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TUSCANY (/ˈtʌskəni/ _TUSK-ə-nee_ ; Italian : _Toscana_, pronounced ) is a region in central Italy
Italy
with an area of about 23,000 square kilometres (8,900 square miles) and a population of about 3.8 million inhabitants (2013). The regional capital is Florence (_Firenze_).

Tuscany
Tuscany
is known for its landscapes, traditions, history, artistic legacy and its influence on high culture . It is regarded as the birthplace of the Italian Renaissance and has been home to many figures influential in the history of art and science, and contains well-known museums such as the Uffizi
Uffizi
and the Pitti Palace
Pitti Palace
. Tuscany produces wines , including Chianti , Vino Nobile di Montepulciano , Morellino di Scansano and Brunello di Montalcino . Having a strong linguistic and cultural identity, it is sometimes considered "a nation within a nation".

Tuscany
Tuscany
is traditionally a popular destination in Italy
Italy
, and the main tourist destinations by number of tourist arrivals are Florence
Florence
, Pisa
Pisa
, Montecatini Terme , Castiglione della Pescaia and Grosseto . The village of Castiglione della Pescaia is also the most visited seaside destination in the region, with seaside tourism accounting for approximately 40% of tourist arrivals in Tuscany. Additionally, Siena
Siena
, Lucca , the Chianti region, Versilia and Val d\'Orcia are also internationally renowned and particularly popular spots among travellers.

Seven Tuscan localities have been designated World Heritage Sites : the historic centre of Florence
Florence
(1982); the Cathedral square of Pisa (1987); the historical centre of San Gimignano
San Gimignano
(1990); the historical centre of Siena
Siena
(1995); the historical centre of Pienza (1996); the Val d\'Orcia (2004), and the Medici
Medici
Villas and Gardens (2013). Tuscany has over 120 protected nature reserves , making Tuscany
Tuscany
and its capital Florence
Florence
popular tourist destinations that attract millions of tourists every year. In 2012, the city of Florence
Florence
was the world's 89th most visited city, with over 1.834 million arrivals.

CONTENTS

* 1 Geography

* 2 History

* 2.1 Appennini and Villanovan cultures * 2.2 Etruscans * 2.3 Romans * 2.4 Medieval period * 2.5 Renaissance
Renaissance
* 2.6 Modern era

* 3 Culture

* 3.1 Art

* 3.2 Art schools

* 3.2.1 Main artistic centres

* 3.3 Language * 3.4 Music * 3.5 Literature * 3.6 Cuisine * 3.7 Postage stamps

* 4 Economy

* 4.1 Agriculture
Agriculture
* 4.2 Industry * 4.3 Tourism * 4.4 Fashion

* 5 Demographics * 6 Government and politics * 7 Administrative divisions * 8 See also * 9 Footnotes * 10 References * 11 External links

GEOGRAPHY

Thornthwaite climate classification of Tuscany
Tuscany

A: Im > 100 B: 80 < Im < 100 B1-B2: 20 < Im < 80

C2: 0 < Im < 20 C1: −33,3 < Im < 0 D: Im < −33,3

Roughly triangular in shape, Tuscany
Tuscany
borders the regions of Liguria to the northwest, Emilia-Romagna to the north, Marche
Marche
to the northeast, Umbria
Umbria
to the east and Lazio
Lazio
to the southeast. The comune (municipality) of Badia Tedalda , in the Tuscan Province of Arezzo , has an exclave named Ca' Raffaello within Marche.

Tuscany
Tuscany
has a western coastline on the Ligurian Sea and the Tyrrhenian Sea , among which is the Tuscan Archipelago
Tuscan Archipelago
, of which the largest island is Elba
Elba
. Tuscany
Tuscany
has an area of approximately 22,993 square kilometres (8,878 sq mi). Surrounded and crossed by major mountain chains, and with few (but fertile) plains, the region has a relief that is dominated by hilly country used for agriculture . Hills make up nearly two-thirds (66.5%) of the region's total area, covering 15,292 square kilometres (5,904 sq mi), and mountains (of which the highest are the Apennines ), a further 25%, or 5,770 square kilometres (2,230 sq mi). Plains occupy 8.4% of the total area—1,930 square kilometres (750 sq mi)—mostly around the valley of the River Arno . Many of Tuscany's largest cities lie on the banks of the Arno, including the capital Florence
Florence
, Empoli and Pisa
Pisa
.

The climate is fairly mild in the coastal areas, and is harsher and rainy in the interior, with considerable fluctuations in temperature between winter and summer, giving the region a soil-building active freeze-thaw cycle, in part accounting for the region's once having served as a key breadbasket of ancient Rome
Rome
.

