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The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom
Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its populatio ...

Manchuria
derives its name. They are sometimes called "red-tasseled Manchus", a reference to the ornamentation on traditional Manchu hats. The Later Jin (1616–1636) and
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Pr ...
(1636–1912) were established and ruled by Manchus, who are descended from the
Jurchen people Jurchen (Manchu The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, exonym for a historical and geographic region of Russia and China in Northeas ...
who earlier established the Jin dynasty (1115–1234) in China. Manchus form the largest branch of the
Tungusic peoples Tungusic peoples are an ethno-linguistic group formed by the speakers of Tungusic languages The Tungusic languages (also known as Manchu-Tungus and Tungus) form a language family spoken in Eastern Siberia and Manchuria by Tungusic peoples. Many T ...
and are distributed throughout China, forming the fourth largest ethnic group in the country. They can be found in 31 Chinese provincial regions. They also form the largest minority group in China without an
autonomous region An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subnational administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country sub ...
. Among them,
Liaoning Liaoning (), is a coastal province in Northeast China Northeast China, is a geographical region of China. It usually corresponds specifically to the three province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country ...
has the largest population and
Hebei Hebei (; alternately Hopeh) is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, f ...
,
Heilongjiang Heilongjiang, formerly romanized as Heilungkiang, is a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territorial and a ...

Heilongjiang
,
Jilin Jilin (; alternately romanized as Kirin or Chilin) is one of the three provinces A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative ...

Jilin
,
Inner Mongolia Inner Mongolia, officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, is a landlocked of the . Its border includes most of the length of China's with the country of . Inner Mongolia also accounts for a small section of China's with (). Its capit ...

Inner Mongolia
and
Beijing Beijing ( ), as Peking ( ), is the of the . It is the world's , with over 21 million residents within an of 16,410.5 km2 (6336 sq. mi.). It is located in , and is governed as a under the direct administration of the with .Figures ...

Beijing
have over 100,000 Manchu residents. About half of the population live in
Liaoning Liaoning (), is a coastal province in Northeast China Northeast China, is a geographical region of China. It usually corresponds specifically to the three province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country ...
and one-fifth in
Hebei Hebei (; alternately Hopeh) is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, f ...
. There are a number of Manchu autonomous counties in China, such as Xinbin,
Xiuyan Xiuyan Manchu Autonomous County (, Manchu The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, exonym for a historical and geographic region of Russ ...
, Qinglong,
Fengning Fengning Manchu Autonomous County (; Manchu language, Manchu: ; Mölendroff: fengning manju beye dasangga siyan) is a Manchu people, Manchu autonomous county of northern Hebei province, bordering Beijing to the southwest and Inner Mongolia to the n ...
, Yitong,
Qingyuan Qingyuan, formerly romanized as Tsingyun, is a prefecture-level city Image:Yangxin-renmin-huanyin-ni-0022.jpg, A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply "Huangshi" (). This is a useful distinction, because th ...
, Weichang, Kuancheng,
Benxi Benxi () is a prefecture-level city located in the east of Liaoning province, People's Republic of China, south-southeast of the provincial capital Shenyang. Its population was 1,709,538 at the 2010 census whom 1,011,377 lived in the built-up are ...
,
Kuandian Kuandian Manchu Autonomous County (; Manchu The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, exonym for a historical and geographic region of R ...
, Huanren, Fengcheng, Beizhen and over 300 Manchu towns and townships.


Name

The
Jiu Manzhou Dang ''Jiu Manzhou Dang'' () (Manchu language, Manchu: ''Fe Manju Dangse'') is a set of Manchu language, Manchu archives stored at the National Palace Museum in Taipei, Taiwan. It is the sourcebook of ''Manwen Laodang'' and a primary source of early Ma ...
contains the earliest use of Manchu. However, the actual etymology of the ethnic name "Manju" is debatable. According to the Qing dynasty's official historical record, the ''
Researches on Manchu Origins ''Researches on Manchu Origins'', also known as ''Manzhou Yuanliu Kao'', is an important history book published by the Qing Dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last History of China#Imperial China, imperial Dyn ...
'', the ethnic name came from Mañjuśrī. The
Qianlong Emperor The Qianlong Emperor (25 September 17117 February 1799) was the fifth Emperor of the Qing dynasty and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China proper China proper, Inner China or the Eighteen Provinces was a term used by Western wri ...

Qianlong Emperor
also supported the point of view and even wrote several poems on the subject. Meng Sen, a scholar of the Qing dynasty, agreed. On the other hand, he thought the name ''Manchu'' might stem from Li Manzhu (), the chieftain of the
Jianzhou Jurchens The Jianzhou Jurchens () were one of the three major groups of Jurchens Jurchen (Manchu language, Manchu: ''Jušen'', ; zh, 女真, ''Nǚzhēn'', ) is a term used to collectively describe a number of East Asian people, East Asian Tungusic l ...
. Another scholar, Chang Shan, thinks Manju is a compound word. ''Man'' was from the word ''mangga'' () which means "strong," and ''ju'' () means "arrow." So ''Manju'' actually means "intrepid arrow". There are other hypotheses, such as
Fu Sinian Fu Ssu-nien (; 26 March 1896 – 20 December 1950), was a Chinese historian, linguist Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken langua ...
's "etymology of Jianzhou";
Zhang Binglin Zhang Binglin (January 12, 1869 – June 14, 1936), also known as Zhang Taiyan, was a Chinese philologist Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is the intersection of textual criticism, literary criticism, ...

Zhang Binglin
's "etymology of Manshi"; Isamura Sanjiro's "etymology of Wuji and Mohe"; Sun Wenliang's "etymology of Manzhe"; "etymology of mangu(n) river" and so on.


History


Origins and early history

The Manchus are descended from the
Jurchen people Jurchen (Manchu The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, exonym for a historical and geographic region of Russia and China in Northeas ...
who earlier established the
Jin dynasty (1115–1234) The Jin dynasty (, ; , JurchenJurchen may refer to: * Jurchen people, Tungusic people who inhabited the region of Manchuria until the 17th century ** Haixi Jurchens, a grouping of the Jurchens as identified by the Chinese of the Ming Dynasty ...
in China. The name Mohe (靺鞨) might refer to an ancestral population of the Manchus, given the Middle Chinese pronunciation of the word resembles Udege, a
Tungusic peoples Tungusic peoples are an ethno-linguistic group formed by the speakers of Tungusic languages The Tungusic languages (also known as Manchu-Tungus and Tungus) form a language family spoken in Eastern Siberia and Manchuria by Tungusic peoples. Many T ...
living in Northern Manchuria. Sushen, on the other hand, possibly refers to Chukchee-related peoples of Far East
Siberia Siberia (; rus, Сибирь, r=Sibir', p=sʲɪˈbʲirʲ, a=Ru-Сибирь.ogg) is an extensive geographical region, constituting all of North Asia, from the Ural Mountains in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east. It has been a part of R ...

Siberia
. The Mohe practiced pig farming extensively and were mainly sedentary, and also used both pig and dog skins for coats. They were predominantly farmers and grew soybeans, wheat, millet and rice, in addition to hunting. In the 10th century AD, the term
JurchenJurchen may refer to: * Jurchen people, Tungusic people who inhabited the region of Manchuria until the 17th century ** Haixi Jurchens, a grouping of the Jurchens as identified by the Chinese of the Ming Dynasty ** Jianzhou Jurchens, a grouping of t ...
first appeared in documents of the late
Tang dynasty The Tang dynasty (, ; ), or Tang Empire, was an imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907, with an interregnum An interregnum (plural interregna or interregnums) is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organiza ...
in reference to the state of
Balhae Balhae ( ko, 발해) or Bohai ( zh, c=渤海, p=Bóhǎi, russian: Бохай, ) (698–926) was a multi-ethnic kingdom in Manchuria, the Korean Peninsula and the Russian Far East. The history of the founding of the state, its ethnic compositi ...

Balhae
in present-day northeastern China. In 1019, Jurchen pirates raided Japan for slaves. The Jurchen pirates slaughtered Japanese men while seizing Japanese women as prisoners in northern Kyushu. Fujiwara Notada, the Japanese governor was killed. In total, 1,280 Japanese were taken prisoner, 374 Japanese were killed and 380 Japanese-owned livestock were killed for food. Only 259 or 270 were returned by Koreans from the 8 ships. The woman Uchikura no Ishime's report was copied down. Traumatic memories of the Jurchen raids on Japan in the 1019
Toi invasion The was the invasion of northern Kyūshū is the third largest island of Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat ...
, the
Mongol invasions of Japan The , which took place in 1274 and 1281, were major military efforts taken by Kublai Khan of the Yuan dynasty to conquer the Japanese archipelago after the submission of the Korean kingdom of Goryeo to vassaldom. Ultimately a failure, the invasio ...
in addition to Japan viewing the Jurchens as "Tatar" "barbarians" after copying China's barbarian-civilized distinction, may have played a role in Japan's antagonistic views against Manchus and hostility towards them in later centuries such as when
Tokugawa Ieyasu was the founder and first ''shōgun , officially , was the title of the military dictatorship, military dictators of Japan during most of the period spanning from 1185 to 1868. Nominally appointed by the Emperor of Japan, Emperor, shoguns ...

Tokugawa Ieyasu
viewed the unification of Manchu tribes as a threat to Japan. The Japanese mistakenly thought that
Hokkaido , officially Hokkaidō Circuit Prefecture, is the second largest island of Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an in . It is situated in the northwest , and is bordered on the west by the , while extending from the in t ...

Hokkaido
(Ezochi) had a land bridge to Tartary (Orankai) where Manchus lived and thought the Manchus could invade Japan. The
Tokugawa Shogunate The Tokugawa shogunate (, Japanese 徳川幕府 ''Tokugawa bakufu''), also known as the , was the military government {{Systems of government Military dictatorships A military government is generally any government A government is th ...

