HOME

TheInfoList




County Kerry ( gle, Contae Chiarraí) is a
county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Robert Chambers (publisher bo ...

county
in
Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain_(right),_are_large_islands_of_north-west_Europe image:Small_Island_in ...

Ireland
. It is located in the South-West Region and forms part of the
province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are g ...

province
of
Munster Munster ( gle, an Mhumhain or ) is one of the provinces of Ireland Since pre-historic times, there have been four Provinces of Ireland: Connacht, Leinster, Munster, and Ulster. The Irish language, Irish word for this territorial division ...

Munster
. It is named after the Ciarraige who lived in part of the present county. The population of the county was 147,707 at the 2016 census.


Geography and political subdivisions

Kerry is the fifth-largest of Ireland's 32 traditional counties by area and the 15th-largest by population. It is the second-largest of Munster's six counties by area, and the fourth-largest by population. Uniquely, it is bordered by only two other counties:
County Limerick County Limerick ( ga, Contae Luimnigh) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain mod ...
to the east and
County Cork County Cork ( ga, Contae Chorcaí) is the largest and the southernmost county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first p ...
to the south-east. The
county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer ...
is
Tralee Tralee ( ; ga, Trá Lí, ; formerly , meaning 'strand of the Lee River') is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is ...

Tralee
. The Catholic diocesan seat is
Killarney Killarney (; ; ) is a town in County Kerry, southwestern Republic of Ireland, Ireland. The town is on the northeastern shore of Lough Leane, part of Killarney National Park, and is home to St Mary's Cathedral, Killarney, St Mary's Cathedral, R ...

Killarney
, which is one of Ireland's most famous tourist destinations. The
Lakes of Killarney The Lakes of Killarney are a scenic attraction located in Killarney National Park near Killarney, County Kerry, in Republic of Ireland, Ireland. They consist of three lakes - Lough Leane, Muckross Lake (also called Middle Lake) and Upper Lake, Killa ...
, an area of outstanding natural beauty are located in
Killarney National Park Killarney National Park ( ga, Páirc Náisiúnta Chill Airne), near the town of Killarney, County Kerry, was the first national park in Ireland, created when the Muckross House, Muckross Estate was donated to the Irish Free State in 1932. The pa ...

Killarney National Park
. The Reeks District is home to
Carrauntoohil Carrauntoohil or Carrauntoohill ( ; ga, Corrán Tuathail , meaning "Tuathal's sickle") is the Lists of mountains in Ireland, highest mountain on the island of Ireland at . It is on the Iveragh Peninsula in the Reeks District in County Kerry, close ...

Carrauntoohil
, Ireland's highest mountain at 1,039m. The tip of the
Dingle Peninsula The Dingle Peninsula ( ga, Corca Dhuibhne; anglicised Linguistic anglicisation (or anglicization, occasionally anglification, anglifying, or Englishing) is the practice of modifying foreign words, names, and phrases to make them easier to spe ...

Dingle Peninsula
is the most westerly point of Ireland.


Baronies

There are nine historic
baroniesBarony may refer to: * Barony, the peerage A peerage is a legal system historically comprising various hereditary titles (and sometimes Life peer, non-hereditary titles) in a number of countries, and composed of assorted noble ranks. Peerages incl ...
in the county. While baronies continue to be officially defined units, they are no longer used for many administrative purposes. Their official status is illustrated by Placenames Orders made since 2003, where official Irish names of baronies are listed under "Administrative units". * Clanmaurice – ' * – ' * Dunkerron North – ' * Dunkerron South – ' * Glanarought – ' * Iraghticonnor – ' * Iveragh (Peninsula) – ' * Magunihy – ' *
Trughanacmy Trughanacmy ( gle, Triúcha an Aicme) is a barony in County Kerry County Kerry ( gle, Contae Chiarraí) is a Counties of Ireland, county in Republic of Ireland, Ireland. It is located in the South-West Region, Ireland, South-West Region and for ...
– '


Most populous towns


Physical geography

Kerry faces the and, typically for an Eastern-Atlantic coastal region, features many
peninsulas A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other planetary body. Landforms together make up a given terrain, and their arrange ...
and inlets, principally the
Dingle Peninsula The Dingle Peninsula ( ga, Corca Dhuibhne; anglicised Linguistic anglicisation (or anglicization, occasionally anglification, anglifying, or Englishing) is the practice of modifying foreign words, names, and phrases to make them easier to spe ...

Dingle Peninsula
, the
Iveragh Peninsula The Iveragh Peninsula () is located in County Kerry in Republic of Ireland, Ireland. It is the largest peninsula in southwestern Ireland. A mountain range, the MacGillycuddy's Reeks, lies in the centre of the peninsula. Carrauntoohil, its highes ...

Iveragh Peninsula
, and the
Beara Peninsula Beara ( ga, Béarra) or the Beara Peninsula is a peninsula on the south-west coast of Ireland, bounded between the Kenmare "river" (actually a bay) to the north side and Bantry Bay to the south. It contains two mountain ranges running down its ...

Beara Peninsula
. The county is bounded on the west by the and on the north by the
River Shannon The River Shannon ( ga, Abhainn na Sionainne, ', '), at in length, is the longest Rivers of Ireland, river in the British Isles.ESManage Project: Irish Freshwater Resources and Assessment of Ecosystem Services Provision - Environmental Protectio ...
. Kerry is one of the most mountainous regions of Ireland and its three highest mountains,
Carrauntoohil Carrauntoohil or Carrauntoohill ( ; ga, Corrán Tuathail , meaning "Tuathal's sickle") is the Lists of mountains in Ireland, highest mountain on the island of Ireland at . It is on the Iveragh Peninsula in the Reeks District in County Kerry, close ...