*

Sunflower field in Maremma *

Tuscan landscape near Siena
Siena
*

Hilly landscape in Val d\'Orcia *

Vineyard in Tuscany
Tuscany
*

Valley in Tuscany
Tuscany

HISTORY

Main article: History of Tuscany

APPENNINI AND VILLANOVAN CULTURES

Main articles: Apennine culture and Villanovan culture Cinerary urns of the Villanovan culture

The pre-Etruscan history of the area in the late Bronze and Iron Ages parallels that of the early Greeks . The Tuscan area was inhabited by peoples of the so-called Apennine culture in the late second millennium BC (roughly 1350–1150 BC) who had trading relationships with the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations in the Aegean Sea . Following this, the Villanovan culture (1100–700 BC) saw Tuscany, and the rest of Etruria, taken over by chiefdoms . City-states developed in the late Villanovan (paralleling Greece and the Aegean) before "Orientalization" occurred and the Etruscan civilization rose.

ETRUSCANS

Main article: Etruscan civilization _ The Chimera of Arezzo _, Etruscan bronze, 400 BC

The Etruscans (Latin: _Tusci_) created the first major civilization in this region, large enough to establish a transport infrastructure, to implement agriculture and mining and to produce vibrant art. The Etruscans lived in Etruria well into prehistory. The civilization grew to fill the area between the Arno River and Tiber River from the 8th century BC, reaching its peak during the 7th and 6th centuries BC, finally succumbing to the Romans by the 1st century. Throughout their existence, they lost territory (in Campania ) to Magna Graecia , Carthage
Carthage
and Celts
Celts
. Despite being seen as distinct in its manners and customs by contemporary Greeks, the cultures of Greece , and later Rome, influenced the civilization to a great extent. One reason for its eventual demise was this increasing absorption by surrounding cultures, including the adoption of the Etruscan upper class by the Romans.

ROMANS

Soon after absorbing Etruria, Rome
Rome
established the cities of Lucca , Pisa
Pisa
, Siena
Siena
, and Florence
Florence
, endowed the area with new technologies and development, and ensured peace. These developments included extensions of existing roads, introduction of aqueducts and sewers, and the construction of many buildings, both public and private. However, many of these structures have been destroyed by erosion due to weather. The Roman civilization in the West collapsed in the 5th century AD, and the region fell briefly to Goths , then was re-conquered by the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
. In the years following 572, the Longobards (Lombards) arrived and designated Lucca the capital of their Duchy of Tuscia .

MEDIEVAL PERIOD

Battle of Montaperti
Battle of Montaperti
, 1260 See also: March of Tuscany

Pilgrims travelling along the Via Francigena between Rome
Rome
and France brought wealth and development during the medieval period . The food and shelter required by these travellers fuelled the growth of communities around churches and taverns. The conflict between the Guelphs and Ghibellines , factions supporting the Papacy
Papacy
or the Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in central and northern Italy
Italy
during the 12th and 13th centuries, split the Tuscan people. The two factions gave rise to several powerful and rich medieval communes in Tuscany: Arezzo
Arezzo
, Florence
Florence
, Lucca , Pisa
Pisa
, and Siena
Siena
. Balance between these communes was ensured by the assets they held: Pisa, a port; Siena, banking; and Lucca, banking and silk. But by the time of the Renaissance
Renaissance
, Florence
Florence
had become the cultural capital of Tuscany.

One family that benefitted from Florence's growing wealth and power was the ruling Medici family . Its scion Lorenzo de\' Medici
Medici
was one of the most famous of the Medici. The legacy of his influence is visible today in the prodigious expression of art and architecture in Florence. His famous descendant Catherine de\' Medici
Medici
married Prince Henry (later King Henry II ) of France
France
in 1533.

The Black Death epidemic hit Tuscany
Tuscany
starting in 1348. It eventually killed 70% of the Tuscan population. According to Melissa Snell, " Florence
Florence
lost a third of its population in the first six months of the plague, and from 45% to 75% of its population in the first year." In 1630, Florence
Florence
and Tuscany
Tuscany
were once again ravaged by the plague .