Tokugawa Shogunate
bakufu , officially , was the title of the military dictators of Japan during most of the period spanning from 1185 to 1868. Nominally appointed by the Emperor An emperor (from la, imperator, via fro, empereor) is a monarch, and usually the so ...
sent a message to Korea via Tsushima offering help to Korea against the 1627 Manchu invasion of Korea. Korea refused it. Following the fall of Balhae, the Jurchens became vassals of the Khitan-led
Liao dynasty The Liao dynasty (; Khitan language, Khitan: ''Mos Jælud''; ), also known as the Khitan Empire (Khitan: ''Mos diau-d kitai huldʒi gur''), officially the Great Liao (), was an Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China that ex ...
. The Jurchens in the
Yalu River The Yalu River, also called by Koreans the Amrok River or Amnok River, is a river on the border between North Korea and China. Together with the Tumen River to its east, and a small portion of Paektu Mountain, the Yalu forms the China–North K ...
region were tributaries of
Goryeo Goryeo (; ) was a Korean dynastic kingdom founded in 918, during a time of national division called the Later Three Kingdoms period, that unified and ruled the Korean Peninsula until 1392. Goryeo achieved what has been called a "true national ...
since the reign of
Wang Geon Taejo of Goryeo (31 January 877 – 4 July 943), also known as Taejo Wang Geon (Wang Kǒn, 왕건), was the founder of the Goryeo Goryeo (; ) was a Korea Korea (officially the "Korean Peninsula") is a region in East Asia. Since 1945 it ...
, who called upon them during the wars of the
Later Three Kingdoms The Later Three Kingdoms of Korea (892–936) consisted of Silla Silla or Shilla (57 BC57 BC according to the '' Samguk Sagi''; however Seth 2010 notes that "these dates are dutifully given in many textbooks and published materials in Kore ...
period, but the Jurchens switched allegiance between Liao and Goryeo multiple times, taking advantage of the tension between the two nations; posing a potential threat to Goryeo's border security, the Jurchens offered tribute to the Goryeo court, expecting lavish gifts in return.. "The Jurchen settlements in the Amnok River region had been tributaries of Koryŏ since the establishment of the dynasty, when T'aejo Wang Kŏn heavily relied on a large segment of Jurchen cavalry to defeat the armies of Later Paekche. The position and status of these Jurchen is hard to determine using the framework of the Koryŏ and Liao states as reference, since the Jurchen leaders generally took care to steer a middle course between Koryŏ and Liao, changing sides or absconding whenever that was deemed the best course. As mentioned above, Koryŏ and Liao competed quite fiercely to obtain the allegiance of the Jurchen settlers who in the absence of large armies effectively controlled much of the frontier area outside the Koryŏ and Liao fortifications. These Jurchen communities were expert in handling the tension between Liao and Koryŏ, playing out divide-and-rule policies backed up by threats of border violence. It seems that the relationship between the semi-nomadic Jurchen and their peninsular neighbours bore much resemblance to the relationship between Chinese states and their nomad neighbours, as described by Thomas Barfield." Before the Jurchens overthrew the Khitan, married Jurchen women and Jurchen girls were raped by Liao Khitan envoys as a custom which caused resentment. Khitan envoys among the Jurchens were treated to guest prostitutes by their Jurchen hosts. Unmarried Jurchen girls and their families hosted the Liao envoys who had sex with the girls. Song envoys among the Jin were similarly entertained by singing girls in Guide, Henan. The practice of guest prostitution – giving female companions, food and shelter to guests – was common among Jurchens. Unmarried daughters of Jurchen families of lower and middle classes in Jurchen villages were provided to Khitan messengers for sex as recorded by Hong Hao. There is no evidence that guest prostitution of unmarried Jurchen girls to Khitans was resented by the Jurchens. It was only when the aristocratic Jurchen families were forced to give up their beautiful wives as guest prostitutes to Khitan messengers that the Jurchens became angered. This probably meant only a husband had the right to his married wife while among lower class Jurchens, the virginity of unmarried girls and sex did not impede their ability to marry later. The Jurchens and their Manchu descendants had Khitan linguistic and grammatical elements in their personal names like suffixes. Many Khitan names had a "ju" suffix. In the year 1114,
Wanyan Aguda Emperor Taizu of Jin (August 1, 1068 – September 19, 1123), personal name Aguda, Sinicization, sinicised name Min (), was the founder and first Emperor of China, emperor of the Jurchen people, Jurchen-led Jin dynasty (1115-1234), Jin dynasty of ...
united the Jurchen tribes and established the
Jin dynasty (1115–1234) The Jin dynasty (, ; , JurchenJurchen may refer to: * Jurchen people, Tungusic people who inhabited the region of Manchuria until the 17th century ** Haixi Jurchens, a grouping of the Jurchens as identified by the Chinese of the Ming Dynasty ...
. His brother and successor,
Wanyan Wuqimai Emperor Taizong of Jin (25 November 1075 – 9 February 1135), personal name Wuqimai, Sinicization, sinicised name Wanyan Sheng, was the second emperor of the Jurchen people, Jurchen-led Jin dynasty (1115–1234), Jin dynasty, which ruled northe ...
defeated the Liao dynasty. After the fall of the Liao dynasty, the Jurchens went to war with the
Northern Song dynasty #REDIRECT Northern Song Dynasty#REDIRECT Northern Song Dynasty The Northern Song (北宋; 4 February 960 – 20 March 1127) is an era during the Song dynasty, Song Dynasty. It came to an end when its capital city, the city of Kaifeng, was conquere ...
, and captured most of northern China in the
Jin–Song wars The Jin–Song Wars were a series of conflicts between the JurchenJurchen may refer to: * Jurchen people, Tungusic people who inhabited the region of Manchuria until the 17th century ** Haixi Jurchens, a grouping of the Jurchens as identifi ...
. During the Jin dynasty, the first
Jurchen script Jurchen script (Jurchen: ) was the writing system used to write the Jurchen language Jurchen language () was the Tungusic language of the Jurchen people of eastern Manchuria, the founders of the Jin Empire in northeastern China of the 12th ...
came into use in the 1120s. It was mainly derived from the Khitan script. Poor Jurchen families in the southern Routes (Daming and Shandong) Battalion and Company households tried to live the lifestyle of wealthy Jurchen families and avoid doing farming work by selling their own Jurchen daughters into slavery and renting their land to Han tenants. The Wealthy Jurchens feasted and drank and wore damask and silk. The
History of Jin The ''History of Jin'' (''Jin Shi'') is a Chinese historical text, one of the ''Twenty Four Histories The ''Twenty-Four Histories'' (), also known as the ''Orthodox Histories'' (), are the China, Chinese official history, official historical bo ...
(Jinshi) says that
Emperor Shizong of Jin Emperor Shizong of Jin (29 March 1123 – 20 January 1189), personal name Wulu, sinicised name Wanyan Yong (originally Wanyan Xiu), was the fifth emperor An emperor (from la, imperator, via fro, empereor) is a monarch, and usually the s ...
took note and attempted to halt these things in 1181.Schneider, Julia. “The Jin Revisited: New Assessment of Jurchen Emperors.” Journal of Song-Yuan Studies, no. 41, 2011, p. 389. JSTOR, https://www.jstor.org/stable/23496214?seq=47#metadata_info_tab_contents. Accessed 17 December 2020. The Jurchens were sedentary, settled farmers with advanced agriculture. They farmed grain and millet as their cereal crops, grew flax, and raised oxen, pigs, sheep and horses. Their farming way of life was very different from the pastoral nomadism of the Mongols and the Khitans on the steppes. Most Jurchens raised pigs and stock animals and were farmers. In 1206, the
Mongols The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an East Asian people, East Asian ethnic group indigenous peoples, native to the Inner Mongolia, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China, Mongolia an ...

Mongols
,
vassal A vassal or liege subject is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord Lord is an appellation for a person or deity who has authority, control, or power (social and political), power over others, acting as a master, a chief ...
s to the Jurchens, rose in Mongolia. Their leader,
Genghis Khan ''Chinggis Khaan'' ͡ʃʰiŋɡɪs xaːŋbr>Mongol script The classical or traditional Mongolian script, also known as the , was the first Mongolian alphabet, writing system created specifically for the Mongolian language, and was the most ...

Genghis Khan
, led Mongol troops against the Jurchens, who were finally defeated by
Ögedei Khan Ögedei (also Ogodei; mn, Өгэдэй, translit=Ögedei, Mongolian Mongolian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Mongolia, a country in Asia * Mongolian people, or Mongols * Mongolia (1911–24), the government of Mongolia, 1911 ...
in 1234. The Jurchen Jin emperor
Wanyan Yongji Wanyan Yongji (died 11 September 1213), courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the East Asian cultural sphere ...
's daughter, Jurchen Princess Qiguo was married to Mongol leader
Genghis Khan ''Chinggis Khaan'' ͡ʃʰiŋɡɪs xaːŋbr>Mongol script The classical or traditional Mongolian script, also known as the , was the first Mongolian alphabet, writing system created specifically for the Mongolian language, and was the most ...

Genghis Khan
in exchange for relieving the Mongol siege upon Zhongdu (Beijing) in the
Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty The Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty, also known as the Mongol–Jin War, was fought between the Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire of the 13th and 14th centuries was the List of largest empires, largest contiguous land empire in history ...
. Under the Mongols' control, the Jurchens were divided into two groups and treated differently: the ones who were born and raised in
North China North China, or Huabei ( ) is a List of regions of China, geographical region of China, consisting of the provinces of Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Shanxi and Inner Mongolia. Part of the larger region of Northern China (''Beifang''), it lies north ...

North China
and fluent in Chinese were considered to be Chinese (Han), but the people who were born and raised in the Jurchen homeland (Manchuria) without Chinese-speaking abilities were treated as Mongols politically. From that time, the Jurchens of North China increasingly merged with the Han Chinese while those living in their homeland started to be Mongolized. They adopted Mongolian customs, names and the Mongolian language. As time went on, fewer and fewer Jurchens could recognize their own script. The Mongol-led
Yuan dynasty The Yuan dynasty (), officially the Great Yuan (; xng, , , literally "Great Yuan State"), was a successor state Successor is someone who, or something which succeeds or comes after (see success and succession) Film and TV * ''The Succ ...
was replaced by the
Ming dynasty The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the Dynasties in Chinese history, ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol Empire, Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming dynasty was the last imperial dynas ...

Ming dynasty
in 1368. In 1387, Ming forces defeated the Mongol commander
NaghachuNaghachu ( mn, Naγaču, script=Latn; ; d. 1388), also written as Nahacu, was an ethnic Mongol leader and general of the Northern Yuan dynasty in Manchuria, which was under Liaoyang province of the former Yuan dynasty. Originally a Yuan official ...
's resisting forces who settled in the Haixi areaand began to summon the Jurchen tribes to pay tribute. At the time, some Jurchen clans were vassals to the Joseon dynasty of Korea such as Odoli and Huligai. Their elites served in the Korean royal bodyguard. The Joseon Koreans tried to deal with the military threat posed by the Jurchen by using both forceful means and incentives, and by launching military attacks. At the same time they tried to appease them with titles and degrees, traded with them, and sought to acculturate them by having Jurchens integrate into Korean culture. Despite these measures, however, fighting continued between the Jurchen and the Koreans. Their relationship was eventually stopped by the Ming dynasty government who wanted the Jurchens to protect the border. In 1403, Ahacu, chieftain of Huligai, paid tribute to the
Yongle Emperor The Yongle Emperor (pronounced , ; 2 May 1360 – 12 August 1424) — personal name Zhu Di (WG: Chu Ti) — was the third List of emperors of the Ming dynasty, Emperor of the Ming dynasty, reigning from 1402 to 1424. Zhu Di was the fourth son ...

Yongle Emperor
of the Ming dynasty. Soon after that, Möngke Temür, chieftain of the Odoli clan of the
Jianzhou Jurchens The Jianzhou Jurchens () were one of the three major groups of Jurchens Jurchen (Manchu language, Manchu: ''Jušen'', ; zh, 女真, ''Nǚzhēn'', ) is a term used to collectively describe a number of East Asian people, East Asian Tungusic l ...
, defected from paying tribute to Korea, becoming a
tributary state A tributary state is a term for a pre-modern in a particular type of subordinate relationship to a more powerful state which involved the sending of a regular token of submission, or , to the superior power. This token often took the form of a ...
to China instead.
Yi Seong-gye Taejo of Joseon (October 27, 1335 – May 24, 1408), born Yi Seong-gye (Middle Korean Middle Korean is the period in the history of the Korean language Korean ( /, ''hangugeo''; /, ''chosŏnmal'') is an Languages of East Asia, East Asian ...
, the
Taejo of Joseon Taejo of Joseon (October 27, 1335 – May 24, 1408), born Yi Seong-gye (middle Korean Middle Korean is the period in the history of the Korean language Korean ( /, ''hangugeo''; /, ''chosŏnmal'') is an Languages of East Asia, East ...
, asked the Ming Empire to send Möngke Temür back but was refused. The Yongle Emperor was determined to wrest the Jurchens out of Korean influence and have China dominate them instead. Korea tried to persuade Möngke Temür to reject the Ming overtures, but was unsuccessful, and Möngke Temür submitted to the Ming Empire. Since then, more and more Jurchen tribes presented tribute to the Ming Empire in succession. The Ming divided them into 384 guards, and the Jurchen became vassals to the Ming Empire. During the Ming dynasty, the name for the Jurchen land was
Nurgan The Nurgan Regional Military Commission () was a Chinese administrative seat established in Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, exonym for a historical and geographic region of Russia and China in Northeast Asia (mostly in Northeas ...
. The Jurchens became part of the Ming dynasty's
Nurgan Regional Military Commission The Nurgan Regional Military Commission () was a Chinese administrative seat established in Manchuria during the Ming dynasty, located on the banks of the Amur River, about 100 km from the sea, at Nurgan city (modern Tyr, Russia), Nurgan () in J ...
under the Yongle Emperor, with Ming forces erecting the
Yongning Temple Stele The Yongning Temple Stele is a Ming Dynasty#REDIRECT Ming dynasty {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from move {{R from other capitalisation ... stele with a trilingual inscription that was erected in 1413 to commemorate the founding of the Yon ...
in 1413, at the headquarters of Nurgan. The stele was inscribed in Chinese, Jurchen, Mongolian, and Tibetan.
Yishiha Yishiha (; also Išiqa or Isiha Jurchen: ) ( fl. 1409–1451) was a Jurchen eunuch A eunuch ( ) is a man who has been castration, castrated. Throughout history, castration often served a specific social function. The earliest records for int ...

