The Info List - Tuscany

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(/ˈtʌskəni/ TUSK-ə-nee; Italian: Toscana, pronounced [toˈskaːna]) is a region in central Italy
with an area of about 23,000 square kilometres (8,900 square miles) and a population of about 3.8 million inhabitants (2013). The regional capital is Florence
(Firenze). Tuscany
is known for its landscapes, traditions, history, artistic legacy, and its influence on high culture. It is regarded as the birthplace of the Italian Renaissance[4] and has been home to many figures influential in the history of art and science, and contains well-known museums such as the Uffizi
and the Pitti Palace. Tuscany produces wines, including Chianti, Vino Nobile di Montepulciano, Morellino di Scansano
Morellino di Scansano
and Brunello di Montalcino. Having a strong linguistic and cultural identity, it is sometimes considered "a nation within a nation". Tuscany
is traditionally a popular destination in Italy, and the main tourist destinations by number of tourist arrivals in 2014 were Florence, Pisa, Montecatini Terme, Castiglione della Pescaia
Castiglione della Pescaia
and Grosseto.[5] The village of Castiglione della Pescaia
Castiglione della Pescaia
is the most visited seaside destination in the region,[5] with seaside tourism accounting for approximately 40% of tourist arrivals in Tuscany. Additionally, Siena, Lucca, the Chianti
region, Versilia and Val d'Orcia are also internationally renowned and particularly popular spots among travellers. Seven Tuscan localities have been designated World Heritage Sites: the historic centre of Florence
(1982); the Cathedral square of Pisa (1987); the historical centre of San Gimignano
San Gimignano
(1990); the historical centre of Siena
(1995); the historical centre of Pienza
(1996); the Val d'Orcia
Val d'Orcia
(2004), and the Medici
Villas and Gardens (2013). Tuscany has over 120 protected nature reserves, making Tuscany
and its capital Florence
popular tourist destinations that attract millions of tourists every year.[6] In 2012, the city of Florence
was the world's 89th most visited city, with over 1.834 million arrivals.[7]


1 Geography 2 History

2.1 Appennini and Villanovan cultures 2.2 Etruscans 2.3 Romans 2.4 Medieval period 2.5 Renaissance 2.6 Modern era

3 Culture

3.1 Art 3.2 Art schools

3.2.1 Main artistic centres

3.3 Language 3.4 Music 3.5 Literature 3.6 Cuisine 3.7 Postage stamps

4 Economy

4.1 Agriculture 4.2 Industry 4.3 Tourism 4.4 Fashion

5 Demographics 6 Government and politics 7 Administrative divisions 8 See also 9 Footnotes 10 References 11 External links


Thornthwaite climate classification of Tuscany

  A: Im > 100   B: 80 < Im < 100   B1-B2: 20 < Im < 80

  C2: 0 < Im < 20   C1: −33,3 < Im < 0   D: Im < −33,3

Roughly triangular in shape, Tuscany
borders the regions of Liguria
to the northwest, Emilia-Romagna
to the north, Marche
to the northeast, Umbria
to the east and Lazio
to the southeast. The comune (municipality) of Badia Tedalda, in the Tuscan Province of Arezzo, has an exclave named Ca' Raffaello within Marche. Tuscany
has a western coastline on the Ligurian Sea
Ligurian Sea
and the Tyrrhenian Sea, among which is the Tuscan Archipelago, of which the largest island is Elba. Tuscany
has an area of approximately 22,993 square kilometres (8,878 sq mi). Surrounded and crossed by major mountain chains, and with few (but fertile) plains, the region has a relief that is dominated by hilly country used for agriculture. Hills make up nearly two-thirds (66.5%) of the region's total area, covering 15,292 square kilometres (5,904 sq mi), and mountains (of which the highest are the Apennines), a further 25%, or 5,770 square kilometres (2,230 sq mi). Plains occupy 8.4% of the total area—1,930 square kilometres (750 sq mi)—mostly around the valley of the River Arno. Many of Tuscany's largest cities lie on the banks of the Arno, including the capital Florence, Empoli
and Pisa. The climate is fairly mild in the coastal areas, and is harsher and rainy in the interior, with considerable fluctuations in temperature between winter and summer,[8] giving the region a soil-building active freeze-thaw cycle, in part accounting for the region's once having served as a key breadbasket of ancient Rome.[9]