*

Guido of Arezzo
Arezzo
*

A page from Fibonacci 's _ Liber Abaci _ (1202) *

Battle of Giglio (1241) *

Dante Alighieri , author of the _ Divine Comedy
Divine Comedy
_

RENAISSANCE

Further information: The Renaissance
Renaissance
and Italian Renaissance _ Primavera _ (1482) by Botticelli
Botticelli
Hanging and burning of Girolamo Savonarola
Girolamo Savonarola
in Piazza della Signoria in Florence
Florence
1498 - Painting depicting Renaissance
Renaissance
Florence
Florence

Tuscany, especially Florence
Florence
, is regarded as the birthplace of the Renaissance
Renaissance
. Though "Tuscany" remained a linguistic, cultural and geographic conception, rather than a political reality, in the 15th century, Florence
Florence
extended its dominion in Tuscany
Tuscany
through the annexation of Arezzo
Arezzo
in 1384, the purchase of Pisa
Pisa
in 1405 and the suppression of a local resistance there (1406). Livorno
Livorno
was bought in 1421 and became the harbour of Florence.

From the leading city of Florence, the republic was from 1434 onward dominated by the increasingly monarchical Medici
Medici
family. Initially, under Cosimo , Piero the Gouty , Lorenzo and Piero the Unfortunate , the forms of the republic were retained and the Medici
Medici
ruled without a title, usually without even a formal office. These rulers presided over the Florentine Renaissance
Renaissance
. There was a return to the republic from 1494 to 1512, when first Girolamo Savonarola
Girolamo Savonarola
then Piero Soderini oversaw the state. Cardinal Giovanni de\' Medici
Medici
retook the city with Spanish forces in 1512, before going to Rome
Rome
to become Pope Leo X . Florence
Florence
was dominated by a series of papal proxies until 1527 when the citizens declared the republic again, only to have it taken from them again in 1530 after a siege by an Imperial and Spanish army. At this point Pope Clement VII
Pope Clement VII
and Charles V appointed Alessandro de\' Medici
Medici
as the first formal hereditary ruler.

The Sienese commune was not incorporated into Tuscany
Tuscany
until 1555, and during the 15th century Siena
Siena
enjoyed a cultural 'Sienese Renaissance' with its own more conservative character. Lucca remained an independent republic until 1847 when it became part of Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Tuscany
by the will of its people. Piombino and other strategic towns constituted the tiny State of the _Presidi_ under Spanish control.

*

Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci
*

Lorenzo de Medici
Medici
*

Niccolò Machiavelli , author of _ The Prince
The Prince
_ *

Amerigo Vespucci
Amerigo Vespucci

MODERN ERA

See also: Grand Duchy of Tuscany Map of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Tuscany

In the 16th century, the Medicis , rulers of Florence, annexed the Republic of Siena
Siena
, creating the Grand Duchy of Tuscany . The Medici family became extinct in 1737 with the death of Gian Gastone , and Tuscany
Tuscany
was transferred to Francis , Duke of Lorraine and husband of Austrian Empress Maria Theresa , who let rule the country by his son. The dynasty of the Lorena ruled Tuscany
Tuscany
until 1860, with the exception of the Napoleonic period , when most of the country was annexed to the French Empire . After the Second Italian War of Independence , a revolution evicted the last Grand Duke, and after a plebiscite Tuscany became part of the new Kingdom of Italy
Italy
. From 1864 to 1870 Florence became the second capital of the kingdom.

Under Benito Mussolini , the area came under the dominance of local Fascist leaders such as Dino Perrone Compagni (from Florence), and Costanzo and Galeazzo Ciano (from Leghorn ). Following the fall of Mussolini and the armistice of 8 September 1943, Tuscany
Tuscany
became part of the Nazi-controlled Italian Social Republic , and was conquered almost totally by the Anglo-American forces during summer 1944. Following the end of the Social Republic, and the transition from the Kingdom to the modern Italian Republic , Tuscany
Tuscany
once more flourished as a cultural centre of Italy. After the establishment of regional autonomy in 1975, Tuscany
Tuscany
has always been ruled by centre-left governments.

*

Cosimo I de\' Medici
Medici
, first Grand Duke of Tuscany
Tuscany
*

Galileo Galilei *

_ Pinocchio
Pinocchio
_, created by Carlo Collodi (1883) *

An Italian partisan in Florence
Florence
(August 1944)

CULTURE

_ THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (December 2009)_

Tuscany
Tuscany
has an immense cultural and artistic heritage, expressed in the region's churches, palaces, art galleries, museums, villages and piazzas. Many of these artifacts are found in the main cities, such as Florence
Florence
and Siena
Siena
, but also in smaller villages scattered around the region, such as San Gimignano
San Gimignano
.