Yishiha
, who was a Jurchen eunuch slave in the Ming imperial palace after he was captured and castrated as a boy by Ming Chinese forces, was the one who led the Ming expedition into Nurgan to erect the stele and established the Nurgan Regional Military Commission. In 1449,
Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an East Asian East Asia is the eastern region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") ...

Mongol
taishi attacked the Ming Empire and captured the
Zhengtong Emperor Zhu Qizhen (; 29 November 1427 – 23 February 1464) was the sixth and eighth Emperor of the Ming dynasty. He ascended the throne as the Zhengtong Emperor () in 1435, but was forced to abdicate in 1449, in favour of his younger brother the Jing ...

Zhengtong Emperor
in . Some Jurchen guards in Jianzhou and Haixi cooperated with Esen's action, but more were attacked in the Mongol invasion. Many Jurchen chieftains lost their hereditary certificates granted by the Ming government. They had to present tribute as secretariats () with less reward from the Ming court than in the time when they were heads of guards – an unpopular development. Subsequently, more and more Jurchens recognised the Ming Empire's declining power due to Esen's invasion. The Zhengtong Emperor's capture directly caused Jurchen guards to go out of control. Tribal leaders, such as
CungšanCungšan (, ) was a chieftain of the Jurchen Jianzhou Left Guard. His Temple name is Chun Di (). In 1442, a succession dispute between Cungšan and his half-brother Fanca led to a division in the Jianzhou Left Guard. Cungšan inherited his father's ...
and Wang Gao, brazenly plundered Ming territory. At about this time, the Jurchen script was officially abandoned. More Jurchens adopted Mongolian as their writing language and fewer used Chinese. The final recorded Jurchen writing dates to 1526. The Manchus are sometimes mistakenly identified as nomadic people.Pamela Crossley, ''The Manchus'', p. 3Patricia Buckley Ebrey et al.
''East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History''
3rd edition, p. 271
The Manchu way of life (economy) was agricultural, farming crops and raising animals on farms. Manchus practiced
slash-and-burn Slash-and-burn agriculture is a farming method that involves the cutting and burning of plants in a forest or woodland to create a Field (agriculture), field called a swidden. The method begins by cutting down the trees and woody plants in an ...
agriculture in the areas north of
Shenyang Shenyang (, ; ; Mandarin pronunciation: ), formerly known as Fengtian () or by its Manchu name Mukden, is a major Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a ...

Shenyang
. The
Haixi Jurchens The Haixi Jurchens () were a grouping of the Jurchens Jurchen (Manchu language, Manchu: ''Jušen'', ; zh, 女真, ''Nǚzhēn'', ) is a term used to collectively describe a number of East Asian people, East Asian Tungusic languages, Tungusic-sp ...
were "semi-agricultural, the Jianzhou Jurchens and Maolian () Jurchens were sedentary, while hunting and fishing was the way of life of the "Wild Jurchens". Han Chinese society resembled that of the sedentary Jianzhou and Maolian, who were farmers. Hunting, archery on horseback, horsemanship, livestock raising, and sedentary agriculture were all part of the Jianzhou Jurchens' culture. Although Manchus practiced equestrianism and archery on horseback, their immediate progenitors practiced sedentary agriculture. The Manchus also partook in hunting but were sedentary. Their primary mode of production was farming while they lived in villages, forts, and walled towns. Their Jurchen Jin predecessors also practiced farming. Only the Mongols and the northern "wild" Jurchen were semi-nomadic, unlike the mainstream Jiahnzhou Jurchens descended from the Jin dynasty who were farmers that foraged, hunted, herded and harvested crops in the Liao and Yalu river basins. They gathered ginseng root, pine nuts, hunted for came pels in the uplands and forests, raised horses in their stables, and farmed millet and wheat in their fallow fields. They engaged in dances, wrestling and drinking strong liquor as noted during midwinter by the Korean Sin Chung-il when it was very cold. These Jurchens who lived in the north-east's harsh cold climate sometimes half sunk their houses in the ground which they constructed of brick or timber and surrounded their fortified villages with stone foundations on which they built wattle and mud walls to defend against attack. Village clusters were ruled by beile, hereditary leaders. They fought each other's and dispensed weapons, wives, slaves and lands to their followers in them. This was how the Jurchens who founded the Qing lived and how their ancestors lived before the Jin. Alongside Mongols and Jurchen clans there were migrants from Liaodong provinces of Ming China and Korea living among these Jurchens in a cosmopolitan manner. Nurhaci who was hosting Sin Chung-il was uniting all of them into his own army, having them adopt the Jurchen hairstyle of a long queue and a shaved fore=crown and wearing leather tunics. His armies had black, blue, red, white and yellow flags. These became the Eight Banners, initially capped to 4 then growing to 8 with three different types of ethnic banners as Han, Mongol and Jurchen were recruited into Nurhaci's forces. Jurchens like Nurhaci spoke both their native Tungusic language and Chinese, adopting the Mongol script for their own language unlike the Jin Jurchen's Khitan derived script. They adopted Confucian values and practiced their shamanist traditions. The Qing stationed the "New Manchu" Warka foragers in Ningguta and attempted to turn them into normal agricultural farmers but then the Warka just reverted to hunter gathering and requested money to buy cattle for beef broth. The Qing wanted the Warka to become soldier-farmers and imposed this on them but the Warka simply left their garrison at Ningguta and went back to the Sungari river to their homes to herd, fish and hunt. The Qing accused them of desertion. Although their Mohe ancestors did not respect dogs, the Jurchens began to respect dogs around the time of the Ming dynasty, and passed this tradition on to the Manchus. It was prohibited in Jurchen culture to use dog skin, and forbidden for Jurchens to harm, kill, or eat dogs. For political reasons, the Jurchen leader
Nurhaci Nurhaci (1559 – 30 September 1626) was a Jurchen people, Jurchen chieftain who rose to prominence in the late 16th century in Manchuria. He was a member of the House of Aisin-Gioro, and reigned as the founding Khan (title), khan of the Later J ...

Nurhaci
chose variously to emphasize either differences or similarities in lifestyles with other peoples like the Mongols. Nurhaci said to the Mongols that "the languages of the Chinese and Koreans are different, but their clothing and way of life is the same. It is the same with us Manchus (Jušen) and Mongols. Our languages are different, but our clothing and way of life is the same." Later Nurhaci indicated that the bond with the Mongols was not based in any real shared culture. It was for pragmatic reasons of "mutual opportunism," since Nurhaci said to the Mongols: "You Mongols raise livestock, eat meat, and wear pelts. My people till the fields and live on grain. We two are not one country and we have different languages."


Manchu rule over China

A century after the chaos started in the Jurchen lands,
Nurhaci Nurhaci (1559 – 30 September 1626) was a Jurchen people, Jurchen chieftain who rose to prominence in the late 16th century in Manchuria. He was a member of the House of Aisin-Gioro, and reigned as the founding Khan (title), khan of the Later J ...

Nurhaci
, a chieftain of the Jianzhou Left Guard, began a campaign against the
Ming Empire The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an eth ...

Ming Empire
in revenge for their manslaughter of his
grandfather Grandparents are the parent A parent is a caregiver of the offspring In biology, offspring are the young born of living organism, organisms, produced either by a single organism or, in the case of sexual reproduction, two organisms. Collecti ...

grandfather
and
father A father is the male Male (♂) is the sex of an organism that produces the gamete known as sperm. A male gamete can fuse with a larger female gamete, or ovum, in the process of fertilization. A male cannot sexual reproduction, reproduce sex ...

father
in 1583. He reunified the Jurchen tribes, established a military system called the "
Eight Banners The Eight Banners (in Manchu The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, exonym for a historical and geographic region of Russia and Chi ...
", which organized Jurchen soldiers into groups of "Bannermen", and ordered his scholar Erdeni and minister Gagai to create a new Jurchen script (later known as
Manchu script The Manchu alphabet ( mnc, m=, v=manju hergen, a=manju hergen) is the alphabet used to write the now nearly-extinct Manchu language Manchu (Manchu: , ) is a critically endangered language, endangered Languages of East Asia, East Asian Tungu ...
) using the
traditional Mongolian alphabet The classical or traditional Mongolian script, also known as the , was the first writing system A writing system is a method of visually representing verbal communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or ...
as a reference. When the Jurchens were reorganized by Nurhaci into the Eight Banners, many Manchu clans were artificially created as a group of unrelated people founded a new Manchu clan (mukun) using a geographic origin name such as a toponym for their hala (clan name). The irregularities over Jurchen and Manchu clan origin led to the Qing trying to document and systematize the creation of histories for Manchu clans, including manufacturing an entire legend around the origin of the Aisin-Gioro clan by taking mythology from the northeast. In 1603, Nurhaci gained recognition as the Sure Kundulen Khan (, "wise and respected khan") from his Khalkha Mongol allies; then, in 1616, he publicly enthroned himself and issued a proclamation naming himself Genggiyen Khan (, "bright khan") of the Later Jin dynasty (, 後金). Nurhaci then launched his attack on the Ming dynasty and moved the capital to
Mukden Shenyang (, ; ; Mandarin pronunciation: ), formerly known as Fengtian () or by its Manchu The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, ...

Mukden
after his conquest of Liaodong. In 1635, his son and successor changed the name of the Jurchen ethnic group () to the Manchu. A year later, Huangtaiji proclaimed himself the emperor of the
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Pr ...
(). Factors for the change of name of these people from Jurchen to Manchu include the fact that the term "Jurchen" had negative connotations since the Jurchens had been in a servile position to the Ming dynasty for several hundred years, and it also referred to people of the "dependent class". In 1644, the Ming capital,
Beijing Beijing ( ), as Peking ( ), is the of the . It is the world's , with over 21 million residents within an of 16,410.5 km2 (6336 sq. mi.). It is located in , and is governed as a under the direct administration of the with .Figures ...

Beijing
, was sacked by a peasant revolt led by
Li Zicheng Li Zicheng (22 September 1606 – 1645), born Li Hongji, also known by the nickname, Dashing King, was a Chinese peasant rebel leader who overthrew the Ming dynasty The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty ...
, a former minor Ming official who became the leader of the peasant revolt, who then proclaimed the establishment of the
Shun dynasty The Shun dynasty (), officially the Great Shun (), was a short-lived Dynasties in Chinese history, dynasty that existed during the Transition from Ming to Qing, Ming–Qing transition in History of China, Chinese history. The dynasty was founded ...
. The last Ming ruler, the
Chongzhen Emperor The Chongzhen Emperor (; 6 February 1611 – 25 April 1644), personal name Zhu Youjian (), courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice i ...

Chongzhen Emperor
, committed suicide by hanging himself when the city fell. When Li Zicheng moved against the Ming general
Wu Sangui Wu Sangui (), courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the East Asian cultural sphere, including China, Japan, K ...

Wu Sangui
, the latter made an alliance with the Manchus and opened the
Shanhai Pass Shanhai Pass or Shanhaiguan () is one of the major pass Pass, PASS, The Pass or Passed may refer to: Places *Pass, County Meath, a townland in Ireland *Pass, Poland, a village in Poland *Pass (strait), Pass, an alternate term for a numbe ...
to the Manchu army. After the Manchus defeated
Li Zicheng Li Zicheng (22 September 1606 – 1645), born Li Hongji, also known by the nickname, Dashing King, was a Chinese peasant rebel leader who overthrew the Ming dynasty The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty ...
, they moved the capital of their new Qing Empire to
Beijing Beijing ( ), as Peking ( ), is the of the . It is the world's , with over 21 million residents within an of 16,410.5 km2 (6336 sq. mi.). It is located in , and is governed as a under the direct administration of the with .Figures ...

