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An underground city is a series of linked subterranean spaces that may provide a defensive refuge; a place for living, working or shopping; a transit system; mausolea; wine or storage cellars; cisterns or drainage channels; or several of these.

The term may also refer to a network of tunnels that connects buildings beneath street level that may house office blocks, shopping malls, metro stations, theatres, and other attractions. These passages can usually be accessed through the public space of any of the buildings connecting to them, and sometimes have separate entries as well. This latter definition encompasses many modern structures, whereas the former more generally covers tunnel systems from ancient times to the present day.

Underground cities are especially functional in cities with very cold or hot climates, because they permit activities to be comfortably accessible year round without regard to the weather. Underground cities are similar in nature to skyway systems and may include some buildings linked by skyways or above-ground corridors rather than underground.

Some cities also have tunnels that have been abandoned.[1][2][3]

Argentina

Buenos Aires, capital of Argentina, has an extensive amount of underground cities in its Subte. Most stations have small shops, bars and kiosks, while main hubs interconnect through underground pedestrian walkways with railroad stations, governmental buildings, or shopping centres. Some have additional mall-like mezzanine levels, with the Centro Obelisk of Buenos Aires area (3 lines, 4 underground levels), Estación Retiro, Estación Constitución, Estación Once, and Federico Lacroze railway station being the most important ones.

Australia

Sydney has a series of underground shopping malls around the Town Hall underground station. The tunnels run south to the George Street cinema district, west under the town hall, and north to Pitt Street Mall through the Queen Victoria Building. The northern branch links Queen Victoria Building with Galleries Victoria, Sydney Central Plaza (which in turn links underground to Westfield CentrePoint and internally above ground to Centrepoint, Imperial Arcade, Skygarden, Glasshouse, and the MLC Centre). The linked centres run for over 3 km (2 mi). In 2005, Westfield corporation submitted a development application to link Sydney Central Plaza underground with 3 other properties on Pitt Street Mall and extend the tunnel network by a further 500 m (1,640 ft) or more.

Perth has a small network of underground shopping malls running from the St Georges Terrace entrance to Trinity Arcade to Murray Street Mall.

The small town of Coober Pedy in northern South Australia has numerous underground residences and other facilities. The area was and is extensively mined for opal, and the settlers lived underground to escape the scorching daytime heat, often exceeding 40 °C (104 °F).

Canada

The cold northern continental climate makes underground pedestrian malls quite useful.

  • Edmonton, Alberta has a small system of tunnels and above-ground skyways called the Pedway connecting buildings and LRT stations of the downtown core.
  • Halifax, Nova Scotia (Downtown Halifax Link) where no point is more than 10 minutes casual walking distance from any other one.
  • Montreal, Quebec Underground city, or la ville souterraine in French, is the largest underground network in the world. Its 32 km (20 mi) of tunnel cover more than 41 city blocks (about 12 km2 (5 sq mi)). Access through the RÉSO can be made to apartment buildings, hotels, offices, banks, and universities, as well as public spaces like retail shops and malls, concert halls, cinemas, the Bell Centre hockey arena, museums, seven metro stations, two train stations (Lucien-L'Allier and Gare Centrale), a bus terminal (Réseau de transport de Longueuil and other transit authorities), and other areas. It connects 80% of office space and 35% of commercial space in downtown Montreal.
    • The network began as a connection between Place Ville Marie, the Queen Elizabeth Hotel and the Gare Centrale.
    • More than 2,000 shops and 40 cinemas line the passageways. Tourists often visit attractions in the underground city, which is used by an average of half a million Montrealers per day.
    • Eight metro stati

      The term may also refer to a network of tunnels that connects buildings beneath street level that may house office blocks, shopping malls, metro stations, theatres, and other attractions. These passages can usually be accessed through the public space of any of the buildings connecting to them, and sometimes have separate entries as well. This latter definition encompasses many modern structures, whereas the former more generally covers tunnel systems from ancient times to the present day.

      Underground cities are especially functional in cities with very cold or hot climates, because they permit activities to be comfortably accessible year round without regard to the weather. Underground cities are similar in nature to skyway systems and may include some buildings linked by skyways or above-ground corridors rather than underground.

      Some cities also have tunnels that have been abandoned.[1][2][3]

      Buenos Aires, capital of Argentina, has an extensive amount of underground cities in its Subte. Most stations have small shops, bars and kiosks, while main hubs interconnect through underground pedestrian walkways with railroad stations, governmental buildings, or shopping centres. Some have additional mall-like mezzanine levels, with the Centro Obelisk of Buenos Aires area (3 lines, 4 underground levels), Estación Retiro, Estación Constitución, Estación Once, and Federico Lacroze railway station being the most important ones.