Carrauntoohil
,
Beenkeragh Beenkeragh or Benkeeragh () is the second-highest peak in Ireland, at , on both the Lists of mountains in Ireland#Arderins, Arderin and Lists of mountains in Ireland#Vandeleur-Lynams, Vandeleur-Lynam lists. It is part of the MacGillycuddy's Reeks ...
and Caher, all part of the MacGillycuddy's Reeks range. Just off the coast are a number of islands, including the
Blasket Islands The Blasket Islands (''Na Blascaodaí'' in Irish Irish most commonly refers to: * Someone or something of, from, or related to: ** Ireland, an island situated off the north-western coast of continental Europe ** Northern Ireland, a constituent uni ...

Blasket Islands
,
Valentia Island Valentia Island ( ga, Dairbhre, meaning "The Oak Wood") is one of Republic of Ireland, Ireland's most westerly points. It lies off the Iveragh Peninsula in the southwest of County Kerry. It is linked to the mainland by the Maurice O'Neill Memorial ...

Valentia Island
and the Skelligs.
Skellig Michael Skellig Michael ( ga, Sceilg Mhichíl ), also called Great Skellig ( ga, link=no, Sceilig Mhór ), is a twin-pinnacled crag west of the Iveragh Peninsula The Iveragh Peninsula () is located in County Kerry in Republic of Ireland, Ireland. I ...

Skellig Michael
is a
World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for h ...
, famous for the
medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...

medieval
monastery A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in Cenobitic monasticism, communities or alone (hermits). A monastery generally includes a place res ...

monastery
clinging to the island's cliffs. The county contains the extreme west point of Ireland,
Dunmore Head Dunmore Head () is a headland, promontory in the westernmost part of the Dingle Peninsula, located in the barony of Corca Dhuibhne in southwest County Kerry, Republic of Ireland, Ireland. The headland, together with parts of Mount Eagle's northern ...
on the Dingle Peninsula, or including islands,
Tearaght Island Tearaght Island or Inishtearaght (, meaning "the westerly") is an uninhabited steep rocky island west of the Dingle Peninsula The Dingle Peninsula ( ga, Corca Dhuibhne; anglicised Linguistic anglicisation (or anglicization, occasionally an ...
, part of the Blaskets. The most westerly inhabited area of Ireland is Dún Chaoin, on the Dingle Peninsula. The
River Feale file:Landnotfiske_irland.jpg, Beach seine fishing for salmon in River Feale near by town Ballybunion, year 1975. The River Feale (''An Fhéil'' or ''Abhainn na Féile'' in Irish language, Irish) rises near Rockchapel in the Mullaghareirk Mountains ...
, the
River Laune The River Laune (; Irish language, Irish: ''An Leamhain'') is a river in County Kerry, Ireland, which flows from Lough Leane (sometimes written as Lough Lein), one of the Lakes of Killarney, through Beaufort, County Kerry, Beaufort, past Ballymalis ...
and the Roughty River flow through Kerry, into the Atlantic.


Climate

The
North Atlantic Current The North Atlantic Current (NAC), also known as North Atlantic Drift and North Atlantic Sea Movement, is a powerful warm western boundary current Boundary currents are ocean current An ocean current is a continuous, directed movement of se ...
, part of the
Gulf Stream The Gulf Stream, together with its northern extension the North Atlantic Drift The North Atlantic Current (NAC), also known as North Atlantic Drift and North Atlantic Sea Movement, is a powerful warm western boundary current Boundary curren ...
, flows north past Kerry and the west coast of Ireland, resulting in milder temperatures than would otherwise be expected at the 52 North
latitude In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and planets. The first person to use the ...

latitude
. This means that
subtropical The subtropical zones or subtropics are geographical Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country locat ...

subtropical
plants such as the and
tree fern The tree ferns are the fern A fern (Polypodiopsida or Polypodiophyta ) is a member of a group of vascular plants (plants with xylem and phloem) that reproduce via spores and have neither seed A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed i ...

tree fern
s, not normally found in northern Europe, thrive in the area. Because of the mountainous area and the prevailing southwesterly winds, Kerry is among the regions with the highest
rainfall Rain is liquid water in the form of droplet Rain water flux from a canopy. Among the forces that govern drop formation: cohesion, Van der Waals force">Cohesion_(chemistry).html" ;"title="surface tension, Cohesion (chemistry)">cohesion, ...

rainfall
in Ireland. Owing to its location, there has been a weather reporting station on Valentia for many centuries. The Irish record for rainfall in one day is , recorded at Cloore Lake in Kerry in 1993. In 1986 the remnants of
Hurricane Charley Hurricane Charley was the first of four individual hurricanes to impact or strike Florida during 2004, along with Hurricane Frances, Frances, Hurricane Ivan, Ivan and Hurricane Jeanne, Jeanne, as well as one of the strongest hurricanes ever to s ...
crossed over Kerry as an
extratropical storm Extratropical cyclones, sometimes called mid-latitude cyclones or wave cyclones, are low-pressure areas which, along with the anticyclones of high-pressure areas, drive the weather over much of the Earth. Extratropical cyclones are capable of pr ...
causing extensive rainfall, flooding and damage.


History

Kerry ( ga, Ciarraí or in the original pre-Irish language reform spelling ''Ciarraighe'') means the "people of Ciar" which was the name of the pre-Gaelic tribe who lived in part of the present county. The legendary founder of the tribe was Ciar, son of Fergus mac Róich.T J Barrington, ''Discovering Kerry, its History Heritage and toponymy'', Dublin, 1976 In
Old Irish Old Irish (''Goídelc''; ga, Sean-Ghaeilge; gd, Seann Ghàidhlig; gv, Shenn Yernish or ; Old Irish: ᚌᚑᚔᚇᚓᚂᚉ), sometimes called Old Gaelic, is the oldest form of the Goidelic The Goidelic or Gaelic languages ( ga, teangacha ...
"Ciar" meant black or dark brown, and the word continues in use in modern Irish as an adjective describing a dark complexion. The suffix ''raighe'', meaning ''people/tribe'', is found in various ''-ry'' place names in Ireland, such as ''Osry''—''Osraighe'' ''Deer-People/Tribe''. The county's nickname is ''the Kingdom''.