Beijing
() in the same year. The Qing government differentiated between Han Bannermen and ordinary Han civilians. Han Bannermen were Han Chinese who defected to the Qing Empire up to 1644 and joined the Eight Banners, giving them social and legal privileges in addition to being acculturated to Manchu culture. So many Han defected to the Qing Empire and swelled up the ranks of the Eight Banners that ethnic Manchus became a minority within the Banners, making up only 16% in 1648, with Han Bannermen dominating at 75% and Mongol Bannermen making up the rest. It was this multi-ethnic, majority Han force in which Manchus were a minority, which conquered China for the Qing Empire. A mass marriage of Han Chinese officers and officials to Manchu women was organized to balance the massive number of Han women who entered the Manchu court as courtesans, concubines, and wives. These couples were arranged by Prince Yoto and Hong Taiji in 1632 to promote harmony between the two ethnic groups. Also to promote ethnic harmony, a 1648 decree from the
Shunzhi Emperor The Shunzhi Emperor (Fulin; 15 March 1638 – 5 February 1661) was List of emperors of the Qing dynasty, Emperor of the Qing dynasty from 1644 to 1661, and the first Qing emperor to rule over China proper. A Deliberative Council of Princes an ...
allowed Han Chinese civilian men to marry Manchu women from the Banners with the permission of the Board of Revenue if they were registered daughters of officials or commoners or the permission of their banner company captain if they were unregistered commoners. It was only later in the dynasty that these policies allowing intermarriage were done away with. The change of the name from Jurchen to Manchu was made to hide the fact that the ancestors of the Manchus, the Jianzhou Jurchens, had been ruled by the Chinese. The Qing dynasty carefully hid the two original editions of the books of "''Qing Taizu Wu Huangdi Shilu''" and the "''Manzhou Shilu Tu''" (Taizu Shilu Tu) in the Qing palace, forbidden from public view because they showed that the Manchu Aisin-Gioro family had been ruled by the Ming dynasty. In the Ming period, the Koreans of
Joseon Joseon (also transcribed as Chosŏn, ko, 대조선국; 大朝鮮國, ) was a Korean dynastic kingdom that lasted for approximately five centuries. It was the last dynastic kingdom of Korea. It was founded by Yi Seong-gye Taejo of Joseon ...
referred to the Jurchen inhabited lands north of the Korean peninsula, above the rivers Yalu and Tumen to be part of Ming China, as the "superior country" (sangguk) which they called Ming China. The Qing deliberately excluded references and information that showed the Jurchens (Manchus) as subservient to the Ming dynasty, from the
History of Ming The ''History of Ming'' or the ''Ming History'' (''Míng Shǐ'') is one of the official Chinese historical works known as the ''Twenty-Four Histories The ''Twenty-Four Histories'' (), also known as the ''Orthodox Histories'' (), are the Chines ...
to hide their former subservient relationship to the Ming. The
Veritable Records of Ming The ''Ming Shilu'' () contains the imperial annals of the Ming emperors (1368–1644). It is the single largest historical source for the dynasty. According to modern historians, it "plays an extremely important role in the historical reconstruc ...
were not used to source content on Jurchens during Ming rule in the History of Ming because of this. As a result of their conquest of China, almost all the Manchus followed the
prince regent George IV (George Augustus Frederick; 12 August 1762 – 26 June 1830) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland There have been 12 British monarchs There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union A polit ...
Dorgon Dorgon (, literally "badger"; 17 November 1612 – 31 December 1650), also Prince Rui, was a Manchu The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and ...

Dorgon
and the
Shunzhi Emperor The Shunzhi Emperor (Fulin; 15 March 1638 – 5 February 1661) was List of emperors of the Qing dynasty, Emperor of the Qing dynasty from 1644 to 1661, and the first Qing emperor to rule over China proper. A Deliberative Council of Princes an ...
to
Beijing Beijing ( ), as Peking ( ), is the of the . It is the world's , with over 21 million residents within an of 16,410.5 km2 (6336 sq. mi.). It is located in , and is governed as a under the direct administration of the with .Figures ...

Beijing
and settled there. A few of them were sent to other places such as
Inner Mongolia Inner Mongolia, officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, is a landlocked of the . Its border includes most of the length of China's with the country of . Inner Mongolia also accounts for a small section of China's with (). Its capit ...

Inner Mongolia
,
Xinjiang Xinjiang (),, SASM/GNC: ''Xinjang''; zh, c=, p=Xīnjiāng; alternately romanized as Sinkiang officially the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR) and formerly romanized as Sinkiang, is a landlocked autonomous region An autonomous ...

Xinjiang
and
Tibet Tibet (; ; ) is a region in East Asia covering much of the Tibetan Plateau spanning about . It is the traditional homeland of the Tibetan people as well as some other ethnic groups such as Monpa people, Monpa, Tamang people, Tamang, Qia ...

Tibet
to serve as garrison troops. There were only 1524 Bannermen left in Manchuria at the time of the initial Manchu conquest. After a series of border conflicts with the Russians, the Qing emperors started to realize the strategic importance of Manchuria and gradually sent Manchus back where they originally came from. But throughout the Qing dynasty, Beijing was the focal point of the ruling Manchus in the political, economic and cultural spheres. The
Yongzheng Emperor The Yongzheng Emperor (Yinzhen; 13 December 1678 – 8 October 1735) was the fourth List of emperors of the Qing dynasty, Emperor of the Qing dynasty, and the third Qing emperor to rule over China proper. He reigned from 1722 to 1735. A hard-wor ...
noted: "Garrisons are the places of stationed works, Beijing is their homeland." While the Manchu ruling elite at the Qing imperial court in Beijing and posts of authority throughout China increasingly adopted
Han Han may refer to: Ethnic groups * Han Chinese The Han Chinese,
. Huayuqiao.org. Retrieved on ...
culture, the Qing imperial government viewed the Manchu communities (as well as those of various tribal people) in Manchuria as a place where traditional Manchu virtues could be preserved, and as a vital reservoir of military manpower fully dedicated to the regime. The Qing emperors tried to protect the traditional way of life of the Manchus (as well as various other tribal peoples) in central and northern Manchuria by a variety of means. In particular, they restricted the migration of Han settlers to the region. This had to be balanced with practical needs, such as maintaining the defense of northern China against the Russians and the Mongols, supplying government farms with a skilled work force, and conducting trade in the region's products, which resulted in a continuous trickle of Han convicts, workers, and merchants to the northeast. Han Chinese transfrontiersmen and other non-Jurchen origin people who joined the Later Jin very early were put into the Manchu Banners and were known as "Baisin" in Manchu, and not put into the Han Banners to which later Han Chinese were placed in. An example was the Tokoro Manchu clan in the Manchu banners which claimed to be descended from a Han Chinese with the surname of Tao who had moved north from Zhejiang to Liaodong and joined the Jurchens before the Qing in the Ming Wanli emperor's era. The Han Chinese Banner Tong 佟 clan of
Fushun Fushun (, formerly romanised as ''Fouchouen'', using French spelling, also as Fuxi ()) is a prefecture level city in Liaoning province, China, about east of Shenyang, with a population of 2,138,090 inhabitants (2010 census) and a total area of , ...

Fushun
in
Liaoning Liaoning (), is a coastal province in Northeast China Northeast China, is a geographical region of China. It usually corresponds specifically to the three province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country ...
falsely claimed to be related to the Jurchen Manchu Tunggiya 佟佳 clan of
Jilin Jilin (; alternately romanized as Kirin or Chilin) is one of the three provinces A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative ...

Jilin
, using this false claim to get themselves transferred to a Manchu banner in the reign of the
Kangxi emperor The Kangxi Emperor (Xuanye; 4 May 1654– 20 December 1722) was the third Emperor of the Qing dynasty, and the second Qing emperor to rule over China proper China proper, Inner China or the Eighteen Provinces was a term used by Wester ...

Kangxi emperor
. Select groups of Han Chinese bannermen were mass transferred into Manchu Banners by the Qing, changing their ethnicity from Han Chinese to Manchu. Han Chinese bannermen of Tai Nikan 台尼堪 (watchpost Chinese) and Fusi Nikan 撫順尼堪 (Fushun Chinese) backgrounds into the Manchu banners in 1740 by order of the Qing
Qianlong emperor The Qianlong Emperor (25 September 17117 February 1799) was the fifth Emperor of the Qing dynasty and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China proper China proper, Inner China or the Eighteen Provinces was a term used by Western wri ...

Qianlong emperor
. It was between 1618 and 1629 when the Han Chinese from Liaodong who later became the Fushun Nikan and Tai Nikan defected to the Jurchens (Manchus). These Han Chinese origin Manchu clans continue to use their original Han surnames and are marked as of Han origin on Qing lists of Manchu clans. The Fushun Nikan became Manchufied and the originally Han banner families of Wang Shixuan, Cai Yurong, Zu Dashou, Li Yongfang, Shi Tingzhu and Shang Kexi intermarried extensively with Manchu families. Manchu families adopted Han Chinese sons from families of bondservant
Booi Aha Booi Aha (Manchu language, Manchu: (''booi niyalma'') for male, (''booi hehe'') for female; Chinese transliteration: 包衣阿哈) is a Manchu word literally meaning "household person", referring to hereditarily servile people in 17th-century Qi ...

Booi Aha
(baoyi) origin and they served in Manchu company registers as detached household Manchus and the Qing imperial court found this out in 1729. Manchu Bannermen who needed money helped falsify registration for Han Chinese servants being adopted into the Manchu banners and Manchu families who lacked sons were allowed to adopt their servant's sons or servants themselves. The Manchu families were paid to adopt Han Chinese sons from bondservant families by those families. The Qing Imperial Guard captain Batu was furious at the Manchus who adopted Han Chinese as their sons from slave and bondservant families in exchange for money and expressed his displeasure at them adopting Han Chinese instead of other Manchus. These Han Chinese who infiltrated the Manchu Banners by adoption were known as "secondary-status bannermen" and "false Manchus" or "separate-register Manchus", and there were eventually so many of these Han Chinese that they took over military positions in the Banners which should have been reserved for Manchus. Han Chinese foster-son and separate register bannermen made up 800 out of 1,600 soldiers of the Mongol Banners and Manchu Banners of Hangzhou in 1740 which was nearly 50%. Han Chinese foster-son made up 220 out of 1,600 unsalaried troops at Jingzhou in 1747 and an assortment of Han Chinese separate-register, Mongol, and Manchu bannermen were the remainder. Han Chinese secondary status bannermen made up 180 of 3,600 troop households in Ningxia while Han Chinese separate registers made up 380 out of 2,700 Manchu soldiers in Liangzhou. The result of these Han Chinese fake Manchus taking up military positions resulted in many legitimate Manchus being deprived of their rightful positions as soldiers in the Banner armies, resulting in the real Manchus unable to receive their salaries as Han Chinese infiltrators in the banners stole their social and economic status and rights. These Han Chinese infiltrators were said to be good military troops and their skills at marching and archery were up to par so that the Zhapu lieutenant general couldn't differentiate them from true Manchus in terms of military skills. Manchu Banners contained a lot of "false Manchus" who were from Han Chinese civilian families but were adopted by Manchu bannermen after the Yongzheng reign. The Jingkou and Jiangning Mongol banners and Manchu Banners had 1,795 adopted Han Chinese and the Beijing Mongol Banners and Manchu Banners had 2,400 adopted Han Chinese in statistics taken from the 1821 census. Despite Qing attempts to differentiate adopted Han Chinese from normal Manchu bannermen the differences between them became hazy. These adopted Han Chinese bondservants who managed to get themselves onto Manchu banner roles were called kaihu ren (開戶人) in Chinese and dangse faksalaha urse in Manchu. Normal Manchus were called jingkini Manjusa. A Manchu Bannerman in Guangzhou called Hequan illegally adopted a Han Chinese named Zhao Tinglu, the son of former Han bannerman Zhao Quan, and gave him a new name, Quanheng in order that he be able to benefit from his adopted son receiving a salary as a Banner soldier. Commoner Manchu bannermen who were not nobility were called irgen which meant common, in contrast to the Manchu nobility of the "Eight Great Houses" who held noble titles. This policy of artificially isolating the Manchus of the northeast from the rest of China could not last forever. In the 1850s, large numbers of Manchu bannermen were sent to central China to fight the Taiping rebels. (For example, just the
Heilongjiang Heilongjiang, formerly romanized as Heilungkiang, is a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territorial and a ...

