Haut, Chapel of Notre-Dame-du-Haut in Ronchamp (1950–1955) Shortly after the War, the French architect
Le Corbusier Charles-Édouard Jeanneret (6 October 188727 August 1965), known as Le Corbusier ( , , ; roughly, "the crow-like one"), was a Swiss Swiss may refer to: * the adjectival form of Switzerland ,german: Schweizer(in),french: Suisse(sse), it ...

Le Corbusier
, who was nearly sixty years old and had not constructed a building in ten years, was commissioned by the French government to construct a new apartment block in Marseille. He called it Unité d'Habitation in Marseille, but it more popularly took the name of the Cité Radieuse (and later "Cité du Fada" "City of the crazy one" in Marseille French), after his book about futuristic urban planning. Following his doctrines of design, the building had a concrete frame raised up above the street on pylons. It contained 337 duplex apartment units, fit into the framework like pieces of a puzzle. Each unit had two levels and a small terrace. Interior "streets" had shops, a nursery school, and other serves, and the flat terrace roof had a running track, ventilation ducts, and a small theater. Le Corbusier designed furniture, carpets, and lamps to go with the building, all purely functional; the only decoration was a choice of interior colors that Le Corbusier gave to residents. Unité d'Habitation became a prototype for similar buildings in other cities, both in France and Germany. Combined with his equally radical organic design for the Notre Dame du Haut, Chapel of Notre-Dame du-Haut at Ronchamp, this work propelled Corbusier in the first rank of postwar modern architects.


Team X and the 1953 International Congress of Modern Architecture

In the early 1950s, Michel Écochard, director of urban planning under the French Protectorate in Morocco, commissioned GAMMA ()—which initially included the architects Elie Azagury, Georges Candilis, George Candillis, Alexis Josic and Shadrach Woods—to design housing in the Hay Mohammadi, Hay Mohammedi neighborhood of Casablanca that provided a "culturally specific living tissue" for laborers and migrants Rural flight, from the countryside. Sémiramis (Casablanca), Sémiramis, (Honeycomb), and Carrières Centrales were some of the first examples of this Vernacular Modernism. At the 1953 Congrès Internationaux d'Architecture Moderne, ''Congrès Internationaux d'Architecture'' Moderne (CIAM), ATBAT-Afrique—the Africa branch of founded in 1947 by figures including
Le Corbusier Charles-Édouard Jeanneret (6 October 188727 August 1965), known as Le Corbusier ( , , ; roughly, "the crow-like one"), was a Swiss Swiss may refer to: * the adjectival form of Switzerland ,german: Schweizer(in),french: Suisse(sse), it ...

Le Corbusier
, Vladimir Bodiansky, and André Wogenscky—prepared a study of Casablanca's Shanty town, bidonvilles entitled "Habitat for the Greatest Number." The presenters, Georges Candilis and Michel Écochard, Michel Ecochard, argued—against doctrine—that architects must consider local culture and climate in their designs. This generated great debate among modernist architects around the world and eventually provoked a schism and the creation of Team 10. Ecochard's 8x8 meter model at Carrières Centrales earned him recognition as a pioneer in the architecture of Multi-family residential, collective housing, though his Moroccan colleague Elie Azagury was critical of him for serving as a tool of the French colonial regime and for ignoring the economic and social necessity that Moroccans live in higher density vertical housing.


Postwar modernism in the United States (1945–1985)

The International Style (architecture), International Style of architecture had appeared in Europe, particularly in the Bauhaus movement, in the late 1920s. In 1932 it was recognized and given a name at an Exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City organized by architect Philip Johnson and architectural critic Henry-Russell Hitchcock, Between 1937 and 1941, following the rise Hitler and the Nazis in Germany, most of the leaders of the German Bauhaus movement found a new home in the United States, and played an important part in the development of American modern architecture.


Frank Lloyd Wright and the Guggenheim Museum

File:Lakeland FSC Pfeiffer Chapel01.jpg, The Pfeiffer Chapel at Florida Southern College by Frank Lloyd Wright (1941–1958) File:Building, globe, and grounds of the S.C. Johnson and son headquarters building, designed by Frank Lloyd Wright, Racine, Wisconsin LCCN2011634906.tif, The tower of the Johnson Wax Headquarters and Research Center (1944–50) File:Price Tower - Bartlesville.jpg, The Price Tower in Bartlesville, Oklahoma (1956) File:NYC - Guggenheim Museum.jpg, Solomon Guggenheim Museum, by
Frank Lloyd Wright Frank Lloyd Wright (June 8, 1867 – April 9, 1959) was an American architect, designer, writer, and educator. He designed more than 1,000 structures over a creative period of 70 years. Wright believed in designing in harmony with humanity and t ...

Frank Lloyd Wright
(1946–1959)
Frank Lloyd Wright Frank Lloyd Wright (June 8, 1867 – April 9, 1959) was an American architect, designer, writer, and educator. He designed more than 1,000 structures over a creative period of 70 years. Wright believed in designing in harmony with humanity and t ...

