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Adelaide ( ) is the
capital city A capital or capital city is the municipality holding primary status in a Department (country subdivision), department, country, Constituent state, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of the government. A capita ...
of the state of
South Australia South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a States and territories of Australia, state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers some of the most arid parts of the country. With a total land area of , it is the fourth-largest of Austral ...

South Australia
, and the fifth-most populous city of Australia. The
demonym A demonym (; from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods ...
is used to denote the city and the residents of Adelaide. Adelaide is situated on the
Adelaide Plains The Adelaide Plains (Kaurna name Tarndanya) is a plain In geography, a plain is a flat expanse of land that generally does not change much in elevation. Plains occur as lowlands along valleys or on the doorsteps of mountains, as coastal pl ...
north of the
Fleurieu Peninsula The Fleurieu Peninsula ( ; or ) is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while being connected to a mainland from which it extends. The surroundin ...
, between the
Gulf St Vincent Gulf St Vincent, sometimes referred to as St Vincent Gulf, St Vincent's Gulf or Gulf of St Vincent, is the eastern of two large inlets of water on the southern coast of Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is ...
in the west and the
Mount Lofty Ranges The Mount Lofty Ranges are a mountain range, range of mountains in the Australian state of South Australia which for a small part of its length borders the east of Adelaide. The part of the range in the vicinity of Adelaide is called the Adel ...
in the east. Its metropolitan area extends from the coast to the
foothills Foothills or piedmont are geographically Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth ...
of the Mount Lofty Ranges, and stretches from
Gawler Gawler is the oldest country town on the Australian mainland in the state of South Australia South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a in the southern central part of . It covers some of the most parts of the country. With a total land ar ...

Gawler
in the north to
Sellicks Beach __NOTOC__ Sellicks Beach, formerly spelt Sellick's Beach, is a suburb in the Australian state of South Australia South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a States and territories of Australia, state in the southern central part of Australia. I ...

Sellicks Beach
in the south. Named in honour of
Queen Adelaide , house = Saxe-Meiningen Saxe-Meiningen (; ) was one of the Saxon duchies held by the Ernestine line of the Wettin dynasty, located in the southwest of the present-day German state of Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ...
,
consort __NOTOC__ Consort may refer to: Music * The Consort (Rufus Wainwright song), "The Consort" (Rufus Wainwright song), from the 2000 album ''Poses'' * Consort of instruments, term for instrumental ensembles * Consort song (musical), a characteristic ...
to
King William IV William IV (William Henry; 21 August 1765 – 20 June 1837) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of Englan ...

King William IV
, the city was founded in 1836 as the planned capital for the only freely-settled British province in Australia.
Colonel William Light William Light (27 April 1786 – 6 October 1839), also known as Colonel Light, was a British- Malayan naval and army officer. He was the first Surveyor-General of the new British Province of South Australia, known for choosing the site of ...
, one of Adelaide's founding fathers, designed the city centre and chose its location close to the
River Torrens The River Torrens , (Karrawirra Parri / Karrawirraparri) is the most significant river of the Adelaide Plains. It was one of the main reasons for the siting of the city of Adelaide, capital of South Australia. It flows from its source in the Ad ...
, in the area originally inhabited by the
Kaurna people The Kaurna people (, ; also Coorna, Kaura, Gaurna and other variations) are a group of Aboriginal Australians, Aboriginal people whose traditional lands include the Adelaide Plains of South Australia. They were known as the Adelaide tribe by the ...
and known as ''
Tarndanyangga Victoria Square, also known as Tarntanyangga (formerly Tarndanyangga) (), is the central square of five public square A town square (or square, plaza, public square, city square, urban square, or piazza) is an open public space A public s ...

Tarndanyangga
'' ("place of the red kangaroo"). Light's design, now listed as national heritage, set out the city centre in a grid layout known as "
Light's Vision William Light (27 April 1786 – 6 October 1839), also known as Colonel Light, was a British-British Malaya, Malayan naval and army officer. He was the first Surveyor General of South Australia, Surveyor-General of the History of South Aust ...

Light's Vision
", interspaced by wide boulevards and large public squares, and entirely surrounded by parklands. A historically important city in Australia's history, early colonial Adelaide was shaped by the diversity and wealth of its free settlers, in contrast to the convict history of other Australian cities. Until the
post-war In Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western Junction, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western world, co ...
era, it was Australia's third most populated city. It has been noted for its leading examples of religious freedom and progressive political reforms, and became known as the "City of Churches" due to its diversity of faiths. Today, Adelaide is noted for its many festivals and sporting events, its food and wine, its coastline and hills, and its large defence and manufacturing sectors. Adelaide's
quality of life Quality of life (QOL) is defined by the World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous organizations working with the United N ...

quality of life
has ranked consistently highly in various measures through the 21st century. As South Australia's government and commercial centre, Adelaide is the site of many governmental and financial institutions. Most of these are concentrated in the
city centre A city centre is the commercial, cultural and often the historical, political, and geographic heart of a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and ...

city centre
along the cultural boulevards of
North Terrace 300px, Adelaide in 1839 as viewed south-east from the western end of North Terrace, including Holy Trinity Church. (The church tower lost its "peaked cap" in 1844.) North Terrace is one of the four terraces that bound the central busines ...
and King William Street. Victoria Square lies in the middle of the city and King William Street, well known historical Central Market is nearby in Chinatown district. Many popular cafes and restaurants of international cuisines are in the area, vibrant night life can also be found here with bars and Asian supermarkets open til late.


History


Before European settlement

Before its proclamation as a British settlement in 1836, the area around Adelaide was inhabited by the indigenous
Kaurna The Kaurna people (, ; also Coorna, Kaura, Gaurna and other variations) are a group of Aboriginal people Indigenous peoples, also referred to as first peoples, first nations, aboriginal peoples, native peoples (with these terms often capi ...
people, one of many
Aboriginal Aborigine, aborigine or aboriginal may refer to: * Indigenous peoples, ethnic groups who are the original or earliest known inhabitants of an area **List of indigenous peoples, including: ***Aboriginal Australians ****Australian Aboriginal identity ...
nations in South Australia. The city and parklands area was known as Tarntanya, or
Tarndanyangga Victoria Square, also known as Tarntanyangga (formerly Tarndanyangga) (), is the central square of five public square A town square (or square, plaza, public square, city square, urban square, or piazza) is an open public space A public s ...

Tarndanyangga
in the
Kaurna language Kaurna ( or ) is a Pama-Nyungan language historically spoken by the Kaurna The Kaurna people (, ; also Coorna, Kaura, Gaurna and other variations) are a group of Aboriginal people whose traditional lands include the Adelaide Plains of So ...
. The surrounding area was an open grassy plain with patches of trees and shrub which had been managed by hundreds of generations. Kaurna country encompassed the plains which stretched north and south of Tarntanya as well as the wooded foothills of the
Mt Lofty Ranges The Mount Lofty Ranges are a mountain range, range of mountains in the Australian state of South Australia which for a small part of its length borders the east of Adelaide. The part of the range in the vicinity of Adelaide is called the Adelai ...
. The River Torrens was known as the Karrawirra Pari (red gum forest river). About 300 Kaurna populated the Adelaide area, and were referred to by the settlers as the Cowandilla. The Kaurna language was a complex one, reflecting their sophisticated culture and deep environmental knowledge. Within a few decades of European settlement of South Australia, Kaurna culture and language were almost completely destroyed. Extensive documentation by early missionaries and other researchers has enabled a modern revival of both, which has included a commitment by local and state governments to rename or include Kaurna names for many local places.


19th century

South Australia was officially established as a British Province in England in February 1836. The first
governor A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the Executive (government), executive branch of a non-sovereign or sub-national level of government, ranking under the head of state. In federations, ''governor'' may be t ...
proclaimed the commencement of colonial government in South Australia on 28 December 1836, near
The Old Gum Tree The Old Gum Tree (also known as The Proclamation Tree) is a historic site in Glenelg North, South Australia, Glenelg North, South Australia. Near this tree on 28 December 1836, the British governor John Hindmarsh delivered the proclamation annou ...
in what is now the suburb of
Glenelg North Glenelg North is a seaside suburb of Adelaide, South Australia. It is located in both the City of Holdfast Bay and the City of West Torrens. Demographics The 2011 Census by the Australian Bureau of Statistics counted 5,699 persons in Glenelg No ...
. The event is commemorated in South Australia as
Proclamation Day Proclamation Day is the name of official or unofficial holiday A holiday is a day set aside by Norm (social), custom or by law on which normal activities, especially business or work including school, are suspended or reduced. Generally, holidays ...
. The site of the colony's capital was surveyed and laid out by Colonel
William Light William Light (27 April 1786 – 6 October 1839), also known as Colonel Light, was a British- Malayan naval and army officer. He was the first Surveyor-General of the new British Province of South Australia, known for choosing the site o ...
, the first Surveyor-General of South Australia, with his own original, unique, topographically sensitive design. Claims of the design being by the architect
George Strickland Kingston Sir George Strickland Kingston (23 August 1807 – 26 November 1880) arrived in South Australia on the in 1836. He was the Deputy Surveyor to William Light, engaged to survey the new colony of South Australia. Kingston was also the first Spe ...
have been thoroughly debunked. The city was named after
Queen Adelaide , house = Saxe-Meiningen Saxe-Meiningen (; ) was one of the Saxon duchies held by the Ernestine line of the Wettin dynasty, located in the southwest of the present-day German state of Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ...
. Adelaide was established as a planned colony of free immigrants, promising civil liberties and freedom from religious persecution, based upon the ideas of
Edward Gibbon Wakefield Edward Gibbon Wakefield (20 March 179616 May 1862) is considered a key figure in the establishment of the colonies of European settlement of South Australia, South Australia and History of New Zealand#Colonial period, New Zealand (where he later ...

Edward Gibbon Wakefield
. Wakefield had read accounts of Australian settlement while in prison in London for attempting to abduct an heiress, and realised that the eastern colonies suffered from a lack of available labour, due to the practice of giving land grants to all arrivals. Wakefield's idea was for the Government to survey and sell the land at a rate that would maintain land values high enough to be unaffordable for labourers and journeymen. Funds raised from the sale of land were to be used to bring out working-class emigrants, who would have to work hard for the monied settlers to ever afford their own land. As a result of this policy, Adelaide does not share the convict settlement history of other Australian cities like Sydney,
Brisbane Brisbane ( ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller low ...

Brisbane
and
Hobart Hobart () is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowerc ...