Sunflower field in Maremma

Tuscan landscape near Siena

Hilly landscape in Val d'Orcia

Vineyard in Tuscany

Valley in Tuscany

History[edit] Main article: History of Tuscany Appennini and Villanovan cultures[edit] Main articles: Apennine culture
Apennine culture
and Villanovan culture

Cinerary urns of the Villanovan culture

The pre-Etruscan history of the area in the late Bronze and Iron Ages parallels that of the early Greeks.[10] The Tuscan area was inhabited by peoples of the so-called Apennine culture
Apennine culture
in the late second millennium BC (roughly 1350–1150 BC) who had trading relationships with the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations in the Aegean Sea.[10] Following this, the Villanovan culture
Villanovan culture
(1100–700 BC) saw Tuscany, and the rest of Etruria, taken over by chiefdoms.[10] City-states developed in the late Villanovan (paralleling Greece and the Aegean) before "Orientalization" occurred and the Etruscan civilization rose.[10] Etruscans[edit] Main article: Etruscan civilization

The Chimera of Arezzo, Etruscan bronze, 400 BC

The Etruscans (Latin: Tusci) created the first major civilization in this region, large enough to establish a transport infrastructure, to implement agriculture and mining and to produce vibrant art.[11] The Etruscans lived in Etruria
well into prehistory.[10] The civilization grew to fill the area between the Arno River
Arno River
and Tiber River
Tiber River
from the 8th century BC, reaching its peak during the 7th and 6th centuries BC, finally succumbing to the Romans by the 1st century.[12] Throughout their existence, they lost territory (in Campania) to Magna Graecia, Carthage
and Celts.[11] Despite being seen as distinct in its manners and customs by contemporary Greeks,[13] the cultures of Greece, and later Rome, influenced the civilization to a great extent. One reason for its eventual demise[12] was this increasing absorption by surrounding cultures, including the adoption of the Etruscan upper class by the Romans.[11] Romans[edit] Soon after absorbing Etruria, Rome
established the cities of Lucca, Pisa, Siena, and Florence, endowed the area with new technologies and development, and ensured peace.[11] These developments included extensions of existing roads, introduction of aqueducts and sewers, and the construction of many buildings, both public and private. However, many of these structures have been destroyed by erosion due to weather.[11] The Roman civilization in the West collapsed in the 5th century AD, and the region fell briefly to Goths, then was re-conquered by the Byzantine Empire. In the years following 572, the Longobards
(Lombards) arrived and designated Lucca
the capital of their Duchy of Tuscia.[11] Medieval period[edit]

Battle of Montaperti, 1260

See also: March of Tuscany Pilgrims travelling along the Via Francigena
Via Francigena
between Rome
and France brought wealth and development during the medieval period.[11] The food and shelter required by these travellers fuelled the growth of communities around churches and taverns.[11] The conflict between the Guelphs and Ghibellines, factions supporting the Papacy
or the Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in central and northern Italy
during the 12th and 13th centuries, split the Tuscan people.[11] The two factions gave rise to several powerful and rich medieval communes in Tuscany: Arezzo, Florence, Lucca, Pisa, and Siena.[11] Balance between these communes was ensured by the assets they held: Pisa, a port; Siena, banking; and Lucca, banking and silk.[14] But by the time of the Renaissance, Florence
had become the cultural capital of Tuscany.[14] One family that benefitted from Florence's growing wealth and power was the ruling Medici
family. Its scion Lorenzo de' Medici
Lorenzo de' Medici
was one of the most famous of the Medici. The legacy of his influence is visible today in the prodigious expression of art and architecture in Florence. His famous descendant Catherine de' Medici
Catherine de' Medici
married Prince Henry (later King Henry II) of France
in 1533. The Black Death
Black Death
epidemic hit Tuscany
starting in 1348.[15] It eventually killed 70% of the Tuscan population.[16][17] According to Melissa Snell, " Florence
lost a third of its population in the first six months of the plague, and from 45% to 75% of its population in the first year."[18] In 1630, Florence
and Tuscany
were once again ravaged by the plague.[19]

Guido of Arezzo

A page from Fibonacci's Liber Abaci
Liber Abaci

Battle of Giglio (1241)