ART

Michelangelo\'s David

Tuscany
Tuscany
has a unique artistic legacy, and Florence
Florence
is one of the world's most important water-colour centres, even so that it is often nicknamed the "art palace of Italy" (the city is also believed to have the largest concentration of Renaissance
Renaissance
art and architecture in the world). Painters such as Cimabue
Cimabue
and Giotto
Giotto
, the fathers of Italian painting, lived in Florence
Florence
and Tuscany, as well as Arnolfo and Andrea Pisano , renewers of architecture and sculpture; Brunelleschi , Donatello
Donatello
and Masaccio
Masaccio
, forefathers of the Renaissance; Ghiberti and the Della Robbias , Filippo Lippi
Filippo Lippi
and Angelico ; Botticelli
Botticelli
, Paolo Uccello , and the universal genius of Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci
and Michelangelo
Michelangelo
.

The region contains numerous museums and art galleries, many housing some of the world's most precious works of art. Such museums include the Uffizi
Uffizi
, which keeps Botticelli's _ The Birth of Venus _, the Pitti Palace , and the Bargello
Bargello
, to name a few. Most of the frescos, sculptures and paintings in Tuscany
Tuscany
are held in the region's abundant churches and cathedrals, such as Florence
Florence
Cathedral , Siena
Siena
Cathedral , Pisa
Pisa
Cathedral and the Collegiata di San Gimignano
San Gimignano
.

ART SCHOOLS

A painting from the Sienese school by Pietro Lorenzetti Main articles: Florentine school , Sienese school , and Lucchese School

In the medieval period and in the Renaissance, there were four main Tuscan art schools which competed against each other: the Florentine School , the Sienese School , the Pisan School and the Lucchese School .

* The Florentine School refers to artists in, from or influenced by the naturalistic style developed in the 14th century, largely through the efforts of Giotto
Giotto
di Bondone , and in the 15th century the leading school of the world. Some of the best known artists of the Florentine School are Brunelleschi , Donatello
Donatello
, Michelangelo
Michelangelo
, Fra Angelico
Fra Angelico
, Botticelli
Botticelli
, Lippi , Masolino , and Masaccio
Masaccio
. * The Sienese School of painting flourished in Siena
Siena
between the 13th and 15th centuries and for a time rivaled Florence, though it was more conservative, being inclined towards the decorative beauty and elegant grace of late Gothic art . Its most important representatives include Duccio
Duccio
, whose work shows Byzantine influence; his pupil Simone Martini
Simone Martini
; Pietro and Ambrogio Lorenzetti ; Domenico and Taddeo di Bartolo ; and Sassetta and Matteo di Giovanni . Unlike the naturalistic Florentine art, there is a mystical streak in Sienese art, characterized by a common focus on miraculous events, distortions of time and place, and often dreamlike coloration, with less attention to proportions. In the 16th century the Mannerists Beccafumi and Il Sodoma worked there. While Baldassare Peruzzi was born and trained in Siena, his major works and style reflect his long career in Rome. The economic and political decline of Siena
Siena
by the 16th century, and its eventual subjugation by Florence, largely checked the development of Sienese painting, although it also meant that many Sienese works in churches and public buildings were not discarded or destroyed by new paintings or rebuilding. Siena
Siena
remains a remarkably well-preserved Italian late-Medieval town. * The Lucchese School, also known as the School of Lucca and as the Pisan-Lucchese School, was a school of painting and sculpture that flourished in the 11th and 12th centuries in the western and southern part of the region, with an important center in Volterra . The art is mostly anonymous. Although not as elegant or delicate as the Florentine School, Lucchese works are remarkable for their monumentality.

Main Artistic Centres

Arezzo
Arezzo
Florence
Florence
Pisa
Pisa
Prato
Prato
Siena Grosseto San Gimignano
San Gimignano

In the province of Arezzo
Arezzo
:

* Arezzo
Arezzo
* Castiglion Fiorentino * Cortona
Cortona
* Lucignano * Poppi * Sansepolcro

In the province of Florence
Florence
:

* Florence
Florence
* Fiesole * Certaldo

In the Province of Grosseto :

* Grosseto * Massa Marittima * Orbetello * Pitigliano * Roselle * Sorano * Sovana

In the province of Livorno
Livorno
:

* Campiglia Marittima
Campiglia Marittima
* Livorno
Livorno
* Bibbona * Bolgheri * Piombino * Populonia * Suvereto

In the province of Lucca :

* Barga * Castelnuovo di Garfagnana * Castiglione di Garfagnana * Lucca * Pietrasanta * Villa Basilica

In the province of Massa and Carrara :

* Massa and Carrara * Pontremoli
Pontremoli
* Fivizzano

+ Fosdinovo

In the province of Pisa
Pisa
:

* Pisa
Pisa
* San Miniato * Volterra * Vicopisano

In the province of Prato
Prato
:

* Carmignano * Poggio a Caiano * Prato
Prato

In the province of Pistoia :

* Pescia * Pistoia

In the province of Siena
Siena
:

* Colle di Val d\'Elsa * Pienza * Montepulciano * Montalcino * San Gimignano
San Gimignano
* Siena
Siena

LANGUAGE

Main article: Tuscan dialect

Apart from standard Italian , the Tuscan dialect (_dialetto toscano_) is spoken in Tuscany. The Italian language is a "literary version" of Tuscan. It became the language of culture for all the people of Italy, thanks to the prestige of the masterpieces of Dante Alighieri , Petrarch , Giovanni Boccaccio , Niccolò Machiavelli and Francesco Guicciardini . It would later become the official language of all the Italian states and of the Kingdom of Italy
Italy
, when it was formed.

MUSIC

Giacomo Puccini Main article: Music of Tuscany See also: Music of Florence
Florence

Tuscany
Tuscany
has a rich ancient and modern musical tradition, and has produced numerous composers and musicians, including Giacomo Puccini and Pietro Mascagni . Florence
Florence
is the main musical centre of Tuscany. The city was at the heart of much of the Western musical tradition. It was there that the Florentine Camerata convened in the mid-16th century and experimented with setting tales of Greek mythology to music and staging, resulting in the first operas , fostering the further development of the operatic form, and the later developments of separate "classical" forms such as the symphony .

There are numerous musical centres in Tuscany. Arezzo
Arezzo
is indelibly connected with the name of Guido d\' Arezzo
Arezzo
, the 11th-century monk who invented modern musical notation and the do-re-mi system of naming notes of the scale; Lucca hosted possibly the greatest Italian composer of Romanticism , Giacomo Puccini; and Siena
Siena
is well known for the Accademia Musicale Chigiana , an organization that currently sponsors major musical activities such as the Siena
Siena
Music Week and the Alfredo Casella International Composition Competition. Other important musical centres in Tuscany
Tuscany
include Livorno
Livorno
, Pisa
Pisa
and Grosseto .

LITERATURE

Tuscan poet and literary figure Petrarch

Several famous writers and poets are from Tuscany, most notably Florentine author Dante Alighieri . Tuscany's literary scene particularly thrived in the 13th century and the Renaissance.

In Tuscany, especially in the Middle Ages, popular love poetry existed. A school of imitators of the Sicilians was led by Dante da Maiano , but its literary originality took another line — that of humorous and satirical poetry. The democratic form of government created a style of poetry which stood strongly against the medieval mystic and chivalrous style. Devout invocation of God or of a lady came from the cloister and the castle ; in the streets of the cities everything that had gone before was treated with ridicule or biting sarcasm . Folgóre da San Gimignano
San Gimignano
laughs when in his sonnets he tells a party of Sienese youths the occupations of every month in the year, or when he teaches a party of Florentine lads the pleasures of every day in the week. Cenne della Chitarra laughs when he parodies Folgore's sonnets. The sonnets of Rustico di Filippo are half-fun and half-satire, as is the work of Cecco Angiolieri of Siena, the oldest humorist we know, a far-off precursor of François Rabelais and Michel de Montaigne .

Another type of poetry also began in Tuscany. Guittone d' Arezzo
Arezzo
made art abandon chivalry and Provençal forms for national motives and Latin forms. He attempted political poetry, and although his work is often obscure, he prepared the way for the Bolognese school. Bologna was the city of science, and philosophical poetry appeared there. Guido Guinizelli was the poet after the new fashion of the art. In his work the ideas of chivalry are changed and enlarged. Only those whose heart is pure can be blessed with true love, regardless of class. He refuted the traditional credo of courtly love , for which love is a subtle philosophy only a few chosen knights and princesses could grasp. Love is blind to blasons but not to a good heart when it finds one: when it succeeds it is the result of the spiritual, not physical affinity between two souls. Guinizzelli's democratic view can be better understood in the light of the greater equality and freedom enjoyed by the city-states of the center-north and the rise of a middle class eager to legitimise itself in the eyes of the old nobility, still regarded with respect and admiration but in fact dispossessed of its political power. Guinizelli's _Canzoni _ make up the bible of Dolce Stil Novo , and one in particular, "Al cor gentil" ("To a Kind Heart") is considered the manifesto of the new movement which would bloom in Florence
Florence
under Cavalcanti , Dante and their followers. His poetry has some of the faults of the school of d'Arezzo. Nevertheless, he marks a great development in the history of Italian art, especially because of his close connection with Dante's lyric poetry .