Hobart
. As it was believed that in a colony of free settlers there would be little crime, no provision was made for a
gaol A prison (also known as a jail or gaol (dated, British, Australian, and to a lesser extent Canadian Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, legal, historical ...

gaol
in Colonel Light's 1837 plan. But by mid-1837 the ''
South Australian Register ''The Register'', originally the ''South Australian Gazette and Colonial Register'', and later ''South Australian Register,'' was South Australia South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a States and territories of Australia, state in the south ...
'' was warning of escaped convicts from New South Wales and tenders for a temporary gaol were sought. Following a burglary, a murder, and two attempted murders in Adelaide during March 1838, Governor Hindmarsh created the South Australian Police Force (now the
South Australia Police The South Australia Police (SAPOL) is the police force The police are a constituted body of persons empowered by a state, with the aim to enforce the law, to ensure the safety, health and possessions of citizens, and to prevent crim ...
) in April 1838 under 21-year-old Henry Inman. The first sheriff, Samuel Smart, was wounded during a robbery, and on 2 May 1838 one of the offenders, Michael Magee, became the first person to be hanged in South Australia. William Baker Ashton was appointed governor of the temporary gaol in 1839, and in 1840 George Strickland Kingston was commissioned to design Adelaide's new gaol. Construction of
Adelaide Gaol Adelaide Gaol is a former Australian prison A prison (also known as a jail or gaol (dated, British, Australian, and to a lesser extent Canadian Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada. This c ...
commenced in 1841. Adelaide's early history was marked by economic uncertainty and questionable leadership. The first governor of South Australia,
John Hindmarsh John is a common English name and surname: * John (given name) * John (surname), including a list of people who have the name John John may also refer to: New Testament Works *Johannine literature ** Gospel of John, a title often shortened t ...
, clashed frequently with others, in particular the Resident Commissioner,
James Hurtle Fisher Sir James Hurtle Fisher (1 May 1790 – 28 January 1875) was a lawyer and prominent South Australia South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a States and territories of Australia, state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers ...
. The rural area surrounding Adelaide was surveyed by Light in preparation to sell a total of over of land. Adelaide's early economy started to get on its feet in 1838 with the arrival of livestock from
Victoria Victoria most commonly refers to: * Victoria (Australia), a state of the Commonwealth of Australia * Victoria, British Columbia, provincial capital of British Columbia, Canada * Victoria (mythology), Roman goddess of Victory * Victoria, Seychelles ...
,
New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...
and
Tasmania Tasmania (), abbreviated as TAS, is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atol ...
. Wool production provided an early basis for the South Australian economy. By 1860, wheat farms had been established from
Encounter Bay Encounter Bay, once known as Ramong to the Ramindjeri people, is a bay in the Australian state of South Australia South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a States and territories of Australia, state in the southern central part of Australi ...
in the south to
ClareClare may refer to: Places Antarctica * Clare Range, a mountain range in Victoria Land Australia * Clare, South Australia, a town in the Clare Valley * Clare Valley, South Australia Canada * Clare (electoral district), an electoral district * Cla ...
in the north.
George Gawler Lieutenant-Colonel George Gawler, KH, (21 July 1795 – 7 May 1869) was the second Governor of South Australia The Governor of South Australia is the representative in the Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, ...

George Gawler
took over from Hindmarsh in late 1838 and, despite being under orders from the ''Select Committee on South Australia'' in Britain not to undertake any public works, promptly oversaw construction of a governor's house, the
Adelaide Gaol Adelaide Gaol is a former Australian prison A prison (also known as a jail or gaol (dated, British, Australian, and to a lesser extent Canadian Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada. This c ...
, police barracks, a hospital, a
customs house A custom house or customs house was traditionally a building housing the offices for a jurisdictional government whose officials oversaw the functions associated with importing and exporting goods into and out of a country, such as collecting ...
and a wharf at
Port Adelaide Port Adelaide is a port-side region of Adelaide, approximately northwest of the Adelaide city centre, Adelaide CBD. It is also the namesake of the City of Port Adelaide Enfield council, a suburb, a federal and state electoral division and is th ...

Port Adelaide
. Gawler was recalled and replaced by
George Edward Grey Sir George Grey, KCB (14 April 1812 – 19 September 1898) was a British soldier, explorer, colonial administrator and writer. He served in a succession of governing positions: Governor of South Australia The Governor of South Australia is ...

George Edward Grey
in 1841. Grey slashed public expenditure against heavy opposition, although its impact was negligible at this point: silver was discovered in
Glen Osmond Glen Osmond is a suburb of Adelaide Adelaide ( ) is the capital city A capital or capital city is the municipality holding primary status in a Department (country subdivision), department, country, Constituent state, state, province, o ...
that year, agriculture was well underway, and other mines sprung up all over the state, aiding Adelaide's commercial development. The city exported meat, wool, wine, fruit and wheat by the time Grey left in 1845, contrasting with a low point in 1842 when one-third of Adelaide houses were abandoned. Trade links with the rest of the Australian states were established after the
Murray River The Murray River (in South Australia: River Murray) (Ngarrindjeri language, Ngarrindjeri: ''Millewa'', Yorta Yorta language, Yorta Yorta: ''Tongala'') is a river in south-eastern Australia. It is list of rivers of Australia#Longest river ...

Murray River
was successfully navigated in 1853 by Francis Cadell, an Adelaide resident. South Australia became a
self-governing colony In the British Empire, a self-governing colony was a colony with an elected government in which elected rulers were able to make most decisions without referring to the colonial power with nominal control of the colony. This was in contrast to a ...
in 1856 with the ratification of a new constitution by the British parliament.
Secret ballot The secret ballot, also known as the Australian ballot, is a voting method in which a voter Voting is a method for a group, such as a meeting or an Constituency, electorate, in order to make a collective decision making, decision or expres ...
s were introduced, and a
bicameral Bicameralism is the practice of having a legislature A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) ...
parliament was elected on 9 March 1857, by which time 109,917 people lived in the province. In 1860 the Thorndon Park reservoir was opened, finally providing an alternative water source to the now turbid River Torrens. Gas street lighting was implemented in 1867, the
University of Adelaide The University of Adelaide (informally Adelaide University) is a public university A public university or public college is a university or college that is in state ownership or receives significant Government spending, public funds through a ...

University of Adelaide
was founded in 1874, the
South Australian Art Gallery The Art Gallery of South Australia (AGSA), established as the National Gallery of South Australia in 1881, is located in Adelaide. It is the most significant art museum, visual arts museum in the Australian state of South Australia. It has a coll ...
opened in 1881 and the
Happy Valley Reservoir The Happy Valley Reservoir is a water reservoir located in Adelaide, Australia. Constructed when the total population of Adelaide numbered 315,200 (1893 census), the Happy Valley Reservoir now supplies over a half a million people, from Adelaid ...
opened in 1896. In the 1890s Australia was affected by a severe economic depression, ending a hectic era of land booms and tumultuous expansionism. Financial institutions in Melbourne and banks in Sydney closed. The national fertility rate fell and immigration was reduced to a trickle. The value of South Australia's exports nearly halved. Drought and poor harvests from 1884 compounded the problems, with some families leaving for Western Australia. Adelaide was not as badly hit as the larger gold-rush cities of Sydney and Melbourne, and silver and lead discoveries at
Broken Hill Broken Hill is an inland mining Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the Earth, usually from an ore body, lode, vein, seam, reef, or placer deposit. These deposits form a mineralized commod ...
provided some relief. Only one year of deficit was recorded, but the price paid was retrenchments and lean public spending. Wine and copper were the only industries not to suffer a downturn.


20th century

Adelaide was Australia's third largest city for most of the 20th century. Electric street lighting was introduced in 1900 and electric trams were transporting passengers in 1909. 28,000 men were sent to fight in World War I. Historian F. W. Crowley examined the reports of visitors in the early 20th century, noting that "many visitors to Adelaide admired the of its founders", as well as pondering the riches of the young city. Adelaide enjoyed a postwar boom, entering a time of relative prosperity. Its population grew, and it became the third most populous metropolitan area in the country, after Sydney and Melbourne. Its prosperity was short-lived, with the return of droughts and the
Great Depression The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression An economic depression is a sustained, long-term downturn in economic activity in one or more economies. It is a more severe economic downturn than a economic recession, recess ...
of the 1930s. It later returned to fortune under strong government leadership. Secondary industries helped reduce the state's dependence on primary industries. World War II brought industrial stimulus and diversification to Adelaide under the Government, which advocated Adelaide as a safe place for manufacturing due to its less vulnerable location. Shipbuilding was expanded at the nearby port of
Whyalla Whyalla was founded as "Hummocks Hill", and was known by that name until 1916. It is the fourth most populous city in the Australian state of South Australia South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a States and territories of Australia, st ...
. The South Australian Government in this period built on former wartime manufacturing industries but neglected cultural facilities which meant South Australia's economy lagged behind. International manufacturers like General Motors
Holden Holden, formerly known as General Motors-Holden, was an Australian automobile marque owned by General Motors General Motors Company (GM) is an American Multinational corporation, multinational Automotive industry, automotive manufacturing c ...

Holden
and
Chrysler Chrysler (; officially Stellantis North America) is one of the " Big Three" automobile manufacturer The automotive industry comprises a wide range of companies A company, abbreviated as co., is a legal entity In law, a legal pers ...
made use of these factories around the Adelaide area in suburbs like
Elizabeth Elizabeth or Elisabeth may refer to: People * Elizabeth (given name), a female given name (including people with that name) * Elizabeth (biblical figure), mother of John the Baptist Ships * HMS Elizabeth, HMS ''Elizabeth'', several ships * Elisab ...
, completing its transformation from an agricultural service centre to a 20th-century motor city. The
Mannum–Adelaide pipeline The Mannum–Adelaide pipeline was the first major Pipeline transport, pipeline built from the River Murray to serve Adelaide. The pipeline project was started in 1949 and completed in March 1955. After suffering water restrictions every summer fro ...
brought
River Murray The Murray River (in South Australia: River Murray) ( Ngarrindjeri: ''Millewa'', Yorta Yorta: ''Tongala'') is a river in south-eastern Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign ...
water to Adelaide in 1955 and
an airport An may refer to: Science and technology * ''An'', in mathematics, a root system and its Dynkin diagram * ''An'', in mathematics, conventional notation for the alternating group * Actinide (An), informal symbol for a series of chemical elements * ...
opened at West Beach in 1955.
Flinders University Flinders University is a in , . Founded in 1966, it was named in honour of British navigator , who explored and surveyed the South Australian coastline in the early 19th century. Flinders is a and a member of the (IRU) Group. Academically, ...
and the
Flinders Medical Centre Flinders Medical Centre (FMC) is a major public tertiary Tertiary ( ) is a widely used, but obsolete term for the Period (geology), geologic period from 66 million to 2.6 million years ago. The period began with the demise of the non-b ...
were established in the 1960s at Bedford Park, south of the city. Today, Flinders Medical Centre is one of the largest teaching hospitals in South Australia. In the post-war years around the early 1960s Adelaide was surpassed by Brisbane as Australia's third largest city. The Dunstan Governments of the 1970s saw something of an Adelaide 'cultural revival', establishing a wide array of social reforms. The city became noted for its progressivism as South Australia became the first Australian state or territory to decriminalise homosexuality between consenting adults in 1975. It also became a centre for the arts, building upon the biennial "
Adelaide Festival of Arts Adelaide ( ) is the List of Australian capital cities, capital city of the state of South Australia, and the List of cities in Australia by population, fifth-most populous city of Australia. The demonym is used to denote the city and the resi ...
" that commenced in 1960. Adelaide hosted the
Formula One Formula One (also known as Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of international racing for single-seater An open-wheel car (formula car, or often single-seater car in British English) is a car with the wheels outside the car's main body ...
Australian Grand Prix The Australian Grand Prix, is a motor race held annually in Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian conti ...
between 1985 and 1996 on a street circuit in the city's east parklands; it moved to Melbourne in 1996. The
State Bank A state bank is generally a financial institution that is chartered by a state. It differs from a reserve bank in that it does not necessarily control monetary policy (the state in question may have no legal capacity to create monetary policy), ...
collapsed in 1991 during an economic recession; the effects lasted until 2004, when
Standard & Poor's S&P Global Ratings (previously Standard & Poor's and informally known as S&P) is an American credit rating agency A credit rating agency (CRA, also called a ratings service) is a company that assigns credit ratings, which rate a debtor's abilit ...