Lordship of Ireland

On 27 August 1329, by
Letters Patent Letters patent ( la, litterae patentes) ( always in the plural) are a type of legal instrument ''Legal instrument'' is a legal Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act acco ...
,
Maurice FitzGerald, 1st Earl of Desmond Maurice FitzThomas FitzGerald, 1st Earl of Desmond (died 25 January 1356) in Dublin Castle, Dublin, Ireland was an Irish nobleman in the Peerage of Ireland, Captain of Desmond Castle (Kinsale), Desmond Castle in Kinsale, so-called ruler of Munst ...
was confirmed in the feudal seniority of the entire
county palatine In England, Wales and Ireland a county palatine or palatinate was an area ruled by a hereditary nobleman enjoying special authority and autonomy from the rest of a Monarchy, kingdom or empire. The name derives from the Latin adjective ''palātīnu ...
of Kerry, to him and his heirs male, to hold of the Crown by the service of one knight's fee. In the 15th century, the majority of the area now known as County Kerry was still part of the
County Desmond The Kingdom of Desmond was a historic kingdom in southwestern Ireland. () It was founded in 1118 by Tadhg Mac Cárthaigh, King of Munster when the Cormac Mac Cárthaigh#The Treaty of Glanmire, Treaty of Glanmire formally divided the Kingd ...
, the west Munster seat of the
Earl of Desmond The title of Earl of Desmond has been held historically by Lords in Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_and_Great ...
, a branch of the
Hiberno-Norman From the 12th century onwards, a group of Normans The Normans (Norman language, Norman: ''Normaunds''; french: Normands; la, Nortmanni/Normanni) were inhabitants of the early medieval Duchy of Normandy, descended from Norsemen, Norse Vikings ...
FitzGerald dynasty The FitzGerald/FitzMaurice Dynasty is a Cambro-Normans, Cambro-Norman, Anglo-Normans, Anglo-Norman and later Hiberno-Norman aristocratic dynasty. ( ga, MacGearailt/MacMhuiris). They have been Peerage of Ireland, peers of Ireland since at lea ...
, known as the
Geraldines The FitzGerald/FitzMaurice Dynasty is a Cambro-Normans, Cambro-Norman, Anglo-Normans, Anglo-Norman and later Hiberno-Norman aristocratic dynasty. ( ga, MacGearailt/MacMhuiris). They have been Peerage of Ireland, peers of Ireland since at lea ...
.


Kingdom of Ireland

In 1580, during the
Second Desmond Rebellion The Second Desmond Rebellion (1579–1583) was the more widespread and bloody of the two Desmond Rebellions in Ireland launched by the Fitzmaurice/FitzGerald Dynasty of Desmond in Munster against English rule. The second rebellion began in Ju ...
, one of the most infamous massacres of the Sixteenth century, the
Siege of Smerwick The Siege of Smerwick took place at (known in English as Smerwick, a Norse-derived name meaning 'Butter-bay') in 1580, during the Second Desmond Rebellion in Ireland Ireland (; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an i ...
, took place at Dún an Óir near
Ard na Caithne ''Ard na Caithne'' (), meaning height of the arbutus ''Arbutus'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of extant taxon, living and fossil organisms as wel ...
(Smerwick) at the tip of the
Dingle Peninsula The Dingle Peninsula ( ga, Corca Dhuibhne; anglicised Linguistic anglicisation (or anglicization, occasionally anglification, anglifying, or Englishing) is the practice of modifying foreign words, names, and phrases to make them easier to spe ...

Dingle Peninsula
. The 600-strong Italian, Spanish and Irish papal invasion force of
James Fitzmaurice Fitzgerald James Michael Christopher Fitzmaurice DFC (6 January 1898 – 26 September 1965) was an Irish aviation pioneer. He was a member of the crew of the ''Bremen'', which made the first successful trans-Atlantic aircraft flight from East to West o ...
was besieged by the English forces and massacred. In 1588, when the fleet of the
Spanish Armada in Ireland The Spanish Armada in Ireland refers to the landfall made upon the coast of Ireland Ireland (; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain ...
were returning to
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
during stormy weather, many of its ships sought shelter at the
Blasket Islands The Blasket Islands (''Na Blascaodaí'' in Irish Irish most commonly refers to: * Someone or something of, from, or related to: ** Ireland, an island situated off the north-western coast of continental Europe ** Northern Ireland, a constituent uni ...

Blasket Islands
and some were wrecked. During the
Nine Years' War The Nine Years' War (1688–1697), often called the War of the Grand Alliance or the War of the League of Augsburg, was a conflict between France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a ...
, Kerry was again the scene of conflict, as the O'Sullivan Beare clan joined the rebellion. In 1602 their castle at Dunboy was besieged and taken by English troops. Donal O'Sullivan Beare, in an effort to escape English retribution and to reach his allies in
Ulster Ulster (; ga, Ulaidh or ''Cúige Uladh'' ; sco, label=Ulster Scots dialects, Ulster Scots, Ulstèr or ''Ulster'') is one of the four traditional Irish provinces of Ireland, provinces, in the north of Ireland. It is made up of nine Counties ...