Frank Lloyd Wright
was eighty years old in 1947; he had been present at the beginning of American modernism, and though he refused to accept that he belonged to any movement, continued to play a leading role almost to its end. One of his most original late projects was the campus of Florida Southern College in Lakeland, Florida, begun in 1941 and completed in 1943. He designed nine new buildings in a style that he described as "The Child of the Sun". He wrote that he wanted the campus to "grow out of the ground and into the light, a child of the sun." He completed several notable projects in the 1940s, including the Johnson Wax Headquarters and the Price Tower in Bartlesville, Oklahoma (1956). The building is unusual that it is supported by its central core of four elevator shafts; the rest of the building is cantilevered to this core, like the branches of a tree. Wright originally planned the structure for an apartment building in New York City. That project was cancelled because of the Great Depression, and he adapted the design for an oil pipeline and equipment company in Oklahoma. He wrote that in New York City his building would have been lost in a forest of tall buildings, but that in Oklahoma it stood alone. The design is asymmetrical; each side is different. In 1943 he was commissioned by the art collector Solomon R. Guggenheim to design a museum for his collection of modern art. His design was entirely original; a bowl-shaped building with a spiral ramp inside that led museum visitors on an upward tour of the art of the 20th century. Work began in 1946 but it was not completed until 1959, the year that he died.


Walter Gropius and Marcel Breuer

File:Story Hall, Harvard University, Cambridge MA.jpg, Story Hall of the Harvard Law School by
Walter Gropius Walter Adolph Georg Gropius (18 May 1883 – 5 July 1969) was a German architect and founder of the Bauhaus School, who, along with Alvar Aalto, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier and Frank Lloyd Wright, is widely regarded as one of the pio ...
and (The Architects Collaborative) File:Stillman Photo 2.jpeg, The Stillman House Litchfield, Connecticut, by Marcel Breuer (1950) The swimming pool mural is by Alexander Calder File:Walter Gropius photo MetLife Building fassade New York USA 2005-10-03.jpg, The PanAm building (Now MetLife Building) in New York, by
Walter Gropius Walter Adolph Georg Gropius (18 May 1883 – 5 July 1969) was a German architect and founder of the Bauhaus School, who, along with Alvar Aalto, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier and Frank Lloyd Wright, is widely regarded as one of the pio ...
and The Architects Collaborative (1958–63)
Walter Gropius Walter Adolph Georg Gropius (18 May 1883 – 5 July 1969) was a German architect and founder of the Bauhaus School, who, along with Alvar Aalto, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier and Frank Lloyd Wright, is widely regarded as one of the pio ...
, the founder of the Bauhaus, moved to England in 1934 and spent three years there before being invited to the United States by Walter Hudnut of the Harvard Graduate School of Design; Gropius became the head of the architecture faculty. Marcel Breuer, who had worked with him at the Bauhaus, joined him and opened an office in Cambridge. The fame of Gropius and Breuer attracted many students, who themselves became famous architects, including Ieoh Ming Pei and Philip Johnson. They did not receive an important commission until 1941, when they designed housing for workers in Kensington, Pennsylvania, near Pittsburgh., In 1945 Gropius and Breuer associated with a group of younger architects under the name TAC (The Architects Collaborative). Their notable works included the building of the Harvard Graduate School of Design, the U.S. Embassy in Athens (1956–57), and the headquarters of Pan American Airways in New York (1958–63).


Ludwig Mies van der Rohe

File:Villa_Tugendhat-20070429.jpeg, Villa Tugendhat in Brno, Czech Republic (1928–30) File:Farnsworth House by Mies Van Der Rohe - exterior-8.jpg, The Farnsworth House in Plano, Illinois (1945–51) File:S.R. Crown Hall.jpg, Crown Hall at the Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago (1956) File:Seagrambuilding.jpg, The Seagram Building, New York City, 1958, by
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe Ludwig Mies van der Rohe ( ; ; born Maria Ludwig Michael Mies; March 27, 1886August 17, 1969) was a German-American architect An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings. To practice architecture ...
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe Ludwig Mies van der Rohe ( ; ; born Maria Ludwig Michael Mies; March 27, 1886August 17, 1969) was a German-American architect An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings. To practice architecture ...
described his architecture with the famous saying, "Less is more". As the director of the school of architecture of what is now called the Illinois Institute of Technology from 1939 to 1956, Mies (as he was commonly known) made Chicago the leading city for American modernism in the postwar years. He constructed new buildings for the Institute in modernist style, two high-rise apartment buildings on Lakeshore Drive (1948–51), which became models for high-rises across the country. Other major works included Farnsworth House in Plano, Illinois (1945–1951), a simple horizontal glass box that had an enormous influence on American residential architecture. The Chicago Convention Center (1952–54) and Crown Hall at the Illinois Institute of Technology (1950–56), and The Seagram Building in New York City (1954–58) also set a new standard for purity and elegance. Based on granite pillars, the smooth glass and steel walls were given a touch of color by the use of bronze-toned I-beams in the structure. He returned to Germany in 1962–68 to build the new Nationalgallerie in Berlin. His students and followers included Philip Johnson, and Eero Saarinen, whose work was substantially influenced by his ideas.