Standard & Poor's
reinstated South Australia's AAA credit rating. From
1999 1999 was designated as the International Year of Older PersonsIn its Proclamation on Aging, the United Nations General Assembly decided to declare 1999 as the International Year of Older Persons. The proclamation was launched on 1 October 1 ...
until
2020 2020 was heavily defined by the COVID-19 pandemic The COVID-19 pandemic is an ongoing global pandemic A pandemic (from , , "all" and , , "local people" the 'crowd') is an of an that has spread across a large region, for insta ...
, the
Adelaide 500 The Adelaide 500 was an annual motor racing event for Supercars A supercar – also called exotic car – is a loosely defined description of street-legal, high-performance luxury vehicle, luxury sports car. Since the 2000s or 2010s, the te ...
Supercars A supercar – also called exotic car – is a loosely defined description of street-legal, high-performance luxury vehicle, luxury sports car. Since the 2000s or 2010s, the term hypercar has come into use for the highest performing supercars. ...
race has made use of sections of the former Formula One circuit. Adelaide's tallest building, completed in 2020, is called the Adelaidean and is located at 11 Frome Street.


21st century

In the early years of the 21st century, a significant increase in the state government's spending on Adelaide's infrastructure occurred. The
Rann government The Rann Government was the state executive government of South Australia led by Premier of South Australia Mike Rann of the Australian Labor Party (South Australian Branch), South Australian Branch of the Australian Labor Party (ALP) from 2002 to ...

Rann government
invested A$535 million in a major upgrade of the Adelaide Oval to enable
Australian Football League The Australian Football League (AFL) is the pre-eminent and only fully professional A professional is a member of a profession or any person who earns a living from a specified professional activity. The term also describes the standards of ...
to be played in the city centre and more than A$2
billion A billion is a number with two distinct definitions: *1,000,000,000 1,000,000,000 (one billion A billion is a number with two distinct definitions: *1,000,000,000 1,000,000,000 (one billion, short scale; one thousand million or milliar ...

billion
to build a new
Royal Adelaide Hospital The Royal Adelaide Hospital (RAH) is South Australia's largest hospital, owned by the state government as part of Australia's public health care system. The RAH provides tertiary care, tertiary health care services for South Australia and provides ...
on land adjacent to the Adelaide Railway Station. The Glenelg tramline was extended through the city to Hindmarsh down to East Terrace and the suburban railway line extended south to Seaford. Following a period of stagnation in the 1990s and 2000s, Adelaide began several major developments and redevelopments. The Adelaide Convention Centre was redeveloped and expanded at a cost of A$350 million beginning in 2012. Three historic buildings were adapted for modern use: the Torrens Building in Victoria Square as the Adelaide campus for Carnegie Mellon University, University College London, and Torrens University; the Stock Exchange building as the Science Exchange of the Royal Institution Australia; and the Glenside Psychiatric Hospital as the Adelaide Studios of the SA Film Corporation. The government also invested more than A$2 billion to build a
desalination Desalination is a process that takes away mineral components from saline water Saline water (more commonly known as salt water) is water that contains a high concentration of solvation, dissolved salts (mainly sodium chloride). The salt conce ...
plant, powered by renewable energy, as an 'insurance policy' against droughts affecting Adelaide's
water supply Water supply is the provision of water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an , transparent, tasteless, odorless, and , which is the main constituent of 's and the s of all known living organisms (in which it acts as a ). It is vital for ...
. The
Adelaide Festival The Adelaide Festival of Arts, also known as the Adelaide Festival, is an annual arts festival held in the South Australia South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a States and territories of Australia, state in the southern central part of A ...
,
Fringe ''Fringe'' is an American science fiction on television, science fiction television series created by J. J. Abrams, Alex Kurtzman, and Roberto Orci. It premiered on the Fox Broadcasting Company, Fox network on September 9, 2008, and concluded o ...
, and
Womadelaide WOMADelaide is an annual four-day festival of Music, Arts and Dance, which was first held in 1992 in Botanic Park, Adelaide, Botanic Park, Adelaide, South Australia. One of many WOMAD festivals held around the world, it is a four-day event which p ...
became annual events.


Geography

Adelaide is north of the Fleurieu Peninsula, on the Adelaide Plains between the Gulf St Vincent and the low-lying Mount Lofty Ranges. The city stretches from the coast to the foothills, and from
Gawler Gawler is the oldest country town on the Australian mainland in the state of South Australia South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a in the southern central part of . It covers some of the most parts of the country. With a total land ar ...
at its northern extent to
Sellicks Beach __NOTOC__ Sellicks Beach, formerly spelt Sellick's Beach, is a suburb in the Australian state of South Australia South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a States and territories of Australia, state in the southern central part of Australia. I ...
in the south. According to the Regional Development Australia, an Australian government planning initiative, the "Adelaide Metropolitan Region" has a total land area of , while a more expansive definition by the Australian Bureau of Statistics defines a "Greater Adelaide" statistical area totalling . The city sits at an average elevation of above sea level.
Mount Lofty Mount Lofty (, elevation AHD) is the highest point in the southern Mount Lofty Ranges The Mount Lofty Ranges are a range Range may refer to: Geography * Range (geographic), a chain of hills or mountains; a somewhat linear, complex m ...
, east of the Adelaide metropolitan region in the Adelaide Hills at an elevation of , is the tallest point of the city and in the state south of Burra. Much of Adelaide was bushland before British settlement, with some variation – sandhills, swamps and marshlands were prevalent around the coast. The loss of the sandhills to urban development had a particularly destructive effect on the coastline due to erosion. Where practical, the government has implemented programs to rebuild and vegetate sandhills at several of Adelaide's beachside suburbs. Much of the original vegetation has been cleared with what is left to be found in reserves such as the
Cleland Conservation Park Cleland Conservation Park is a protected area located in the Adelaide Hills, South Australia about south-east of the Adelaide city centre. Cleland Conservation Park conserves a significant area of natural bushland on the Adelaide Hills face an ...
and
Belair National Park Belair National Park (formerly known as the National Park and as Belair Recreation Park) is a protected area in Belair, South Australia, south of Adelaide city centre; it covers an area of . It was proclaimed in 1891 and was the first national pa ...
. A number of creeks and rivers flow through the Adelaide region. The largest are the Torrens and Onkaparinga catchments. Adelaide relies on its many reservoirs for water supply with the
Happy Valley Reservoir The Happy Valley Reservoir is a water reservoir located in Adelaide, Australia. Constructed when the total population of Adelaide numbered 315,200 (1893 census), the Happy Valley Reservoir now supplies over a half a million people, from Adelaid ...
supplying around 40% and the much larger
Mount Bold Reservoir Mount Bold Reservoir is the largest reservoir (water), reservoir in South Australia with a maximum capacity of over forty-six thousand megalitres. Costing Australian dollar, A$1.1 million, the reservoir took six years to construct on the Onkaparing ...
10% of Adelaide's domestic requirements respectively.


Geology

Adelaide and its surrounding area is one of the most seismically active regions in Australia. On 1 March 1954 at 3:40 am Adelaide experienced its largest recorded earthquake to date, with the epicentre 12 km from the city centre at
Darlington Darlington is a large market town A market town is a European settlement that obtained by custom or royal charter, in the Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted approximately from the ...
, and a reported magnitude of 5.6. There have been smaller earthquakes in 2010, 2011, 2014, 2017, and 2018. The uplands of the
Adelaide Hills The Adelaide Hills region is located in the southern Mount Lofty Ranges The Mount Lofty Ranges are a mountain range, range of mountains in the Australian state of South Australia which for a small part of its length borders the east of A ...
, part of the southern
Mount Lofty Ranges The Mount Lofty Ranges are a mountain range, range of mountains in the Australian state of South Australia which for a small part of its length borders the east of Adelaide. The part of the range in the vicinity of Adelaide is called the Adel ...
to the east of Adelaide, are defined on their western side by a number of arcuate faults (the Para, Eden, Clarendon and Willunga Faults), and consist of rocks such as
siltstone Siltstone, also known as aleurolite, is a clastic sedimentary rock of a clast (sand grain), derived from a basalt Basalt (, ) is a fine-grained extrusive igneous rock formed from the rapid cooling of low-viscosity lava rich in magne ...
,
dolomiteDolomite may refer to: *Dolomite (mineral) Dolomite () is an anhydrous A substance is anhydrous if it contains no water. Many processes in chemistry can be impeded by the presence of water; therefore, it is important that water-free reagents and ...
and
quartzite Quartzite is a hard, non-Foliation (geology), foliated metamorphic rock which was originally pure quartz sandstone.Essentials of Geology, 3rd Edition, Stephen Marshak, p 182 Sandstone is converted into quartzite through heating and pressure usu ...

quartzite
, dating from the
Neoproterozoic The Neoproterozoic Era is the unit of geologic time The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological datingChronological dating, or simply dating, is the process of attributing to an object or event a date in the past, allowing such ob ...
to the middle
Cambrian The Cambrian Period ( ; sometimes symbolized Ꞓ) was the first geological period A geological period is one of the several subdivisions of geologic time enabling cross-referencing of rocks and geologic events from place to place. These peri ...
, laid down in the Adelaide Rift Complex, the oldest part of the Adelaide Superbasin. Most of the Adelaide metropolitan area lies in the downthrown St Vincent Basin and its embayments, including the
Adelaide Plains The Adelaide Plains (Kaurna name Tarndanya) is a plain In geography, a plain is a flat expanse of land that generally does not change much in elevation. Plains occur as lowlands along valleys or on the doorsteps of mountains, as coastal pl ...
Sub-basin, and the Golden Grove, Noarlunga and Willunga Embayments. These basins contain deposits of
Tertiary Tertiary ( ) is a widely used but obsolete term for the geologic period The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that classifies Geology, geological strata (stratigraphy) in time. It is used by geologists, paleontology ...

Tertiary
marine and non-marine sands and limestones, which form important aquifers. These deposits are overlain by
Quaternary The Quaternary ( ) is the current and most recent of the three periods of the Cenozoic The Cenozoic ( ; ) is Earth's current geological era An era is a span of time defined for the purposes of chronology or historiography, as in the regnal ...
alluvial fan An alluvial fan is an accumulation of sediments shaped like a section of a shallow cone, with its apex at a point source of sediments, such as a narrow canyon emerging from an escarpment. They are characteristic of mountainous terrain in arid to ...

alluvial fan
s and
piedmont it, Piemontese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_title2 ...

piedmont
slope deposits, derived from erosion of the uplands, consisting of sands, clays and gravels, interfingering to the west with transgressive
Pleistocene The Pleistocene ( , often referred to as the ''Ice Age'') is the geological Epoch (geology), epoch that lasted from about 2,580,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the earth’s most recent period of repeated glaciations. Before a change finally ...
to
Holocene The Holocene ( ) is the current geological epoch In geochronology, an epoch is a subdivision of the geologic timescale that is longer than an age (geology), age but shorter than a period (geology), period. The current epoch is the Holocene E ...
marine sands and coastal sediments of the shoreline of Gulf St Vincent.