Heilongjiang
province – which at the time included only the northern part of today's Heilongjiang – contributed 67,730 bannermen to the campaign, of whom only 10–20% survived).Those few who returned were demoralized and often disposed to
opium Opium (or poppy tears, scientific name: ''Lachryma papaveris'') is dried latex Latex is a stable dispersion (emulsion An emulsion is a mixture of two or more liquids that are normally Miscibility, immiscible (unmixable or unblendable) o ...

opium
addiction. In 1860, in the aftermath of the
loss Loss may refer to: People with the surname *Joe Loss (1909–1990), founder of The Joe Loss Orchestra Arts, entertainment, and media Music *Loss (Bass Communion album), ''Loss'' (Bass Communion album) (2006) *Loss (Mull Historical Society album ...
of "
Outer Manchuria Outer Manchuria (russian: Приаму́рье, translit=Priamurye; zh, t=外東北, p=Wài Dōngběi, l=Outer Northeast) or Russian Manchuria is a term for a territory in Northeast Asia that is part of Russia Russia (russian: link=no, ...
", and with the imperial and provincial governments in deep financial trouble, parts of Manchuria became officially open to Chinese settlement; within a few decades, the Manchus became a minority in most of Manchuria's districts. is the Manchu name for China (). After conquering the Ming dynasty, the Qing rulers typically referred to their state as the "Great Qing" (), or ''Daicing gurun'' in Manchu. In some documents, the state, or parts of it, is called "China" (Zhongguo), or "Dulimbai Gurun" in the Manchu tongue. Debate continues over whether the Qing equated the lands of the Qing state, including present-day Manchuria, Xinjiang, Mongolia, Tibet and other areas, with "China" in both the Chinese and Manchu languages. Some scholars claim that the Qing rulers defined China as a multiethnic state, rejecting the idea that China only meant Han areas, proclaiming that both Han and non-Han peoples were part of "China", using "China" to refer to the Qing dynasty's empire in official documents, international treaties, and foreign affairs, and the term "Chinese people" (; Manchu: ''Dulimbai gurun-i niyalma'') referred to all the Han, Manchu, and Mongol subjects of the Qing Empire. When the Qing Empire conquered Dzungaria in 1759, it proclaimed that the new land was absorbed into "China" (Dulimbai Gurun) in a Manchu-language memorial. The Qing government expounded in its ideology that it was bringing the "outer" non-Han Chinese like the Inner Mongols, Eastern Mongols, Oirat Mongols, and Tibetans together with the "inner" Han Chinese into "one family" united in the Qing state. The Qing government used the phrase "Zhongwai yijia" or "neiwai yijia" ("interior and exterior as one family") to convey this idea of unification of the different peoples of their empire. A Manchu-language version of a treaty with the Russian Empire concerning criminal jurisdiction over bandits called people from the Qing Empire as "people of the Central Kingdom (Dulimbai Gurun)". In the Manchu official Tulisen's Manchu language Narrative of the Chinese Embassy to the Khan of the Tourgouth Tartars, in the years 1712, 13, 14, and 15, account of his meeting with the Torghut, Torghut leader Ayuka Khan, it was mentioned that while the Torghuts were unlike the Russians, the "people of the Central Kingdom" (dulimba-i gurun , Zhongguo) were like the Torghuts; "people of the Central Kingdom" meant Manchus. It was possible for Han Bannermen and Han bondservants (booi) to become Manchu by being transferred into the upper three Manchu Banners and having their surname "Manchufied" with the addition of a "giya" () as a suffix. The process was called ''taiqi'' () in Chinese. It typically occurred in cases of intermarriage with the House of Aisin-Gioro, Aisin-Gioro clan (the imperial clan); close relatives (fathers and brothers) of the concubine or Empress would get promoted from the Han Banner to the Manchu Banner and become Manchu.


Modern times

The majority of the hundreds of thousands of people living in inner Beijing during the Qing were Manchus and Mongol bannermen from the
Eight Banners The Eight Banners (in Manchu The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, exonym for a historical and geographic region of Russia and Chi ...
after they were moved there in 1644, since Han Chinese were expelled and not allowed to re-enter the inner part of the city. Only after the "Hundred Days' Reform, Hundred Days Reform", during the reign of emperor Guangxu Emperor, Guangxu, Han were allowed to re-enter inner Beijing. Many Manchu Bannermen in Beijing supported the Yìhéquán, Boxers in the Boxer Rebellion and shared their anti-foreign sentiment. The Manchu Bannermen were devastated by the fighting during the First Sino-Japanese War and the Boxer Rebellion, sustaining massive casualties during the wars and subsequently being driven into extreme suffering and hardship. Much of the fighting in the Boxer Rebellion against the foreigners in defense of Beijing and Manchuria was done by Manchu Banner armies, which were destroyed while resisting the invasion. The German Minister Clemens von Ketteler was assassinated by a Manchu. Thousands of Manchus fled south from Aigun during the fighting in the Boxer Rebellion in 1900, their cattle and horses then stolen by Russian Cossacks who razed their villages and homes. The clan system of the Manchus in Aigun was obliterated by the despoliation of the area at the hands of the Russian invaders. Manchu banner garrisons were annihilated on 5 roads by Russians as they suffered most of the casualties. Manchu Shoufu killed himself during the battle of Peking and the Manchu Lao She's father was killed by western soldiers in the battle as the Manchu banner armies of the Center Division of the Guards Army, Tiger Spirit Division and Peking Field force in the Metropolitan banners were slaughtered by the western soldiers. Baron von Ketteler, the German diplomat was murdered by Captian Enhai, a Manchu from the Tiger Spirit Division of Aisin Gioro Zaiyi, Prince Duan and the Inner city Legation Quarters and Catholic cathedral were both attacked by Manchu bannermen. Manchu bannermen were slaughtered by the Eight Nation Alliance all over Manchuria and Beijing because most of the Manchu bannermen supported the Boxers in the Boxer rebellion. Russian Cossack soldiers slaughtered 1,266 households, 900 Daurs, 4,500 Manchus during the Blagoveshchensk massacre and Sixty-Four Villages East of the River massacre. Many Manchu villages were burned by Cossacks in the massacre according to Victor Zatsepine. Western and Japanese soldiers mass raped Manchu women and Mongol banner women in the Tartar Banner inner city of Beijing in siheyuan hutongs in the city. Sawara Tokusuke, a Japanese journalist wrote in “Miscellaneous Notes about the Boxers,” (Sawara 268) about the rapes of Manchu and Mongol banner girls like when Manchu bannerman Yulu w:zh:裕禄, 裕禄 of the Hitara clan was killed in Yangcun and his seven daughters gang raped in the Heavenly palace (Sawara 268). A daughter and wife of Mongol banner noble Chongqi w:zh:崇绮, 崇绮 of the Arute Hala, Alute clan were gang raped. (Sawara 266). Multiple relatives including his son Baochu killed themselves after he killed himself on 26 August, 1900. (Fang 75). Manchu officials and officers like Yuxian_(Qing_dynasty), Yuxian, Qixiu w:zh:啟秀, 啟秀, Zaixun, Prince Zhuang and Captain Clemens_von_Ketteler#Boxer_rebellion_and_death, Enhai (En Hai) were executed or forced to commit suicide by the Eight Nation Alliance while Manchu official Gangyi's w:zh:剛毅, 剛毅 execution was demanded but he already died. German soldiers beheaded the Manchu captain Enhai on 31 December for killing Clemens von Ketteler. By the 19th century, most Manchus in the city garrison spoke only Beijing dialect Mandarin Chinese, not Manchu, which still distinguished them from their Han neighbors in southern China, who spoke non-Mandarin dialects. That they spoke Beijing dialect made recognizing Manchus relatively easy. It was northern Standard Chinese which the Manchu Bannermen spoke instead of the local dialect the Han people around the garrison spoke, so that Manchus in the garrisons at Jingzhou and Guangzhou both spoke Beijing Mandarin even though Cantonese was spoken at Guangzhou, and the Beijing dialect of Mandarin distinguished the Manchu bannermen at the Xi'an garrison from the local Han people who spoke the Xi'an dialect of Mandarin. Many Manchu Bannermen got jobs as Mandarin teachers, writing textbooks for learning Mandarin and instructing people in Mandarin. In Guangdong, the Manchu Mandarin teacher Sun Yizun advised that the ''Yinyun Chanwei'' and ''Kangxi Zidian'', dictionaries issued by the Qing government, were the correct guides to Mandarin pronunciation, rather than the pronunciation of the Beijing and Nanjing dialects. For teaching the Beijing dialect, ''Kyugaigo'', the Japanese foreign-language school, hired a Manchu in 1876. Western and Japanese soldiers mass raped Manchu women and Mongol banner women in the Tartar Banner inner city of Beijing in siheyuan hutongs in the city. Sawara Tokusuke, a Japanese journalist wrote in “Miscellaneous Notes about the Boxers,” (Sawara 268) about the rapes of Manchu and Mongol banner girls like when Manchu bannerman Yulu w:zh:裕禄, 裕禄 of the Hitara clan was killed in Yangcun and his seven daughters gang raped in the Heavenly palace (Sawara 268). A daughter and wife of Mongol banner noble Chongqi w:zh:崇绮, 崇绮 of the Arute Hala, Alute clan were gang raped. (Sawara 266). Multiple relatives including his son Baochu killed themselves after he killed himself on 26 August, 1900. (Fang 75). Manchu officials and officers like Yuxian_(Qing_dynasty), Yuxian, Qixiu w:zh:啟秀, 啟秀, Zaixun, Prince Zhuang and Captain Clemens_von_Ketteler#Boxer_rebellion_and_death, Enhai (En Hai) were executed or forced to commit suicide by the Eight Nation Alliance while Manchu official Gangyi's w:zh:剛毅, 剛毅 execution was demanded but he already died. German soldiers beheaded the Manchu captain Enhai on 31 December for killing Clemens von Ketteler. In the late 19th century and early 1900s, intermarriage between Manchus and Han bannermen in the northeast increased as Manchu families were more willing to marry their daughters to sons from well off Han families to trade their ethnic status for higher financial status. The Han Chinese Li Guojie, the grandson of Li Hongzhang, married the Manchu daughter of Natong (), the Grand Secretary (). Most intermarriage consisted of Han Bannermen marrying Manchus in areas like Aihun. Han Chinese Bannermen wedded Manchus and there was no law against this. Two of the Han Chinese General Yuan Shikai's sons married Manchu women, his sons Yuan Kequan 克權 marrying one of Manchu official Duanfang's daughters and Yuan Kexiang 克相 marrying one of Manchu official Natong's daughters, and one his daughters married a Manchu man, Yuan Fuzhen 複禎 marrying one of Manchu official Yinchang's sons. As the end of the Qing dynasty approached, Anti-Qing sentiment, Manchus were portrayed as outside colonizers by Chinese nationalism, Chinese nationalists such as Sun Yat-sen, even though the Republican revolution he brought about was supported by many reform-minded Manchu officials and military officers. This portrayal dissipated somewhat after the 1911 revolution as the new Republic of China now sought to Five Races Under One Union, include Manchus within its Zhonghua minzu, national identity. In order to blend in, some Manchus switched to speaking the local dialect instead of Standard Chinese. By the early years of the Republic of China (1912–49), Republic of China, very few areas of China still had traditional Manchu populations. Among the few regions where such comparatively traditional communities could be found, and where the Manchu language was still widely spoken, were the Aigun () District and the Qiqihar () District of
Heilongjiang Heilongjiang, formerly romanized as Heilungkiang, is a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territorial and a ...