Richard Neutra and Charles and Ray Eames

File:Eames House0.jpg, Eames House by Charles and Ray Eames, Pacific Palisades, Los Angeles, Pacific Palisades, (1949) File:NeutraOfficeBldg.1.jpg, Neutra Office Building by Richard Neutra in Los Angeles (1950) File:Constance Perkins House.jpg, The Constance Perkins House by Richard Neutra, Los Angeles (1962) Influential residential architects in the new style in the United States included Richard Neutra and Charles and Ray Eames. The most celebrated work of the Eames was Eames House in Pacific Palisades, Los Angeles, Pacific Palisades, California, (1949) Charles Eames in collaboration with Eero Saarinen It is composed of two structures, an architects residence and his studio, joined in the form of an L. The house, influenced by Japanese architecture, is made of translucent and transparent panels organized in simple volumes, often using natural materials, supported on a steel framework. The frame of the house was assembled in sixteen hours by five workmen. He brightened up his buildings with panels of pure colors. Richard Neutra continued to build influential houses in Los Angeles, using the theme of the simple box. Many of these houses erased the line distinction between indoor and outdoor spaces with walls of plate glass. Neutra's Constance Perkins House in Pasadena, California (1962) was re-examination of the modest single-family dwelling. It was built of inexpensive material–wood, plaster, and glass–and completed at a cost of just under $18,000. Neutra scaled the house to the physical dimensions of its owner, a small woman. It features a reflecting pool which meanders under of the glass walls of the house. One of Neutra's most unusual buildings was Shepherd's Grove in Garden Grove, California, which featured an adjoining parking lot where worshippers could follow the service without leaving their cars.


Skidmore, Owings and Merrill and Wallace K. Harrison

File:Manhattan House 65 jeh.JPG, Manhattan House by Skidmore, Owings & Merrill (1950–51) File:Lever House by David Shankbone.jpg, Lever House by Skidmore, Owings & Merrill (1951–52) File:Manufacturers Trust Company Building 510 Fifth Avenue.jpg, Manufacturers Trust Company Building, by Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, New York City (1954) File:Yale-beinecke-library.jpg, Beinecke Library at Yale University by Skidmore, Owings & Merrill (1963) File:United Nations Headquarters.JPG, United Nations Headquarters in New York, by Wallace Harrison with Oscar Niemeyer and
Le Corbusier Charles-Édouard Jeanneret (6 October 188727 August 1965), known as Le Corbusier ( , , ; roughly, "the crow-like one"), was a Swiss Swiss may refer to: * the adjectival form of Switzerland ,german: Schweizer(in),french: Suisse(sse), it ...

Le Corbusier
(1952) File:CFiorentini007.jpg, The Metropolitan Opera House (Lincoln Center), Metropolitan Opera House at Lincoln Center in New York City by Wallace Harrison (1966)
Many of the notable modern buildings in the postwar years were produced by two architectural mega-agencies, which brought together large teams of designers for very complex projects. The firm of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill was founded in Chicago in 1936 by Louis Skidmore and Nathaniel Owings, and joined in 1939 by engineer John O. Merrill, John Merrill, It soon went under the name of SOM. Its first big project was Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, the gigantic government installation that produced plutonium for the first nuclear weapons. In 1964 the firm had eighteen "partner-owners", 54 "associate participants,"and 750 architects, technicians, designers, decorators, and landscape architects. Their style was largely inspired by the work of
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe Ludwig Mies van der Rohe ( ; ; born Maria Ludwig Michael Mies; March 27, 1886August 17, 1969) was a German-American architect An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings. To practice architecture ...
, and their buildings soon had a large place in the New York skyline, including the Manhattan House (1950-51), Lever House (1951–52) and the Manufacturers Trust Company Building (1954). Later buildings by the firm include Beinecke Library at Yale University (1963), the Willis Tower, formerly Sears Tower in Chicago (1973) and One World Trade Center in New York City (2013), which replaced the building destroyed in the terrorist attack of 11 September 2001. Wallace Harrison played a major part in the modern architectural history of New York; as the architectural advisor of the Rockefeller Family, he helped design Rockefeller Center, the major Art Deco architectural project of the 1930s. He was supervising architect for the 1939 New York World's Fair, and, with his partner Max Abramowitz, was the builder and chief architect of the headquarters of the United Nations; Harrison headed a committee of international architects, which included Oscar Niemeyer (who produced the original plan approved by the committee) and
Le Corbusier Charles-Édouard Jeanneret (6 October 188727 August 1965), known as Le Corbusier ( , , ; roughly, "the crow-like one"), was a Swiss Swiss may refer to: * the adjectival form of Switzerland ,german: Schweizer(in),french: Suisse(sse), it ...

Le Corbusier
. Other landmark New York buildings designed by Harrison and his firm included Metropolitan Opera House (Lincoln Center), Metropolitan Opera House, the master plan for Lincoln Center, and John F. Kennedy International Airport.


Philip Johnson

File:Glasshouse-philip-johnson.jpg, The Glass House by Philip Johnson in New Canaan, Connecticut (1953) File:IDS reflecting Wells Fargo.jpg, The IDS Center in Minneapolis, Minnesota, by Philip Johnson (1969–72) File:Crys-ext.jpg, The Crystal Cathedral by Philip Johnson (1977–80) File:Williamstower.jpg, The Williams Tower in Houston, Texas, by Philip Johnson (1981–1983) File:Pittsburgh-pennsylvania-ppg-place-2007.jpg, PPG Place in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, by Philip Johnson (1981–84) Philip Johnson (1906–2005) was one of the youngest and last major figures in American modern architecture. He trained at Harvard with Walter Gropius, then was director of the department of architecture and modern design at the Metropolitan Museum of Art from 1946 to 1954. In 1947, he published a book about Mies van der Rohe, and in 1953 designed his own residence, the Glass House in New Canaan, Connecticut in a style modeled after Mies's Farnsworth House. Beginning in 1955 he began to go in his own direction, moving gradually toward expressionism with designs that increasingly departed from the orthodoxies of modern architecture. His final and decisive break with modern architecture was the AT&T Building (later known as the Sony Tower), and now the 550 Madison Avenue in New York City, (1979) an essentially modernist skyscraper completely altered by the addition of curved cap at the top of a piece of chippendale furniture. This building is generally considered to mark the beginning of Postmodern architecture in the United States.