Urban layout

Adelaide is a planned city, designed by the first Surveyor-General of South Australia, Colonel
William Light William Light (27 April 1786 – 6 October 1839), also known as Colonel Light, was a British- Malayan naval and army officer. He was the first Surveyor-General of the new British Province of South Australia, known for choosing the site o ...
. His plan, sometimes referred to as "Light's Vision" (also the name of a statue of him on
Montefiore Hill Montefiore Hill is a small hill in North Adelaide North Adelaide is a predominantly residential precinct and suburb of the City of Adelaide in South Australia South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a States and territories of Australi ...
), arranged Adelaide in a
grid Grid, The Grid, or GRID may refer to: Common usage * Cattle grid or stock grid, a type of obstacle is used to prevent livestock from crossing the road * Grid reference, used to define a location on a map Arts, entertainment, and media * News gri ...
, with five squares in the
Adelaide city centre Adelaide city centre is the inner city locality of Adelaide, Greater Adelaide, the capital city of South Australia. It is known by locals simply as "The City" or "Town" to distinguish it from Greater Adelaide and from the City of Adelaide local ...

Adelaide city centre
and a ring of parks, known as the
Adelaide Parklands The Adelaide Park Lands are the figure-eight of land spanning both banks of the River Torrens The River Torrens , (Karrawirra Parri / Karrawirraparri) is the most significant river of the Adelaide Plains. It was one of the main reasons ...
, surrounding it. Light's selection of the location for the city was initially unpopular with the early settlers, as well as South Australia's first governor, John Hindmarsh, due to its distance from the harbour at Port Adelaide, and the lack of fresh water there. Light successfully persisted with his choice of location against this initial opposition. Recent evidence suggests that Light worked closely with George Kingston as well as a team of men to set out Adelaide, using various templates for city plans going back to
Ancient Greece Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a civilization belonging to a period of History of Greece, Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of Classical Antiquity, antiquity ( AD 600). This era wa ...
, including
Italian Renaissance The Italian Renaissance ( it, Rinascimento ) was a period in Italian history The history of Italy covers the Ancient Period, the Middle Ages and the modern era. Since classical times, ancient Phoenicians, Magna Graecia, Greeks, Etruscan civi ...
designs and the similar layouts of the American cities
Philadelphia Philadelphia (colloquially known simply as Philly) is the largest city in the Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is ...

Philadelphia
and
Savannah A savanna or savannah is a mixed woodland A woodland () is, in the broad sense, land covered with trees, or in a narrow sense, synonymous with wood (or in the U.S., the ''plurale tantum'' woods), a low-density forest forming open habitats ...
–which, like Adelaide, follow the same layout of a central city square, four complementing city squares surrounding it and a parklands area that surrounds the city centre. The benefits of Light's design are numerous: Adelaide has had wide multi-lane roads from its beginning, an easily navigable
cardinal direction The four cardinal directions, or cardinal points, are the directions north, east, south, and west, commonly denoted by their initials N, E, S, and W. East and west are perpendicular (at right angles) to north and south, with east being in the c ...
grid layout and an expansive green ring around the city centre. There are two sets of
ring road A ring road (also known as circular road, beltline, beltway, circumferential (high)way, loop, bypass or orbital) is a road or a series of connected roads encircling a town, city, or country. The most common purpose of a ring road is to assist i ...
s in Adelaide that have resulted from the original design. The inner ring route (A21 road (Australia), A21) borders the parklands, and the outer route (A3 road (South Australia), A3/South Road, Adelaide, A13/A16 highway (Australia), A16/A17 highway (Australia), A17) completely bypasses the inner city via (in clockwise order) Grand Junction Road, Hampstead Road, Ascot Avenue, Portrush Road, Cross Road, Adelaide, Cross Road and South Road, Adelaide, South Road. Suburban expansion has to some extent outgrown Light's original plan. Numerous former outlying villages and "country towns", as well as the satellite city of
Elizabeth Elizabeth or Elisabeth may refer to: People * Elizabeth (given name), a female given name (including people with that name) * Elizabeth (biblical figure), mother of John the Baptist Ships * HMS Elizabeth, HMS ''Elizabeth'', several ships * Elisab ...
, have been enveloped by its urban sprawl, suburban sprawl. Expanding developments in the Adelaide Hills region led to the construction of the South Eastern Freeway to cope with growth, which has subsequently led to new developments and further improvements to that transport corridor. Similarly, the booming development in Adelaide's City of Onkaparinga, South led to the construction of the Southern Expressway (Australia), Southern Expressway. New roads are not the only transport infrastructure developed to cope with the urban growth. The O-Bahn Busway is an example of a unique solution to Tea Tree Gully, South Australia, Tea Tree Gully's transport woes in the 1980s. The development of the nearby suburb of Golden Grove, South Australia, Golden Grove in the late 1980s is an example of well-thought-out urban planning. In the 1960s, a Metropolitan Adelaide Transport Study Plan was proposed to cater for the future growth of the city. The plan involved the construction of freeways, Controlled-access highway, expressways and the upgrade of certain aspects of the public transport system. The then premier Steele Hall approved many parts of the plan and the government went as far as purchasing land for the project. The later Australian Labor Party, Labor government elected under Don Dunstan shelved the plan, but allowed the purchased land to remain vacant, should the future need for freeways arise. In 1980, the Liberal party of Australia, Liberal party won government and premier David Tonkin committed his government to selling off the land acquired for the MATS plan, ensuring that even when needs changed, the construction of most MATS-proposed freeways would be impractical. Some parts of this land have been used for transport, (e.g. the O-Bahn Busway and Southern Expressway), while most has been progressively subdivided for residential use. In 2008, the Government of South Australia, SA Government announced plans for a network of transport-oriented developments across the Adelaide metropolitan area and purchased a Clipsal site development, 10 hectare industrial site at Bowden, South Australia, Bowden for $52.5 million as the first of these developments. The site covers 102,478 square metres, or about 10 hectares, and is bounded by Park Terrace to the south, the Adelaide to Outer Harbour railway line to the west, Drayton Street to the north and Sixth and Seventh Streets to the east.


Housing

Historically, Adelaide's suburban residential areas have been characterised by single-storey detached houses built on blocks. A relative lack of suitable, locally-available timber for construction purposes led to the early development of a brick-making industry, as well as the use of stone, for houses and other buildings. By 1891 68% of houses were built of stone, 15% of timber, and 10% of brick, with brick also being widely used in stone houses for quoins, door and window surrounds, and chimneys and fireplaces. There is a wide variety in the styles of these houses. Until the 1960s most of the more substantial houses were built of red brick, though many front walls were of ornamental stone. Then cream bricks became fashionable, and in the 1970s, deep red and brown bricks became popular. Until the 1970s, roofs tended to be clad with (painted) corrugated iron or tiles (cement or clay, usually red "terracotta"). Since then, Colorbond corrugated steel has dominated. Most roofs are pitched; flat roofs are not common. Up to the 1970s, most houses were of "double brick" construction on concrete footings, with timber floors laid on joists supported by "dwarf walls". Later houses have mainly been of "brick veneer" construction – structural Framing (construction), timber or, more recently, steel frame#Cold-formed steel frames, lightweight steel frame on a concrete slab Foundation (engineering), foundation, lined with Gyprock, and with an outer skin of brickwork,Rosemary Cadden: ''Building South Australia: celebrating 125 years''. Solstice Media. pp. 77, 87. to cope with Adelaide's Shrink–swell capacity, reactive soils, particularly Keswick Clay, black earth and some red-brown earth soils. The use of precast concrete panels for floor and wall construction has also increased. In addition to this, a significant factor in Adelaide's suburban history is the role of the South Australian Housing Trust.


Climate

Adelaide has a mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification: Csa). The city has hot, dry summers and cool winters with moderate rainfall. Most precipitation falls in the winter months, leading to the suggestion that the climate be classified as a "cold monsoon". Rainfall is unreliable, light and infrequent throughout summer, although heavy falls can occur. In contrast, the winter has fairly reliable rainfall with June being the wettest month of the year, averaging around 80 mm. Frosts are occasional, with the most notable occurrences in July 1908 and July 1982. Hail is also common in winter. Adelaide is a windy city with significant wind chill in winter, which makes the temperature apparent temperature, seem colder than it actually is. Snowfall in the metropolitan area is extremely uncommon, although light and sporadic falls in the nearby hills and at
Mount Lofty Mount Lofty (, elevation AHD) is the highest point in the southern Mount Lofty Ranges The Mount Lofty Ranges are a range Range may refer to: Geography * Range (geographic), a chain of hills or mountains; a somewhat linear, complex m ...
occur during winter. Dewpoints in the summer typically range from . There are usually several days in summer where the temperature reaches or above; the frequency of these temperatures has been Climate of Adelaide#Climate data and extremes, increasing in recent years. Temperature extremes range from -0.4 °C (31.4 °F), 8 June 1982 to 46.6 °C (115.9 °F), 24 January 2019. The average sea temperature ranges from in August to in February.


Liveability

Adelaide has been consistently listed in the world's top 10 Global Liveability Ranking, most liveable cities through the 2010s by The Economist Intelligence Unit, although it dropped to tenth place in 2018 after holding fifth position in the previous three years. It was ranked the most liveable city in Australia by the Property Council of Australia, based on surveys of residents’ views of their own city, between 2010 and 2013, dropping to second place in 2014. Greener spaces for sustainable living is an initiative that has proven to create happier residents and is one of the factors that contributes to Adelaide making the top 10 of the world's most liveable cities. For a relatively small city it boasts Adelaide Park Lands, 29 large public parks as well as a Adelaide Botanic Garden, botanical garden in the heart of the city. The reduction of Adelaide's tree canopy cover over recent years due to excessive tree removal for new construction has led to the creation of an urban heat island, an increase in the cost of housing and a decrease of overall state of well-being.


Governance

Adelaide, as the capital of South Australia, is the seat of the Government of South Australia as well as the bicameral Parliament of South Australia, which consists of the lower house known as the South Australian House of Assembly, House of Assembly and the upper house known as the South Australian Legislative Council, Legislative Council. South Australian state elections, General elections are held every four years, the last being the 2018 South Australian state election, 2018 election. As Adelaide is South Australia's capital and most populous city, the Government of South Australia, State Government co-operates extensively with the City of Adelaide. In 2006, the Ministry for the City of Adelaide was created to facilitate the State Government's collaboration with the Adelaide City Council and the Lord Mayor to improve Adelaide's image. The State Parliament's Capital City Committee is also involved in the governance of the City of Adelaide, being primarily concerned with the planning of Adelaide's urban development and growth. Reflecting South Australia's status as Australia's most centralised state, Adelaide elects a substantial majority of the South Australian House of Assembly. Of the 47 seats in the chamber, 34 seats (three-quarters of the legislature) are based in Adelaide, and two rural seats include Adelaide suburbs.


Local governments

The Adelaide metropolitan area is divided between nineteen Local Government Areas of South Australia, local government areas. At its centre, the City of Adelaide administers the
Adelaide city centre Adelaide city centre is the inner city locality of Adelaide, Greater Adelaide, the capital city of South Australia. It is known by locals simply as "The City" or "Town" to distinguish it from Greater Adelaide and from the City of Adelaide local ...