Dante Alighieri, author of the Divine Comedy

Renaissance[edit] Further information: The Renaissance
and Italian Renaissance

Primavera (1482) by Botticelli

Hanging and burning of Girolamo Savonarola
Girolamo Savonarola
in Piazza della Signoria in Florence
1498 - Painting depicting Renaissance

Tuscany, especially Florence, is regarded as the birthplace of the Renaissance. Though "Tuscany" remained a linguistic, cultural and geographic conception, rather than a political reality, in the 15th century, Florence
extended its dominion in Tuscany
through the annexation of Arezzo
in 1384, the purchase of Pisa
in 1405 and the suppression of a local resistance there (1406). Livorno
was bought in 1421 and became the harbour of Florence. From the leading city of Florence, the republic was from 1434 onward dominated by the increasingly monarchical Medici
family. Initially, under Cosimo, Piero the Gouty, Lorenzo and Piero the Unfortunate, the forms of the republic were retained and the Medici
ruled without a title, usually without even a formal office. These rulers presided over the Florentine Renaissance. There was a return to the republic from 1494 to 1512, when first Girolamo Savonarola
Girolamo Savonarola
then Piero Soderini oversaw the state. Cardinal Giovanni de' Medici
retook the city with Spanish forces in 1512, before going to Rome
to become Pope Leo X. Florence
was dominated by a series of papal proxies until 1527 when the citizens declared the republic again, only to have it taken from them again in 1530 after a siege by an Imperial and Spanish army. At this point Pope Clement VII
Pope Clement VII
and Charles V appointed Alessandro de' Medici
as the first formal hereditary ruler. The Sienese commune was not incorporated into Tuscany
until 1555, and during the 15th century Siena
enjoyed a cultural 'Sienese Renaissance' with its own more conservative character. Lucca
remained an independent republic until 1847 when it became part of Grand Duchy of Tuscany
by the will of its people. Piombino
and other strategic towns constituted the tiny State of the Presidi
State of the Presidi
under Spanish control.

Leonardo da Vinci

Lorenzo de Medici

Niccolò Machiavelli, author of The Prince

Amerigo Vespucci

Modern era[edit] See also: Grand Duchy of Tuscany

Map of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany

In the 16th century, the Medicis, rulers of Florence, annexed the Republic of Siena, creating the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. The Medici family became extinct in 1737 with the death of Gian Gastone, and Tuscany
was transferred to Francis, Duke of Lorraine
Duke of Lorraine
and husband of Austrian Empress Maria Theresa, who let rule the country by his son. The dynasty of the Lorena ruled Tuscany
until 1860, with the exception of the Napoleonic period, when most of the country was annexed to the French Empire. After the Second Italian War of Independence, a revolution evicted the last Grand Duke, and after a plebiscite Tuscany became part of the new Kingdom of Italy. From 1864 to 1870 Florence became the second capital of the kingdom. Under Benito Mussolini, the area came under the dominance of local Fascist leaders such as Dino Perrone Compagni (from Florence), and Costanzo and Galeazzo Ciano
Galeazzo Ciano
(from Leghorn). Following the fall of Mussolini and the armistice of 8 September 1943, Tuscany
became part of the Nazi-controlled Italian Social Republic, and was conquered almost totally by the Anglo-American forces during summer 1944. Following the end of the Social Republic, and the transition from the Kingdom to the modern Italian Republic, Tuscany
once more flourished as a cultural centre of Italy. After the establishment of regional autonomy in 1975, Tuscany
has always been ruled by centre-left governments.

Cosimo I de' Medici, first Grand Duke of Tuscany

Galileo Galilei

Pinocchio, created by Carlo Collodi
Carlo Collodi

An Italian partisan in Florence
(August 1944)


This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (December 2009)

has an immense cultural and artistic heritage, expressed in the region's churches, palaces, art galleries, museums, villages and piazzas. Many of these artifacts are found in the main cities, such as Florence
and Siena, but also in smaller villages scattered around the region, such as San Gimignano. Art[edit]