In the 13th century, there were several major allegorical poems . One of these is by Brunetto Latini , who was a close friend of Dante. His _Tesoretto_ is a short poem, in seven-syllable verses, rhyming in couplets, in which the author professes to be lost in a wilderness and to meet with a lady, who represents Nature, from whom he receives much instruction. We see here the vision, the allegory, the instruction with a moral object, three elements which we shall find again in the _Divine Comedy_. Francesco da Barberino, a learned lawyer who was secretary to bishops , a judge , and a notary , wrote two little allegorical poems, the _Documenti d'amore_ and _Del reggimento e dei costumi delle donne_. The poems today are generally studied not as literature, but for historical context. A fourth allegorical work was the _Intelligenza_, which is sometimes attributed to Compagni, but is probably only a translation of French poems.

In the 15th century, humanist and publisher Aldus Manutius published the Tuscan poets Petrarch and Dante Alighieri (_ Divine Comedy
Divine Comedy
_), creating the model for what became a standard for modern Italian.

CUISINE

An assortment of Tuscan foods (from Lucca): various wine and cheese, and different sorts of salamis and hams Main article: Tuscan cuisine See also: Tuscan wine

Simplicity is central to the Tuscan cuisine . Legumes , bread, cheese, vegetables, mushrooms and fresh fruit are used. Olive oil
Olive oil
is made up of Moraiolo, Leccino and Frantoiano olives. White truffles from San Miniato appear in October and November. Beef of the highest quality comes from the Chiana Valley , specifically a breed known as Chianina used for Florentine steak
Florentine steak
. The indigenous Cinta Senese breed of pork is also produced.

Wine
Wine
is a famous and common produce of Tuscany. Chianti is arguably the most well-known internationally. So many British tourists come to the area where Chianti wine is produced that this specific area has been nicknamed " Chiantishire ".

POSTAGE STAMPS

4 crazie stamp from 1851 Main article: Postage stamps and postal history of Tuscany
Tuscany

Between 1851 and 1860, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany , an independent Italian state until 1859 when it joined the United Provinces of Central Italy
Italy
, produced two postage stamp issues which are among the most prized classic stamp issues of the world, and include the most valuable Italian stamp. The Grand Duchy of Tuscany was an independent Italian state from 1569 to 1859, but was occupied by France
France
from 1808 to 1814. The Duchy comprised most of the present area of Tuscany, and its capital was Florence. In December 1859, the Grand Duchy officially ceased to exist, being joined to the duchies of Modena and Parma to form the United Provinces of Central Italy, which was annexed by the Kingdom of Sardinia a few months later in March 1860. In 1862 it became part of Italy, and joined the Italian postal system.

ECONOMY

Vineyards in the Chianti region

AGRICULTURE

The subsoil in Tuscany
Tuscany
is relatively rich in mineral resources, with iron ore, copper, mercury and lignite mines, the famous _soffioni_ (fumarole ) at Larderello , and the vast marble mines in Versilia . Although its share is falling all the time, agriculture still contributes to the region's economy. In the region's inland areas cereals, potatoes, olives and grapes are grown. The swamplands, which used to be marshy, now produce vegetables, rice, tobacco, beets and sunflowers.

INDUSTRY

The industrial sector is dominated by mining, given the abundance of underground resources. Also of note are textiles, chemicals/pharmaceuticals, metalworking and steel, glass and ceramics, clothing and printing/publishing sectors. Smaller areas specialising in manufacturing and craft industries are found in the hinterland: the leather and footwear area in the south-west part of the province of Florence, the hot-house plant area in Pistoia , the ceramics and textile industries in the Prato
Prato
area, scooters and motorcycles in Pontedera , and the processing of timber for the manufacture of wooden furniture in the Cascina
Cascina
area. The heavy industries (mining, steel and mechanical engineering) are concentrated along the coastal strip ( Livorno
Livorno
and Pisa
Pisa
areas), where there are also important chemical industries. Also of note are the marble ( Carrara area) and paper industries ( Lucca area).

TOURISM

Maremma encapsulates the most visited seaside destinations in Tuscany. Above, the Tuscan littoral of Monte Argentario

Tuscany
Tuscany
is a traditionally popular destination in Italy
Italy
, and the main tourist destinations by number of tourist arrivals are Florence
Florence
, Pisa
Pisa
, Montecatini Terme , Castiglione della Pescaia and Grosseto . Additionally, the Chianti region, Versilia and Val d\'Orcia are also internationally renowned and particularly popular spots among travellers.