Heilongjiang
Province. Until 1924, the Chinese government continued to pay stipends to Manchu bannermen, but many cut their links with their banners and took on Han-style names to avoid persecution. The official total of Manchus fell by more than half during this period, as they refused to admit their ethnicity when asked by government officials or other outsiders. On the other hand, in warlord Zhang Zuolin's reign in Manchuria, much better treatment was reported. There was no particular persecution of Manchus. Even the mausoleums of Qing emperors were still allowed to be managed by Manchu guardsmen, as in the past. Many Manchus joined the Fengtian clique, such as Xi Qia, a member of the Qing dynasty's imperial clan. As a follow-up to the Mukden Incident, Manchukuo, a puppet state in Manchuria, was created by the Empire of Japan which was nominally ruled by the deposed Last Emperor, Puyi, in 1932. Although the nation's name implied a primarily Manchu affiliation, it was actually a completely new country for all the ethnicities in Manchuria, which had a majority
Han Han may refer to: Ethnic groups * Han Chinese The Han Chinese,
. Huayuqiao.org. Retrieved on ...
population and was opposed by many Manchus as well as people of other ethnicities who fought against Japan in the Second Sino-Japanese War. The Japanese Ueda Kyōsuke labeled all 30 million people in Manchuria "Manchus", including Han Chinese, even though most of them were not ethnic Manchu, and the Japanese-written "Great Manchukuo" built upon Ueda's argument to claim that all 30 million "Manchus" in Manchukuo had the right to independence to justify splitting Manchukuo from China. In 1942, the Japanese-written "Ten Year History of the Construction of Manchukuo" attempted to emphasize the right of ethnic Japanese to the land of Manchukuo while attempting to delegitimize the Manchus' claim to Manchukuo as their native land, noting that most Manchus moved out during the Qing dynasty and only returned later. In 1952, after the failure of both Manchukuo and the Nationalist Government (KMT), the newborn People's Republic of China officially recognized the Manchu as one of the ethnic minorities as Mao Zedong had criticized the Han chauvinism that dominated the KMT. In the 1953 census, 2.5 million people identified themselves as Manchu. The Communist government also attempted to improve the treatment of Manchu people; some Manchu people who had hidden their ancestry during the period of KMT rule became willing to reveal their ancestry, such as the writer Lao She, who began to include Manchu characters in his fictional works in the 1950s. Between 1982 and 1990, the official count of Manchu people more than doubled from 4,299,159 to 9,821,180, making them China's fastest-growing ethnic minority, but this growth was only on paper, as people formerly registered as Han applied for official recognition as Manchu. Since the 1980s, thirteen Manchu autonomous counties have been created in Liaoning, Jilin, Hebei, and Heilongjiang. The
Eight Banners The Eight Banners (in Manchu The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, exonym for a historical and geographic region of Russia and Chi ...
system is one of the most important ethnic identity of today's Manchu people. So nowadays, Manchus are more like an ethnic coalition which not only contains the descendants of Manchu bannermen, also has a large number of Manchu-assimilated Chinese and Mongol bannermen. However, Solon people, Solon and Sibe people, Sibe Bannermen who were considered as part of Eight Banner system under the Qing dynasty were registered as independent ethnic groups by the PRC government as Daur people, Daur, Evenk people, Evenk, Nanai people, Nanai, Oroqen people, Oroqen, and Sibe. Since the 1980s, the Chinese economic reform, reform after Cultural Revolution, there has been a renaissance of Manchu culture and language among the government, scholars and social activities with remarkable achievements. It was also reported that the resurgence of interest also spread among Han Chinese. In modern China, Manchu culture and language preservation is promoted by the Communist Party of China, and Manchus once again form one of the most socioeconomically advanced minorities within China. Manchus generally face little to no discrimination in their daily lives, there is however, a remaining anti-Manchu sentiment amongst extremist Han nationalists. It is particularly common with participants of the Hanfu movement who subscribe to conspiracy theories about Manchu people, such as the Chinese Communist Party being occupied by Manchu elites hence the better treatment Manchus receive under the People's Republic of China in contrast to their persecution under the KMT's Republic of China rule.Kevin Carrico
A State of Warring Styles
/ref>


Population


Mainland China

Most Manchu people now live in Mainland China with a population of 10,410,585, which is 9.28% of ethnic minorities and 0.77% of China's total population. Among the provincial regions, there are two provinces,
Liaoning Liaoning (), is a coastal province in Northeast China Northeast China, is a geographical region of China. It usually corresponds specifically to the three province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country ...
and
Hebei Hebei (; alternately Hopeh) is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, f ...
, which have over 1,000,000 Manchu residents. Liaoning has 5,336,895 Manchu residents which is 51.26% of Manchu population and 12.20% provincial population; Hebei has 2,118,711 which is 20.35% of Manchu people and 70.80% of provincial ethnic minorites. Manchus are the largest ethnic minority in Liaoning, Hebei, Heilongjiang and
Beijing Beijing ( ), as Peking ( ), is the of the . It is the world's , with over 21 million residents within an of 16,410.5 km2 (6336 sq. mi.). It is located in , and is governed as a under the direct administration of the with .Figures ...

Beijing
; 2nd largest in
Jilin Jilin (; alternately romanized as Kirin or Chilin) is one of the three provinces A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative ...

Jilin
,
Inner Mongolia Inner Mongolia, officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, is a landlocked of the . Its border includes most of the length of China's with the country of . Inner Mongolia also accounts for a small section of China's with (). Its capit ...

Inner Mongolia
, Tianjin, Ningxia, Shaanxi and Shanxi and 3rd largest in Henan, Shandong and Anhui Province, Anhui.


Distribution


Manchu autonomous regions

File:Manchu autonomous regions in Liaoning.png, Manchu autonomous area in Liaoning. File:Manchu autonomous regions in Jilin.png, Manchu autonomous area in Jilin. File:Manchu autonomous regions in Hebei.png, Manchu autonomous area in Hebei.


Other areas

Manchu people can be found living outside mainland China. There are approximately 12,000 Manchus now in Taiwan. Most of them moved to Taiwan with the Republic of China (1912–1949), ROC government in 1949. One notable example was Puru (artist), Puru, a famous painter, calligrapher and also the founder of the Manchu Association of Republic of China.


Culture


Influence on other Tungusic peoples

The Manchus implemented measures to "Manchufy" the other Tungusic peoples living around the Amur River basin. The southern Tungusic Manchus influenced the northern Tungusic peoples linguistically, culturally, and religiously.


Language and alphabet


Language

The Manchu language is a Tungusic languages, Tungusic language and has many dialects. Its standard form is called "Standard Manchu". It originates from the accent of Jianzhou Jurchens and was officially standardized during the
Qianlong Emperor The Qianlong Emperor (25 September 17117 February 1799) was the fifth Emperor of the Qing dynasty and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China proper China proper, Inner China or the Eighteen Provinces was a term used by Western wri ...

Qianlong Emperor
's reign. During the Qing dynasty, Manchus at the imperial court were required to speak Standard Manchu or face the emperor's reprimand. This applied equally to the palace presbyter for shamanic rites when performing sacrifice. "Beijing dialect" is one of the most commonly used. It was a mix of several dialects, since the Manchus who lived in Beijing were not only Jianzhou Jurchens, but also
Haixi Jurchens The Haixi Jurchens () were a grouping of the Jurchens Jurchen (Manchu language, Manchu: ''Jušen'', ; zh, 女真, ''Nǚzhēn'', ) is a term used to collectively describe a number of East Asian people, East Asian Tungusic languages, Tungusic-sp ...
and Wild Jurchens, Yeren Jurchens. the mingling of their accents produced Beijing dialect . Beijing dialect is very close to Standard Manchu. Mukden dialect, is another popular dialect that was originally spoken by Manchus who lived in
Liaoning Liaoning (), is a coastal province in Northeast China Northeast China, is a geographical region of China. It usually corresponds specifically to the three province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country ...
and the western and southern areas of
Jilin Jilin (; alternately romanized as Kirin or Chilin) is one of the three provinces A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative ...

Jilin
, having an accent very close to the Xibe language spoken by the Xibe people, Xibes living in Qapqal Xibe Autonomous County, Qapqal. Other dialects include Ningguta and Alcuka.


Alphabet

The Jurchens, ancestors of the Manchus, had created Jurchen script in the Jin dynasty. After the Jin dynasty collapsed, the Jurchen script was gradually lost. In the
Ming dynasty The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the Dynasties in Chinese history, ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol Empire, Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming dynasty was the last imperial dynas ...

Ming dynasty
, 60%–70% of Jurchens used Mongolian script to write letters and 30%–40% of Jurchens used Chinese characters. This persisted until Nurhaci revolted against the Ming Empire. Nurhaci considered it a major impediment that his people lacked a script of their own, so he commanded his scholars, Gagai and Eldeni, to create Manchu characters by reference to Mongolian scripts. They dutifully complied with the Khan's order and created Manchu script, which is called "script without dots and circles" (; ) or "old Manchu script" (). Due to its hurried creation, the script has its defects. Some vowels and consonants were difficult to distinguish. Shortly afterwards, their successor Dahai used dots and circles to distinguish vowels, aspirated and non-aspirated consonants and thus completed the script. His achievement is called "script with dots and circles" or "new Manchu script".


Current situation

After the 19th century, most Manchus had perfected Standard Chinese and the number of Manchu speakers was dwindling. Although the Qing emperors emphasized the importance of the Manchu language again and again, the tide could not be turned. After the Qing dynasty collapsed, the Manchu language lost its status as a national language and its official use in education ended. Manchus today generally speak Standard Chinese. The remaining skilled native Manchu speakers number less than 100, most of whom are to be found in Sanjiazi (), Heilongjiang Province. Since the 1980s, there has been a resurgence of the Manchu language among the government, scholars and social activities. In recent years, with the help of the governments in Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang, many schools started to have Manchu classes. There are also Manchu volunteers in many places of China who freely teach Manchu in the desire to rescue the language. Thousands of non-Manchus have learned the language through these platforms. Today, in an effort to save Manchu culture from extinction, the older generation of Manchus are spending their own money and time to teach young people. In an effort to encourage learners, these classes were oftentimes free. They teach through the Internet and even mail Manchu textbooks for free, all for the purpose of protecting the national cultural traditions.


Traditional Lifestyle

The
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Pr ...
is mistakenly confused as a nomadic empire with the assumption that the Manchus were a nomadic people, but they were sedentary agricultural people who lived in fixed villages, farmed crops, practiced hunting and mounted archery. The southern Tungusic Manchu farming sedentary lifestyle was very different from the nomadic hunter gatherer forager lifestyle of their more northern Tungusic relatives like the Warka, which left the Qing state to attempt to make them sedentarize and farm like Manchus.


Women

In their traditional culture before the Qing, Manchu women originally had sexual autonomy being able to have premarital sex, being able to talk and mingle with men after being married without coming under suspicion of infidelity and to remarry after becoming widows, but Manchu men later adopted Han Chinese Confucian values and started killing their wives and daughters during the Qing for perceived infidelity due to talking to unrelated men while married or premarital sex, and prizing virginity and widow chastity like Han Chinese. Compared to Han Chinese women, upper class Manchu women in the early Qing were at ease when talking to men.