Michelangelo's David

has a unique artistic legacy, and Florence
is one of the world's most important water-colour centres, even so that it is often nicknamed the "art palace of Italy" (the city is also believed to have the largest concentration of Renaissance
art and architecture in the world).[20] Painters such as Cimabue
and Giotto, the fathers of Italian painting, lived in Florence
and Tuscany, as well as Arnolfo and Andrea Pisano, renewers of architecture and sculpture; Brunelleschi, Donatello
and Masaccio, forefathers of the Renaissance; Ghiberti and the Della Robbias, Filippo Lippi
Filippo Lippi
and Angelico; Botticelli, Paolo Uccello, and the universal genius of Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo.[21][22] The region contains numerous museums and art galleries, many housing some of the world's most precious works of art. Such museums include the Uffizi, which keeps Botticelli's The Birth of Venus, the Pitti Palace, and the Bargello, to name a few. Most of the frescos, sculptures and paintings in Tuscany
are held in the region's abundant churches and cathedrals, such as Florence
Cathedral, Siena
Cathedral, Pisa
Cathedral and the Collegiata di San Gimignano. Art schools[edit]

A painting from the Sienese school
Sienese school
by Pietro Lorenzetti

Main articles: Florentine school, Sienese school, and Lucchese School In the medieval period and in the Renaissance, there were four main Tuscan art schools which competed against each other: the Florentine School, the Sienese School, the Pisan School and the Lucchese School.

The Florentine School
Florentine School
refers to artists in, from or influenced by the naturalistic style developed in the 14th century, largely through the efforts of Giotto
di Bondone, and in the 15th century the leading school of the world. Some of the best known artists of the Florentine School are Brunelleschi, Donatello, Michelangelo, Fra Angelico, Botticelli, Lippi, Masolino, and Masaccio. The Sienese School
Sienese School
of painting flourished in Siena
between the 13th and 15th centuries and for a time rivaled Florence, though it was more conservative, being inclined towards the decorative beauty and elegant grace of late Gothic art. Its most important representatives include Duccio, whose work shows Byzantine influence; his pupil Simone Martini; Pietro and Ambrogio Lorenzetti; Domenico and Taddeo di Bartolo; and Sassetta and Matteo di Giovanni. Unlike the naturalistic Florentine art, there is a mystical streak in Sienese art,[citation needed] characterized by a common focus on miraculous events, distortions of time and place, and often dreamlike coloration, with less attention to proportions. In the 16th century the Mannerists Beccafumi and Il Sodoma
Il Sodoma
worked there. While Baldassare Peruzzi was born and trained in Siena, his major works and style reflect his long career in Rome. The economic and political decline of Siena
by the 16th century, and its eventual subjugation by Florence, largely checked the development of Sienese painting, although it also meant that many Sienese works in churches and public buildings were not discarded or destroyed by new paintings or rebuilding. Siena
remains a remarkably well-preserved Italian late-Medieval town. The Lucchese School, also known as the School of Lucca
and as the Pisan-Lucchese School, was a school of painting and sculpture that flourished in the 11th and 12th centuries in the western and southern part of the region, with an important center in Volterra. The art is mostly anonymous. Although not as elegant or delicate as the Florentine School, Lucchese works are remarkable for their monumentality.

Main artistic centres[edit]







San Gimignano

In the province of Arezzo:

Arezzo Castiglion Fiorentino Cortona Lucignano Poppi Sansepolcro

In the province of Florence:

Florence Fiesole Certaldo

In the Province of Grosseto:

Grosseto Massa Marittima Orbetello Pitigliano Roselle Sorano Sovana

In the province of Livorno:

Campiglia Marittima Livorno Bibbona Bolgheri Piombino Populonia Suvereto

In the province of Lucca:

Barga Castelnuovo di Garfagnana Castiglione di Garfagnana Lucca Pietrasanta Villa Basilica

In the province of Massa and Carrara:

Massa and Carrara Pontremoli Fivizzano

+ Fosdinovo In the province of Pisa:

Pisa San Miniato Volterra Vicopisano

In the province of Prato:

Carmignano Poggio a Caiano Prato

In the province of Pistoia:

Pescia Pistoia

In the province of Siena:

Colle di Val d'Elsa Pienza Montepulciano Montalcino San Gimignano Siena

Language[edit] Main article: Tuscan dialect Apart from standard Italian, the Tuscan dialect
Tuscan dialect
(dialetto toscano) is spoken in Tuscany. The Italian language
Italian language
is a "literary version" of Tuscan. It became the language of culture for all the people of Italy,[23] thanks to the prestige of the masterpieces of Dante Alighieri, Petrarch, Giovanni Boccaccio, Niccolò Machiavelli
Niccolò Machiavelli
and Francesco Guicciardini. It would later become the official language of all the Italian states and of the Kingdom of Italy, when it was formed.[23] Music[edit]