Ulster
, marched all the clan's members and dependants to the north of Ireland. Due to harassment by hostile forces and freezing weather, very few of the 1,000 O'Sullivans who set out reached their destination. In the aftermath of the War, much of the native owned land in Kerry was confiscated and given to English settlers or 'planters'. The head of the MacCarthy Mor family,
Florence MacCarthy Florence ( ; it, Firenze ) is a city in Central Italy and the capital city of the Tuscany Regions of Italy, region. It is the most populated city in Tuscany, with 383,084 inhabitants in 2013, and over 1,520,000 in its metropolitan area. Flor ...
was imprisoned in London and his lands were divided between his relatives and colonists from England, such as the Browne family. In the 1640s Kerry was engulfed by the
Irish Rebellion of 1641 The Irish Rebellion of 1641 ( ga, Éirí Amach 1641) was an uprising by Irish Catholics in the Kingdom of Ireland, who wanted an end to anti-Catholic discrimination, greater Irish self-governance, and to partially or fully reverse the plantation ...
, an attempt by Irish Catholics to take power in the Protestant
Kingdom of Ireland The Kingdom of Ireland ( ga, label=Early Modern Irish, Classical Irish, an Ríoghacht Éireann; ga, label=Irish language#Towards a standard Irish – An Caighdeán Oifigiúil, Modern Irish, an Ríocht Éireann, ) was a client state of Kingdo ...

Kingdom of Ireland
. The rebellion in Kerry was led by Donagh McCarthy, 1st Viscount Muskerry. His son the Earl of Clancarty held the county during the subsequent
Irish Confederate Wars The Irish Confederate Wars, also called the Eleven Years' War (from ga, Cogadh na hAon Bhliana Déag), took place in Ireland between 1641 and 1653. It was the Irish theatre of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, a series of civil wars in the kin ...
and his forces were among the last to surrender to the
Cromwellian conquest of Ireland The Cromwellian conquest of Ireland or Cromwellian war in Ireland (1649–1653) was the conquest of Ireland by the forces of the English Parliament, led by Oliver Cromwell Oliver Cromwell (25 April 15993 September 1658) was an English g ...
in 1652. The last stronghold to fall was
Ross Castle Ross Castle ( ga, Caisleán an Rois) is a 15th-century tower house A tower house is a particular type of stone structure, built for defensive purposes as well as habitation. Tower houses began to appear in the Middle Ages In the hi ...

Ross Castle
, near Killarney.


The Famine

In the 17th and 18th centuries Kerry became increasingly populated by poor tenant farmers, who came to rely on the
potato The potato is a starch#Food, starchy tuber of the plant ''Solanum tuberosum'' and is a root vegetable native to the Americas. The plant is a perennial plant, perennial in the nightshade family Solanaceae. Wild potato species can be found thro ...

potato
as their main food source. As a result, when the potato crop failed in 1845, Kerry was very hard hit by the
Great Irish Famine The Great Famine ( ga, an Gorta Mór ), also known as the Great Hunger, the Famine (mostly within Ireland) or the Irish Potato Famine (mostly outside Ireland), was a period of mass starvation and disease A disease is a particular abn ...
of 1845–49. In the wake of the famine, many thousands of poor farmers emigrated to seek a better life in America and elsewhere. Kerry was to remain a source of emigration until recent times (up to the 1980s). Another long term consequence of the famine was the
Land War The Land War ( ga, Cogadh na Talún) was a period of agrarian agitation in rural Ireland that began in 1879. It may refer specifically to the first and most intense period of agitation between 1879 and 1882, or include later outbreaks of agitatio ...
of the 1870s and 1880s, in which tenant farmers agitated, sometimes violently for better terms from their landlords.


War of Independence and Civil War

In the 20th century, Kerry was one of the counties most affected by the
Irish War of Independence The Irish War of Independence ( ga, Cogadh na Saoirse) or Anglo-Irish War was a guerrilla war fought in Ireland from 1919 to 1921 between the Irish Republican Army The Irish Republican Army (IRA) is a name used by various paramilitary or ...
(1919–21) and
Irish Civil War The Irish Civil War ( ga, Cogadh Cathartha na hÉireann; 28 June 1922 – 24 May 1923) was a conflict that followed the Irish War of Independence and accompanied the establishment of the Irish Free State, an entity independent from the United ...
(1922–23). In the war of Independence, the
Irish Republican Army The Irish Republican Army (IRA) is a name used by various paramilitary organisations in Ireland throughout the 20th and the 21st centuries. Organisations going by this name have been dedicated to irredentism through Irish republicanism, the be ...
fought a guerilla war against the
Royal Irish Constabulary The Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC, ga, Constáblacht Ríoga na hÉireann; simply called the Irish Constabulary 1836–67) was the police force in Ireland from 1822 until 1922, when the country was part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain an ...
, and British military. One of the more prominent incidents in the conflict in Kerry was the
siege of TraleeThe Siege of Tralee was an event that took place between 1 and 9 November 1920 in Tralee, County Kerry, Ireland. History On the night of 31 October 1920, Royal Irish Constabulary, RIC Constable Patrick Waters and RIC Constable Ernest Bright had been ...
in November 1920, when the
Black and Tans The Black and Tans ( ga, Dúchrónaigh) were constables recruited into the Royal Irish Constabulary The Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC, ga, Constáblacht Ríoga na hÉireann; simply called the Irish Constabulary 1836–67) was the police f ...
placed
Tralee Tralee ( ; ga, Trá Lí, ; formerly , meaning 'strand of the Lee River') is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is ...