As far as seaside tourism is concerned, which represents 40% of tourist arrivals in the region, Castiglione della Pescaia 's sea has been repeatedly nominated as Italy
Italy
's best sea by the Italian non-governmental environmentalist organisation Legambiente . Castiglione gained the first place in the most recent ranking too, published in 2015. The town is also the most visited seaside destination in Tuscany, and fourth most visited overall, with circa 1.3 million tourist arrivals recorded in 2015. Other popular seaside destination are Grosseto (second most popular after Castiglione), Orbetello (third most popular), Monte Argentario , Viareggio , Elba and Giglio Island .

Many towns and cities in Tuscany
Tuscany
have great natural and architectural beauty. There are many visitors throughout the year. As a result, the services and distribution activities, so important to the region's economy, are wide-ranging and well-organised.

FASHION

See also: Fashion in Florence
Florence
and Fashion designers of Florence
Florence
The Via de\' Tornabuoni in Florence, the city's top fashion and shopping street, contains some of the world's most luxurious clothing and jewelry houses, such as Cartier , Ferragamo , Gucci
Gucci
, Versace and Bulgari , to name a few.

The fashion and textile industry are the pillars of the Florentine economy. In the 15th century, Florentines were working with luxury textiles such as wool and silk. Today the greatest designers in Europe utilize the textile industry in Tuscany, and especially Florence.

Italy
Italy
has one of the strongest textile industries in Europe, accounting for approximately one quarter of European production. Its turnover is over 25 billion euros. It is the third largest supplier of clothing after China
China
and Japan. The Italian fashion industry generates 60% of its turnover abroad.

DEMOGRAPHICS

HISTORICAL POPULATION

YEAR POP. ±%

1861 1,920,000 —

1871 2,124,000 +10.6%

1881 2,187,000 +3.0%

1901 2,503,000 +14.4%

1911 2,670,000 +6.7%

1921 2,810,000 +5.2%

1931 2,914,000 +3.7%

1936 2,978,000 +2.2%

1951 3,159,000 +6.1%

1961 3,286,000 +4.0%

1971 3,473,000 +5.7%

1981 3,581,000 +3.1%

1991 3,530,000 −1.4%

2001 3,498,000 −0.9%

2011 3,750,000 +7.2%

2017 3,742,437 −0.2%

Source: ISTAT 2011

The population density of Tuscany, with 161 inhabitants per square kilometre (420/sq mi) in 2008, is below the national average (198.8/km2 or 515/sq mi). This is due to the low population density of the provinces of Arezzo, Siena, and especially Grosseto (50/km2 or 130/sq mi). The highest density is found in the province of Prato (675/km2 or 1,750/sq mi), followed by the provinces of Pistoia, Livorno, Florence
Florence
and Lucca, peaking in the cities of Florence
Florence
(more than 3,500/km2 or 9,100/sq mi), Livorno, Prato, Viareggio, Forte dei Marmi and Montecatini Terme (all with a population density of more than 1,000/km2 or 2,600/sq mi). The territorial distribution of the population is closely linked to the socio-cultural and, more recently, economic and industrial development of Tuscany.

Accordingly, the least densely populated areas are those where the main activity is agriculture, unlike the others where, despite the presence of a number of large industrial complexes, the main activities are connected with tourism and associated services, alongside many small firms in the leather, glass, paper and clothing sectors.

Italians make up 93% of the total population. Starting from the 1980s, the region has attracted a large flux of immigrants, particularly from China
China
. There is also a significant community of British and American residents. As of 2008 , the Italian national institute of statistics ISTAT estimated that 275,149 foreign-born immigrants live in Tuscany, equal to 7% of the total regional population.

GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS

Main article: Politics of Tuscany

Tuscany
Tuscany
is a stronghold of the center-left Democratic Party , forming with Emilia-Romagna , Umbria
Umbria
and Marche
Marche
the so-called Italian political "Red Quadrilateral". Since 1970, Tuscany
Tuscany
has been continuously governed by the Socialist-Communist or PD-led governments. At the February 2013 elections , Tuscany
Tuscany
gave more than 40% of its votes to Pier Luigi Bersani , and only 20.7% to Silvio Berlusconi . At the 2014 European elections , Tuscany
Tuscany
gave 56.4% of its votes to Matteo Renzi 's center-left Democratic Party. Tuscany was one of only three regions to vote YES in the 2016 Italian constitutional referendum .