Giacomo Puccini

Main article: Music of Tuscany See also: Music of Florence Tuscany
has a rich ancient and modern musical tradition, and has produced numerous composers and musicians, including Giacomo Puccini and Pietro Mascagni. Florence
is the main musical centre of Tuscany. The city was at the heart of much of the Western musical tradition. It was there that the Florentine Camerata convened in the mid-16th century and experimented with setting tales of Greek mythology
Greek mythology
to music and staging, resulting in the first operas, fostering the further development of the operatic form, and the later developments of separate "classical" forms such as the symphony. There are numerous musical centres in Tuscany. Arezzo
is indelibly connected with the name of Guido d'Arezzo, the 11th-century monk who invented modern musical notation and the do-re-mi system of naming notes of the scale; Lucca
hosted possibly the greatest Italian composer of Romanticism, Giacomo Puccini; and Siena
is well known for the Accademia Musicale Chigiana, an organization that currently sponsors major musical activities such as the Siena
Music Week and the Alfredo Casella International Composition Competition. Other important musical centres in Tuscany
include Livorno, Pisa
and Grosseto. Literature[edit]

Tuscan poet and literary figure Petrarch

Several famous writers and poets are from Tuscany, most notably Florentine author Dante Alighieri. Tuscany's literary scene particularly thrived in the 13th century and the Renaissance. In Tuscany, especially in the Middle Ages, popular love poetry existed. A school of imitators of the Sicilians was led by Dante da Maiano, but its literary originality took another line — that of humorous and satirical poetry. The democratic form of government created a style of poetry which stood strongly against the medieval mystic and chivalrous style. Devout invocation of God or of a lady came from the cloister and the castle; in the streets of the cities everything that had gone before was treated with ridicule or biting sarcasm. Folgóre da San Gimignano
San Gimignano
laughs when in his sonnets he tells a party of Sienese youths the occupations of every month in the year, or when he teaches a party of Florentine lads the pleasures of every day in the week. Cenne della Chitarra laughs when he parodies Folgore's sonnets. The sonnets of Rustico di Filippo are half-fun and half-satire, as is the work of Cecco Angiolieri of Siena, the oldest humorist we know, a far-off precursor of François Rabelais
François Rabelais
and Michel de Montaigne. Another type of poetry also began in Tuscany. Guittone d' Arezzo
made art abandon chivalry and Provençal forms for national motives and Latin forms. He attempted political poetry, and although his work is often obscure, he prepared the way for the Bolognese school. Bologna was the city of science, and philosophical poetry appeared there. Guido Guinizelli was the poet after the new fashion of the art. In his work the ideas of chivalry are changed and enlarged. Only those whose heart is pure can be blessed with true love, regardless of class. He refuted the traditional credo of courtly love, for which love is a subtle philosophy only a few chosen knights and princesses could grasp. Love is blind to blasons but not to a good heart when it finds one: when it succeeds it is the result of the spiritual, not physical affinity between two souls. Guinizzelli's democratic view can be better understood in the light of the greater equality and freedom enjoyed by the city-states of the center-north and the rise of a middle class eager to legitimise itself in the eyes of the old nobility, still regarded with respect and admiration but in fact dispossessed of its political power. Guinizelli's Canzoni make up the bible of Dolce Stil Novo, and one in particular, "Al cor gentil" ("To a Kind Heart") is considered the manifesto of the new movement which would bloom in Florence
under Cavalcanti, Dante and their followers. His poetry has some of the faults of the school of d'Arezzo. Nevertheless, he marks a great development in the history of Italian art, especially because of his close connection with Dante's lyric poetry. In the 13th century, there were several major allegorical poems. One of these is by Brunetto Latini, who was a close friend of Dante. His Tesoretto is a short poem, in seven-syllable verses, rhyming in couplets, in which the author professes to be lost in a wilderness and to meet with a lady, who represents Nature, from whom he receives much instruction. We see here the vision, the allegory, the instruction with a moral object, three elements which we shall find again in the Divine Comedy. Francesco da Barberino, a learned lawyer who was secretary to bishops, a judge, and a notary, wrote two little allegorical poems, the Documenti d'amore and Del reggimento e dei costumi delle donne. The poems today are generally studied not as literature, but for historical context. A fourth allegorical work was the Intelligenza, which is sometimes attributed to Compagni, but is probably only a translation of French poems. In the 15th century, humanist and publisher Aldus Manutius
Aldus Manutius
published the Tuscan poets Petrarch
and Dante Alighieri
Dante Alighieri
(Divine Comedy), creating the model for what became a standard for modern Italian. Cuisine[edit]