Tralee
under curfew for a week, burned many homes, and shot dead a number of local people in retaliation for the IRA killing of five local policemen the night before. Another was the Headford Junction ambush in spring 1921, when IRA units ambushed a train carrying British soldiers outside Killarney. About ten British soldiers, three civilians and two IRA men were killed in the ensuing gun battle. Violence between the IRA and the British was ended in July 1921, but nine men, four British soldiers and five IRA men, were killed in a shoot-out in Castleisland on the day of the truce itself, indicating the bitterness of the conflict in Kerry. Following the
Anglo-Irish Treaty The 1921 Anglo-Irish Treaty ( ga , An Conradh Angla-Éireannach), commonly known as The Treaty and officially the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty Between Great Britain and Ireland, was an agreement between the government of the United Kingd ...
, most of the Kerry IRA units opposed the settlement. One exception existed in
Listowel Listowel ( ; ) is a heritage market town in County Kerry, Republic of Ireland, Ireland. It is on the River Feale, from the county town, Tralee. The town of Listowel had a population of 4,820 according to the Central Statistics Office of Irela ...
where a pro-Treaty garrison was established by local Flying Column commandant Thomas Kennelly in February 1922. This unit consisted of 200 regular soldiers along with officers and NCOs. A batch of rifles, machine guns and a
Crossley Crossley, based in Manchester, United Kingdom, was a pioneering company in the production of internal combustion engines. Since 1988 it has been part of the Rolls-Royce plc, Rolls-Royce Power Engineering group. More than 100,000 Crossley oil ...

Crossley
tender were sent from Dublin. Listowel would remain a base for those supporting the treaty throughout the conflict. The town was eventually overcome by superior numbers of anti-Treaty forces belonging to the Kerry No. 2 and 3 Brigades in June 1922. In the ensuing civil war between pro- and anti-treaty elements, Kerry was perhaps the worst affected area of Ireland. Initially the county was held by the
Anti-Treaty IRA The 1921 Anglo-Irish Treaty ( ga , An Conradh Angla-Éireannach), commonly known as The Treaty and officially the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty Between Great Britain and Ireland, was an agreement between the government of the United Kingd ...
but it was taken for the
Irish Free State The Irish Free State ( ga, Saorstát Éireann, , ; 6 December 192229 December 1937) was a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of St ...
after seaborne landings by National Army troops at
Fenit Fenit () is a small village in County Kerry County Kerry ( gle, Contae Chiarraí) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers ...

Fenit
, Tarbert and
Kenmare Kenmare () is a small town in the south of County Kerry, Ireland. The name Kenmare is the Anglicisation, anglicised form of ''Ceann Mara'', meaning "head of the sea", referring to the head of Kenmare Bay. Location Kenmare is located at the head ...

Kenmare
in August 1922. Thereafter the county saw a bitter guerilla war between men who had been comrades only a year previously. The republicans, or "irregulars", mounted a number of successful actions, for example attacking and briefly re-taking
Kenmare Kenmare () is a small town in the south of County Kerry, Ireland. The name Kenmare is the Anglicisation, anglicised form of ''Ceann Mara'', meaning "head of the sea", referring to the head of Kenmare Bay. Location Kenmare is located at the head ...

Kenmare
in September 1922. In March 1923 Kerry saw a series of
massacres A massacre refers to the killing of multiple individuals and is usually considered to be morally unacceptable, especially when perpetrated by a group of political actors against defenseless victims. The word is a loan of a French term for "bu ...
of republican prisoners by National Army soldiers, in reprisal for the ambush of their men—the most notorious being the killing of eight men with mines at Ballyseedy, near Tralee. The internecine conflict was brought to an end in May 1923 as the rule of law was re-established following the death of IRA Chief of Staff Liam Lynch (Irish republican), Liam Lynch, and the order by Frank Aiken to dump all arms.


Local government


County council

The principal local authority is Kerry County Council. The council provides a number of services including planning, roads maintenance, fire brigade, council housing, water supply, waste collection, recycling and landfill, higher education grants and funding for arts and culture.


Town councils

An additional tier of local government existed in the three largest towns in the county,
Killarney Killarney (; ; ) is a town in County Kerry, southwestern Republic of Ireland, Ireland. The town is on the northeastern shore of Lough Leane, part of Killarney National Park, and is home to St Mary's Cathedral, Killarney, St Mary's Cathedral, R ...

Killarney
,
Listowel Listowel ( ; ) is a heritage market town in County Kerry, Republic of Ireland, Ireland. It is on the River Feale, from the county town, Tralee. The town of Listowel had a population of 4,820 according to the Central Statistics Office of Irela ...
and
Tralee Tralee ( ; ga, Trá Lí, ; formerly , meaning 'strand of the Lee River') is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is ...

Tralee
until the 2014 Irish local elections, 2014 local elections were held on 23 May 2014. These elections were held following the changes effected by the Local Government Reform Act 2014. The act abolished Town Councils in the Republic of Ireland, town councils and introduced Municipal district (Ireland), municipal districts. County Kerry was divided into four municipal districts, which are identical with the local electoral areas (LEA) used for election of Councillors.


Parliamentary representation

Following boundary changes in 2016, Kerry is represented in Dáil Éireann by five Teachta Dála, TDs returned from a single parliamentary constituency. The TDs elected to the Members of the 33rd Dáil, 33rd Dáil Éireann at the 2020 Irish general election, 2020 general election included Pa Daly (Sinn Féin, SF), Norma Foley (Fianna Fáil, FF), Brendan Griffin (Kerry politician), Brendan Griffin (Fine Gael, FG), Danny Healy-Rae (Independent politicians in Ireland, Independent) and Michael Healy-Rae (Independent politicians in Ireland, Independent).