Eero Saarinen

File:St Louis night expblend cropped.jpg, The Gateway Arch in St. Louis, Saint Louis, Missouri (1948–1965) File:GMTechCenter.jpg, Main building of the General Motors Technical Center (1949–55) File:Ingalls Rink Highsmith.jpg, The Ingalls Rink in New Haven, Connecticut (1953–58) File:Jfkairport.jpg, The TWA Terminal at JFK Airport in New York, by Eero Saarinen (1956–62) Eero Saarinen (1910–1961) was the son of Eliel Saarinen, the most famous Finnish architect of the Art Nouveau period, who emigrated to the United States in 1923, when Eero was thirteen. He studied art and sculpture at the academy where his father taught, and then at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière Academy in Paris before studying architecture at Yale University. His architectural designs were more like enormous pieces of sculpture than traditional modern buildings; he broke away from the elegant boxes inspired by Mies van der Rohe and used instead sweeping curves and parabolas, like the wings of birds. In 1948 he conceived the idea of a monument in St. Louis, Missouri in the form of a parabolic arch 192 meters high, made of stainless steel (1948). He then designed the General Motors Technical Center in Warren, Michigan (1949–55), a glass modernist box in the style of Mies van der Rohe, followed by the IBM Research Center in Yorktown, Virginia (1957–61). His next works were a major departure in style; he produced a particularly striking sculptural design for the Ingalls Rink in New Haven, Connecticut (1956–59, an ice skiing rink with a parabolic roof suspended from cables, which served as a preliminary model for next and most famous work, the TWA Terminal at JFK airport in New York (1956–1962). His declared intention was to design a building that was distinctive and memorable, and also one that would capture the particular excitement of passengers before a journey. The structure is separated into four white concrete parabolic vaults, which together resemble a bird on the ground perched for flight. Each of the four curving roof vaults has two sides attached to columns in a Y form just outside the structure. One of the angles of each shell is lightly raised, and the other is attached to the center of the structure. The roof is connected with the ground by curtain walls of glass. All of the details inside the building, including the benches, counters, escalators, and clocks, were designed in the same style.


Louis Kahn

File:First Unitarian Church of Rochester NY North Side at West end 1227-8.jpg, The First Unitarian Church of Rochester (building), First Unitarian Church of Rochester by Louis Kahn (1962) File:Salk Institute 2.jpg, The Salk Institute by Louis Kahn (1962–63) File:WTP2 Mike Reali 01d.jpg, Richards Medical Research Laboratories by Louis Kahn (1957–61) File:Kimbell Art Museum Dusk Highsmith.jpg, The Kimball Art Museum in Fort Worth, Texas (1966–72) File:Jatiyo Sangshad Bhaban (Roehl).jpg, The Jatiyo Sangshad Bhaban, National Parliament Building in Dhaka, Bangladesh (1962–74) Louis Kahn (1901–74) was another American architect who moved away from the Mies van der Rohe model of the glass box, and other dogmas of the prevailing international style. He borrowed from a wide variety of styles, and idioms, including neoclassicism. He was a professor of architecture at Yale University from 1947 to 1957, where his students included Eero Saarinen. From 1957 until his death he was a professor of architecture at the University of Pennsylvania. His work and ideas influenced Philip Johnson, Minoru Yamasaki, and Edward Durell Stone as they moved toward a more neoclassical style. Unlike Mies, he did not try to make his buildings look light; he constructed mainly with concrete and brick, and made his buildings look monumental and solid. He drew from a wide variety of different sources; the towers of Richards Medical Research Laboratories were inspired by the architecture of the Renaissance towns he had seen in Italy as a resident architect at the American Academy in Rome in 1950. Notable buildings by Kahn in the United States include the First Unitarian Church of Rochester (building), First Unitarian Church of Rochester, New York (1962); and the Kimball Art Museum in Fort Worth, Texas (1966–72). Following the example of
Le Corbusier Charles-Édouard Jeanneret (6 October 188727 August 1965), known as Le Corbusier ( , , ; roughly, "the crow-like one"), was a Swiss Swiss may refer to: * the adjectival form of Switzerland ,german: Schweizer(in),french: Suisse(sse), it ...

Le Corbusier
and his design of the government buildings in Chandigarh, the capital city of the Haryana & Punjab, India, Punjab State of India, Kahn designed the Jatiyo Sangshad Bhaban (National Assembly Building) in Dhaka, Bangladesh (1962–74), when that country won independence from Pakistan. It was Kahn's last work.