      Australia

      Sydney has a series of underground shopping malls around the Town Hall underground station. The tunnels run south to the George Street cinema district, west under the town hall, and north to Pitt Street Mall through the Queen Victoria Building. The northern branch links Queen Victoria Building with Galleries Victoria, Sydney Central Plaza (which in turn links underground to Westfield CentrePoint and internally above ground to Centrepoint, Imperial Arcade, Skygarden, Glasshouse, and the MLC Centre). The linked centres run for over 3 km (2 mi). In 2005, Westfield corporation submitted a development application to link Sydney Central Plaza underground with 3 other properties on Pitt Street Mall and extend the tunnel network by a further 500 m (1,640 ft) or more.

      Perth has a small network of underground shopping malls running from the St Georges Terrace entrance to Trinity Arcade to Murray Street Mall.

      The small town of Coober Pedy in northern South Australia has numerous underground residences and other facilities. The area was and is extensively mined for opal, and the settlers lived underground to escape the scorching daytime heat, often exceeding 40 °C (104 °F).

      Canada

      The cold northern continental climate makes underground pedestrian malls quite useful.

      • Edmonton, Alberta has a small system of tunnels and above-ground skyways called the Pedway connecting buildings and LRT stations of the downtown core.
      • Halifax, Nova Scotia (Downtown Halifax Link) where no point is more than 10 minutes casual walking distance from any other one.
      • Montreal, Quebec Underground city, or la ville souterraine in French, is the largest underground network in the world. Its 32 km (20 mi) of tunnel cover more than 41 city blocks (about 12 km2 (5 sq mi)). Access through the RÉSO can be made to apartment buildings, hotels, offices, bank

        Sydney has a series of underground shopping malls around the Town Hall underground station. The tunnels run south to the George Street cinema district, west under the town hall, and north to Pitt Street Mall through the Queen Victoria Building. The northern branch links Queen Victoria Building with Galleries Victoria, Sydney Central Plaza (which in turn links underground to Westfield CentrePoint and internally above ground to Centrepoint, Imperial Arcade, Skygarden, Glasshouse, and the MLC Centre). The linked centres run for over 3 km (2 mi). In 2005, Westfield corporation submitted a development application to link Sydney Central Plaza underground with 3 other properties on Pitt Street Mall and extend the tunnel network by a further 500 m (1,640 ft) or more.

        Perth has a small network of underground shopping malls running from the St Georges Terrace entrance to Trinity Arcade to <

        Perth has a small network of underground shopping malls running from the St Georges Terrace entrance to Trinity Arcade to Murray Street Mall.

        The small town of Coober Pedy in northern South Australia has numerous underground residences and other facilities. The area was and is extensively mined for opal, and the settlers lived underground to escape the scorching daytime heat, often exceeding 40 °C (104 °F).

        The cold northern continental climate makes underground pedestrian malls quite useful.

        • Edmonton, Alberta has a small system of tunnels and above-ground skyways called the Pedway connecting buildings and LRT stations of the downtown core.
        • Halifax, Nova Scotia (Downtown Halifax Link) where no point is more than 10 minutes casual walking distance from any other one.
        • Montreal, Quebec Underground city, or la ville souterraine in French, is the largest underground network in the world. Its 32 km (20 mi) of tunnel cover more than 41 city blocks (about 12 km2 (5 sq mi)). Access through the RÉSO can be made to apartment buildings, hotels, office

          Santiago has some elements of an underground city in its "Metro" subway system. While all stations have a small mezzanine level above the tracks for ticket purchase, some key stations have extensive areas of shops and kiosks in addition. Some stations even have an additional mall-like level between the street and the mezzanine levels.

          China

          Finland

          A "compass square" of Asematunneli, an underground shopping center near the Helsinki Central railway station
          • Helsinki underground covers the Thessaloniki, Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, and Ottoman monuments coexist[11] that bear witness to the city history and its significance. Several of the underground secrets of Thessaloniki have been discovered and emerged, while restoration work is under process. Although the final result is impressive with underground monuments such as the Catacombs of St. John and the underground museum of the Agora, they do not comprise highlights for the city and access is still very limited or not permitted even to the locals by the Archaeological Department of the Thessaloniki underground Metro project.