Culture

As a region on the extremity of Ireland, the culture of Kerry was less susceptible to outside influences and has preserved the Irish language, as well as Folk music of Ireland, Irish traditional music, song and Irish dance, dance. The Sliabh Luachra area of northeast Kerry, that borders Limerick and Cork, is renowned for its traditional music, dance and song, especially its slides, polkas and fiddle playing. The Siamsa Tíre centre in Tralee is a hub of traditional Irish pastimes. Corca Dhuibhne and Uíbh Ráthach are considered Gaeltacht regions and Irish culture is also very strong in these areas. The Blasket Islands off the Dingle Peninsula are known for their rich literary heritage; authors such as Peig Sayers, Muiris Ó Súilleabháin and Tomás Ó Criomhthain have all written books about life on the islands, which were evacuated in 1953 due to increasingly extreme weather conditions that made them uninhabitable. John B Keane, a native of
Listowel Listowel ( ; ) is a heritage market town in County Kerry, Republic of Ireland, Ireland. It is on the River Feale, from the county town, Tralee. The town of Listowel had a population of 4,820 according to the Central Statistics Office of Irela ...
, is considered one of Ireland's greatest playwrights and is known for his works such as ''The Field (play), The Field'', ''Sive (play), Sive'' and ''Big Maggie''. The annual Listowel Writers' Week Festival serves as a celebration of Irish writers past and present.


Sport


Gaelic games

Kerry is known for its Kerry GAA, senior Gaelic football team. Gaelic football is by far the dominant sport in the county, and Kerry has the most successful of all football teams; the Kerry footballers have won the Sam Maguire Cup, Sam Maguire cup 37 times, with the next nearest team Dublin GAA, Dublin on 30 wins. Hurling is popular at club level in north Kerry, although the county has only won one All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship, in 1891. The senior team currently compete in the Joe McDonagh Cup.


Association football

The Kerry District League is the main competition for association football in the county. Tralee Dynamos A.F.C., Tralee Dynamos have represented Kerry in the A Championship, while they and Killarney Celtic also competed in the Munster Senior League (association football), Munster Senior League during the late 1990s and early 2000s.


Cricket

Cricket is played in County Kerry by County Kerry Cricket Club. They play their home games at the Oyster Oval near
Tralee Tralee ( ; ga, Trá Lí, ; formerly , meaning 'strand of the Lee River') is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is ...

Tralee
.


Irish language

In 2011 there were 6,083 Irish language speakers in County Kerry, with 4,978 native speakers within the Kerry Gaeltacht. This does not count the 1,105 attending the four Gaelscoils (Irish language primary schools) and two Gaelcholáiste (Irish language secondary schools) outside the Kerry Gaeltacht.


Places of interest

Kerry, with its mountains, lakes and nearly 1,000 kilometres of List of Irish counties by coastline, Atlantic coastline is among the most scenic areas in Ireland and is among the most significant tourist destinations in Ireland. Killarney is the centre of the tourism industry, which is a significant element of the economy in Kerry. The Kerry Way, Dingle Way and Beara Way are walking routes in the county. The Ring of Kerry on the
Iveragh Peninsula The Iveragh Peninsula () is located in County Kerry in Republic of Ireland, Ireland. It is the largest peninsula in southwestern Ireland. A mountain range, the MacGillycuddy's Reeks, lies in the centre of the peninsula. Carrauntoohil, its highes ...

Iveragh Peninsula
is a popular route for tourists and cyclists. The pedestrian version is the scenic Kerry Way which follows ancient paths generally higher than that adopted by the Ring of Kerry. Kerry has an abundance of archaeological sites. The earliest evidence of human settlement dates to the Mesolithic period. The county has a notably high concentration of open-air Rock art of Europe#Atlantic European rock art, Atlantic rock art, which is believed to date to the Late Neolithic / Early Bronze Age period (2300-1500BC). This rock art is scattered throughout the county and exists in dense clusters on the Iveragh Peninsula, Iveragh and Dingle Peninsula, Dingle peninsulas. These carvings form part of a tradition which stretches across Atlantic Europe and are distinct from the megalithic art of the type found at Newgrange. Kerry has many Bronze Age monuments including standing stones, wedge tombs, boulder burials, and stone circles, along with Iron Age forts. Like the rest of Ireland, Kerry has large numbers of monuments from the Early Christian period, such as ring forts, churches, cross-inscribed stones, holy wells, saints’ graves, and ogham stones, along with Medieval castles and churches. Attractions: *Ballinskelligs *Banna Strand *
Blasket Islands The Blasket Islands (''Na Blascaodaí'' in Irish Irish most commonly refers to: * Someone or something of, from, or related to: ** Ireland, an island situated off the north-western coast of continental Europe ** Northern Ireland, a constituent uni ...

Blasket Islands
*Blennerville Windmill *Caragh Lake *
Carrauntoohil Carrauntoohil or Carrauntoohill ( ; ga, Corrán Tuathail , meaning "Tuathal's sickle") is the Lists of mountains in Ireland, highest mountain on the island of Ireland at . It is on the Iveragh Peninsula in the Reeks District in County Kerry, close ...

Carrauntoohil
*Conor Pass *
Dingle Peninsula The Dingle Peninsula ( ga, Corca Dhuibhne; anglicised Linguistic anglicisation (or anglicization, occasionally anglification, anglifying, or Englishing) is the practice of modifying foreign words, names, and phrases to make them easier to spe ...

Dingle Peninsula
*Eightercua *Ardfert, Ecclesiastical sites at Ardfert *Fenit Harbour *Gallarus Oratory *
Killarney National Park Killarney National Park ( ga, Páirc Náisiúnta Chill Airne), near the town of Killarney, County Kerry, was the first national park in Ireland, created when the Muckross House, Muckross Estate was donated to the Irish Free State in 1932. The pa ...