I. M. Pei

File:Green Building, MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts.JPG, Green Building (MIT), Green Building at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology by I. M. Pei (1962–64) File:National Center for Atmospheric Research - Boulder, Colorado.jpg, The National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colorado by I. M. Pei (1963–67) File:Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell Univ Ithaca NY USA.jpg, Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York by I. M. Pei (1973) File:National Gallery East Wing by Matthew Bisanz.JPG, East Wing of the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C., by I M. Pei (1978) File:Louvre Museum Wikimedia Commons.jpg, Pyramid of the Louvre Museum in Paris by I. M. Pei (1983–89) I. M. Pei (1917–2019) was a major figure in late modernism and the debut of Post-modern architecture. He was born in China and educated in the United States, studying architecture at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. While the architecture school there still trained in the
Beaux-Arts architecture ''Beaux-Arts'' architecture (; ) was the academic architectural style taught at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, particularly from the 1830s to the end of the 19th century. It drew upon the principles of French neoclassicism, but also incorp ...
style, Pei discovered the writings of
Le Corbusier Charles-Édouard Jeanneret (6 October 188727 August 1965), known as Le Corbusier ( , , ; roughly, "the crow-like one"), was a Swiss Swiss may refer to: * the adjectival form of Switzerland ,german: Schweizer(in),french: Suisse(sse), it ...

Le Corbusier
, and a two-day visit by Le Corbusier to the campus in 1935 had a major impact on Pei's ideas of architecture. In the late 1930s, he moved to the Harvard Graduate School of Design, where he studied with
Walter Gropius Walter Adolph Georg Gropius (18 May 1883 – 5 July 1969) was a German architect and founder of the Bauhaus School, who, along with Alvar Aalto, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier and Frank Lloyd Wright, is widely regarded as one of the pio ...
and Marcel Breuer and became deeply involved in Modernism. After the war he worked on large projects for the New York real estate developer William Zeckendorf, before breaking away and starting his own firm. One of the first buildings his own firm designed was the Green Building (MIT), Green Building at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. While the clean modernist facade was admired, the building developed an unexpected problem; it created a wind tunnel effect, and in strong winds the doors could not be opened. Pei was forced to construct a tunnel so visitors could enter the building during high winds. Between 1963 and 1967 Pei designed the Mesa Laboratory for the National Center for Atmospheric Research outside Boulder, Colorado, in an open area at the foothills of the Rocky Mountains. The project differed from Pei's earlier urban work; it would rest in an open area in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains. His design was a striking departure from traditional modernism; it looked as if it were carved out of the side of the mountain. In the late modernist area, art museums bypassed skyscrapers as the most prestigious architectural projects; they offered greater possibilities for innovation in form and more visibility. Pei established himself with his design for the Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York (1973), which was praised for its imaginative use of a small space, and its respect for the landscape and other buildings around it. This led to the commission for one of the most important museum projects of the period, the new East Wing of the National Gallery of Art in Washington, completed in 1978, and to another of Pei's most famous projects, the pyramid at the entrance of Louvre Museum in Paris (1983–89). Pei chose the pyramid as the form that best harmonized with the Renaissance and neoclassical forms of the historic Louvre, as well as for its associations with Napoleon and the Battle of the Pyramids. Each face of the pyramid is supported by 128 beams of stainless steel, supporting 675 panels of glass, each .


Fazlur Rahman Khan

File:Hancock_tower_2006.jpg, John Hancock Center in Chicago by Fazlur Rahman Khan was the first building to use X-bracing to create the trussed-tube design. File:2004-07-14_2600x1500_chicago_lake_skyline.jpg, Willis Tower in Chicago was the first building to use the bundled-tube design. In 1955, employed by the architectural firm Skidmore, Owings & Merrill (SOM), he began working in Chicago. He was made a partner in 1966. He worked the rest of his life side by side with Architect Bruce Graham. Khan introduced design methods and concepts for efficient use of material in building architecture. His first building to employ the tube structure was the Chestnut De-Witt apartment building. During the 1960s and 1970s, he became noted for his designs for Chicago's 100-story John Hancock Center, which was the first building to use the trussed-tube design, and 110-story Sears Tower, since renamed Willis Tower, the tallest building in the world from 1973 until 1998, which was the first building to use the framed-tube design. He believed that engineers needed a broader perspective on life, saying, "The technical man must not be lost in his own technology; he must be able to appreciate life, and life is art, drama, music, and most importantly, people." Khan's personal papers, most of which were in his office at the time of his death, are held by the Ryerson & Burnham Libraries at the Art Institute of Chicago. The Fazlur Khan Collection includes manuscripts, sketches, audio cassette tapes, slides and other materials regarding his work. Khan's seminal work of developing tall building structural systems are still used today as the starting point when considering design options for tall buildings. Tube structures have since been used in many skyscrapers, including the construction of the World Trade Center, Aon Center (Chicago), Aon Centre, Petronas Towers, Jin Mao Building, Bank of China Tower, Hong Kong, Bank of China Tower and most other buildings in excess of 40 stories constructed since the 1960s. The strong influence of tube structure design is also evident in the world's current tallest skyscraper, the Burj Khalifa in Dubai. According to Stephen Bayley of ''The Daily Telegraph'':