            Hong Kong

            Many MTR stations in Hong Kong form extended underground networks connecting to buildings and at the basement of some major shopping malls in the area above. The stations themselves house a number of retail shops. Notable examples are the CentralHong Kong stations and the Tsim Sha TsuiEast Tsim Sha Tsui stations. Only rarely are there not any shops. Additional underground networks have been proposed for Causeway Bay in 2006 and in Kwun Tong under Hoi Yuen Road in 2010. As of 2014, studies are underway for underground networks in Tsim Sha Tsui, Kowloon Park, Victoria Park, Causeway Bay, Happy Valley, Admiralty, Wan Chai and Hong Kong Park. In 2017, The Development Bureau announced that two underground streets will be constructed, which would connect San Po Kong, Kai Tak Station and Sung Wong Toi Station.

            Iran

            • Kish: An underground city by the name of Hidden Pearl was constructed of roads interlinked 20 meters (66 ft.) under the ground. Shops and restaurants are planned to be built.
            • Tehran: Tehran has made a series of underground pathways in and around Vali-e Asr Metro Station and is in planning stage to increase commercial activity in newly built buildings in the central part of the city. The priorities for future development are expansion of underground connections around Haft-e Tir Metro Station and Meydan-e Vali-e Asr Metro Station.[12]
            • Isfahan: With the completion of Imam Hosein Metro Station, and Jahan Nama Complex, and their eventual underground connection, there would be an underground complex of a length of 300 m formed in Isfahan downtown area. Also, not underground per se, with Imam Ali Square's street network being dug underground and a large open space plaza being constructed on the top, the plaza is connected through a series of covered bazaar pathways of a length exceeding 4 km, connecting it to Naqsh-e Jahan Square.
            • Nushabad: Nushabad has an underground city that served as a refuge during wars.

            Italy

            Japan

            Shiodome City Center underground in Minato, Tokyo, Japan
            Tenjin Underground City in Chūō-ku, Fukuoka, Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan

            Jordan

            Jordan boasts the city of Petra—"rose-red city, half as old as time"—carved from the living rock.

            Mexico

            Guanajuato city was built over old silver mines, some of which are used as roads. The Mexico DF metro system has many underground pedestrian walkways connecting stations.

            Netherlands

            In general, many large railway stations house underground hallways featuring shops, restaurants, banks and money exchange offices. A striking example of such stations would be the main hallway of the Amsterdam central station, which connects to the city's metro system, although due to renovation and re-building it was temporarily (2012–2015) not possible to walk from the subway to the train station without going outside.

            • Maastricht: Originally a casemate, the kazematten of Maastricht form a 14 km (9 mi) long network of tunnels underneath the western part of the city.[14] This tunnel network has mainly been used for military purposes. The main construction period of these tunnels lasted from 1575 to 1825.[14] The newest sections of the tunnel network were dug as late as the middle 20th century, built in the Cold War as a shelter for citizens in the event of a nuclear strike on the city.[15]
            • Caves of Maastricht are a far more extensive, system of tunnels with a length over 200 km (124 mi) and 20,000 individual corridors lies just west of Maastricht; (Dutch: Grotten van Maastricht).[16] These man-made 'caves' were used as Marl quarries from the 13th century onwards.[17] In World War II, these caves were used to hide large quantities of paintings from the Germans, even including the Nachtwacht.[18] In 1944, construction started on a large public shelter that could have housed 45,000 persons in these caves. The project never saw its completion due to the liberation of Maastricht in the fall of the same year.[19]

            Poland

            Russia

            Singapore

            • Extensive underground networks exist around MTR stations in Hong Kong form extended underground networks connecting to buildings and at the basement of some major shopping malls in the area above. The stations themselves house a number of retail shops. Notable examples are the CentralHong Kong stations and the Tsim Sha TsuiEast Tsim Sha Tsui stations. Only rarely are there not any shops. Additional underground networks have been proposed for Causeway Bay in 2006 and in Kwun Tong under Hoi Yuen Road in 2010. As of 2014, studies are underway for underground networks in Tsim Sha Tsui, Kowloon Park, Victoria Park, Causeway Bay, Happy Valley, Admiralty, Wan Chai and Hong Kong Park. In 2017, The Development Bureau announced that two underground streets will be constructed, which would connect San Po Kong, Kai Tak Station and Sung Wong Toi Station.

              Iran

              • Jordan boasts the city of Petra—"rose-red city, half as old as time"—carved from the living rock.

                Mexico

                Guanajuato city was built over old silver mines, some of which are used as roads. The Mexico DF metro system has many underground pedestrian walkways connecting stations.