An assortment of Tuscan foods (from Lucca): various wine and cheese, and different sorts of salamis and hams

Main article: Tuscan cuisine See also: Tuscan wine Simplicity is central to the Tuscan cuisine. Legumes, bread, cheese, vegetables, mushrooms and fresh fruit are used. Olive oil
Olive oil
is made up of Moraiolo, Leccino
and Frantoiano olives. White truffles from San Miniato appear in October and November. Beef of the highest quality comes from the Chiana Valley, specifically a breed known as Chianina used for Florentine steak. The indigenous Cinta Senese
Cinta Senese
breed of pork is also produced.[24] Wine
is a famous and common produce of Tuscany. Chianti
is arguably the most well-known internationally. So many British tourists come to the area where Chianti
wine is produced that this specific area has been nicknamed "Chiantishire". Postage stamps[edit]

4 crazie stamp from 1851

Main article: Postage stamps and postal history of Tuscany Between 1851 and 1860, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, an independent Italian state until 1859 when it joined the United Provinces of Central Italy, produced two postage stamp issues which are among the most prized classic stamp issues of the world, and include the most valuable Italian stamp. The Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Grand Duchy of Tuscany
was an independent Italian state from 1569 to 1859, but was occupied by France
from 1808 to 1814. The Duchy comprised most of the present area of Tuscany, and its capital was Florence. In December 1859, the Grand Duchy officially ceased to exist, being joined to the duchies of Modena and Parma to form the United Provinces of Central Italy, which was annexed by the Kingdom of Sardinia
Kingdom of Sardinia
a few months later in March 1860. In 1862 it became part of Italy, and joined the Italian postal system. Economy[edit]

Vineyards in the Chianti

Agriculture[edit] The subsoil in Tuscany
is relatively rich in mineral resources, with iron ore, copper, mercury and lignite mines, the famous soffioni (fumarole) at Larderello, and the vast marble mines in Versilia. Although its share is falling all the time, agriculture still contributes to the region's economy. In the region's inland areas cereals, potatoes, olives and grapes are grown. The swamplands, which used to be marshy, now produce vegetables, rice, tobacco, beets and sunflowers.[8] Industry[edit] The industrial sector is dominated by mining, given the abundance of underground resources. Also of note are textiles, chemicals/pharmaceuticals, metalworking and steel, glass and ceramics, clothing and printing/publishing sectors. Smaller areas specialising in manufacturing and craft industries are found in the hinterland: the leather and footwear area in the south-west part of the province of Florence, the hot-house plant area in Pistoia, the ceramics and textile industries in the Prato
area, scooters and motorcycles in Pontedera, and the processing of timber for the manufacture of wooden furniture in the Cascina
area. The heavy industries (mining, steel and mechanical engineering) are concentrated along the coastal strip ( Livorno
and Pisa
areas), where there are also important chemical industries. Also of note are the marble ( Carrara
area) and paper industries ( Lucca
area).[8] Tourism[edit]

encapsulates the most visited seaside destinations in Tuscany. Above, the Tuscan littoral of Monte Argentario