Adelaide city centre
, North Adelaide, and the surrounding
Adelaide Parklands The Adelaide Park Lands are the figure-eight of land spanning both banks of the River Torrens The River Torrens , (Karrawirra Parri / Karrawirraparri) is the most significant river of the Adelaide Plains. It was one of the main reasons ...
. It is the oldest municipal authority in Australia and was established in 1840, when Adelaide and Australia's first mayor,
James Hurtle Fisher Sir James Hurtle Fisher (1 May 1790 – 28 January 1875) was a lawyer and prominent South Australia South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a States and territories of Australia, state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers ...
, was elected. From 1919 onwards, the City has had a List of Mayors and Lord Mayors of Adelaide, Lord Mayor, the current being Lord Mayor ''The Right Honourable'' Sandy Verschoor.


Demography

Adelaide's inhabitants are known as Adelaideans. Compared with Australia's four other major state capitals, Adelaide is growing at a much slower rate. In 2017, it had a metropolitan population (including suburbs) of more than 1,345,777, Estimated resident population, 30 June 2018. making it Australia's fifth-largest city. Some 77% of the population of South Australia are residents of the Adelaide metropolitan area, making South Australia one of the most centralised states. Major areas of population growth in recent years have been in outer suburbs such as Mawson Lakes, South Australia, Mawson Lakes and Golden Grove. Adelaide's inhabitants occupy 366,912 houses, 57,695 semi-detached, row terrace or town houses and 49,413 flats, units or apartments. About one sixth (17.1%) of the population had university qualifications. The number of Adelaideans with vocational qualifications (such as tradespersons) fell from 62.1% of the labour force in the 1991 census to 52.4% in the 2001 census. Adelaide is ageing more rapidly than other Australian capital cities. More than a quarter (27.5%) of Adelaide's population is aged 55 years or older, in comparison to the national average of 25.6%. Adelaide has the lowest number of children (under-15-year-olds), who comprised 17.7% of the population, compared to the national average of 19.3%.


Ancestry and immigration

At the 2016 census, the most commonly nominated ancestries were: Overseas-born Adelaideans composed 31.8% of the total population at the 2016 census. The five largest groups of overseas-born were from England (6.2%), India (2%), China (1.8%), Italy (1.3%) and Vietnam (1.1%). Suburbs including Newton, South Australia, Newton, Payneham, South Australia, Payneham and Campbelltown, South Australia, Campbelltown in the east and Torrensville, South Australia, Torrensville, West Lakes, South Australia, West Lakes and Fulham, South Australia, Fulham to the west, have large Greek Australian, Greek and Italian Australian, Italian communities. The Italian consulate is located in the eastern suburb of Payneham, South Australia, Payneham. Large Vietnamese Australian, Vietnamese populations are settled in the north-western suburbs of Woodville, South Australia, Woodville, Kilkenny, South Australia, Kilkenny, Pennington, South Australia, Pennington, Mansfield Park, South Australia, Mansfield Park and Athol Park, South Australia, Athol Park and also Parafield Gardens, South Australia, Parafield Gardens and Pooraka, South Australia, Pooraka in Adelaide's north. Migrants from Indian Australian, India and Sri Lankan Australian, Sri Lanka have settled into inner suburban areas of Adelaide including the inner northern suburbs of Blair Athol, South Australia, Blair Athol, Kilburn, South Australia, Kilburn and Enfield, South Australia, Enfield and the inner southern suburbs of Plympton, South Australia, Plympton, Park Holme, South Australia, Park Holme and Kurralta Park, South Australia, Kurralta Park. Suburbs such as Para Hills, South Australia, Para Hills, Salisbury, South Australia, Salisbury, Ingle Farm, South Australia, Ingle Farm and Blair Athol, South Australia, Blair Athol in the north and Findon, South Australia, Findon, West Croydon, South Australia, West Croydon and Seaton, South Australia, Seaton and other Western suburbs have sizeable Afghan Australian, Afghan communities. Chinese Australian, Chinese migrants favour settling in the eastern and north eastern suburbs including Kensington Gardens, South Australia, Kensington Gardens, Greenacres, South Australia, Greenacres, Modbury, South Australia, Modbury and Golden Grove, South Australia, Golden Grove. Mawson Lakes, South Australia, Mawson Lakes has a large international student population, due to its proximity to the University of South Australia campus. 1.4% of the population, or 18,403 people, identified as Indigenous Australians (Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders) in 2016.


Language

At the 2016 census, 75.4% of the population spoke Australian English, English at home. The other languages most commonly spoken at home were Italian (2.1%), Standard Mandarin (2.1%), Greek (1.7%) Vietnamese (1.4%), and Cantonese (0.7%).


Religion

Adelaide was founded on a vision of religious tolerance that attracted a wide variety of religious practitioners. This led to it being known as ''The City of Churches''. But approximately 28% of the population expressed no religious affiliation in the 2011 Census, compared with the national average of 22.3%, making Adelaide one of Australia's least religious cities. Over half of the population of Adelaide identifies as Christian, with the largest denominations being Roman Catholic Church in Australia, Catholic (21.3%), Anglican Church of Australia, Anglican (12.6%), Uniting Church in Australia, Uniting Church (7.6%) and Eastern Orthodox Church, Eastern Orthodox (3.5%). The Jewish community of the city dates back to 1840. Eight years later, 58 Jews lived in the city.Adelaide
, Jewish Virtual Library, Encyclopaedia Judica, 2008.
A synagogue was built in 1871, when 435 Jews lived in the city. Many took part in the city councils, such as Judah Moss Solomon (1852–66) and others after him. Three Jews have been elected to the position of city mayor. In 1968, the Jewish population of Adelaide numbered about 1,200; in 2001, according to the Australian census, 979 persons declared themselves to be Jewish by religion. In 2011, over 1,000 Jews were living in the city, operating an Orthodox Judaism, Orthodox and a Reform Judaism, Reform school, in addition to a virtual Jewish museum. The "Afghan (Australia), Afghan" community in Australia first became established in the 1860s when camels and their Pathan, Punjabi, Baluchi and Sindhi handlers began to be used to open up settlement in the continent's arid interior. Until eventually superseded by the advent of the railways and motor vehicles, camels played an invaluable economic and social role in transporting heavy loads of goods to and from isolated settlements and mines. This is acknowledged by the name of The Ghan, the passenger train operating between Adelaide, Alice Springs, and Darwin. The Central Adelaide Mosque is regarded as Australia's oldest permanent mosque; an earlier Marree Mosque, mosque at Marree in northern South Australia, dating from 1861 to 1862 and subsequently abandoned or demolished, has now been rebuilt.


Economy

South Australia's largest employment sectors are health care and social assistance, surpassing manufacturing in SA as the largest employer since 2006–07. In 2009–10, manufacturing in SA had average annual employment of 83,700 persons compared with 103,300 for health care and social assistance. Health care and social assistance represented nearly 13% of the state average annual employment.1345.4 – SA Stats, Apr 2011
. Abs.gov.au. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
The Adelaide Hills wine region is an iconic and viable economic region for both the state and country in terms of wine production and sale. The 2014 vintage is reported as consisting of red grapes crushed valued at A$8,196,142 and white grapes crushed valued at $14,777,631.PGIBSA, 2014, page 25 The retail trade is the second largest employer in SA (2009–10), with 91,900 jobs, and 12 per cent of the state workforce. Manufacturing, defence technology, high-tech electronic systems and research, commodity export and corresponding service industries all play a role in the SA economy. Almost half of all cars produced in Australia were made in Adelaide at the General Motors Holden plant in
Elizabeth Elizabeth or Elisabeth may refer to: People * Elizabeth (given name), a female given name (including people with that name) * Elizabeth (biblical figure), mother of John the Baptist Ships * HMS Elizabeth, HMS ''Elizabeth'', several ships * Elisab ...
. The site ceased operating in November 2017. The State Bank of South Australia, collapse of the State Bank in 1992 resulted in large levels of state public debt (as much as A$4 billion). The collapse meant that successive governments enacted lean budgets, cutting spending, which was a setback to the further economic development of the city and state. The debt has more recently been reduced with the State Government once again receiving a AAA+ Credit Rating. The global media conglomerate News Corporation (1980–2013), News Corporation was founded in, and until 2004 incorporated in, Adelaide and it is still considered its 'spiritual' home by Rupert Murdoch. Australia's largest oil company, Santos Limited, Santos, prominent South Australian brewery, Coopers Brewery, Coopers, and national retailer Harris Scarfe also call Adelaide their home. The city has been chosen to be the site of the new Australian space center. South Australia is already home to over 80 organisations which employ 800 people in the space sector. The Prime Minister Scott Morrison stated the "agency will act as a launching pad to triple Australia's space economy to $12 billion and create up to 20,000 jobs by 2030."


Defence industry

Adelaide is home to a large proportion of Australia's defence industries, which contribute over A$1 billion to South Australia's Gross State Product. The principal government military research institution, the Defence Science and Technology Organisation, and other defence technology organisations such as BAE Systems Australia and Lockheed Martin Australia, are north of Salisbury and west of Elizabeth in an area now called "Edinburgh Parks", adjacent to RAAF Base Edinburgh. Others, such as Saab Systems and Raytheon, are in or near Technology Park, Adelaide, Technology Park. ASC Pty Ltd, is based in the industrial suburb of Osborne, South Australia, Osborne and is also a part of Technology Park, Adelaide, Technology Park. South Australia was charged with constructing Australia's Collins class submarine, ''Collins'' class submarines and more recently the A$6 billion contract to construct the Royal Australian Navy's new Hobart class destroyer, air-warfare destroyers.


Employment statistics

, Greater Adelaide had an unemployment rate of 7.4% with a youth unemployment rate of 15%. The median weekly individual income for people aged 15 years and over was $447 per week in 2006, compared with $466 nationally. The median family income was $1,137 per week, compared with $1,171 nationally. Adelaide's housing and living costs are substantially lower than that of other Australian cities, with housing being notably cheaper. The median Adelaide house price is half that of Sydney and two-thirds that of Melbourne. The three-month trend unemployment rate to March 2007 was 6.2%. The Northern suburbs' unemployment rate is disproportionately higher than the other regions of Adelaide at 8.3%, while the East and South are lower than the Adelaide average at 4.9% and 5.0% respectively.


House prices

Over the decade March 2001 – March 2010, Metropolitan Adelaide median house prices approximately tripled. (approx. 285% – approx. 11%p.a. compounding) In the five years March 2007 – March 2012, prices increased by approx. 27% – approx. 5%p.a. compounding. March 2012 – March 2017 saw a further increase of 19% – approx. 3.5%p.a. compounding. In summary: Each quarter, The Alternative and Direct Investment Securities Association (ADISA) publishes a list of median house sale prices by suburb and Local government in Australia, Local Government Area. (Previously, this was done by REISA) Due to the small sizes of many of Adelaide's suburbs, the low volumes of sales in these suburbs, and (over time) the huge variations in the numbers of sales in a suburb in a quarter, statistical analysis of "the most expensive suburb" is unreliable; the suburbs appearing in the "top 10 most expensive suburbs this quarter" list is constantly varying. Quarterly Reports for the last two years can be found on the REISA website.


Education and research

Education forms an increasingly important part of the city's economy, with the Government of South Australia, South Australian Government and educational institutions attempting to position Adelaide as "Australia's education hub" and marketing it as a "Learning City." The number of international students studying in Adelaide has increased rapidly in recent years to 30,726 in 2015, of which 1,824 were secondary school students. In addition to the city's existing institutions, foreign institutions have been attracted to set up campuses to increase its attractiveness as an education hub. Adelaide is the birthplace of three Nobel laureates, List of Australian Nobel laureates#Australian laureates by birthplace, more than any other Australian city: physicist William Lawrence Bragg and pathologists Howard Florey and Robin Warren, all of whom completed secondary and tertiary education at St Peter's College, Adelaide, St Peter's College and the
University of Adelaide The University of Adelaide (informally Adelaide University) is a public university A public university or public college is a university or college that is in state ownership or receives significant Government spending, public funds through a ...