Names and naming practices


Family names

The history of Manchu family names is quite long. Fundamentally, it succeeds the Jurchen family name of the Jin dynasty. However, after the Mongols extinguished the Jin dynasty, the Manchus started to adopt Mongol culture, including their custom of using only their given name until the end of the Qing dynasty, a practice confounding non-Manchus, leading them to conclude, erroneously, that they simply do not have family names. A Manchu family name usually has two portions: the first is "Mukūn" (, Abkai: Mukvn) which literally means "branch name"; the second, "Hala" (), represents the name of a person's clan. According to the ''Book of the Eight Manchu Banners' Surname-Clans'' (), there are 1,114 Manchu family names. Gūwalgiya, Niohuru, Hešeri, Šumulu, Tatara, Gioro, Nara (clan), Nara are considered as "famous clans" () among Manchus. There were stories of Han migrating to the Jurchens and assimilating into Manchu Jurchen society and Nikan Wailan may have been an example of this. The Manchu Cuigiya () clan claimed that a Han Chinese founded their clan. The Tohoro () clan (Duanfang's clan) claimed Han Chinese origin.


Given names

Manchus given names are distinctive. Generally, there are several forms, such as bearing suffixes "-ngga", "-ngge" or "-nggo", meaning "having the quality of"; bearing Mongolian name, Mongol style suffixes "-tai" or "-tu", meaning "having"; bearing the suffix, "-ju", "-boo"; numerals or animal names. Some ethnic names can also be a given name of the Manchus. One of the common first name for the Manchus is Nikan (Han Chinese). For example, Nikan Wailan was a Jurchen leader who was an enemy of Nurhaci. Nikan was also the name of one of the Aisin-Gioro princes and grandsons of Nurhaci who supported Prince Dorgon. Nurhaci's first son was Cuyen, one of whose sons was Nikan.


Current status

Nowadays, Manchus primarily use Chinese family and given names, but some still use a Manchu family name and Chinese given name, a Chinese family name and Manchu given name or both Manchu family and given names.


Burial customs

The Jurchens and their Manchu descendants originally practiced cremation as part of their culture. They adopted the practice of burial from the Han Chinese, but many Manchus continued to cremate their dead. Princes were cremated on pyres.


Traditional hairstyle

The traditional hairstyle for Manchu men is shaving the front of their heads while growing the hair on the back of their heads into a single braid called a Queue (hairstyle), queue (), which was known as ''soncoho'' in Manchu. Manchu women wore their hair in a distinctive hairstyle called ''liangbatou'' ().


Traditional garments

A common misconception among Han Chinese was that Manchu clothing was entirely separate from Hanfu. In fact, Manchu clothes were simply modified Ming Hanfu but the Manchus promoted the misconception that their clothing was of different origin. Manchus originally did not have their own cloth or textiles and the Manchus had to obtain Ming Dragon robe#China, dragon robes and cloth when they paid tribute to the Ming dynasty or traded with the Ming. These Ming robes were modified, cut and tailored to be narrow at the sleeves and waist with slits in the skirt to make it suitable for falconry, horse riding and archery. The Ming robes were simply modified and changed by Manchus by cutting it at the sleeves and waist to make them narrow around the arms and waist instead of wide and added a new narrow cuff to the sleeves. The new cuff was made out of fur. The robe's jacket waist had a new strip of scrap cloth put on the waist while the waist was made snug by pleating the top of the skirt on the robe. The Manchus added sable fur skirts, cuffs and collars to Ming dragon robes and trimming sable fur all over them before wearing them. Han Chinese court costume was modified by Manchus by adding a ceremonial big collar (da-ling) or shawl collar (pijian-ling). It was mistakenly thought that the hunting ancestors of the Manchus skin clothes became Qing dynasty clothing, due to the contrast between Ming dynasty clothes unshaped cloth's straight length contrasting to the odd-shaped pieces of Qing dynasty long pao and chao fu. Scholars from the west wrongly thought they were purely Manchu. Chao fu robes from Ming dynasty tombs like the Wanli emperor's tomb were excavated and it was found that Qing chao fu was similar and derived from it. They had embroidered or woven dragons on them but are different from long pao dragon robes which are a separate clothing. Flaired skirt with right side fastenings and fitted bodices dragon robes have been found in Beijing, Shanxi, Jiangxi, Jiangsu and Shandong tombs of Ming officials and Ming imperial family members. Integral upper sleeves of Ming chao fu had two pieces of cloth attached on Qing chao fu just like earlier Ming chao fu that had sleeve extensions with another piece of cloth attached to the bodice's integral upper sleeve. Another type of separate Qing clothing, the long pao resembles Yuan dynasty clothing like robes found in the Shandong tomb of Li Youan during the Yuan dynasty. The Qing dynasty chao fu appear in official formal portraits while Ming dynasty Chao fu that they derive from do not, perhaps indicating the Ming officials and imperial family wore chao fu under their formal robes since they appear in Ming tombs but not portraits. Qing long pao were similar unofficial clothing during the Qing dynasty. The Yuan robes had hems flared and around the arms and torso they were tight. Qing unofficial clothes, long pao, derived from Yuan dynasty clothing while Qing official clothing, chao fu, derived from unofficial Ming dynasty clothing, dragon robes. The Ming consciously modeled their clothing after that of earlier Han Chinese dynasties like the Song dynasty, Tang dynasty and Han dynasty. In Japan's Nara city, the Todaiji temple's Shosoin repository has 30 short coats (hanpi) from Tang dynasty China. Ming dragon robes derive from these Tang dynasty hanpi in construction. The hanpi skirt and bodice are made of different cloth with different patterns on them and this is where the Qing chao fu originated. Cross-over closures are present in both the hanpi and Ming garments. The eighth century Shosoin hanpi's variety show it was in vogue at the tine and most likely derived from much more ancient clothing. Han dynasty and Jin dynasty (266–420) era tombs in Yingban, to the Tianshan mountains south in
Xinjiang Xinjiang (),, SASM/GNC: ''Xinjang''; zh, c=, p=Xīnjiāng; alternately romanized as Sinkiang officially the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR) and formerly romanized as Sinkiang, is a landlocked autonomous region An autonomous ...

Xinjiang
have clothes resembling the Qing long pao and Tang dynasty hanpi. The evidence from excavated tombs indicates that China had a long tradition of garments that led to the Qing chao fu and it was not invented or introduced by Manchus in the Qing dynasty or Mongols in the Yuan dynasty. The Ming robes that the Qing chao fu derived from were just not used in portraits and official paintings but were deemed as high status to be buried in tombs. In some cases the Qing went further than the Ming dynasty in imitating ancient China to display legitimacy with resurrecting ancient Chinese rituals to claim the Mandate of Heaven after studying Chinese classics. Qing sacrificial ritual vessels deliberately resemble ancient Chinese ones even more than Ming vessels. Tungusic peoples, Tungusic people on the Amur river like Udege people, Udeghe, Ulchi and Nani people, Nanai adopted Chinese influences in their religion and clothing with Chinese dragons on ceremonial robes, scroll and spiral bird and monster mask designs, Chinese New Year, using silk and cotton, iron cooking pots, and heated house from China during the Ming dynasty. The Spencer Museum of Art has six long pao robes that belonged to Han Chinese Royal and noble ranks of the Qing dynasty, nobility of the Qing dynasty (Chinese nobility). Ranked officials and Han Chinese nobles had two slits in the skirts while Manchu nobles and the Imperial family had 4 slits in skirts. All first, second and third rank officials as well as Han Chinese and Manchu nobles were entitled to wear 9 dragons by the Qing Illustrated Precedents. Qing sumptuary laws only allowed four clawed dragons for officials, Han Chinese nobles and Manchu nobles while the Qing Imperial family, emperor and princes up to the second degree and their female family members were entitled to wear five clawed dragons. However officials violated these laws all the time and wore 5 clawed dragons and the Spencer Museum's 6 long pao worn by Han Chinese nobles have 5 clawed dragons on them. The early phase of Manchu clothing succeeded from Jurchen tradition. White was the dominating color.To facilitate convenience during archery, the robe is the most common article of clothing for the Manchu people. Over the robe, a surcoat is usually worn, derived from the military uniform of Eight Banners army. During the Kangxi Emperor, Kangxi period, the surcoat gained popularity among commoners. The modern Chinese suits, the Cheongsam and Tangzhuang, are derived from the Manchu robe and surcoat which are commonly considered as "Chinese elements". Wearing hats is also a part of traditional Manchu culture, and Manchu people wear hats in all ages and seasons in contrast to the Han Chinese culture of "Starting to wear hats at 20-year-old" (). Manchu hats are either formal or casual, formal hats being made in two different styles, straw for spring and summer, and fur for fall and winter. Casual hats are more commonly known as "Mandarin hats" in English. Manchus have many distinctive traditional accessories. Women traditionally wear three earrings on each ear, a tradition that is maintained by many older Manchu women. Males also traditionally wear piercings, but they tend to only have one earring in their youth and do not continue to wear it as adults. The Manchu people also have traditional jewelry which evokes their past as hunters. The fergetun (), a thumb ring traditionally made out of reindeer bone, was worn to protect the thumbs of archers. After the establishment of the Qing dynasty in 1644, the fergetun gradually became simply a form of jewelry, with the most valuable ones made in jade and ivory. High-heeled shoes were worn by Manchu women.


Traditional activities


Riding and archery

Riding and archery () are significant to the Manchus. They were well-trained horsemen from their teenage years. said, "Riding and archery are the most important martial arts of our country". Every generation of the Qing dynasty treasured riding and archery the most. Every spring and fall, from ordinary Manchus to aristocrats, all had to take riding and archery tests. Their test results could even affect their rank in the Chinese nobility, nobility. The Manchus of the early Qing dynasty had excellent shooting skills and their arrows were reputed to be capable of penetrating two persons. From the middle period of the Qing dynasty, archery became more a form of entertainment in the form of games such as hunting swans, shooting fabric or silk target. The most difficult is shooting a candle hanging in the air at night. Gambling was banned in the Qing dynasty but there was no limitation on Manchus engaging in archery contests. It was common to see Manchus putting signs in front of their houses to invite challenges. After the Qianlong Emperor, Qianlong period, Manchus gradually neglected the practices of riding and archery, even though their rulers tried their best to encourage Manchus to continue their riding and archery traditions, but the traditions are still kept among some Manchus even nowadays. File:Hunting party1.jpg, Manchu Hunting party File:Hunting party2.jpg, Manchu Hunting party File:Hunting party3.jpg, Manchu Hunting party File:Hunting party4.jpg, Manchu Hunting party File:Hunting party5.jpg, Manchu Hunting party File:Hunting party6.jpg, Manchu Hunting party File:Hunting party7.jpg, Manchu Hunting party File:Hunting party8.jpg, Manchu Hunting party File:Hunting party9.jpg, Manchu Hunting party File:Hunting party10.jpg, Manchu Hunting party File:Hunting party11.jpg, Manchu Hunting party File:Hunting party12.jpg, Manchu Hunting party


Manchu wrestling

Manchu wrestling () is also an important martial art of the Manchu people. Buku, meaning "wrestling" or "man of unusual strength" in Manchu, was originally from a Mongolian word, "Mongolian wrestling, bökh". The history of Manchu wrestling can be traced back to Jurchen wrestling in the Jin dynasty which was originally from Khitan wrestling; it was very similar to Mongolian wrestling. In the
Yuan dynasty The Yuan dynasty (), officially the Great Yuan (; xng, , , literally "Great Yuan State"), was a successor state Successor is someone who, or something which succeeds or comes after (see success and succession) Film and TV * ''The Succ ...
, the Jurchens who lived in northeast China adopted Mongol culture including wrestling, bökh. In the latter Jin and early Qing period, rulers encouraged the populace, including aristocrats, to practise buku as a feature of military training. At the time, Mongol wrestlers were the most famous and powerful. By the Chongde period, Manchus had developed their own well-trained wrestlers and, a century later, in the Qianlong period, they surpassed Mongol wrestlers. The Qing court established the "Shan Pu Battalion" and chose 200 fine wrestlers divided into three levels. Manchu wrestling moves can be found in today's Chinese wrestling, ''shuai jiao'', which is its most important part. Among many branches, Beijing wrestling adopted most Manchu wrestling moves.