Minoru Yamasaki

File: Skyline_Twin_Towers_Sander_Lamme.jpg, The Twin Towers of the World Trade Center (1973–2001) in Lower Manhattan by Minoru Yamasaki (1913-1986) File: Pruitt-igoeUSGS02.jpg, The Pruitt–Igoe, Wendell O. Pruitt Homes and William Igoe Apartments Housing Project, in St. Louis (1955-1976) File: CenturyPlazaTowers.jpg, The Century Plaza Towers in Los Angeles, California (1975) File:OneWoodwardAvenue.JPG, One Woodward Avenue in Detroit, Michigan (1962) In the United States, Minoru Yamasaki found major independent success in implementing unique engineering solutions to then-complicated problems, including the space that elevator shafts took up on each floor, and dealing with his personal fear of heights. During this period, he created a number of office buildings which led to his innovative design of the towers of the World Trade Center in 1964, which began construction 21 March 1966. The first of the towers was finished in 1970. Many of his buildings feature superficial details inspired by the pointed arches of Gothic architecture, and make use of extremely narrow vertical windows. This narrow-windowed style arose from his own personal acrophobia, fear of heights. One particular design challenge of the World Trade Center's design related to the efficacy of the elevator system, which was unique in the world. Yamasaki integrated the fastest elevators at the time, running at 1,700 feet per minute. Instead of placing a large traditional elevator shaft in the core of each tower, Yamasaki created the Twin Towers' "Sky lobby, Skylobby" system. The Skylobby design created three separate, connected elevator systems which would serve different segments of the building, depending on which floor was chosen, saving approximately 70% of the space used for a traditional shaft. The space saved was then used for office space.Remarks by Lee K. Jaffee, World Trade Center Press Conference, New York Hilton Hotel, 18 January 1964. In addition to these accomplishments, he had also designed the Pruitt-Igoe Housing Project, the largest ever housing project built in the United States, which was fully torn down in 1976 due to bad market conditions and the decrepit state of the buildings themselves. Separately, he had also designed the Century Plaza Towers and One Woodward Avenue, among 63 other projects he had developed during his career.


Postwar modernism in Europe (1945–1975)

File:Sainte Marie de La Tourette 2007.jpg, Sainte Marie de La Tourette in Evreaux-sur-l'Arbresle, France by
Le Corbusier Charles-Édouard Jeanneret (6 October 188727 August 1965), known as Le Corbusier ( , , ; roughly, "the crow-like one"), was a Swiss Swiss may refer to: * the adjectival form of Switzerland ,german: Schweizer(in),french: Suisse(sse), it ...

Le Corbusier
and Iannis Xenakis (1956–60) File:National Theatre, London.jpg, Royal National Theatre, London, by Denys Lasdun (1967–1976) File:Helsinki University of Technology auditorium.jpg, Auditorium of the University of Technology, Helsinki, by Alvar Aalto (1964) File:Academisch ziekenhuis C.H.U..jpg, University Hospital Center in Liège, Belgium by Charles Vandenhove (1962–82) File:Looking up at Torre Pirelli from Piazza Duca d'Aosta, Milan.jpg, The Pirelli Tower in Milan, by Gio Ponti and Pier Luigi Nervi (1958–60) File:02 Fondation Maeght.JPG, The Fondation Maeght by Josep Lluis Sert (1959–1964) File:Katholische Kirche Idstein 022.JPG, Church of St. Martin, Idstein Germany by Johannes Krahn (1965) File:Warszawa 1975 WDC 42783.jpg, Warszawa Centralna railway station in Poland by Arseniusz Romanowicz (1975) File:Orphanage-1a.Aldo van Eyck.jpg, Municipal Orphanage in Amsterdam by Aldo van Eyck (1960), "Aesthetics of Number", architectural movement Structuralism (architecture), Structuralism.
In France,
Le Corbusier Charles-Édouard Jeanneret (6 October 188727 August 1965), known as Le Corbusier ( , , ; roughly, "the crow-like one"), was a Swiss Swiss may refer to: * the adjectival form of Switzerland ,german: Schweizer(in),french: Suisse(sse), it ...

Le Corbusier
remained the most prominent architect, though he built few buildings there. His most prominent late work was the convent of Sainte Marie de La Tourette in Evreaux-sur-l'Arbresle. The Convent, built of raw concrete, was austere and without ornament, inspired by the medieval monasteries he had visited on his first trip to Italy. In Britain, the major figures in modernism included Wells Coates (1895–1958), FRS Yorke (1906–1962), James Stirling (architect), James Stirling (1926–1992) and Denys Lasdun (1914–2001). Lasdun's best-known work is the Royal National Theatre (1967–1976) on the south bank of the Thames. Its raw concrete and blockish form offended British traditionalists; Charles, Prince of Wales compared it with a nuclear power station. In Belgium, a major figure was Charles Vandenhove (born 1927) who constructed an important series of buildings for the University Hospital Center in Liège. His later work ventured into colorful rethinking of historical styles, such as Palladian architecture. In Finland, the most influential architect was Alvar Aalto, who adapted his version of modernism to the Nordic landscape, light, and materials, particularly the use of wood. After World War II, he taught architecture in the United States. In Denmark, Arne Jacobsen was the best-known of the modernists, who designed furniture as well as carefully proportioned buildings. In Italy, the most prominent modernist was Gio Ponti, who worked often with the structural engineer Pier Luigi Nervi, a specialist in reinforced concrete. Nervi created concrete beams of exceptional length, twenty-five meters, which allowed greater flexibility in forms and greater heights. Their best-known design was the Pirelli Building in Milan (1958–1960), which for decades was the tallest building in Italy. The most famous Spanish modernist was the Catalan architect Josep Lluis Sert, who worked with great success in Spain, France, and the United States. In his early career, he worked for a time under Le Corbusier, and designed the Spanish pavilion for the 1937 Paris Exposition. His notable later work included the Fondation Maeght in Saint-Paul-de-Provence, France (1964), and the Harvard Science Center in Cambridge, Massachusetts. He served as Dean of Architecture at the Harvard School of Design. Notable German modernists included Johannes Krahn, who played an important part in rebuilding German cities after World War II, and built several important museums and churches, notably St. Martin, Idstein, which artfully combined stone masonry, concrete, and glass. Leading Austrian architects of the style included Gustav Peichl, whose later works included the Kunst- und Ausstellungshalle der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Art and Exhibition Center of the German Federal Republic in Bonn, Germany (1989).