University of Adelaide
.


Primary and secondary education

At the level of primary and secondary education, there are two systems of school education. There is a public system operated by the South Australian Government and a private system of independent and Catholic schools. List of schools in South Australia, All schools provide education under the South Australian Certificate of Education (SACE) or, to a lesser extent, the International Baccalaureate (IB), with Adelaide having the highest number of IB schools in Australia.


Tertiary education

There are three public universities local to Adelaide, as well as one private university and three constituent colleges of foreign universities. Flinders University of South Australia, the
University of Adelaide The University of Adelaide (informally Adelaide University) is a public university A public university or public college is a university or college that is in state ownership or receives significant Government spending, public funds through a ...

University of Adelaide
, the University of South Australia and Torrens University Australia—part of the Laureate International Universities are based in Adelaide. The University of Adelaide was ranked in the top 150 universities worldwide. Flinders ranked in the top 250 and Uni SA in the top 300. Torrens University Australia is part of an international network of over 70 higher education institutions in more than 30 countries worldwide. The historic Torrens Building in Victoria Square, Adelaide, Victoria Square houses Carnegie Mellon University's Heinz College Australia, and University College London's School of Energy and Resources (Australia), and constitute the city's international university precinct. The
University of Adelaide The University of Adelaide (informally Adelaide University) is a public university A public university or public college is a university or college that is in state ownership or receives significant Government spending, public funds through a ...

University of Adelaide
, with 25,000 students, is Australia's third-oldest university and a member of the leading "Group of Eight (Australian universities), Group of Eight". It has five campuses throughout the state, including two in the city-centre, and a campus in Singapore. The University of South Australia, with 37,000 students, has two North Terrace campuses, three other campuses in the metropolitan area and campuses at
Whyalla Whyalla was founded as "Hummocks Hill", and was known by that name until 1916. It is the fourth most populous city in the Australian state of South Australia South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a States and territories of Australia, st ...
and Mount Gambier, South Australia, Mount Gambier.
Flinders University Flinders University is a in , . Founded in 1966, it was named in honour of British navigator , who explored and surveyed the South Australian coastline in the early 19th century. Flinders is a and a member of the (IRU) Group. Academically, ...
, with 25,184 domestic and international students, is in the southern suburb of Bedford Park, South Australia, Bedford Park, alongside the
Flinders Medical Centre Flinders Medical Centre (FMC) is a major public tertiary Tertiary ( ) is a widely used, but obsolete term for the Period (geology), geologic period from 66 million to 2.6 million years ago. The period began with the demise of the non-b ...
, another campus in neighbouring Tonsley, South Australia, Tonsley, and maintains a small city campus in Victoria Square. The plaza on the Bedford Park campus was revamped in 2014 and officially re-opened in 2016. The Adelaide College of Divinity is at Brooklyn Park, South Australia, Brooklyn Park. There are several South Australian TAFE South Australia, TAFE (Technical and Further Education) campuses in the metropolitan area that provide a range of vocational education and training. The Adelaide College of the Arts, as a school of TAFE SA, provides nationally recognised training in visual and performing arts.


Research

In addition to the universities, Adelaide is home to a number of research institutes, including the Royal Institution of Australia, established in 2009 as a counterpart to the two-hundred-year-old Royal Institution of Great Britain. Many of the organisations involved in research tend to be geographically clustered throughout the Adelaide metropolitan area: * The east end of
North Terrace 300px, Adelaide in 1839 as viewed south-east from the western end of North Terrace, including Holy Trinity Church. (The church tower lost its "peaked cap" in 1844.) North Terrace is one of the four terraces that bound the central busines ...
: SA Pathology; Hanson Institute; Royal Adelaide Hospital, RAH; National Wine Centre of Australia, National Wine Centre. * The west end of North Terrace: South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute (SAHMRI), located next to the new
Royal Adelaide Hospital The Royal Adelaide Hospital (RAH) is South Australia's largest hospital, owned by the state government as part of Australia's public health care system. The RAH provides tertiary care, tertiary health care services for South Australia and provides ...
. * The Waite Research Precinct: South Australian Research and Development Institute, SARDI Head Office and Plant Research Centre; Australian Wine Research Institute, AWRI; Australian Centre for Plant Functional Genomics, ACPFG; CSIRO research laboratories. SARDI also has establishments at Glenside, South Australia, Glenside and West Beach. * Edinburgh, South Australia: Defence Science and Technology Organisation, DSTO; BAE Systems (Australia); Lockheed Martin Australia Electronic Systems. * Technology Park Adelaide, Technology Park (Mawson Lakes, South Australia, Mawson Lakes): BAE Systems; Optus; Raytheon; Topcon; Lockheed Martin Australia Electronic Systems. * Research Park at Thebarton, South Australia, Thebarton: businesses involved in materials engineering, biotechnology, environmental services, information technology, industrial design, laser/optics technology, health products, engineering services, radar systems, telecommunications and petroleum services. * Science Park (adjacent to Flinders University): Playford Capital. * The Basil Hetzel Institute for Translational Health Research in Woodville, South Australia, Woodville the research arm of the Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Adelaide * The The Joanna Briggs Institute, Joanna Briggs Institute, a global research collaboration for evidence-based healthcare with its headquarters in North Adelaide. File:Bonython Hall.jpg, The Mitchell Building and Bonython Hall,
University of Adelaide The University of Adelaide (informally Adelaide University) is a public university A public university or public college is a university or college that is in state ownership or receives significant Government spending, public funds through a ...

University of Adelaide
File:Hawke Building, UniSA.jpg, The Hawke Building, part of the University of South Australia, UniSA, City West Campus File:Flinders from hill 3.jpg,
Flinders University Flinders University is a in , . Founded in 1966, it was named in honour of British navigator , who explored and surveyed the South Australian coastline in the early 19th century. Flinders is a and a member of the (IRU) Group. Academically, ...
buildings from the campus hills File:Torrens Building, Victoria Square.jpg, Torrens University File:SAHMRI.jpg, South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute (SAHMRI)


Cultural life

While established as a British province, and very much English in terms of its culture, Adelaide attracted immigrants from other parts of Europe early on, including German and other European non-conformists escaping religious persecution. The first German Lutherans arrived in 1838 bringing with them the vine cuttings that they used to found the acclaimed wineries of the Barossa Valley. The Royal Adelaide Show is an annual agricultural show and state fair, established in 1839 and now a huge event held in the Adelaide Showground annually. Adelaide's arts scene flourished in the 1960s and 1970s with the support of successive premiers from both major political parties. The renowned
Adelaide Festival of Arts Adelaide ( ) is the List of Australian capital cities, capital city of the state of South Australia, and the List of cities in Australia by population, fifth-most populous city of Australia. The demonym is used to denote the city and the resi ...
was established in 1960 under Thomas Playford, which in the same year spawned an unofficial uncurated series of performances and exhibits which grew into the Adelaide Fringe. Construction of the Adelaide Festival Centre began under Steele Hall in 1970 and was completed under the subsequent government of Don Dunstan, who also established the South Australian Film Corporation in 1972 and the State Opera of South Australia in 1976. Over time, the Adelaide Festival expanded to include Adelaide Writers' Week and WOMADelaide, and other separate festivals were established, such as the Adelaide Cabaret Festival (2002), the Adelaide Festival of Ideas (1999), the Adelaide Film Festival (2013), Feast Festival, FEAST (1999, a LGBT culture, queer culture) and Tasting Australia (1997, a food and wine affair). With the Festival, the Fringe, WOMADelaide, Writers' Week and the
Adelaide 500 The Adelaide 500 was an annual motor racing event for Supercars A supercar – also called exotic car – is a loosely defined description of street-legal, high-performance luxury vehicle, luxury sports car. Since the 2000s or 2010s, the te ...
street motor racing event (along with evening music concerts) all happening in early March, the period has become known colloquially as "Mad March". In 2014, Ghil'ad Zuckermann founded the Adelaide Language Festival. There are many international cultural fairs, most notably the German Schützenfest and Greek Glendi. Adelaide is home to the Adelaide Christmas Pageant, the world's largest Santa Claus parade, Christmas parade.


North Terrace institutions

As the state capital, Adelaide is home to a great number of cultural institutions with many along the boulevard of
North Terrace 300px, Adelaide in 1839 as viewed south-east from the western end of North Terrace, including Holy Trinity Church. (The church tower lost its "peaked cap" in 1844.) North Terrace is one of the four terraces that bound the central busines ...
. The Art Gallery of South Australia, with around 35,000 works, holds Australia's second largest state-based collection. Adjacent are the South Australian Museum and State Library of South Australia, while the Adelaide Botanic Garden, National Wine Centre and Tandanya National Aboriginal Cultural Institute are nearby in the East End, Adelaide, East End of the city. In the back of the State Library lies the Migration Museum, Adelaide, Migration Museum, Australia's oldest museum of its kind. Further west, the Lion Arts Centre is home to ACE Open, which showcases contemporary art, Dance Hub SA and other studio and arts industry office spaces. The Mercury Cinema and JamFactory (ceramics and design gallery) are just around the corner.


Performing arts and music venues

The Adelaide Festival Centre (which includes the Dunstan Playhouse, Festival Theatre and Space Theatre), on the banks of the Torrens, is the focal point for much of the cultural activity in the city and home to the State Theatre Company of South Australia. Other live music and theatre venues include the Adelaide Entertainment Centre; Adelaide Oval; Memorial Drive Park; Thebarton Theatre; Adelaide Town Hall; Her Majesty's Theatre; Queen's Theatre, Adelaide, Queen's Theatre; Holden Theatres and the Hopgood Theatre. The Lion Arts Factory, within the Lion Arts Centre, hosts contemporary music in a wide range of genres, as does "The Gov" in Hindmarsh, South Australia, Hindmarsh. The city also has numerous smaller theatres, pubs and cabaret bars which host performances.


Live music

In 2015, it was said that there were now more live music venues per capita in Adelaide than any other capital city in the southern hemisphere, ''Lonely Planet'' labelled Adelaide "Australia's live music city", and the city was recognised as a "City of Music (UNESCO), City of Music" by the UNESCO Creative Cities Network. In addition to its own WOMADelaide, Adelaide attracts several touring music festivals, including Creamfields Australia, Creamfields, St Jerome's Laneway Festival, Laneway and Groovin' the Moo, Groovin'. Adelaide has produced musical groups and individuals who have achieved national and international fame. These include the Adelaide Symphony Orchestra, the Adelaide Youth Orchestra, rock bands The Angels (Australian band), The Angels, Cold Chisel, The Superjesus, Wolf & Cub, roots/blues group The Audreys, internationally acclaimed metal acts I Killed The Prom Queen and Double Dragon (band), Double Dragon, popular Australian hip-hop outfit Hilltop Hoods, pop acts like Sia Furler, Sia, Orianthi, Guy Sebastian, and Wes Carr, as well as internationally successful tribute act, The Australian Pink Floyd Show. Noted rocker Jimmy Barnes (formerly lead vocalist with Cold Chisel) spent most of his youth in the northern suburb of
Elizabeth Elizabeth or Elisabeth may refer to: People * Elizabeth (given name), a female given name (including people with that name) * Elizabeth (biblical figure), mother of John the Baptist Ships * HMS Elizabeth, HMS ''Elizabeth'', several ships * Elisab ...
. Paul Kelly grew up in Adelaide and was head prefect at Rostrevor College. The first ''Australian Idol'' winner, Guy Sebastian, hails from the north-eastern suburb of Golden Grove, South Australia, Golden Grove.