Killarney National Park
*Kerry County Museum *Kerry Woollen Mills *
Lakes of Killarney The Lakes of Killarney are a scenic attraction located in Killarney National Park near Killarney, County Kerry, in Republic of Ireland, Ireland. They consist of three lakes - Lough Leane, Muckross Lake (also called Middle Lake) and Upper Lake, Killa ...
*Lartigue Monorail *Maharees *Mount Brandon *Muckross House *Ballyduff, County Kerry, Rattoo Round Tower and Sheela na Gig *Ring of Kerry *
Ross Castle Ross Castle ( ga, Caisleán an Rois) is a 15th-century tower house A tower house is a particular type of stone structure, built for defensive purposes as well as habitation. Tower houses began to appear in the Middle Ages In the hi ...

Ross Castle
*Rossbeigh, Rossbeigh beach *Scotia's Grave *Siamsa Tíre *
Skellig Michael Skellig Michael ( ga, Sceilg Mhichíl ), also called Great Skellig ( ga, link=no, Sceilig Mhór ), is a twin-pinnacled crag west of the Iveragh Peninsula The Iveragh Peninsula () is located in County Kerry in Republic of Ireland, Ireland. I ...

Skellig Michael
*Torc Waterfall *Uragh Stone Circle *
Valentia Island Valentia Island ( ga, Dairbhre, meaning "The Oak Wood") is one of Republic of Ireland, Ireland's most westerly points. It lies off the Iveragh Peninsula in the southwest of County Kerry. It is linked to the mainland by the Maurice O'Neill Memorial ...

Valentia Island


Media

County Kerry has two local newspapers, ''The Kerryman'' and ''Kerry's Eye'', both published in Tralee. The county has a commercial radio station, Radio Kerry, which commenced operations in 1990. RTÉ Raidió na Gaeltachta has a studio in Ballynagall, Baile na nGall in the west Kerry gaeltacht. Spin South West has a studio in
Tralee Tralee ( ; ga, Trá Lí, ; formerly , meaning 'strand of the Lee River') is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is ...

Tralee
, which commenced operations in 2016.


Infrastructure


Road

National primary routes: The main National Primary Routes into Kerry are the N21 road from Limerick and the N22 road from Cork (city), Cork, each terminating in Tralee. Kerry Airport is situated on the N23 road between Castleisland and Farranfore which connects the N21 and N22. National secondary routes: Within Kerry the main National Secondary Routes include the well-known Ring of Kerry which follows the N70 road (Ireland), N70 road that circles the Iveragh Peninsula and links at Kenmare with the N71 road to County Cork, west Cork. The N86 road (Ireland), N86 road connects Tralee with Dingle along the Dingle Peninsula, while the N69 road (Ireland), N69 road from Limerick links Listowel and Tralee through north Kerry.


Greenways

There is a developing greenway (landscape), greenway network across the county. The North Kerry Greenway, North Kerry (part of the Great Southern Trail), South Kerry Greenway, South Kerry and Tralee-Fenit Greenway, Tralee-Fenit greenways are under-development or in the planning phases.


Rail

Kerry is served by Rail transport in Ireland, rail at Tralee railway station, Farranfore railway station, Killarney railway station and Rathmore railway station which connect to Cork railway station, Cork and Dublin Heuston, via Mallow railway station, Mallow. Branch line services existed to each of the peninsulas (Beara, Iveragh and Dingle) and also to the north of the county. They were closed during the History of rail transport in Ireland#Rationalisation, rationalisations of the 1950s and 1960s. * Tralee and Dingle Light Railway: a narrow-gauge railway that closed in July 1953. * Kenmare via Headford Junction: (8 miles outside Killarney) closed in February 1960. * Valentia Harbour railway station, Valentia Harbour via Farranfore: also closed in February 1960. (The ''Gleesk Viaduct'' near Kellsis still exists.) * Listowel was served via the North Kerry line, which extended from Tralee to Limerick. Passenger service ceased in 1963, freight in 1983 and the lines were pulled up in 1988. *
Fenit Fenit () is a small village in County Kerry County Kerry ( gle, Contae Chiarraí) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers ...

Fenit
was served via a branch off the North Kerry line until 1978; the rails are still in place. Listowel to Ballybunion had the distinction of operating experimental Lartigue Monorail services from 1882 to 1924. A 500m section was re-established in 2003. A road-car route, the ''Prince of Wales Route'', was a link from Bantry to Killarney, operated by the Cork, Bandon and South Coast Railway as a service for tourists.


Bus

Bus Éireann operates an extensive bus service network on routes throughout the county, with connection hubs in Killarney and Tralee.


Air

Kerry Airport is located at Farranfore in the centre of the county and has operated scheduled services since 1989. Destinations served as of 2014 are London (London Stansted Airport, Stansted & London Luton Airport, Luton), Frankfurt-Hahn Airport, Faro, Portugal and Alicante all operated by Ryanair. Aer Lingus Regional also operate an all-year-round service to Dublin. The airport is served by Farranfore railway station.


Sea

Fenit harbour near Tralee is a regional harbour capable of handling ships of up to 17,000 tonnes. Large container cranes from Liebherrs in Killarney are regularly exported worldwide. A rail-link to the port was closed in the 1970s. The harbour at Dingle is one of Ireland's secondary fishing ports. In the north of the county, a ferry service operates from Tarbert to Killimer in County Clare.


Hospitals

Hospitals in Kerry include the public University Hospital Kerry which is the second-largest acute hospital in the Health Service Executive South Region. It serves as the main hospital for County Kerry and also serves the people in parts of north Cork and west Limerick. Other hospitals include the private Bon Secours Hospital, Tralee, Bon Secours Hospital in Tralee and community hospitals in Cahirciveen, Dingle, Kenmare, Killarney and Listowel.