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS

Tuscany
Tuscany
is divided into nine provinces and one Metropolitan City: Florence
Florence
Arezzo
Arezzo
Grosseto Siena
Siena
Livorno
Livorno
Pisa
Pisa
Lucca Pistoia Prato
Prato
Massa and Carrara

PROVINCE AREA (KM²) POPULATION DENSITY (INH./KM²)

Province of Arezzo 3,232 345,547 106.9

Metropolitan City of Florence
Florence
3,514 983,073 279.8

Province of Grosseto 4,504 225,142 50.0

Province of Livorno
Livorno
1,218 340,387 279.4

Province of Lucca 1,773 389,495 219.7

Province of Massa and Carrara 1,157 203,449 175.8

Province of Pisa
Pisa
2,448 409,251 167.2

Province of Pistoia 965 289,886 300.4

Province of Prato
Prato
365 246,307 674.8

Province of Siena
Siena
3,821 268,706 81.9

SEE ALSO

* Cities and towns in Tuscany
Tuscany
* People from Tuscany
Tuscany
* Line of succession to the Tuscan throne * Tuscan Archipelago
Tuscan Archipelago

FOOTNOTES

* ^ "Statistiche demografiche ISTAT". Retrieved 10 March 2010. * ^ "Eurostat - Tables, Graphs and Maps Interface (TGM) table". Epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu. 2012-04-02. Retrieved 2012-11-07. * ^ "European Commission - PRESS RELEASES - Press release - Regional GDP per inhabitant in 2008 GDP per inhabitant ranged from 28% of the EU27 average in Severozapaden in Bulgaria to 343% in Inner London". * ^ Burke, P., _The European Renaissance: Centre and Peripheries_ (1998) * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "La Maremma regina del turismo. Solo le città d\'arte la superano. Castiglione presenze record". 8 October 2015. * ^ Florence
Florence
receives an average of 10 million tourists a year, making the city one of the most visited in the world. * ^ Bremner, Caroline; Grant, Michelle (27 January 2014). "Top 100 City Destinations Ranking". Euromonitor International. Retrieved 6 July 2014. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ "TOSCANA - Geography and history". Retrieved 9 March 2011. Text finalised in March 2004 - Eurostat. * ^ Military Channel ( Discovery Network ) documentary series _Rome: Power and Glory_, episode "The Grasp of an Empire", copyright unknown, rebroadcast 11-12:00 hrs EDST, 2009-06-29. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Barker 2000 , p. 5 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ Jones 2005 , p. 2 * ^ _A_ _B_ Barker 2000 , p. 1 * ^ Barker 2000 , p. 4 * ^ _A_ _B_ Jones 2005 , p. 3 * ^ Kohn, George C. (2008). _Encyclopedia of Plague and Pestilence: From Ancient Times to the Present_. Infobase Publishing . p. 126. ISBN 0-8160-6935-2 . * ^ Benedictow, Ole Jørgen (2004). _The Black Death, 1346-1353: The Complete History_. Boydell & Brewer . p. 303. ISBN 0-85115-943-5 .

* ^ "The Economic Impact of the Black Death". EH.Net. * ^ Snell, Melissa (2006). "The Great Mortality". About.com Education. Retrieved 2009-04-19. * ^ Cipolla, Carlo M. (1981). _Fighting the Plague in Seventeenth Century Italy_. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press . * ^ Miner, Jennifer (2008-09-02). " Florence
Florence
Art Tours, Florence Museums, Florence
Florence
Architecture". Travelguide.affordabletours.com. Retrieved 2010-04-18. * ^ "Florentine Art and Architecture". Annenberg Learner. Retrieved January 28, 2016. * ^ Renaissance
Renaissance
Artists http://library.thinkquest.org/2838/artgal.htm * ^ _A_ _B_ "History of the Language Italy". Lifeinitaly.com. Retrieved 2010-04-18. * ^ Piras, 221-239. * ^ _A_ _B_ " Legambiente e Touring Club Italiano presentano: “Il Mare più bello”, la Guida Blu 2015 - Legambiente". * ^ Archived 2 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ "::: Ministero dell\'Interno ::: Archivio Storico delle Elezioni". * ^ "::: Ministero dell\'Interno ::: Archivio Storico delle Elezioni".

REFERENCES

* Barker, Graeme; Rasmussen, Tom (2000). _The Etruscans_. Malden, MA: Blackwell . ISBN 0-631-22038-0 . * Jones, Emma (2005). _Adventure Guide Tuscany
Tuscany
& Umbria_. Edison, NJ : Hunter. ISBN 1-58843-399-4 .

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