Falconry

As a result of their hunting ancestry, Manchus are traditionally interested in falconry. Gyrfalcon () is the most highly valued discipline in the Manchu falconry social circle. In the Qing period, giving a gyrfalcon to the royal court in tribute could be met with a considerable reward. There were professional falconers in Ningguta area (today's Heilongjiang province and the northern part of Jilin province). It was a big base of falconry. Beijing's Manchus also like falconry. Compared to the falconry of Manchuria, it is more like an entertainment. Imperial Household Department of Beijing had professional falconers, too. They provided outstanding falcons to the emperor when he went to hunt every fall. Even today, Manchu traditional falconry is well practised in some regions.


Ice skating

Ice skating () is another Manchu pastime. The
Qianlong Emperor The Qianlong Emperor (25 September 17117 February 1799) was the fifth Emperor of the Qing dynasty and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China proper China proper, Inner China or the Eighteen Provinces was a term used by Western wri ...

Qianlong Emperor
called it a "national custom". It was one of the most important winter events of the Qing royal household, performed by the "Eight Banner Ice Skating Battalion" () which was a special force trained to do battle on icy terrain. The battalion consisted of 1600 soldiers. In the Jiaqing Emperor, Jiaqing period, it was reduced to 500 soldiers and transferred to the Jing Jie Battalion () originally, literally meaning "chosen agile battalion". In the 1930s–1940s, there was a famous Manchu skater in Beijing whose name was Wu Tongxuan, from the Uya clan and one of the royal household skaters in Empress Dowager Cixi's regency. He frequently appeared in many of Beijing's skating rinks. Nowadays, there are still Manchu figure skaters; world champions Zhao Hongbo and Tong Jian are the pre-eminent examples.


Literature

The ''Tale of the Nisan Shaman'' (; ) is the most important piece of Manchu literature. It primarily recounts how Nisan Shaman helps revive a young hunter. The story also spread to Xibe, Nanai, Daur, Oroqen, Evenk and other Tungusic peoples. It has four versions: the handwriting version from Qiqihar; two different handwriting versions from Aigun; and the one by the Manchu writer Dekdengge in Vladivostok (). The four versions are similar, but Haišenwei's is the most complete. It has been translated into Russian, Chinese, English and other languages. There is also literature written in Chinese by Manchu writers, such as ''The Tale of Heroic Sons and Daughters'' (), ' () and ' ().


Folk art


Octagonal drum

Octagonal drum is a type of Manchu folk art that was very popular among bannermen, especially in Beijing. It is said that octagonal drum originated with the snare drum of the Eight-banner military and the melody was made by the banner soldiers who were on the way back home from victory in the battle of Jinchuan. The drum is composed of wood surrounded by bells. The drumhead is made by wyrmhide with tassels at the bottom. The colors of the tassels are yellow, white, red, and blue, which represent the four colors of the
Eight Banners The Eight Banners (in Manchu The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, exonym for a historical and geographic region of Russia and Chi ...
. When artists perform, they use their fingers to hit the drumhead and shake the drum to ring the bells. Traditionally, octagonal drum is performed by three people. One is the harpist; one is the clown who is responsible for harlequinade; and the third is the singer. "Zidishu" is the main libretto of octagonal drum and can be traced back to a type of traditional folk music called the "Manchu Rhythm". Although Zidishu was not created by Han Chinese, it still contains many themes from Chinese stories, such as ''Romance of the Three Kingdoms'', ''Dream of the Red Chamber'', ''Romance of the Western Chamber'', ''Legend of the White Snake'' and ''Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio''. Additionally, there are many works that depict the lives of Bannermen. Aisin-Gioro Yigeng, who was pen named "Helü" and wrote ''the sigh of old imperial bodyguard'', as the representative author. Zidishu involves two acts of singing, which are called ''dongcheng'' and ''xicheng''. After the fall of the Qing dynasty, the influence of the octagonal drum gradually reduced. However, the and Xiangsheng, crosstalk which derived from octagonal are still popular in Chinese society and the new generations. Many famous Chinese monochord performers and crosstalkers were the artists of octagonal drum, such as De Shoushan and Zhang Sanlu.


Ulabun

Ulabun () is a form of Manchu storytelling entertainment which is performed in the Manchu language. Different from octagonal drum, ulabun is popular among the Manchu people living in Manchuria. It has two main categories; one is popular folk literature such as the ''Tale of the Nisan Shaman'', the other is from folk music with an informative and independent plot, and complete structure. Song Xidong aka. Akšan/Akxan () is a famous artist in performing ulabun.


Religion

Originally, Manchus, and their predecessors, were principally Buddhists with Shamanist influences. Every Manchu King started his royal title with Buddha. After the conquest of China in the 17th century, Manchus came into contact with Chinese culture. They adopted Confucianism along with Buddhism and discouraged shamanism.


Manchu shamanism

Shamanism has a Shamanism in the Qing dynasty, long history in Manchu civilization and influenced them tremendously over thousands of years. John Keay states in ''A History of China'', shaman is the single loan-word from Manchurian into the English language. After the conquest of China in the 17th century, although Manchus officially adopted Buddhism and widely adopted Chinese folk religion, Shamanic traditions can still be found in the aspects of soul worship, totem worship, belief in nightmares and apotheosis of philanthropists. Apart from the Shamanic shrines in the Qing palace, no temples erected for worship of Manchu gods could be found in Beijing. Thus, the story of competition between Shamanists and Lamaists was oft heard in Manchuria but the Manchu emperors helped Lamaists or Tibetan Buddhists officially.


Buddhism

Jurchens, the predecessors of the Manchus adopted the Buddhism of
Balhae Balhae ( ko, 발해) or Bohai ( zh, c=渤海, p=Bóhǎi, russian: Бохай, ) (698–926) was a multi-ethnic kingdom in Manchuria, the Korean Peninsula and the Russian Far East. The history of the founding of the state, its ethnic compositi ...

Balhae
,
Goryeo Goryeo (; ) was a Korean dynastic kingdom founded in 918, during a time of national division called the Later Three Kingdoms period, that unified and ruled the Korean Peninsula until 1392. Goryeo achieved what has been called a "true national ...
, Liao dynasty, Liao and Song dynasty, Song in the 10–13th centuries,The Relation of Manchu Emperors and Buddhism (simplified Chinese)
/ref> so it was not something new to the rising Manchus in the 16–17th centuries. Qing emperors were always entitled "Buddha". They were regarded as Mañjuśrī in Tibetan Buddhism and had high attainments. Hong Taiji who was of Mongolian descent started leaning towards Chan Buddhism, which became Zen Buddhism. Still, Huangtaiji patronized Tibetan Buddhism extensively and publicly. Huangtaiji patronized Buddhism but sometimes felt Tibetan Buddhism to be inferior to Chan Buddhism. The
Qianlong Emperor The Qianlong Emperor (25 September 17117 February 1799) was the fifth Emperor of the Qing dynasty and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China proper China proper, Inner China or the Eighteen Provinces was a term used by Western wri ...

Qianlong Emperor
's faith in Tibetan Buddhism has been questioned in recent times because the emperor indicated that he supported the Yellow Church (the Tibetan Buddhist Gelukpa sect) This explanation of only supporting the "Yellow Hats" Tibetan Buddhists for practical reasons was used to deflect Han criticism of this policy by the Qianlong Emperor, who had the "Lama Shuo" stele engraved in Tibetan, Mongol, Manchu and Chinese, which said: "By patronizing the Yellow Church we maintain peace among the Mongols." It seems he was wary of the rising power of the Tibetan Kingdom and its influence over the Mongolians and Manchu public, princes and generals.


Chinese folk religion

Manchus were affected by Chinese folk religions for most of the Qing dynasty. Save for ancestor worship, the gods they consecrated were virtually identical to those of the Han Chinese. Guan Yu worship is a typical example. He was considered as the God Protector of the Nation and was sincerely worshipped by Manchus. They called him "Lord Guan" (). Uttering his name was taboo. In addition, Manchus worshipped Cai Shen and the Kitchen God just as the Han Chinese did. The worship of Mongolian and Tibetan gods has also been reported.


Roman Catholic

Influenced by the Society of Jesus, Jesuit missionaries in China, there were also a considerable number of Manchu Catholics during the Qing dynasty. The earliest Manchu Catholics appeared in the 1650s. In the Yongzheng eras, Depei, the Hošo Jiyan Prince, was a Catholic whose baptismal name was "Joseph". His wife was also baptised and named "Maria". At the same time, the sons of Beile, Doro Beile Sunu were devout Catholics, too. In the Jiaqing period, Tong Hengšan and Tong Lan were Catholic Manchu Bannermen. These Manchu Catholics were proselytized and persecuted by Qing emperors but they steadfastly refused to renounce their faith. There were Manchu Catholics in modern times, too, such as Ying Lianzhi, the founder of Fu Jen Catholic University.


Traditional holidays

Manchus have many traditional holidays. Some are derived from Chinese culture, such as the "Chinese New Year, Spring Festival" and Duanwu Festival. Some are of Manchu origin. For instance, Banjin Inenggi (), on the 13th day of the tenth month of the lunar calendar, is the anniversary of the name creation of Manchu. This day in 1635, Hong Taiji changed the ethnic name from Jurchen to Manchu. Food Extermination Day (), on every 26th day of the 8th month of the lunar calendar, is another example which was inspired by a story that once
Nurhaci Nurhaci (1559 – 30 September 1626) was a Jurchen people, Jurchen chieftain who rose to prominence in the late 16th century in Manchuria. He was a member of the House of Aisin-Gioro, and reigned as the founding Khan (title), khan of the Later J ...

Nurhaci
and his troops were in a battle with enemies and almost running out of food. The villagers who lived near the battlefield heard the emergency and came to help. There was no tableware on the battlefield. They had to use perilla leaves to wrap the rice. Afterwards, they won the battle. So later generations could remember this hardship, Nurhaci made this day the "Food Extermination Day". Traditionally on this day, Manchu people eat perilla or Chinese cabbage, cabbage wraps with rice, scrambled eggs, beef or pork.


Genetics

The Manchus have ancestry related to Northeast Asia, north-eastern Asians, Yellow River farmers, and southern East Asian people, East Asians. Similar genetic profiles were observed in northern Han Chinese, Han Chinese people, suggesting a close genetic relationship between the Manchus and the northern Han.


See also

* Manchu language and Manchu alphabet, alphabet * Manchu name and List of Manchu clans, clans *
Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym An endonym (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its populatio ...

Manchuria
* Manchukuo *
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Pr ...
and List of emperors of the Qing dynasty, emperors *
Eight Banners The Eight Banners (in Manchu The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, exonym for a historical and geographic region of Russia and Chi ...
and Identity in the Eight Banners, their identity *
Tungusic peoples Tungusic peoples are an ethno-linguistic group formed by the speakers of Tungusic languages The Tungusic languages (also known as Manchu-Tungus and Tungus) form a language family spoken in Eastern Siberia and Manchuria by Tungusic peoples. Many T ...
* Sushen * Mohe people, Mohe *
JurchenJurchen may refer to: * Jurchen people, Tungusic people who inhabited the region of Manchuria until the 17th century ** Haixi Jurchens, a grouping of the Jurchens as identified by the Chinese of the Ming Dynasty ** Jianzhou Jurchens, a grouping of t ...
* Sinicization of the Manchus * Military of the Qing dynasty


Notes


References


Citations


Sources


In Chinese

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In English

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In Manchu

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Further reading

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External links


Manchu Association of Republic of China

Shenyang Manchu Federation (SYMZF)
{{Authority control Manchu people, Tungusic peoples Manchuria Ethnic groups officially recognized by China Hong Kong people of Manchu descent