is a traditionally popular destination in Italy, and the main tourist destinations by number of tourist arrivals are Florence, Pisa, Montecatini Terme, Castiglione della Pescaia
Castiglione della Pescaia
and Grosseto.[5] Additionally, the Chianti
region, Versilia and Val d'Orcia
Val d'Orcia
are also internationally renowned and particularly popular spots among travellers. As far as seaside tourism is concerned, which represents 40% of tourist arrivals in the region, Castiglione della Pescaia's sea has been repeatedly nominated as Italy's best sea by the Italian non-governmental environmentalist organisation Legambiente.[25] Castiglione gained the first place in the most recent ranking too, published in 2015. The town is also the most visited seaside destination in Tuscany, and fourth most visited overall, with circa 1.3 million tourist arrivals recorded in 2015.[25] Other popular seaside destination are Grosseto
(second most popular after Castiglione), Orbetello
(third most popular), Monte Argentario, Viareggio, Elba
and Giglio Island. Many towns and cities in Tuscany
have great natural and architectural beauty. There are many visitors throughout the year. As a result, the services and distribution activities, so important to the region's economy, are wide-ranging and well-organised. Fashion[edit] See also: Fashion in Florence
and Fashion designers of Florence

The Via de' Tornabuoni
Via de' Tornabuoni
in Florence, the city's top fashion and shopping street, contains some of the world's most luxurious clothing and jewelry houses, such as Cartier, Ferragamo, Gucci, Versace
and Bulgari, to name a few.

The fashion and textile industry are the pillars of the Florentine economy. In the 15th century, Florentines were working with luxury textiles such as wool and silk. Today the greatest designers in Europe utilize the textile industry in Tuscany, and especially Florence. Italy
has one of the strongest textile industries in Europe, accounting for approximately one quarter of European production. Its turnover is over 25 billion euros. It is the third largest supplier of clothing after China
and Japan. The Italian fashion
Italian fashion
industry generates 60% of its turnover abroad.[26] Demographics[edit]

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1861 1,920,000 —    

1871 2,124,000 +10.6%

1881 2,187,000 +3.0%

1901 2,503,000 +14.4%

1911 2,670,000 +6.7%

1921 2,810,000 +5.2%

1931 2,914,000 +3.7%

1936 2,978,000 +2.2%

1951 3,159,000 +6.1%

1961 3,286,000 +4.0%

1971 3,473,000 +5.7%

1981 3,581,000 +3.1%

1991 3,530,000 −1.4%

2001 3,498,000 −0.9%

2011 3,750,000 +7.2%

2017 3,742,437 −0.2%

Source: ISTAT 2011

The population density of Tuscany, with 161 inhabitants per square kilometre (420/sq mi) in 2008, is below the national average (198.8/km2 or 515/sq mi). This is due to the low population density of the provinces of Arezzo, Siena, and especially Grosseto (50/km2 or 130/sq mi). The highest density is found in the province of Prato
(675/km2 or 1,750/sq mi), followed by the provinces of Pistoia, Livorno, Florence
and Lucca, peaking in the cities of Florence
(more than 3,500/km2 or 9,100/sq mi), Livorno, Prato, Viareggio, Forte dei Marmi and Montecatini Terme
Montecatini Terme
(all with a population density of more than 1,000/km2 or 2,600/sq mi). The territorial distribution of the population is closely linked to the socio-cultural and, more recently, economic and industrial development of Tuscany.[8] Accordingly, the least densely populated areas are those where the main activity is agriculture, unlike the others where, despite the presence of a number of large industrial complexes, the main activities are connected with tourism and associated services, alongside many small firms in the leather, glass, paper and clothing sectors.[8] Italians
make up 93% of the total population. Starting from the 1980s, the region has attracted a large flux of immigrants, particularly from China. There is also a significant community of British and American residents. As of 2008[update], the Italian national institute of statistics ISTAT estimated that 275,149 foreign-born immigrants live in Tuscany, equal to 7% of the total regional population. Government and politics[edit] Main article: Politics of Tuscany Tuscany
is a stronghold of the center-left Democratic Party (PD), forming with Emilia-Romagna, Umbria
and Marche
the so-called Italian political "Red Quadrilateral". Since 1970, Tuscany
has been continuously governed by the Socialist-Communist or PD-led governments. At the February 2013 elections, Tuscany
gave more than 40% of its votes to Pier Luigi Bersani, and only 20.7% to Silvio Berlusconi.[27] At the 2014 European elections, Tuscany
gave 56.4% of its votes to Matteo Renzi's center-left Democratic Party.[28] Tuscany was one of only three regions to vote YES in the 2016 Italian constitutional referendum. Administrative divisions[edit] Tuscany
is divided into nine provinces and one Metropolitan City:

Florence Arezzo Grosseto Siena Livorno Pisa Lucca Pistoia Prato Massa and Carrara

Province Area (km²) Population Density (inh./km²)

Province of Arezzo 3,232 345,547 106.9

Metropolitan City of Florence 3,514 983,073 279.8

Province of Grosseto 4,504 225,142 50.0

Province of Livorno 1,218 340,387 279.4

Province of Lucca 1,773 389,495 219.7

Province of Massa and Carrara 1,157 203,449 175.8

Province of Pisa 2,448 409,251 167.2

Province of Pistoia 965 289,886 300.4

Province of Prato 365 246,307 674.8

Province of Siena 3,821 268,706 81.9

See also[edit]

Cities and towns in Tuscany People from Tuscany Line of succession to the Tuscan throne Tuscan Archipelago


^ "Statistiche demografiche ISTAT". Retrieved 10 March 2010.  ^ "Eurostat - Tables, Graphs and Maps Interface (TGM) table". Epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu. 2012-04-02. Retrieved 2012-11-07.  ^ "European Commission - PRESS RELEASES - Press release - Regional GDP per inhabitant in 2008 GDP per inhabitant ranged from 28% of the EU27 average in Severozapaden in Bulgaria to 343% in Inner London".  ^ Burke, P., The European Renaissance: Centre and Peripheries (1998) ^ a b c "La Maremma
regina del turismo. Solo le città d'arte la superano. Castiglione presenze record". 8 October 2015.  ^ Florence
receives an average of 10 million tourists a year, making the city one of the most visited in the world. ^ Bremner, Caroline; Grant, Michelle (27 January 2014). "Top 100 City Destinations Ranking". Euromonitor International. Retrieved 6 July 2014.  ^ a b c d e "TOSCANA - Geography and history". Retrieved 9 March 2011.  Text finalised in March 2004 - Eurostat. ^ Military Channel
Military Channel
(Discovery Network) documentary series Rome: Power and Glory, episode "The Grasp of an Empire", copyright unknown, rebroadcast 11-12:00 hrs EDST, 2009-06-29. ^ a b c d e Barker 2000, p. 5 ^ a b c d e f g h i j Jones 2005, p. 2 ^ a b Barker 2000, p. 1 ^ Barker 2000, p. 4 ^ a b Jones 2005, p. 3 ^ Kohn, George C. (2008). Encyclopedia of Plague and Pestilence: From Ancient Times to the Present. Infobase Publishing. p. 126. ISBN 0-8160-6935-2.  ^ Benedictow, Ole Jørgen (2004). The Black Death, 1346-1353: The Complete History. Boydell & Brewer. p. 303. ISBN 0-85115-943-5.  ^ "The Economic Impact of the Black Death". EH.Net.  ^ Snell, Melissa (2006). "The Great Mortality". About.com Education. Retrieved 2009-04-19.  ^ Cipolla, Carlo M. (1981). Fighting the Plague in Seventeenth Century Italy. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. ^ Miner, Jennifer (2008-09-02). " Florence
Art Tours, Florence
Museums, Florence
Architecture". Travelguide.affordabletours.com. Retrieved 2010-04-18.  ^ "Florentine Art and Architecture". Annenberg Learner. Retrieved January 28, 2016.  ^ Renaissance
Artists http://library.thinkquest.org/2838/artgal.htm ^ a b "History of the Language Italy". Lifeinitaly.com. Retrieved 2010-04-18.  ^ Piras, 221-239.[clarification needed] ^ a b " Legambiente e Touring Club Italiano presentano: "Il Mare più bello", la Guida Blu 2015 - Legambiente".  ^ [1] Archived 2 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "::: Ministero dell'Interno ::: Archivio Storico delle Elezioni".  ^ "::: Ministero dell'Interno ::: Archivio Storico delle Elezioni". 


Barker, Graeme; Rasmussen, Tom (2000). The Etruscans. Malden, MA: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-22038-0.  Jones, Emma (2005). Adventure Guide Tuscany
& Umbria. Edison, NJ: Hunter. ISBN 1-58843-399-4. 

External links[edit]

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 128956370 LCCN: n81041919 GND: 4060485-8 BNF: cb119361811 (data) NDL: 00651835

Coordinates: 43°46′17″N 11°15′15″E / 43.77139°N 11.25417°E /