Dance

Adelaide plays host to two of Australia's leading contemporary dance companies. The Australian Dance Theatre and Dance Hub SA (formerly Leigh Warren & Dancers) contribute to state festivals and perform nationally and internationally. Restless Dance Theatre is also based in Adelaide and is nationally recognised for working with disabled and non-disabled dancers to use movement as a means of expression.


Media


Newspapers

Newspapers in Adelaide are dominated by News Corp Australia, News Corporation publications—Adelaide being the birthplace of News Corporation itself. The only South Australian daily newspaper is ''The Advertiser (Adelaide), The Advertiser'', published by News Corporation six days a week. The same group publishes a Sunday paper, the ''Sunday Mail (Adelaide), Sunday Mail''. There are eleven suburban community newspapers published weekly, known collectively as the ''Messenger Newspapers'', also published by a subsidiary of News Corporation. ''The Independent Weekly'' was a small independent newspaper providing an alternative view, but ceased publishing its print edition in November 2010 and now exists as a digital daily newsletter only, ''InDaily''. ''The Adelaide Review'' is a free paper published monthly, and other independent magazine-style papers are published, but are not as widely available.


Television

Adelaide is served by numerous digital free-to-air television channels: # ABS (TV station), ABC # ABC HD (Australia), ABC (ABC broadcast in High-definition television, HD) # ABC TV Plus # ABC Me # ABC News (TV channel), ABC News # SBS (Australian TV channel), SBS # SBS HD (SBS broadcast in High-definition television, HD) # SBS World Movies HD # SBS Viceland HD # SBS Food # National Indigenous Television, NITV # SAS (TV station), Seven # 7HD (Seven broadcast in HD) # 7Two # 7mate # 7flix # Racing.com # NWS (TV station), Nine # 9HD (Nine broadcast in HD) # 9Gem # 9Go! # 9Life # 9Rush # ADS (TV station), Ten # Ten HD (Ten broadcast in HD) # 10 Bold # 10 Peach # 10 Shake # TVSN # Spree TV # Channel 44 (Adelaide), C44 Adelaide (Adelaide's community TV station) All of the five Australian national television networks broadcast both High-definition television, high-definition digital and standard-definition television, standard-definition digital television services in Adelaide. They share three transmission towers on the ridge near the summit of
Mount Lofty Mount Lofty (, elevation AHD) is the highest point in the southern Mount Lofty Ranges The Mount Lofty Ranges are a range Range may refer to: Geography * Range (geographic), a chain of hills or mountains; a somewhat linear, complex m ...
. There are two other transmission sites at 25 Grenfell Street, Adelaide and Elizabeth Downs, South Australia, Elizabeth Downs. The two government-funded stations are run by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABS (TV station), ABC South Australia) and the Special Broadcasting Service (SBS). The Seven Network and Network Ten both own their Adelaide stations (SAS-7 and ADS-10 respectively). Adelaide's NWS-9 is part of the Nine Network. Adelaide also has a Community television in Australia, community television station, Channel 44 (Adelaide), Channel 44. As part of a nationwide phase-out of analogue television in Australia, Adelaide's analogue television service was shut down on 2 April 2013. The Foxtel pay TV service is also available via cable or satellite to the entire metropolitan area. All the major broadcasting networks also operate online on-demand television services, alongside internet-only services such as Stan (company), Stan, Fetch TV, Netflix, YouTube, Disney+, and Kayo Sports.


Radio

There are 20 radio stations that serve the metropolitan area, as well as four stations that serve only parts of the metropolitan area; six commercial stations, six community stations, six national stations and two narrowcast stations. DAB+ digital radio has been broadcasting in metropolitan Adelaide since 20 May 2009, and currently offers a choice of 41 stations all operated by the existing licensed radio broadcasters, which includes high-quality simulcast of all AM and FM stations.


Crime


Sport

The main sports played professionally in Adelaide are Australian Rules football, association football (soccer), cricket, netball, and basketball. Adelaide is the home of two
Australian Football League The Australian Football League (AFL) is the pre-eminent and only fully professional A professional is a member of a profession or any person who earns a living from a specified professional activity. The term also describes the standards of ...
teams: the Adelaide Football Club and Port Adelaide Football Club, and one A-League soccer team, Adelaide United. A local Australian rules football league, the South Australian National Football League, SANFL, is made up of 10 teams from around Adelaide. The SANFL has been in operation since 1877 when it began as the South Australian Football Association (SAFL) before changing its name to the SANFL in 1927. The SANFL is the oldest surviving football league of any code played in Australia. Adelaide has developed a strong culture of attracting crowds to major sporting events. Until the completion of the 2012–14 renovation and upgrade of the Adelaide Oval, most large sporting events took place at either AAMI Stadium (the then home base of the Adelaide Crows, and the then Port Adelaide Football Club, Port Adelaide home game venue), or the historic Adelaide Oval, home of the Southern Redbacks and the Adelaide Strikers cricket teams. Since completion of the upgrade, home games for Adelaide Crows and Port Adelaide now take place at Adelaide Oval. Since 1884, Adelaide Oval has also hosted an international cricket test every summer, along with a number of One Day International cricket matches. Memorial Drive Park, adjacent to the Adelaide Oval, used to host Davis Cup and other major tennis events, including the Australian Open and the Adelaide International. Adelaide's professional association football team, Adelaide United, play in the A-League. Founded in 2003, their home ground is Hindmarsh Stadium, which has a capacity of 17,000 and is one of the few Soccer-specific stadium, purpose-built soccer stadia in Australia. Prior to United's foundation, Adelaide City FC, Adelaide City and West Adelaide SC, West Adelaide represented the city in the National Soccer League. The two sides, which contest the Adelaide derby against one another, now play in the National Premier Leagues South Australia. For two years, 1997 and 1998, Adelaide was represented in Australia's top level rugby league, after the New South Wales Rugby League had played a single game per season at the Adelaide Oval for five years starting in 1991. The Adelaide Rams were formed and played in the breakaway Super League (Australia), Super League (SL) competition in 1997 Super League (Australia) season, 1997 before moving to the new National Rugby League in 1998 NRL season, 1998. Initially playing at the Adelaide Oval, the club moved to the more suitable Hindmarsh Stadium late in the 1998 season. As part of a peace deal with the Australian Rugby League to end the Super League war, the club's owners News Limited (who were also owners of the SL) suddenly closed the club only weeks before the start of the 1999 NRL season, 1999 season. Adelaide has two professional basketball teams, the men's team being the Adelaide 36ers which plays in the National Basketball League (Australasia), National Basketball League (NBL) and the women's team, the Adelaide Lightning which plays in the Women's National Basketball League (WNBL). Both teams play their home games at the Titanium Security Arena. Adelaide has a professional netball team, the Adelaide Thunderbirds, which plays in the national netball competition, the Suncorp Super Netball championship, with home games played at Priceline Stadium. The Thunderbirds occasionally play games or finals at the Titanium Security Arena, while international netball matches are usually played at the 10,500 seat Adelaide Entertainment Centre. The Titanium Security Arena has a capacity of 8,000 and is the largest purpose-built basketball stadium in Australia. Since 1999 Adelaide and its surrounding areas have hosted the Tour Down Under Bicycle racing, bicycle race, organised and directed by Adelaide-based Michael Turtur. Turtur won an Summer Olympics, Olympic gold medal for Australia in the Cycling at the 1984 Summer Olympics – Men's team pursuit, 4000 m team pursuit at the 1984 Summer Olympics, 1984 Los Angeles Olympics. The Tour Down Under is the largest cycling event outside Europe and was the first event outside Europe to be granted UCI ProTour status. Adelaide maintains a franchise in the Australian Baseball League, the Adelaide Bite. They have been playing since 2009, and their home stadium (until 2016) was Norwood Oval. From 2016 the team moved to the Diamond Sports Stadium located near the Adelaide International Airport due to renovations at Norwood. Its name stems from the local Great Australian Bight, and from the abundance of local great white sharks. Adelaide also has an ice hockey team, Adelaide Adrenaline in the Australian Ice Hockey League (AIHL). It was national champions in 2009 and plays its games at the Ice Arena (Adelaide), IceArenA. The
Australian Grand Prix The Australian Grand Prix, is a motor race held annually in Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian conti ...
for World Championship
Formula One Formula One (also known as Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of international racing for single-seater An open-wheel car (formula car, or often single-seater car in British English) is a car with the wheels outside the car's main body ...
racing was hosted by Adelaide from 1985 to 1995 on the Adelaide Street Circuit which was laid out in the city's East End as well as the eastern parklands including the Victoria Park, Adelaide, Victoria Park Racecourse. The Grand Prix became a source of pride, and losing the event to Melbourne in a surprise announcement in mid-1993 left a void that has since been filled with the highly successful Adelaide 500, Clipsal 500 for V8 Supercar racing, held on a modified version of the same street circuit. The Classic Adelaide, a rallying, rally of classic sporting vehicles, is also held in the city and its surrounds. Adelaide formerly had three horse racing venues. Victoria Park, Adelaide, Victoria Park, Cheltenham Park Racecourse, both of which have now closed, and Morphettville Racecourse that remains the home of the South Australian Jockey Club. It also has Globe Derby Park (harness racing), Globe Derby Park for Harness racing that opened in 1969, and by 1973 had become Adelaide's premier harness racing venue taking over from the Adelaide Showgrounds, Wayville Showgrounds, as well as Greyhound Park for greyhound racing that opened in 1972. The World Solar Challenge race attracts teams from around the world, most of which are fielded by universities or corporations, although some are fielded by high schools. The race has a 20-years' history spanning nine races, with the inaugural event taking place in 1987. Adelaide hosted the 2012 World Bowls Championships at Lockleys Bowling Club, becoming the third city in the world to have held the championships twice, having previously hosted the event in 1996. Dirt track racing, Dirt track speedway is also popular in Adelaide with three operating speedways. Adelaide Motorsport Park, located adjacent to the Adelaide International Raceway road racing circuit at Virginia, South Australia, Virginia ( north of the city centre) has been in continuous operation since 1979 after the closure of the popular Rowley Park Speedway. Gillman Speedway located in the semi-industrial suburb of Gillman, South Australia, Gillman, has been in operation since 1998 and caters to Motorcycle speedway and Sidecar speedway, Sidecars, while the Sidewinders Speedway located in Wingfield, South Australia, Wingfield is also a motorcycle speedway dedicated to Under-16 riders and has been in operation since 1978. In 2016 backed my South Australia's Peregrine Group owners of OTR (On the run service stations and 24/7-hour convenient stores) opened up a multi-purpose facility; a state-of-the-art motorsporting park and a hotel alongside its newer OTR service station outside a small township of Tailem Bend currently named The Bend Motorsport Park. Design for thrill seekers and rev-heads the facility currently host South Australia's second V8 Supercars motoring event during a round in August and hopes to bring in other major international motoring events such as SBK Superbikes and other well established FIA motoring events. Adelaide is home to the Great Southern Slam, the world's largest roller derby tournament. The tournament has been held biennially over Australia's Queen's Birthday holiday weekend since 2010. In 2014 and 2016 the tournament featured 45 teams playing in two divisions. In 2018 the tournament has expanded to 48 teams competing in three divisions.