Education

The Institute of Technology, Tralee (IT Tralee), to be merged into Munster Technological University (MTU), is the main third-level institution in the county. It was established in 1977 as the Regional Technical College, Tralee but acquired its present name in 1997. It has an enrolment of about 3,500 students. The institute has two campuses: the North campus (opened in Dromtacker in 2001) and the South campus (opened in Clash in 1977) approximately 2.4 km (1.5 mi) apart.


Septs, families, and titles

A number of Irish surnames are derived from septs who hail from the Kerry area, such as Falvey, Foley (surname), Foley, McCarthy (surname), McCarthy, Murphy, O'Conor, O'Connor, Moriarty (disambiguation), O'Moriarty, Clifford (disambiguation), Clifford, Kennelly (disambiguation), Kennelly, McGrath (disambiguation), McGrath, O'Carroll, O'Sullivan, O'Connell (name), O'Connell, O'Donoghue, O'Shea, Quill (surname), Quill, Scannell, Stack (disambiguation), Stack, Sugrue and Tangney. The area was also home to the
Hiberno-Norman From the 12th century onwards, a group of Normans The Normans (Norman language, Norman: ''Normaunds''; french: Normands; la, Nortmanni/Normanni) were inhabitants of the early medieval Duchy of Normandy, descended from Norsemen, Norse Vikings ...
families, the FitzMaurices and the County Desmond, Desmonds, a branch of the FitzGerald dynasty, FitzGeralds. Titles in the British Peerage of Ireland with a family seat in Kerry are *the Knight of Kerry – a branch of Fitzgeralds who had lands at Valentia Island *the Earl of Kenmare (also ''Viscount Castlerosse, Viscount Kenmare and Baron Castlerosse'') – the descendants of Sir Valentine Browne who was awarded lands in Killarney *the
Earl of Desmond The title of Earl of Desmond has been held historically by Lords in Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_and_Great ...
– the Fitzgeralds of Desmond who had lands in North Kerry until they were seized at the end of the Desmond Rebellions *the Marquess of Lansdowne (also ''Earl of Shelburne, Baron Dunkeron'') – the descendants of William Petty, Sir William Petty who was awarded lands in Kenmare and elsewhere *the Earl of Kerry (also ''Baron Kerry, Viscount Clanmaurice'') – the Fitzmaurice family *the Earl of Listowel – the Hare family *the Baron Ventry – the Mullins family who had lands in the Dingle Peninsula, including Ventry Viscount Valentia appears to have been associated with lands in County Armagh, rather than Kerry.


People

Associated People: *Roger Casement *Wolfe Tone *Cearbhall Ó Dálaigh Historical: *Daniel O'Connell *Thomas Ashe *Tom Crean (explorer), Tom Crean *Con Cremin *Austin Stack *Horatio Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, Horatio Kitchener *Richard Kelliher *Jennifer Musa *Charlie Daly (Irish republican), Charlie Daly *Maurice Moynihan *Patrick Edward Connor *William Melville *Richard Cantillon *John Connors (VC), John Connors *Saint Brendan *Trevor Chute Literary & Musical: *Con Houlihan *Thomas O'Brien Butler *Malachi Martin *Julia Clifford *Jerome Connor *Canon James Goodman *John B. Keane *Brendan Kennelly *Denis Murphy (Irish musician), Denis Murphy *Thomas MacGreevy *Ernest John Moeran *Paula Murrihy *Tomás Ó Criomhthain *Eoghan Rua Ó Súilleabháin *Padraig O'Keeffe *Arthur O'Leary (composer), Arthur O'Leary *Muiris Ó Súilleabháin *Aogán Ó Rathaille *Peig Sayers *Larry Mathews (musician), Larry Mathews *Christie Hennessy *John Moriarty (writer), John Moriarty *Paddy Cronin *Patrick S. Dinneen *Mark Lanegan Sport: *Danny Barnes (rugby union), Danny Barnes *Edward Barrett (Irish sportsman), Edward Barrett *John Barrett (athlete), John Barrett *Colm Cooper *Patrick Clifford (darts player), Patrick Clifford *Jack Doyle (baseball), Jack Doyle *Mick Doyle (rugby union), Mick Doyle *Maurice Fitzgerald (footballer), Maurice Fitzgerald *Thos Foley *Paul Galvin (Gaelic footballer), Paul Galvin *Mick Galwey *JJ Hanrahan *David Higgins (golfer), David Higgins *Liam Higgins (golfer), Liam Higgins *Robert Hilliard *Moss Keane *Tadhg Kennelly *Jerry Kiernan *John Lawlor (cricketer), John Lawlor *Jack McKenna *Bryan Cooper (jockey), Bryan Cooper *Ultan Dillane *Mick O'Connell *Mick O'Dwyer *Gillian O'Sullivan *Paul Griffin (rower), Paul Griffin *Darragh Ó Sé *Pat Spillane *Jack O'Shea *Mark O'Connor (sportsman), Mark O'Connor *Tommy Walsh (Kerry footballer), Tommy Walsh *Sean Wight Film/Stage/Radio: *Michael Fassbender *Eamon Kelly (actor), Eamon Kelly *Fodhla Cronin O'Reilly *Richard Wall *Jessie Buckley *Timothy V. Murphy Political: *Martin Ferris *Jackie Healy-Rae *Joe Higgins *Dick Spring Fashion: *Don O'Neill, Fashion Designer, Don O'Neill


See also

*List of monastic houses in Ireland#County Kerry, List of abbeys and priories in the Republic of Ireland (County Kerry) *Regional accents of English#Northern Ireland, Regional accents of English *Wild Atlantic Way


References


External links


Gaelscoil stats

Gaeltacht Comprehensive Language Study 2007Ring of Kerry Tourism
{{Authority control County Kerry, Munster, Kerry Counties of the Republic of Ireland, Kerry Local administrative units of the Republic of Ireland, Kerry