Latin America

File:MESP4.jpg, Ministry of Health and Education in Rio de Janeiro by Lucio Costa (1936–43) File:MAM - Museu de Arte Moderna do Rio de Janeiro 02.jpg, Museum of Modern Art, Rio de Janeiro, MAM Rio museum, by Affonso Eduardo Reidy (1960) File:Congresso Nacional.jpg, The National Congress building in Brasilia by Oscar Niemeyer (1956–61) File:Catedral de Bsb.jpg, The Cathedral of Brasilia by Oscar Niemeyer (1958–1970) File:06-11-2014 Novembro Azul (15546341448).jpg, The Palácio do Planalto, offices of the Brazilian president, by Oscar Niemeyer (1958–60) File:MASP 2017 001.jpg, São Paulo Museum of Art, MASP, by Lina Bo Bardi (1957–68) File:Torre Latinoamericana 1.jpg, The Torre Latinoamericana in Mexico City by Augusto H. Alvarez (1956) File:Explanada de El Colegio de México.jpg, The Colegio de México in Mexico City by Teodoro González de León and Abraham Zabludovsky (1976) File:Luis Barragan - Casa Luis Barragan 張基義老師拍攝 010.jpg, Interior of the Luis Barragán House and Studio in Mexico City, by Luis Barragan (1948) File:Mural on rear of Alfonso Caro Auditorium, UNAM, Mexcio City.jpg, The Alfonso Caro Auditorium in National Autonomous University of Mexico, UNAM, Mexico City, by Eugenio Peschard (1953) File:Torres del Parque.JPG, Residencias del Parque in Bogotá, Colombia by Rogelio Salmona (1965-1970) Architectural historians sometimes label Latin American modernism as "tropical modernism." This reflects architects who adapted modernism to the tropical climate as well as the sociopolitical contexts of Latin America. Brazil became a showcase of modern architecture in the late 1930s through the work of Lucio Costa (1902–1998) and Oscar Niemeyer (1907–2012). Costa had the lead and Niemeyer collaborated on the Ministry of Education and Health in Rio de Janeiro (1936–43) and the Brazilian pavilion at the 1939 World's Fair in New York. Following the war, Niemeyer, along with Le Corbusier, conceived the form of the United Nations Headquarters constructed by Walter Harrison. Lucio Costa also had overall responsibility for the plan of the most audacious modernist project in Brazil; the creation of new capital, Brasilia, constructed between 1956 and 1961. Costa made the general plan, laid out in the form of a cross, with the major government buildings in the center. Niemeyer was responsible for designing the government buildings, including the palace of the President;the National Assembly, composed of two towers for the two branches of the legislature and two meeting halls, one with a cupola and other with an inverted cupola. Niemeyer also built the cathedral, eighteen ministries, and giant blocks of housing, each designed for three thousand residents, each with its own school, shops, and chapel. Modernism was employed both as an architectural principle and as a guideline for organizing society, as explored in ''The Modernist City.'' Following a military coup d'état in Brazil in 1964, Niemeyer moved to France, where he designed the modernist headquarters of the French Communist Party in Paris (1965–1980), a miniature of his United Nations plan. Mexico also had a prominent modernist movement. Important figures included Félix Candela, born in Spain, who emigrated to Mexico in 1939; he specialized in concrete structures in unusual parabolic forms. Another important figure was Mario Pani, who designed the Conservatorio Nacional de Música (Mexico), National Conservatory of Music in Mexico City (1949), and the Torre Insignia (1988); Pani was also instrumental in the construction of the new Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico City, University of Mexico City in the 1950s, alongside Juan O'Gorman, Eugenio Peschard, and Enrique del Moral. The Torre Latinoamericana, designed by Augusto H. Alvarez, was one of the earliest modernist skyscrapers in Mexico City (1956); it successfully withstood the 1985 Mexico City earthquake, which destroyed many other buildings in the city center. Pedro Ramirez Vasquez and Rafael Mijares designed the Olympic Stadium for the 1968 Olympics, and Antoni Peyri and Candela designed the Palace of Sports. Luis Barragan was another influential figure in Mexican modernism; his raw concrete residence and studio in Mexico City looks like a blockhouse on the outside, while inside it features great simplicity in form, pure colors, abundant natural light, and, one of is signatures, a stairway without a railing. He won the Pritzker Architecture Prize in 1980, and the house was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2004.