Infrastructure


Transport

Being centrally located on the Australian mainland, Adelaide forms a strategic transport hub for east–west and north–south routes. The city itself has a metropolitan public transport system managed by and known as the Adelaide Metro. The Adelaide Metro consists of a contracted bus system including the O-Bahn Busway, Railways in Adelaide, 6 commuter rail lines (diesel and electric), and a small tram network operating between inner suburb Hindmarsh, South Australia, Hindmarsh, the city centre, and seaside Glenelg tram line, Glenelg. Tramways were largely dismantled in the 1950s, but saw a revival in the 2010s with upgrades and extensions. Road transport in Adelaide has historically been easier than many of the other Australian cities, with a well-defined city layout and wide multiple-lane roads from the beginning of its development. Adelaide was known as a "twenty-minute city", with commuters having been able to travel from metropolitan outskirts to the city proper in roughly twenty minutes. However, such arterial roads often experience traffic congestion as the city grows. The Adelaide metropolitan area has one freeway and four expressways. In order of construction, they are: * The South Eastern Freeway (M1), connects the south-east corner of the Adelaide Plain to the Adelaide Hills and beyond to Murray Bridge, South Australia, Murray Bridge and Tailem Bend, where it then continues as National Highway 1 south-east to Melbourne. * The Southern Expressway (Australia), Southern Expressway (M2), connecting the outer southern suburbs with the inner southern suburbs and the city centre. It duplicates the route of South Road. * The North-South Motorway (M2), is an ongoing major project that will become the major north–south corridor, replacing most of what is now South Road, connecting the Southern Expressway (Adelaide), Southern Expressway and the Northern Expressway via a motorway with no traffic lights. As of 2020 the motorway's northern half is complete (save for a small link under construction at Croydon Park, South Australia, Croydon Park), connecting the Northern Expressway to Adelaide's inner north-west; the section running through Adelaide's inner west and inner south-west is awaiting funding. * The Port River Expressway (A9), connects Port Adelaide and Outer Harbor, South Australia, Outer Harbor to Port Wakefield Road at the northern "entrance" to the metropolitan area. * The Northern Expressway (Max Fatchen Expressway) (M2), is the northern suburbs bypass route connecting the Sturt Highway (National Highway 20) via the Gawler Bypass to Port Wakefield Road at a point a few kilometres north of the Port River Expressway connection. * The Northern Connector, completed in 2020, links the North South Motorway to the Northern Expressway.


Airports

The Adelaide metropolitan area has two commercial airports, Adelaide Airport and Parafield Airport. Adelaide Airport, in Adelaide's south-western suburbs, serves in excess of 8 million passengers annually. Parafield Airport, Adelaide's second airport north of the city centre, is used for small aircraft, pilot training and recreational aviation purposes. Parafield Airport served as Adelaide's main aerodrome until the opening of the Adelaide Airport in February 1955. Adelaide airport serves many international and domestic destinations including all Australian state capitals. Adelaide is also home to a military airport, known as RAAF Base Edinburgh, Edinburgh Airport, located in the northern suburbs. It was built in 1955 in a joint initiative with the UK for weapon development.


Health

Adelaide's two largest hospitals are the
Royal Adelaide Hospital The Royal Adelaide Hospital (RAH) is South Australia's largest hospital, owned by the state government as part of Australia's public health care system. The RAH provides tertiary care, tertiary health care services for South Australia and provides ...
(RAH) in the city centre, a teaching hospital affiliated with the University of Adelaide (800 beds), and the
Flinders Medical Centre Flinders Medical Centre (FMC) is a major public tertiary Tertiary ( ) is a widely used, but obsolete term for the Period (geology), geologic period from 66 million to 2.6 million years ago. The period began with the demise of the non-b ...
(580 beds) in Bedford Park, affiliated with Flinders University. The RAH also operates additional campuses for specialist care throughout the suburbs including the Hampstead Rehabilitation Centre (150 beds) in Northfield, South Australia, Northfield and the Glenside Hospital (Adelaide), Glenside Campus (129 beds) for acute mental health services. Other major public hospitals are the Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide, Women's and Children's Hospital (305 beds), in North Adelaide; the Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Adelaide, Queen Elizabeth Hospital (340 beds) in Woodville; Modbury Hospital (178 beds) in Modbury; and the Lyell McEwin Hospital (198 beds) in Elizabeth. Numerous private hospitals are also located throughout the city, with the largest operators being not-for-profits Adelaide Community Healthcare Alliance (3 hospitals) and Sisters of the Little Company of Mary, Calvary Care (4 hospitals). In 2017, the RAH was relocated from the city's East End, Adelaide, East End to a new AU$2.3 billion facility built over former railyards in the West End. The state-of-the-art hospital forms part of a new biomedical precinct called BioMed City that colocates the South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute (SAHMRI), the University of Adelaide Health and Medical Sciences building, the University of South Australia's Health Innovation Building, and the state's Dental Hospital. SAHMRI is building a $300 million second facility due to be completed by 2022 to house the Australian Bragg Centre for Proton Therapy and Research, Australian Bragg Centre with Australia's first proton therapy unit. There are also plans for the Women's and Children's Hospital to be relocated to the precinct adjacent the RAH by 2024. The largest provider of community health care within Adelaide is the not-for-profit Royal District Nursing Service (South Australia), Royal District Nursing Service (RDNS), which provides out of hospital care and hospital avoidance care.


Energy

Adelaide's energy requirements were originally met by the Adelaide Electric Supply Company, which was nationalised by the government in 1946, becoming the Electricity Trust of South Australia (ETSA). Despite significant public opposition and the Labor party's anti-privatisation stance which left the Liberal party one vote short of the numbers needed to pass the legislation, ETSA was privatised by the John Olsen, Olsen Government in 1999 by way of a 200-year lease for the distribution network (ETSA Utilities, later renamed SA Power Networks) and the outright purchase of ETSA Power by the Cheung Kong Holdings for $3.5 billion (11 times ETSA's annual earnings) after Labor MP Trevor Crothers resigned from the party and voted with the government. The electricity retail market was opened to competition in 2003 and although competition was expected to result in lower retail costs, prices increased by 23.7% in the market's first year. In 2004 the privatisation was deemed to be a failure with consumers paying 60% more for their power and with the state government estimated to lose $3 billion in power generation net income in the first ten years of privatisation. In 2012, the industry came under scrutiny for allegedly reducing supply by shutting down generators during periods of peak demand to force prices up. Increased media attention also revealed that in 2009 the state government had approved a 46% increase in retail prices to cover expected increases in the costs of generation while generation costs had in fact fallen 35% by 2012. South Australia has the highest retail price for electricity in the country. Privatisation led to competition from a variety of companies who now separately provide for the generation, transmission, distribution and retail sales of gas and electricity. Electricity generation comes from a range of technologies and operators. ElectraNet operates the high-voltage electricity transmission network. SA Power Networks distributes electricity to end users. The largest electricity and gas retailing companies are also the largest generating companies. The largest fossil fuel power stations are the Torrens Island Power Station gas-fired plant operated by AGL Energy and the Pelican Point Power Station operated by Engie. South Australia also has wind and solar power and connections to the national grid. Natural gas, Gas is supplied from the Moomba, South Australia, Moomba Gas Processing Plant in the Cooper Basin via the Moomba Adelaide Pipeline System and the SEAGas pipeline from Victoria, Australia, Victoria. In 2011, South Australia generated 18% of its electricity from wind power, and had 51% of the installed capacity of wind generators in Australia. Due to almost universal blackouts within the city during September 2016, the state worked with Tesla, Inc., Tesla to produce the world's largest electricity battery at Hornsdale Wind Farm, Hornsdale Power Reserve which has increased that state's electrical security to the extent in which large blackouts are no longer an event.


Water

The provision of water services is by the government-owned SA Water. Adelaide's water is supplied from its seven reservoirs: Mount Bold Reservoir, Mount Bold, Happy Valley Reservoir, Happy Valley, Myponga Reservoir, Myponga, Millbrook Reservoir, Millbrook, Hope Valley Reservoir, Hope Valley, Little Para Reservoir, Little Para and South Para Reservoir, South Para. The yield from these reservoir catchments can be as little as 10% of the city's requirements (90GL per annum) in drought years and about 60% in average years. The remaining demand is met by the pumping of water from the
River Murray The Murray River (in South Australia: River Murray) ( Ngarrindjeri: ''Millewa'', Yorta Yorta: ''Tongala'') is a river in south-eastern Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign ...
. A Adelaide Desalination Plant, sea-water desalination plant capable of supplying 100GL per annum was built during the 2001–2009 drought; however, it operated at about 8% of its capacity until 2019. In December 2018, the State and Federal Governments agreed to fund a $2m study to determine how the plant could be used to reduce reliance on river water, in an effort to help save the Murray River basin and mouth (including the Coorong) from further ecological damage.


Communications

AdelaideFree WiFi is a citywide free WiFi network covering most of the inner city areas of Adelaide, primarily the Adelaide city centre, Adelaide CBD and Northern Adelaide precincts. It was officially launched at the Adelaide Central Markets on Tuesday 25 June 2014. It is provided by Internode (ISP), Internode, with infrastructure provided by outdoor Cisco WiFi N access points attached to the top of lighting poles, as well as inside cafes and businesses across the city.


See also

*
Adelaide city centre Adelaide city centre is the inner city locality of Adelaide, Greater Adelaide, the capital city of South Australia. It is known by locals simply as "The City" or "Town" to distinguish it from Greater Adelaide and from the City of Adelaide local ...

Adelaide city centre
includes chart of major streets and squares, street widths, and town acres *
Adelaide Hills The Adelaide Hills region is located in the southern Mount Lofty Ranges The Mount Lofty Ranges are a mountain range, range of mountains in the Australian state of South Australia which for a small part of its length borders the east of A ...
* City of Adelaide * Music of Adelaide *
Port Adelaide Port Adelaide is a port-side region of Adelaide, approximately northwest of the Adelaide city centre, Adelaide CBD. It is also the namesake of the City of Port Adelaide Enfield council, a suburb, a federal and state electoral division and is th ...

Port Adelaide
; Lists * :Images of Adelaide, Images of Adelaide * List of Adelaide obsolete suburb names * List of Adelaide parks and gardens * List of Adelaide railway stations * List of Adelaide suburbs * List of films shot in Adelaide * List of people from Adelaide * List of protected areas in Adelaide * List of public art in South Australia * List of public transport routes in Adelaide * List of South Australian commercial icons * List of sporting clubs in Adelaide * List of tallest buildings in Adelaide * City of Adelaide#Sister cities, Sister cities of the City of Adelaide (the Local government area that governs the city centre) * :Tourist attractions in South Australia, Tourist attractions in South Australia


Notes


References


Further reading

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External links


Adelaide City Council > Official City Guide

Adelaide City Council

Kids in Adelaide
Retrieved 12 May 2020. {{Authority control Adelaide, 1836 establishments in Australia Australian capital cities Cities in South Australia Coastal cities in Australia Planned capitals Populated places established in 1836 Metropolitan areas of Australia