                Netherlands

                In general, many large railway stations house underground hallways featuring shops, restaurants, banks and money exchange offices. A striking example of such stations would be the main hallway of the Amsterdam central station, which connects to the city's metro system, although due to renovation and re-building it was temporarily (2012–2015) not possible to walk from the subway to the train station without going outside.

                • Maastricht: Originally a casemate, the kazematten of Maastricht form a 14 km (9 mi) long network of tunnels underneath the western part of the city.[14] This tunnel network has mainly been used for military purposes. The main construction period of these tunnels lasted from 1575 to 1825.[14] The newest sections of the tunnel network were dug as late as the middle 20th century, built in the Cold War as a shelter for citizens in the event of a nuclear strike on the city.[15]
                • Caves of Maastricht are a far more extensive, system of tunnels with a length over 200 km (124 mi) and 20,000 individual corridors lies just west of Maastricht; (Dutch: Grotten van Maastricht).[16] These man-made 'caves' were used as Marl quarries from the 13th century onwards.[17] In World War II, these caves were used to hide large quantities of paintings from the Germans, even including the Nachtwacht.[18] In 1944, construction started on a large public shelter that could have housed 45,000 persons in these caves. The project never saw its completion due to the liberation of Maastricht in the fall of the same year.[19]

                Poland

                Russia

                Singapore

                South Korea

                • Seoul has a well-developed underground network. Myeongdong and Hoehyeon underground streets are the most famous; they are connected to Hoehyeon Station and Myeongdong Station
                • It is planned to build a larger underground city in Gangnamdaero, the border between Gangnam District and Seocho Dist

                  Guanajuato city was built over old silver mines, some of which are used as roads. The Mexico DF metro system has many underground pedestrian walkways connecting stations.

                  Netherlands

                  • Cappadocia contains several historical underground cities carved out of unusual geological formations formed via the eruptions of ancient volcanoes. The cities were initially inhabited by the Hittites, then later by early Christians as hiding places. They are now archeological and tourist sites but are not generally occupied (see Kaymakli Underground City, Derinkuyu underground city, Özkonak Underground City, Mazı Underground City). The latest large underground city was discovered in 2007 in Gaziemir, Güzelyurt. It was a stopover on the Silk Road, allowing travelers and their camels to rest in safety underground, in a 'fortress' equivalent to a modern hotel.
                  A typical view from inside the underground city in Derinkuyu, one of the largest underground complexes in Cappadocia. There are few artifacts left from the original builders, mainly just large rocks that were used to block the passage for intruders. Most of the "cities" are corridors, but some places there are rooms large enough to live in, and some rooms that have the cross-like shape of a church, which is probably exactly what they were.
                  • Istanbul boasts the Roman cisterns, built 2,000 years ago for water storage it is now a tourist attraction.

                  Ukraine

                  • Kyiv: An underground concourse extends underneath Khreschatyk Street from Maidan Nezalezhnosti to Ploscha L'va Tolstoho. The concourse connects to the Kyiv Metro and to the Globe shopping mall beneath Maidan Nezalezhnosti.
                  • Odesa: A ramified tunnel network made from the former quarries that is famous as Odessa Catacombs covers the historical center of Odessa and some suburban areas.

                  United Kingdom

                  • Corsham, Wiltshire is the location of the Central Government War Headquarters, code name 'Burlington'. Built in the late 1950s in response to the increasing threat of nuclear warfare during the Cold War, the 35 acres (14 ha) subterranean site was designed to be the main emergency government war headquarters of the UK outside London and safely house up to 4,000 central government personnel in the event of a nuclear strike.
                  • In London's redeveloped docklands Canary Wharf tube station, adjacent office towers and shopping malls are connected underground. It is also possible to access two stations of the Docklands Light Railway without going outside.
                  • Dover contains a series of interconnecting tunnels, that honeycomb both sides of the Dover Valley, carved into the chalk cliffs. These date from Ancient times at Dover Castle through to Napoleonic, Second and Cold War installations. The Dover Castle complex is the larger, going at least six levels deep and includes a hospital, troops quarters, offices and storage and channel view points. The southern tunnels are mixed between Napoleonic War-era defences (see Dover Western Heights) and Second World War-era defences, with some seafront air raid shelters still used for shop storage today. Many have fallen into disrepair and are now closed to the public, but many are still open.
                  • London: There are extensive rooms, tunnels and chambers known as Churchill War Rooms or Admiralty Citadel beneath Whitehall, created during World War II, and used by Winston Churchill.
                  • There are extensive underground constructions across Britain, such as Chislehurst Caves, built or repurposed as air-raid shelters during World War II.
                  • Edinburgh's old town has extensive rooms, tunnels and chambers beneath some areas; of particular note are the Edinburgh Vaults, where overcrowding led people to construct elaborately interconnected buildings in the vaults of the city's South Bridge.
                  • In Southport, Merseyside, Nevill Street has the remainders of an underground shopping street, which can now only be accessed from the cellars of buildings on the current street, which was raised by one storey from the original level. One end of the underground street ended at the Marine Lake, close to the pier entrance.
                  • In Liverpool, the Williamson's tunnels included the site of an 'underground house' complete with windows (concealed by work for public opening) and an extant and partially excavated 'banqueting hall'.
                  • Nottingham has an extensive network of man-made caves, dating back to the Early Middle Ages.