Asia and Australia

File:House-Kunio-Maekawa-03.jpg, House of Kunio Maekawa in Tokyo (1935) File:International House of Japan.jpg, International House of Japan by Kunio Maekawa, Tokyo (1955) File:Kokuritsu Yoyogi Kyōgijō 1.jpg, Yoyogi National Gymnasium by Kenzo Tange (1964) File:Sydney Opera House Sails edit02.jpg, Sydney Opera House in Sydney, Australia, by Jørn Utzon (1973) Japan, like Europe, had an enormous shortage of housing after the war, due to the bombing of many cities. 4.2 million housing units needed to be replaced. Japanese architects combined both traditional and styles and techniques. One of the foremost Japanese modernists was Kunio Maekawa (1905–1986), who had worked for Le Corbusier in Paris until 1930. His own house in Tokyo was an early landmark of Japanese modernism, combining traditional style with ideas he acquired working with Le Corbusier. His notable buildings include concert halls in Tokyo and Kyoto and the International House of Japan in Tokyo, all in the pure modernist style. Kenzo Tange (1913–2005) worked in the studio of Kunio Maekawa from 1938 until 1945 before opening his own architectural firm. His first major commission was the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum . He designed many notable office buildings and cultural centers. office buildings, as well as the Yoyogi National Gymnasium for the 1964 Summer Olympics in Tokyo. The gymnasium, built of concrete, features a roof suspended over the stadium on steel cables. The Danish architect Jørn Utzon (1918–2008) worked briefly with Alvar Aalto, studied the work of Le Corbusier, and traveled to the United States to meet
Frank Lloyd Wright Frank Lloyd Wright (June 8, 1867 – April 9, 1959) was an American architect, designer, writer, and educator. He designed more than 1,000 structures over a creative period of 70 years. Wright believed in designing in harmony with humanity and t ...

Frank Lloyd Wright
. In 1957 he designed one of the most recognizable modernist buildings in the world; the Sydney Opera House. He is known for the sculptural qualities of his buildings, and their relationship with the landscape. The five concrete shells of the structure resemble seashells by the beach. Begun in 1957, the project encountered considerable technical difficulties making the shells and getting the acoustics right. Utzon resigned in 1966, and the opera house was not finished until 1973, ten years after its scheduled completion. In India, modernist architecture was promoted by the postcolonial state under Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, most notably by inviting Le Corbusier to design the city of Chandigarh. Important Indian modernist architects include BV Doshi, Charles Correa, Raj Rewal, Achyut Kanvinde, and Habib Rahman (architect), Habib Rahman. Much discussion around modernist architecture took place in the journal Marg (magazine), MARG. In Sri Lanka, Geoffrey Bawa pioneered tropical modernism. Minnette De Silva was an important Sri Lankan modernist architect. Post independence architecture in Pakistan is a blend of Islamic and modern styles of architecture with influences from Mughal, indo-Islamic and international architectural designs. The 1960s and 1970s was a period of architectural Significance. Mazar-e-Quaid, Jinnah's Mausoleum, Minar-e-Pakistan, Minar e Pakistan, Bab-e-Khyber, Bab e Khyber, Summit Minar, Lahore, Islamic summit minar and the Faisal Mosque, Faisal mosque date from this time.


Africa

File:Vincent Timsit Workshop (VÉTÉ) 09.jpg, Vincent Timsit Workshop File:Vincent Timsit Workshop (VÉTÉ) 07.jpg File:Villa Camembert 08.jpg, Villa Camembert File:Villa Camembert 19.jpg Some notable modernist architects in Morocco were Elie Azagury and Jean-François Zevaco. Asmara, capitol of Eritrea, is well known for its modernist architecture dating from the period of Italian colonization.


Preservation

Several works or collections of modern architecture have been designated by UNESCO as World Heritage Sites. In addition to the early experiments associated with Art Nouveau, these include a number of the structures mentioned above in this article: the Rietveld Schröder House in Utrecht, the Bauhaus World Heritage Site, Bauhaus structures in Weimar, Dessau, and Bernau, the Berlin Modernism Housing Estates, the White City (Tel Aviv), White City of Tel Aviv, the city of Asmara, the city of Brasilia, the University City of Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria of UNAM in Mexico City and the University City of Caracas in Venezuela, the Sydney Opera House, and the
Centennial Hall The Centennial Hall ( pl, Hala Stulecia ; german: Jahrhunderthalle ), formerly named Hala Ludowa ("People's Hall"), is a historic building in Wrocław, Poland. It was constructed according to the plans of architect An architect is a person who ...
in Wrocław, along with select works from The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier, Le Corbursier and The 20th-Century Architecture of Frank Lloyd WFrank Lloyd Wright. Private organizations such as Docomomo International, the World Monuments Fund, and the Recent Past Preservation Network are working to safeguard and document imperiled Modern architecture. In 2006, the World Monuments Fund launched World Monuments Fund#Modernism at Risk, ''Modernism at Risk'', an advocacy and conservation program. The organization MAMMA. is working to document and preserve modernist architecture in Morocco.


See also

* Modernisme * Modern furniture * Modern art * Organic architecture * Critical regionalism * Complementary architecture * List of post-war Category A listed buildings in Scotland * New Urbanism


References


Bibliography

* * * * *
Colquhoun, Alan, ''Modern Architecture'', Oxford history of art
Oxford University Press, 2002, * * * *
Morgenthaler, Hans Rudolf, ''The Meaning of Modern Architecture: Its Inner Necessity and an Empathetic Reading''
Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2015, * * * * * *


External links

*

an April 2011 radio and Internet report by the Special English service of the Voice of America.
Architecture and Modernism"Preservation of Modern Buildings" edition of ''AIA Architect''Brussels50s60s.be
Overview of the architecture of the 1950s and 1960s in Brussels
A Grand Design: The Toronto City Hall Design Competition
Modernist designs from the 1958 international competition {{Authority control Architectural history Modernist architecture, Postmodern architecture Architectural design Architectural theory