                  United States

                  Underground passage of the Empire State Plaza, featuring a collection of large-scale abstract modern art

References

  1. ^ Capi Lynn (2015-01-30). "From opium dens to bordellos, historian unearths Salem's past". Statesmanjournal.com. Retrieved 2017-12-03.
  2. ^ Lord, Steve (September 29, 2017), "Vault project shines light on underground Aurora", The Chicago Tribune, archived from the original on 2017-10-28
  3. ^ Garvin, Cosmo (17 July 2003), "The past below", Sacramento Newsreview, archived from the original on 2014-02-08
  4. ^ Jiang, Steven. "Beijing Journal: An underground 'parallel universe'". Cable News Network (2008-02-01). Retrieved on 2008-07-14.
  5. ^ "广州最全16个地下商场!逛街来这里!衣服便宜又漂亮!-美食频道-手机搜狐". m.sohu.com. Retrieved 2020-11-09.
  6. ^ "联系方式 | 广州花城汇购物中心". www.mowgz.com. Retrieved 2020-11-09.
  7. ^ "杭州最大的地下商城今天开建 地铁站直通杭州大厦(图) - 杭网原创 - 杭州网". ori.hangzhou.com.cn. Retrieved 2016-12-24.
  8. ^ 时小咪. "每一个深圳人,都自动携带华强北基因". Weixin Official Accounts Platform. Retrieved 2020-11-09.
  9. ^ http://www.lavoixdunord.fr/culture-loisirs/notre-tournee-des-visites-souterraines-a-arras-retour-ia0b0n2295600
  10. ^ "Arras - Der Wellington-Steinbruch- Wege der Erinnerung des Ersten Weltkriegs im Nord-Pas de Calais". www.wegedererinnerung-nordfrankreich.com.
  11. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-09-04. Retrieved 2011-08-29.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  12. ^ "سال آینده میدان هفت تیر زیرزمینی می شود". www.khabaronline.ir.
  13. ^ https://allabout-japan.com/en/article/5160/
  14. ^ a b "Maastricht Kazematten". maastrichtunderground.nl. Retrieved 2010-08-19.
  15. ^ "Kazematten en schuilkelder". VVV Maastricht. Archived from the original on 2009-11-07. Retrieved 2010-08-19.
  16. ^ "Sint Pietersberg". Stichting Natuurmonumenten. Retrieved 2010-08-19.
  17. ^ "Historie grotten". maastrichtunderground.nl. Retrieved 2010-08-19.
  18. ^ "Nachtwacht onder mergel". Municipality Maastricht. Retrieved 2010-08-19.
  19. ^ "Schuilkelder voor half Maastricht". Reformatorisch Dagblad. Retrieved 2010-08-19.
  20. ^ url=http://www.wykop.pl/ramka/325643/podziemne-miasto-w-warszawie/
  21. ^ "Rail City". Archived from the original on 2007-08-14.
  22. ^ "New York State Office of General Services". www.ogs.ny.gov.
  23. ^ Wylie, Jeff. "Welcome - Underground Atlanta". www.underground-atlanta.com. Wylie Creative.
  24. ^ "Map/Directory" (PDF).
  25. ^ "Wright State mythbuster: the tunnel system". Wright State Newsroom. Retrieved 2016-10-09.
  26. ^ "Montana's Russell Country: Havre Beneath the Streets". Archived from the original on 2012-07-29.
  27. ^ "Map of Minnesota State Capitol complex" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-04-03.
  28. ^ "The Conncourse or The Underground". About.com.
  29. ^ Chambers, Kelley (2007-01-19). "Downtown OKC's Underground set for completion next month". The Journal Record.